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Ford Case Study Analysis

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YÖNEYLEM ARAŞTIRMASI
GİRİŞ
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

YÖNEYLEM ARAŞTIRMASI
1. Yöneylem Araştırması (ing. Operations Research) kısıtların olduğu bir durumda, belirli bir amaca yönelik en uygun çözümün bulunması için geliştirilmiş bir yöntemdir. 2. Yöneylem araştırması; bir organizasyon içinde operasyonların koordinasyonu ve yürütmesi ile ilgili dünyanın gerçek karmaşık sorunları için fikir üretmede matematiksel modelleme, istatistik ve algoritma gibi bilimsel yöntemleri kullanan disiplinlerarası bir bilimdir. 3. Yöneylem Araştırması ile Yönetim Bilimi (Management Science) modern bilim açısından aynı anlamdadır

YA karar verme problemlerini nicel modelleme yöntemlerini kullanarak ele alır.

YA’nın kısa tarihçesi




  


   

1600’ler Beklenen Değer (Blaise Pascal); Newton’un Minimum bulma metodu (Isaac Newton) • 1700’ler Bayes Kuralı (Thomas Bayes); En küçük kareler yöntemi (Carl F. Gauss) • 1826 Doğrusal Denklemlerin çözümü (Carl F. Gauss) • 1890 Bilimsel Yönetim (Frederick W. Taylor) • 1900 Gantt Çizelgesi (Henry Gantt, Frederick W. Taylor) • 1902 Eşitsizlik sistemlerinin çözümü(J. Farkas) • 1936 “Yöneylem Araştırması” teriminin ilk defa kullanılması • 1939 Kısıtlı problemlerler için optimallik koşulları (W. Karush) • 1941 Ulaştırma Problemi (F. L. Hitchcock) • 1942 BK & ABD’de kurulan YA grupları
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

YA’nın tarihçesi


II. Dünya Savaşı

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

YA’nın tarihçesi
• 1944 Fayda Teorisi (John von Neumann, Oskar Morgenstern) • 1947 Doğrusal programlama modeli (Simplex yöntemi) (George B. Dantzig) • 1947 Oyun teorisi (von Neumann & Morgenstern) • 1949 Monte Carlo benzetimi(S. M. Ulam, J. von Neumann) • 1950 En kısa yol problemi • 1951 Doğrusal olmayan Programlama (Kısıt sistemli problemler için optimallik koşulları) (H. Kuhn & A. Tucker) • 1960 Karar Ağaçları • 1960 Markov Süreçleri • 1961 Little Kanunu • 1974 Kuyruk Kuramı • 1984 Yapay Sinir ağları... http://www.lionhrtpub.com/orms/orms-10-02/historysb1.html
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

YA ne işe yarar?
Organizasyonlar Uygulamanın Özelliği Ulusal su yönetimi politikasını geliştirme Kimya fabrikasında minimum maliyetle üretim hedeflerini karşılamak için üretim işlevini optimum kılma Yayın Yılı 1985 1985 Hollanda Rijks Waterstatt Mosanto Şirketi Sağladığı Yıllık Tasarruf (milyon dolar) 15 2

Weyerhauser Şirketi
Eletrobras/CEPAL, Brezilya Birleşik Havayolları Citgo Petrol Şirketi

Elektrik Gücü Araştırma Enstitüsü
San Francisco Polis Departmanı Texaco, Şirketi IBM Yellow Freight Sistem Şirketi Amerikan Hava Yolları New Haven Sağlık Departmanı

Ağaç ürünlerinin getirisini maksimum kılmak için ağaçların kesimini planlama Ulusal elektrik üretim sisteminde hidro ve termal kaynakların optimal dağıtımı Minimum maliyetle müşteri ihtiyaçlarını karşılama ve rezervasyon bürolarında program değişikliği Rafineri işlemlerini, sunum ve dağıtımı ile ürünlerin pazarlanmasını optimum kılma Elektrik ihtiyacı için petrol ve kömür stoklarını, stok maliyetlerini ve tükenme riskini yönetme
Bilgi işlem sistemi ile polis karakollarının yayılımı ve optimal programlama Kalite ve satış gereksinimleri için optimal benzin karışımını elde etme Servis desteğini geliştirmek için yedek kısım envanterlerin ulusal entegrasyonu Ulusal yük taşıma ağının tasarımı ve yükleme yollarının optimali Geliri artırmak için uçuşların koordinasyonu ve seyahat düzeni sistemini tasarlama Etkili iğne değişimi programı ile maliyetlerde azalma

