Free Essay

Fortune

In: Other Topics

Submitted By Sacha
Words 1507
Pages 7
Fortune, the saying goes, favors the bold. Were that truly the case, the Tucker Model 48 would have been an uncontested success for Tucker Corporation and Preston Thomas Tucker, the visionary jack-of-all-trades inventor behind its creation. Instead, just as production of one of the 20th century’s most innovative automobiles was about to start, the government (as some believe, pressured by Detroit’s Big Three automakers) stepped in and effectively shut Tucker down.
Preston Tucker was not an automotive engineer by trade, though few would argue that he possessed the ability to comprehend and advise on technical matters. With a background that included everything from automotive sales through race car and even armored car design (with partner Harry Miller), it was almost inevitable that Tucker would someday turn his attention towards constructing a production automobile that carried his own name.
As originally envisioned by Tucker, the Tucker Model 48 (named for its debut year of 1948) featured some truly groundbreaking designs. Alex Tremulis George Lawson penned the streamlined coupe bodywork, featuring the driver in a central position instead of offset to the left (a design that would much later be embraced by McLaren on its F1 supercar). Located in the rear of the car, the proposed 589-cu.in. aluminum flat-six engine was so under-stressed that an overhaul would not be required for the first 180,000 miles. Tucker’s original design lacked a conventional transmission, too, and in its place a pair of torque converters would have sent power to the rear wheels. Instead of just two headlights, the Tucker boasted three, including outboard lights designed to turn with the steering wheel, what we would call “adaptive headlights” today. Underneath, the proposed Tucker design rode on a four-wheel independent suspension with disc brakes at all four corners, while inside it pioneered safety advances like a padded dash, front and rear seat belts and a windshield designed to pop out in a crash.
During the car’s design and early promotion, it was referred to as the Tucker Torpedo, though Tucker himself quickly changed the name to the Tucker 48 to avoid reminding potential buyers of the Second World War. John Eddie Offutt, a mechanic who had previously worked with Tucker and his racing car partner, Harry Miller, on assembling cars for the Indianapolis 500, signed on to assist Alex Tremulis with production of the initial prototype. First revealed via design sketches in late 1946, Tucker began promotion of his revolutionary automobile in March of 1947 with a series of full-page ads in national newspapers, calling the Model 48, “the car you’ve been waiting for.” Follow-up ads would list the innovative proposed features of the Tucker 48, something that would later come back to haunt Tucker in his battle with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
For a production facility, Tucker opted for the largest single-building factory in the world, the former Dodge B-29 assembly plant in Chicago, Illinois. The War Assets Administration (WAA) agreed to lease the plant to Tucker with the provision that he raise $15 million in working capital by the following year. Partnering with well-funded businessmen would have meant relinquishing control, so Tucker adopted a more innovative way of raising money: He’d sell dealership rights to companies eager to peddle the Tucker 48 to a waiting public. To further boost funding, he’d later offer shares of Tucker Corporation stock to prospective buyers, and would even sell accessory items such as radios to those on the waiting list for a Tucker automobile. The Alex Tremulis original coupe design was dropped for the initial Tucker concept, replaced by a sedan body penned by Alex Tremulis (with design elements from J. Gordon Lippincott) that would become known as the “Tin Goose.” Revealed to an eager public on June 19, 1947, at Tucker’s massive Chicago plant, the prototype impressed many of the 3,000 people reported to be in attendance. Few noticed that the engine was loud, or that the car overheated while being driven on stage, or even that the prototype lacked a reverse gear. Some critics were less kind, however, pointing out the Tucker’s flaws and even going so far as to call the car a fraud. Tucker had gotten the media exposure he’d hoped for, but negative coverage in the press soon painted the company in an unfavorable light.
