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Formal Report Format

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Organic Chemistry Laboratory – CH 200L (2012 – 2013) 2A-BC Group 4 Experiment 1

Title of the Experiment

Juan C. dela Cruz*, Pedro R. Reyes and Pablo S. Santos
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Santo Tomas, Espana Street, Manila 1008

Date Submitted:
-------------------------------------------------

Abstract

The atoms in a compound are held together by a chemical bond. There are two types of chemical bond: ionic and covalent bond. An ionic or electrovalent bond results from the electrostatic attraction between metal and non-metal atoms by the transfer of electrons.
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Introduction

The atoms in a compound are held together by a chemical bond. There are two types of chemical bond: ionic and covalent bond. An ionic or electrovalent bond results from the electrostatic attraction between metal and non-metal atoms by the transfer of electrons. One example is the formation of bond between a sodium metal atom and a chlorine non-metal atom [1]. In contrast, covalent bond involves the sharing of valence electrons between non-metal atoms. A covalent bond becomes polar when there is unequal sharing of bonding electrons. This happens when the elements involved in the bond has a significant difference in their electronegativity, such as in hydrochloric acid, HCl. Equal distribution of bonding electrons leads to the formation of a non-polar covalent bond. This happens when there is small or no difference in electronegativity between the atoms in a bond. Chlorine gas, Cl2, has a non-polar covalent bond. Electrical conductivity, the flow of electric current, can be used as a basis for determining the type of chemical bond present in a compound. An ionic compound, when dissolved in an aqueous solution, conducts electricity because it contains mobile charged particles or ions [2]. In contrast, an aqueous solution of a covalent compound is a poor conductor of electricity because it does not contain any charged particles.

A substance that conducts current when dissolved in water is an electrolyte. There are two factors that affect the strength of an electrolyte: 1) the number of ions in solution, and 2) the charge of the ions. Strong electrolytes are substances that conduct electricity in dilute aqueous solution. This is due to the complete ionization of the substance in water.

In this experiment, the effect of the nature of the substance on solubility will be examined. Moreover, the conductivity and solubility of some representative compounds will be investigated and correlated with the type of chemical bonds between atoms in a compound. Methodology

A. Preparation of the Sample To prepare a NaCl solution, a mongo size of NaCl was dissolved in 30 mL distilled water…..

B. Determination of Conductivity The conductivity of each test solution will be observed: a) 0.1 M HCl, b) 0.1 M NaOH, c) NaCl solution, d) CuSO4 solution, e) sucrose solution, f) vinegar, g) diluted vinegar, h) softdrink, i) rubbing alcohol, j) distilled water, k) mineral water, l) tap water, and m) urine sample….

Results and Discussion

A. B. Preparation of the Sample To prepare a NaCl solution, a mongo size of NaCl was dissolved in 30 mL distilled water [1-3].

C. Determination of Conductivity The conductivity of each test solution will be observed: a) 0.1 M HCl, b) 0.1 M NaOH, c) NaCl solution, d) CuSO4 solution, e) sucrose solution, f) vinegar, g) diluted vinegar, h) softdrink, i) rubbing alcohol, j) distilled water, k) mineral water, l) tap water, and m) urine sample….

References

(Sample References)
(Books) – need not be written in the actual formal report

[1] Whitten, K., Davis, R., Peck, M. L. and Stanley, G. (2010). Chemistry. 9th edition. USA: Brooks/Cole.

(Journal)- need not be written in the actual formal report

[2] Ibanez, J. “Microscale Multilevel Experimentation”. Chemical Education Journal. 7 (2004) 7 - 13
(Website) - need not be written in the actual formal report

[3] Schmidt, E. (8/13/2007). Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions. Retrieved from http://www.vernier.com/files/sample_labs/CWV-09-COMP-evaporation_intermolecular_attractions.pdf

(Take note the arrangement of reference sources: 1) books, 2) journal article and 3) website sources.)
Appendix (optional) (Raw data is usually written here.)

Note: 1. The formal report is individual. 2. The assigned reporter should put an asterisk on his/her name. 3. The sentences in the methodology and results and discussion should be written in 3rd person past passive. 4. The references should be cited properly using the number system. 5. The source of references should be arranged according to the chronological order in citation. Please observe the use of bracket in numbering the references as indicated in the example.

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