1986
1986 1986 1987

15
43 6 70

1989
1989 1990 1990 1992 1992 1993

59
11 30 20 + 250 milyon az envanter 17.3 500 > %33

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

MATEMATİKSEL MODELLEME

Model, gerçekliğin seçilmiş bir soyutlamasıdır* Model bir durumun temsilidir**

Matematiksel model bir problemin soyut matematiksel temsilidir.
Matematiksel programlama, matematiksel modellerin karar verme problemlerinin çözümü için kullanılmasıdır.
*Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, 1993. **Quantitative Analysis for Management, 9th Edition, Barry Render, Ralph M. Stair, M. Hanna, 2006.

Matematiksel Modeller

• Bir sistemin bileşenlerinin simgeler ile tanımlanıp bunlar arasındaki ilişkilerin fonksiyonlar ile gösterimine “matematiksel model” adı verilir. • Veri sayısallaştırılabilir olmalıdır!



İki kardeşten küçük olanı 2km ötedeki istasyona gitmek üzere yaya olarak yola çıkıyor. Büyük kardeş de aynı yoldan istasyona gitmek için 10 dakika sonra bisikleti ile yola çıkıyor. Küçük kardeşin yürüme hızı 80 m/dakika, büyük kardeşin hızı ise 240 m/dakika olduğuna göre, büyük kardeşin küçük kardeşi yakalaması ne kadar sürer?

Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, 1993.

Matematiksel Modeller
• Bir sistemin bileşenlerinin simgeler ile tanımlanıp bunlar arasındaki ilişkilerin fonksiyonlar ile gösterimine “matematiksel model” adı verilir. • Veri sayısallaştırılabilir olmalıdır!

Modeller genellikle varsayımlar kullanarak gerçekliği basitleştirir.
Bir model; 1. Gereksinimlerinize cevap verecek, 2. Sürece ayırabileceğiniz kadar bir zamanda çözülebilecek Kadar detay barındırmalıdır.

Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, 1993.

Varsayımlar
Gerçek Dünya Varsayılan Dünya Model

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Sayısal Model


İki kardeşten küçük olanı 2km ötedeki istasyona gitmek üzere yaya olarak yola çıkıyor. Büyük kardeş de aynı yoldan istasyona gitmek için 10 dakika sonra bisikleti ile yola çıkıyor. Küçük kardeşin yürüme hızı 80 m/dakika, büyük kardeşin hızı ise 240 m/dakika olduğuna göre, büyük kardeşin küçük kardeşi yakalaması ne kadar sürer?

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Varsayımlar


Bu problemin çözümü gerçek hayatta geçerli midir?
 Sabit

hız  Trafik ışıkları  Yükselti  Yorgunluk  Trafik sıkışıklığı

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Varsayımlar...


4 arkadaş bir binanın 5. katındaki bir arkadaşlarının evine ziyarete gidiyor. Dördü okey oynamaya başlıyor. Bu esnada kalan biri balkona çıkıyor ve aşağıya düşüyor. Aşağıdan tesadüfen geçmekte olan polisler durumu görüp, soruşturma yapıyorlar. Düşen kişi “Beni Mustafa itti” diyor. Polisler yukarı çıkıp kim olduğunu sormadan Mustafa’yı tutukluyor. Nasıl?

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Matematiksel Modeller
1. Bu cümlelerden sadece 1 tanesi yanlıştır. 2. Bu cümlelerden sadece 2 tanesi yanlıştır. 3. Bu cümlelerden sadece 3 tanesi yanlıştır. 4. Bu cümlelerden sadece 4 tanesi yanlıştır. 5. Bu cümlelerden sadece 5 tanesi yanlıştır. 6. Bu cümlelerden sadece 6 tanesi yanlıştır. 7. Bu cümlelerden sadece 7 tanesi yanlıştır. 8. Bu cümlelerden sadece 8 tanesi yanlıştır. 9. Bu cümlelerden sadece 9 tanesi yanlıştır. 10. Bu cümlelerden sadece 10 tanesi yanlıştır. Bu cümlelerden hangisi doğrudur?