It also became clear that the breakthrough designs called for in early ads couldn’t be implemented, at least not at the car’s projected selling price of $2,450. The Ben Parsons-designed flat-six engine was proving troublesome, so the decision was made to fit production models with a 345-cu.in. Franklin six-cylinder engine, manufactured by Air Cooled Motors (which Tucker would soon purchase to reduce supply costs) and intended for use in aircraft. As delivered, the engine was modified from its original air-cooled design to water-cooled, and its output was rated at 166 horsepower and 372 pound-feet of torque. Tucker abandoned the complex torque converter design, instead opting for more conventional Cord pre-selector manual transmissions, and a fastback sedan body style (also penned by Tremulis) with conventional seating for six was chosen for the final design. Production models did away with seat belts (because Tucker Corporation vice president Fred Rockelman felt they sent a message that the car was unsafe), four-wheel disc brakes and swiveling outboard headlamps, too, mostly in the name of cost savings. The three-headlamp setup remained, however, and the design was changed so that the central headlamp turned with the front wheels. Because volume production had yet to start, each of the cars produced to date (51, counting the Tin Goose prototype, though only about 35 had been finished by the time production ended, and about 58 bodies in total were built) exhibited a few differences from the car that preceded it, leading some to consider all Tuckers as prototypes.
Just as initial Tucker 48 production was beginning to trickle out of the Chicago plant, things went from bad to worse for the Tucker Corporation. In early 1948, the government rejected Tucker’s bid to acquire a war asset steel plant in Cleveland, Ohio. Tucker had submitted the highest bid, but instead the plant was awarded to the company running it, depriving Tucker of a source for low-cost steel. The refusal of the Tucker bid, combined with the launch of an SEC investigation in May of 1948, prompted Tucker to publish a rebuttal in newspapers across the United States on June 15, 1948. In the missive, Preston Tucker detailed his company’s accomplishments (such as designing the model 48 in half the time of a conventional automobile, acquiring the largest factory in the world and establishing a dealer network in advance of production) while intimating that forces within the government and auto industry were conspiring to shut Tucker down. If 1948 was bad for Tucker and his dream of producing the car of the future, 1949 was worse. Early in the year, the SEC seized the records of the Tucker Corporation and turned control of the company (which had already halted production, laying off some 1,600 employees) over to administrators. Preston Tucker and six other executives were indicted on numerous fraud-related charges, all stemming from the creative ways that Tucker had raised capital to fund Model 48 production, or from the differences between the initially proposed Tucker design and the manufactured Model 48 sedans.
Ultimately, the government failed to prove its case, and on January 22, 1950, Tucker and his executive staff were found not guilty of all charges. The outcome of the trial was moot, however, as the damage to Tucker Corporation had already been done. Its factory was gone, leased by the government to the Lustron Corporation, a manufacturer of pre-fab housing (although Lustron never occupied the entire factory, which Ford later used to build jet engines). Faced with a series of lawsuits from prospective buyers and dealers, as well as an insurmountable accumulation of debt, the assets of the Tucker Corporation (including unsold Model 48 production) sold for a reported 18 cents on the dollar.
To this day, the real story behind the failure of the Tucker Corporation remains unclear, though many buy into the version iterated in the 1988 Francis Ford Coppola film Tucker: The Man and His Dream. Some pin it on the ambitions of Preston Tucker, reportedly far more of a visionary than a businessman. Others blame it on the evil machinations of the Detroit Big Three automakers, who allegedly convinced the government that the success of a small, upstart automaker with a revolutionary design was in nobody’s best interest. While the truth likely lies between these extremes, this much is clear: The Tucker Model 48 gave us a brief glimpse into the future of the automobile, showing what’s possible when automakers favor innovation over profitability.
- See more at: http://blog.hemmings.com/index.php/2013/08/01/cars-of-futures-past-1948-tucker-48/#sthash.CJ36Zvui.dpuf