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Karar Modelleri
Sistemin yöneticisinin kontrolü altında olup, karar değişkeni olarak isimlendirilen değişkenlere hangi değerlerin verilmesi gerektiğini belirlemek amacıyla kullanılan matematiksel modellere “karar modeli” adı verilir. Karar Değişkenleri

2 km A B

V=?
Kısıtlar Amaç En kısa zamanda B Aracın hızı noktasına varmak Yol şartları

Hız, seçilen araç, yol

Karar Modelleri  Ortamı seçici olarak temsil eder  Karar değişkenleri belirlenir  Amaç belirlenir  Kısıtlar tarafından sınırlanır
Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, 1993.

Karar Modelleri








Çeşitli yaşlardan 4 arkadaş, bir gece vakti bir köprüden geçecekler. 1.10 dakikada geçer 2. 5 dakikada geçer 3. 2 dakikada geçer 4. 1 dakikada geçer Ellerinde sadece bir fener var ve köprüden aynı anda en fazla 2 kişi geçebilir. Bu arkadaşları köprüden geçirin ancak sadece 17 dakikada....
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Optimizasyon Modelleri

Optimizasyon “en iyi çözümü bulma” faaliyetidir. Türkçe karşılığı “Eniyileme” olarak tanımlanmıştır. Optimizasyon modelleme, bir problemin en iyi çözümünün bulunması ile ilgilenen bir matematiksel modelleme türüdür.

Optimizasyon modelinin amacı karar değişkenlerine bağlı bir fonksiyonun değerinin en az ya da en çok yapılmasıdır.*
ÖRNEKLER Kar Ençoklama Maliyet Enazlama Bekleme sürelerinin enazlanması Kapasitenin en yüksek oranda kullanılması Çalışma saatlerinin en az yapılması

*Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, 1993.

Optimizasyon modelleri


27 000 km yolu araba ile gidecek olan bir kimse, arabasının lastiklerini yeniliyor ve yola çıkıyor. 12 000 km'de kullanılmaz olan lastiklerden, en az kaç tane yedek daha almalıdır?

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Nicel Analiz
Karar Süreci
Problem Tanımı

Nicel Analiz
Problem Tanımı

Alternatiflerin Araştırılması

Gözlem

Değerlendirme

Model Kurulumu Sonuçların Analizi

Çözüm

Doğrulama

Seçim

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

YA Yöntemleri
YA
Deterministik Modeller Doğrusal Programlama Tam sayılı Programlama Doğrusal olmayan Programlama Ulaştırma Modelleri Çok amaçlı Karar Verme
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Stokastik Modeller Markov Zincirleri Kuyruk Teorisi Dinamik Programlama

Buluşsal Yaklaşımlar

Doğrusal Programlama
Tanım: a ve b reel sayılar, a≠0 olmak üzere f(x) = ax + b denklemi ile tanımlanan fonksiyona bir doğrusal fonksiyon (linear function) denir.
Doğrusal Fonksiyonlar:

y  ax  b

Doğrusal olmayan fonksiyonlar:

2x 1 y x  2 y  10 3a  369b  432 c

2x2 1 y xy  10 a  3c  432 b c

Doğrusal Programlama
Bir doğrusal programlama problemi (DPP) üç bölümden oluşur:
1. Bir DP problemi, karar değişkenlerinin (x1, x2, ....,xn) doğrusal bir fonksiyonu olan amaç fonksiyonunu içerir. Amaç fonksiyonu maksimizasyon ya da minimizasyon amaçlı olabilir.

Bir f fonksiyonu , x1, x2, …….xn değişkenlerinin bir doğrusal fonksiyonu olabilmesi için c1, c2, …..cn sabitleri için, f (x1, x2,…..xn) = c1x1 + c2x2 + c3x3+……..cnxn formunu alması gereklidir.

Doğrusal Programlama
2. Bir DP problemi, karar değişkenlerinin alacağı değerleri sınırlayan kısıt denklemlerini içerir. Her bir kısıt denklemi doğrusal eşitlik ya da eşitsizlik şeklinde ifade edilmelidir.
Bir doğrusal f (x1, x2, …….xn) fonksiyonu ve b sabit sayısı için, f (x1, x2, …….xn)  b ve f (x1, x2, …….xn) )  b doğrusal eşitsizliklerdir.