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune The short story “A Fortune” is written by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi, the story is about a man who is pick pocketing people, and that is what he is doing for living. He often visits a local Chinese restaurant where he gets free fortune cookies, and one day he gets one that says: “a change in you daily routine will lead you to treasure”. Does this mean he need to pick pocket more, less, stop it, increase the picking? It deffinently will change everything. The title “A fortune” is actually simple, but also very confusing. He gets this fortune cookie that says: “A change in your daily routine will lead you to treasure” and obviously it is a fortune. The guy meets a boy that is very sad, and the father in front that is very dominating, like the narrators own father. The narrator gets a close relationship to the boy, and the guy gets emotional, because he never had this cloce bond to anyone. He has been through many hard things and he doesnt want the boy to be like him, he want the boy to feel special. He realizes how much he has been missing in his childhood, all the things his father didnt tell him, but what he really needed. He give the boy all his fortune cookies, and want the boy to have an challenging but hopefully a well future. And just like the cookies was important to the guy, he wants them to be important to the boy.It is an first person narrator in this short story, and the narrator is a guy in his early/mid twenties. He has his own apartment, and his......

Words: 777 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune The short story A Fortune is written by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi. In the short story A Fortune the reader acquires knowledge about a first-person narrator, a young boy who shares the same destiny as the little boy we hear about later in the story despite of differences in social status. They both hunger after acknowledgement from their fathers, they have both been ignored and mistreated by their fathers; they both suffer from the same privations and both are searching for redemption. The short story A Fortune begins in medias res and is written in past tense and is told through a male first-person narrator, which leads to an understanding of the narrator’s inner thoughts and feelings. The narrator’s appearance is superficially described as rather unattractive, but his name remains unknown for the reader which creates anonymity. Through several flashbacks the reader gradually understands the narrator’s childhood, personality and social status in society. His social status is emphasized by the writing style in the short story as well – his usage reflects his social inheritance. By using contractions, slang and everyday language the reader gets the impression that the first-person narrator belongs to a lower social group in the society. This finds expression in sentences like: ’Boy would he yell at me’ or ‘My ma tried to raise me well’ where the narrator uses slang, or for instance the sentence ‘Hey, kid, you lost?’ where the verb “are” is omitted. However, the......

Words: 1142 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Fortune a

...A Fortune Essay The short story ”A Fortune” is written by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi and was published in the year of 2000. It tells the story of a man who is pick pocketing and then discovers a little boy wandering the streets alone. This is the same boy, whose father’s wallet he stole just an hour earlier. When taking the boy back to his house, the narrator feels an urge to let the kid know what he is worth. The narrator of the text is a young man, maybe in his mid-twenties. He is the only son of the stinking, rotting, “loud-of-a-man”. Well at least according to his mother, the lady with a black wig, using most of her time crying, because she fears the narrator will grow up and be like his father. Growing up in a trailer park, the family didn’t have a lot of money. This is one of the reasons for his father teaching him pick pocketing in the age of five. This pick pocketing is still a part of his life, even after his old man left town without leaving a note or a phone call. The reason for him still pick pocketing lies in the hope he has, of his father someday returning: “One day Pop will show up again. I’ll hand him the boxful of money, he will throw me some bills, and then I’ll just stow them away without counting them. That’s what I think.” (Line 31) It’s not that he needs the money. In fact he has a job. But he is longing for the recognition from his father. As he says himself, when arguing why he didn’t ever count the money his dad gave him: “I just didn’t want to......

Words: 1259 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune The short story -A Fortune- is made by the author Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi in 2000. It is called - A Fortune- for many reasons. One of them is because the narrator, a pickpocket, loves to collect fortune cookies. The pocket thief had reviewed a fortune cookie when the story begins. The fortune cookie says " A change in your daily routine will lead you to treasure"[1] . He follows the advice, and take a rich man's boy home. It was not to kidnap the boy, but the pickpocket saw the boy alone, and wanted to help. The pocket thief take the boy home, where the pocket thief show him his collections of fortunes cookies quotes. The boy and the pocket thief have a lot in common. The pickpocket felt bad for the kid, and give the boy all of his fortune quotes, while he keep saying " You're tremendous"[2]. He kept saying these words to the kid, because the kid's father did not appreciate his son. The boy's father only cares about the material fortune, a example from the story is where the boy dropped a bag filled with salmon and the father yell this to him "You stupid, clumsy! Do you know how much that cost!"[3] The father did not see what a fortune he has in the boy. The pickpocket knew that "That guy didn't need his credit card or cash or eelskin wallet. He didn't know what fortune he had anyway"[4] The story jumps from place to place and from time to time. It starts a Sunday but then it jumps to the past " I started pickpocketing when I was only five"[5] then to a......

Words: 1006 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune How would you define wealth? Is it when you have a lot of money stored in the bank? Or is when you a feeling of joy in your stomach every time you see you family and friends. Are such famous quotations as “enough is as good as a feast” true or just empty word for those who aren’t that fortunate? This large debate, provide a basis for the short story “A fortune” by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi. In the short story we meet a young man, who lives on pickpocketing. Mainly because he grew up in a less fortunate environment, with a dad who wasn’t caring, and a mother who only focused on the problems and worst things in life. But after all the times the father had let his boy down, the boy still came to him every time, he had snatched a wallet. This was a boy who was seeking the feeling of presence and love from his parents, this might be the the reason why he started pickpocketing for his father; because when he did that he felt like he had something in common with his father, and by doing it he (sometimes) made his father glad. But he was still worried about his father’s view on him; this is obvious where he thinks ”I should have counted the money I just didn’t want to know how much Pop thought I was worth” (p. 1 l.13) The mothers influence on this kid has not been much better, I guess that it must have been......