Doğrusal Programlama
3. Her bir değişken için işaret kısıtlaması vardır.

Her hangi bir xj (j=1,.....,n) değişkeninin işaretinin belirlenmesi gerekir. Bu durum değişkenlerin negatif olmama (xj  0, j=1,.....,n) ya da sınırlandırılmamış (xj –serbest) olması şeklinde belirtilmelidir.

Doğrusal Programlamanın Unsurları


Değişkenler: Bir problemin modeli kurulduktan sonra değeri hesaplanacak olan bilinmeyen simgelerdir. Karar Değişkenleri: Bir karar modelinin çözümlenmesi sürecinde değeri hesaplanacak olan karar unsurlarıdır. Sapma Değişkenleri: Kullanılan faktör ve onun kapasitesi arasındaki dengeyi kurmaya çalışırlar.






Gölge Değişkenler: Atıl kapasiteyi temsil ederler. “” şeklindeki bir kısıt denklemini (=) şeklinde ifade etmek amacıyla kullanılırlar.
  

Örnek:

X1 + X2  5
X1 + X2 +S1 = 5



Artık Değişkenler: Fazla kapasiteyi temsil ederler. “” şeklindeki bir kısıt denklemini (=) şeklinde ifade etmek amacıyla kullanılırlar.


Örnek:




X 1 + X2  5
X1 + X2 - E1 = 5

Doğrusal Programlamanın Unsurları










Parametreler: DP modelinin davranışını etkileyen sabit sayılardır. DP modelindeki cj, bi ve aij (i=1 ........m; j=1 ......... n) sayıları parametreler olarak adlandırılırlar. Amaç Fonksiyonu: Karar değişkenlerinden ve bu değişkenlerin parametrelerinden (cj), oluşan en iyi çözümün (maksimum ya da minimum) elde edilmesini sağlayan doğrusal bir fonksiyondur. Kısıt denklemi: Bir modeldeki karar değişkenleri ile parametreler arasındaki zorunlu ilişkilerin kurulduğu doğrusal fonksiyonların her birine “kısıt denklemi” adı verilir. Teknolojik Katsayılar: Her faaliyet için gerekli olan kaynak miktarıdır. aij (i=1 ........m; j=1 ......... n) Sağ Taraf Değerleri: Mevcut kaynak miktarlarını gösteren, problemdeki kısıt denklemlerinin sağ taraflarında yer alan parametrelerdir. bi (i=1 ........m)

Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

DP Problemlerinin Genel Yapısı Karar Değişkenleri
Z maks,min  c1 x1  c2 x2  c3 x3  ....  cn xn a11x1  a12 x2  a13 x3  ....a1n xn , ,  b1 a21x1  a22 x2  a23 x3  ....a2 n xn , ,  b2  am1 x1  am 2 x2  am 3 x3  ....amn xn , ,  bm x1 , x2 ,...xn  0, serbest
Kısıtlar Amaç Fonksiyonu

DP Problemlerinin Genel Yapısı
Z maks,min   c j x j j 1 n

a x j 1 ij

n

j

, , bi

x j  0, serbest

Doğrusal Programlamanın Adımları

1. 2.

Değişkenlerin ve karar değişkenlerinin seçilmesi, Amaç fonksiyonun oluşturulması, a) Her değişkenin amaç fonksiyonuna katkısının hesaplanması, b) Doğrusal amaç fonksiyonunun elde edilmesi, c) Amaç fonksiyonunun enazlanacağının mı yoksa ençoklanacağının mı belirlenmesi.

3. 4.

Kısıtların belirlenmesi, İşaret kısıtlarının konulması.

Üretim Problemi
Bir terzi ceket ve pantalon üretimi yapmaktadır. Üretimde kullanılmak üzere 150 m2 kumaş ve 200 saatlik işgücü bulunmaktadır. Her ceket 3 m2 kumaş ve 10 saatlik işgücü, her pantalon ise 5 m2 kumaş ve 4 saatlik işgücü kullanmaktadır. Bir ceketten 50 TL, bir pantalondan ise 40 TL kâr edilmektedir. Toplam kârını maksimum yapmak için bu terzi kaç adet pantalon, kaç adet ceket üretmelidir?
Doç. Dr. Dilay Çelebi

Üretim Problemi


Bir oyuncak üreticisi plastik ve montaj departmanlarından oluşan atölyesinde A ve B tipinde iki farklı oyuncak üretmektedir. Her iki departmanda ikişer işçi çalışmaktadır. Her işçi günde 7.5 saat çalışmaktadır. Bir adet A tipi oyuncağın plastik departmanında işlenmesi için gerekli süre 4 dakika, montaj departmanında işlenmesi için gerekli süre 2 dakikadır. Benzer bir şekilde bir adet B tipi oyuncağın plastik departmanında işlenmesi için gerekli süre 1 dakika, montaj departmanında işlenmesi için gerekli süre 3 dakikadır. Oyuncakların birim katkıları sırasıyla 0.8 pb ve 1.2 pb’dir. Üretici yukarıdaki koşullara uygun olarak üründen en yüksek katkıyı sağlamayı amaçlamaktadır. Yukarıdaki verilere bağlı olarak oyuncak üreticisinin karar probleminin doğrusal programlama (DP) modelini kurunuz.

Üretim Problemi


Bezz Tekstil kumaş ve boya hammaddelerini kullarak üç çeşit giysi üretmektedir. Bu ürünlerden birer tane üretmek için gerekli hammadde miktarları ve gelecek hafta itibariyle bu hammaddelerin mevcut miktarları aşağıdaki gibidir: Kot Pantalon Kumaş Boya 4m 2 kg Elbise 3m 4 kg Gömlek 3m 5 kg Miktar 60 m 50 kg



Ürünler ile ilgili parasal bilgiler şu şekildedir:
Kot Pantalon
Satış Fiyatı Değişken Üretim Maliyeti 1300 490

Elbise
1000 400

Gömlek
950 430



İşletmenin sabit maliyetleri 1200 TL’dir ve üretilen her ürünün satılabildiği varsayılmaktadır. Buna göre işletme karını maksimum yapacak DP modelini kurunuz.

DP’nin Varsayımları

DP'nin gerçek hayatta karşılaşılan problemleri modellemekte kullanılabilmesi için temel varsayımlarının bilinmesi önemlidir:
1.
1. 2.

Doğrusallık (Linearity)
Toplanabilirlik (Additivity) Orantısallık (Proportionality)

2. 3.

Bölünebilirlik (Divisibility) Belirlilik (Certainity)

Kaynaklar


Operations Research: Applications and Algorithms , Fourth Edition,

WINSTON, W. L. (2004), Thomson Learning Inc: Canada.








Introduction to Management Science, 9th Edition, Taylor B.W., Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2007. ISBN: 0-13-1966133-0, ITU Library Number: T56.T39.1990/T56.T39 1986. Quantitative Analysis for Management, 9th Edition, Barry Render, Ralph M. Stair, M. Hanna, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2006. ISBN: 0-13-153688-5, ITU Library Number: T56.R46 2006. Fundamentals of Management Science, Efraim Turban, Jack R. Meredith, Plano, Tex. : Business Publications, 1981. ISBN: 025602393X, ITU Library Number: HD30.23.T87 1981 Introductory Management Science, F.J. Gould, G.D. Eppen, C.P. Schmidt, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice Hall, c1993. ISBN:0134864409, ITU Library Number: HD30.25.G68 1993.

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...Pagaduan MBA-1 Business Ethics Case Study: The Ford Pinto 1. What moral issues does the Pinto case raise? Answer: The Pinto case raise moral issues in human rights because even there were various ways of making the Pinto’s tank safer they refused technical improvement to prevent gas tanks from leaking. Given that number of people killed by fires from car, how they can value those individuals’ lives? Ford officials decide not to push the modification of the cars because it will be costly for them and not considering human’s life. 2. Supposed Ford officials were asked to justify their decision. What moral principles do you think they would invoke? Assess Ford’s handling of the Pinto from the perspective of each of the moral theories discussed in this chapter. Answer: With the use of risk/benefit analysis required by NHTSA, Ford officials justified in its decision not to change the Pinto model to increase vehicle safety, not considering the balance outlook on company’s perspective and human safeness. The moral principles that should invoke Ford officials is the act utilitarianism because this approach evaluates each action separately and the consequences that arise including any harms and benefits incurred by any people involved in the case. 3. Utilitarians would say that jeopardizing motorists does not by itself make Ford’s action morally objectionable. The only morally relevant matter is whether Ford gave equal consideration......

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...issues does the Pinto case raise? I think Pinto case raised some serious issue of abusing human rights and not behaving ethically in the world of business. Any business/service should never ever put a value on human life and not take consideration of a known deadly danger. Ford had an option as well as the solution to design the car in a way that prevented cars from exploding; however they refused to implement it.   They thought that it was cost effective not to fix dangerous condition than to spend the money to save people in spite of the fact that the only added cost was $ 11 per vehicle. 2. Suppose Ford officials were asked to justify their decision. What moral principles do you think they would invoke? Assess Ford’s handling of the Pinto from the perspective of each of the moral theories discussed in this chapter. I think Ford officials would invoke the principles of utilitarianism. They claimed that they used cost benefit strictly based on data provided by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHSTA).   Moreover Ford also quantified a human life as a commodity at cost of approximately $ 200,000.   As per their analysis, the $49.5 million benefits and $137.5 million cost suggested that Ford implementation of safety improvements would totally outweighed their benefits. 3. Utilitarian’s would say that jeopardizing motorists does not by itself make Ford’s action morally objectionable. The only morally relevant matter is whether Ford gave equal......

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...Running head: FORD PINTO CASE STUDY PAPER Ford Pinto Case Study Paper Learning Team B University of Phoenix MGT /216 Organizational Ethics and Social Responsibility SB09BSB10 Leatricia Cash June 2, 2010 The ethical issues surrounding Ford Motors in regard to the company’s production and release of the Ford Pinto brought the integrity of the organization into question by internal and external shareholders in the 1970s (Engineering.com, n.d.). Understanding the various ethical dilemmas faced by personnel who helped with the design and build of the Pinto provides clarification as to why the organization’s reputation as a quality supplier of automobiles was put into question by consumers. Analyzing the Ford Pinto Case Study, the following information will contain an outside viewpoint in regard to the Ford Pinto case that will illustrate viewpoints on the issue based off personal perspective. A recommendation on dealing with the issues Ford Motors faced with the Pinto are provided to illustrate the ethical approach Ford could have used during the production phase and after the vehicle entered the consumer market. The recommendation will be backed by examples of external and internal social pressures that have influenced the decision to recall the Ford Pinto. In addition, the evaluation of this case during 1971 and in current day is illustrated in the readings to compare and contrast the situation based on the...

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...Managing Product Safety: the Ford Pinto Summary:   Around 1967 Ford Motor Company decided to design a small size car called the Ford Pinto. The automobile industry at the time (and still is) was highly competitive and very cyclical. In the late 1960's, America began to see the influences of foreign vehicles. Facts Around 1967 Ford Motor Company decided to design a small size car called the Ford Pinto. The automobile industry at the time (and still is) was highly competitive and very cyclical. In the late 1960's, America began to see the influences of foreign vehicles. Prior to that, cars were bigger and less fuel efficient, allowing the Japanese to gain substantial market share with the smaller, more economical vehicles, and the need to react to this pressure was even greater at Ford. Even though they held the number two spot in market share behind General Motors, they only held a 22.3% market share compared to General Motors at 46.4%, a very significant difference. There was strong competition for Ford in the American small-car market from Volkswagen and several Japanesecompanies in the 1960's. In order for Ford to stay competitive and fight off competition, they rushed its newest car the Ford Pinto into production in much less time than is usually required to develop a car. The regular time to producean automobile was 43 months; Ford took only 38 months. Before production, the engineers at Ford discovered a major flaw in the cars' design. In nearly all rear-end crash......

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...Ford Case Study Analysis Assignment 2.1 Ford Analysis PSPR 6208 Strategic Marketing and Communications Fall 1 2013   1. Where would you put Ford in terms of competitive position? Why? By shifting their focus, developing a new marketing strategy and focusing on the Ford brand, Ford has dramatically enhanced their competitive position and turned things around for the company. In doing so, they strategically placed themselves back at the top in terms of competitive position. This was no small feat, especially considering the fact that they were in far worse shape than most car companies as recent as 2008 (Kotler & Armstrong pg 547). Ford with the assistance of new CEO Alan Mulally fought hard against bankruptcy and even harder to gain consumer trust in the company and the brand. This strategy has helped Ford to gain a competitive advantage, especially in terms of customer satisfaction.   2. Is Ford a market-centered company? How can it improve in this area? Considering the fact that Ford currently pays attention to both customers and competitors in designing the company’s marketing strategies, I would say they are definitely a market-centered company. This may not have always been the case, as is evident from reading the case study. At some point, Ford took its eye off the market, loosing focus, especially in regards to customer needs. I think that they were driven to shift their focus by several factors, top of mind being the dire economy. Moving......

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...THE FORD PINTO CASE The scandal and the trial On August 10, 1978, a tragic automobile accident occurred on U.S. Highway 33 near Goshen, Indiana. Sisters Judy and Lynn Ulrich (ages 18 and 16, respectively) and their cousin Donna Ulrich (age 18) were struck from the rear in their 1973 Ford Pinto by a van. The gas tank of the Pinto ruprured, the car burst into flames and the three teenagers were burned to death. Subsequently an Elkhart County grand jury returned a criminal homicide charge against Ford, the first ever against an American corporation. During the following 20-week trial, Judge Harold R. Staffeld advised the jury that Ford should be convicted of reckless homicide if it were shown that the company had engaged in “plain, conscious and unjustifiable disregard of harm that might result (from its actions) and the disregard involves a substantial deviation from acceptable standards of conduct”. The key phrase around which the trial hinged, of course, is “acceptable standards”. Did Ford knowingly and recklessly choose profit over safety in the design and placement of the Pinto's gas tank? Elkhart County prosecutor Michael A. Cosentino and chief Ford attorney James F. Neal battled dramatically over this issue in a rural Indiana courthouse. Meanwhile, American business anxiously awaited the verdict which could send warning ripples through board rooms across the nation concerning corporate responsibility and product liability. The Pinto controversy In 1977 the...

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...enjoy this case study which also has a powerpoint that goes with it.  There's plenty of other useful material on this site - case studies, handouts, powerpoints and summaries, and also I have written a number of books including best-selling revision guides and a useful book on 'How to Write Philosophy Essays".  Click here for details. If you're worried about exams you might at least print out my strengths and weaknesses summaries under each moral theory. I deliberately quote only from my five favourite ethics books, click here to find out which they are - because you might like to buy one of them to supplement your study.  Of course, it's important to quote the philosophers themselves in their own words - see my handouts, or for what academics say about them - see the key quotes section under the topic area of each moral theory.  And if you'd like to blog on anything in the news send it to me - I'd be delighted to read it and - if it fulfils the criterion of good ethical thinking (!), post it!!!!! Utilitarianism is a normative, consequentialist, empirical philosophy which links the idea of a good action to one which promotes maximum pleasure or happiness, found by adding up costs and benefits (or pains and pleasures). It has two classic formulations - Bentham's hedonistic (pleasure-based) act utilitarianism and Mill's eudaimonistic (happiness-based) rule utilitarianism. In this article we make some preliminary comments on Bentham and Mill before analysing a famous case in......

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...Pinto Case Study Ford Motor Company launched the Pinto in August of 1970. This car was intended to compete with Volkswagen in the small car market. A tragic accident happen on August 10, 1978 in which three girls were killed. Two of the girls were sisters and the third was their cousin. The 1973 Ford Pinto was traveling on a highway when their car was struck from behind. The car burst into flames and all three teenagers were burned to death. Elkhart County prosecutor, Michael A. Cosentino took his case to the Elkhart County grand jury charging criminal homicide charges against Ford Motor Company. The trial was the first of its kind. The question was “Did Ford knowingly and recklessly choose to profit over safety in the design and placement of the Pinto’s gas tank?” (1) Cosentino was a part-time prosecutor with a $20,000 budget, some consultants working gratis and a task force of fired-up law school volunteers. (2) Ford had a former Watergate prosecutor with a million dollars to spend and legal team of 80 and all Ford’s resources at their disposal. Prosecutor Cosentino was driven by the fact that big companies are rarely phased by paying damage rewards and at that point criminal law should step in. Cosentino has to prove that Ford intentionally put a design out that was very dangerous. That Ford had the knowledge of the faulty design and recklessly chose profit over safety. Ford maintained that the Ford Pinto met the current safety standards for rear end crashes.......

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