Words: 853 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Essay of a Fortune

...Essay of ”A Fortune” One of the most important things in life is to feel, that you are worth something. Otherwise you will live your whole life longing for a future where people will recognize and appreciate the greatness of your being. But this acknowledgement is not to be found among other people. You have to find it in yourself, which can be an almost impossible challenge and the process towards self-knowledge can be both painful and confusing. This challenge is what the protagonist or the “I” of the short story A Fortune by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi has to face on his way to accept himself. In A Fortune the story is told in first person, which means that the narrator of the story is the “I” and that the story is described from his point of view. As a result we can quite easily relate to the “I” and thus we almost immediately sympathize with him, because we know his each and every thought and feeling. The “I” is the kind of person who yearns for people, his father in particular, to recognize his worth and appreciate him. We see this in lines 13-14, where he talks about his father: “(…) I just didn’t want to know how much Pop thought I was worth.” After his father leaves the “I” keeps doing pickpocketing, because he wants to prove himself to his father by giving him all the money, when he comes back. The “I” is for that reason focusing on the future all along, which probably lies at the root of him being so excessively fond of fortune cookies, because they tell......

Words: 843 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

John Fortune

...John Fortune, Essay The story “John Fortune” deals with our perception of other people, and the necessity of having something to live for. Lindiwe is grateful for her opportunity to leave Johannesburg, and live in London. But her happiness is clouded by her own feeling of guilt, to the ones she has left behind. When she sees/discovers John Fortune at first, she feels kinda worried, and she starts to build up an image in her head, an image of him being an untidy old man. As this quote confirms: “That is it, a rift in the lute, that is the feeling I get every time I see him. Uneasy, that’s what I am, uneasy.” This quote describes how Lindiwe feels, when she sees him, as explained above. It is obvious that John Fortune is interested in the Centre, and how they manage to keep up the business, despite the fact that they are close to the bottom of the purse. One could believe that the reason for him wanting to know all this information, is because he wants to start a Centre similar to the one Ahmad runs. This is very likely, primarily because of the fact that he has dedicated his life to help people, and because of the Independence, he now feels unnecessary. As this quote says: “He had thought he could do missionary work in his own country, but they didn’t want people like him anymore, they had the police instead.” This excerpt explains that John Fortune still wants to work with poor people and do relief work, but is prevented from doing so. When a human is......

Words: 824 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

The Fortune 500

...COMM 3201: Correspondence Package During the course of your career you will be asked to communicate with internal and external customers via letters, memos and e-mails. E-mail has increased the amount of messages most employees create. Very few positions offer an administrative assistant who is responsible for creating and /or editing messages. Most positions with administrative assistants are at the executive level. All employees with a computer will likely be expected to create and respond to correspondence with minimal or no supervision. By getting the message right the first time you will save your company time, money and frustration. Due Date: Weeks 9, 10, and 11 (See DC Connect Calendar for your due date) Value: 20% (5% for each submission) Submission Format: On time: Hardcopy, in class to professor Late: Assignment Dropbox in DC Connect (late voicemail will not be accepted) You will be taught to respond to various types of requests by writing letters, memos, e-mails and creating voicemail messages. A scenario will be given for each correspondence and time given in class to work individually while receiving professor feedback. Components of the correspondence package will be assigned separate due dates. Evaluation: Letters, memos, e-mails Appearance 1 2 Content 1 2 3 4 5 6 (Clear, concise, complete) Tone 1 2 3 4 (Appropriate for purpose, professional) Mechanics 0 1.5 ......

Words: 334 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Fortune 100 Best Work Places

...Best Work Places MGT415: Group Behavior In Organizations Best Work Places With millions of existing companies, and over half a million new businesses attempting to start and develop every year (SBA, 2012), it is no small feat to be recognized in Fortune Magazine’s annual list of the 100 best workplaces for employees. Since 1998, Fortune Magazine has compiled this list of exceptional companies by taking into consideration employer and employee relations, workplace environments and employee satisfaction. This year’s top spot belonged to Google, with Wegman’s Food Market coming in at the number 5 spot, and Dreamworks Animation just missing the top ten with a spot at number 12 (Fortune, 2013). For each of these companies, it is easy to see they set an exceptional example of fostering group cohesiveness and rely heavily on employee motivation. For another year, Google Inc. has clenched the top spot on the list of best workplaces by Fortune Magazine. With over thirty five thousand employees, Google has made it a top priority to foster its work environment to offer its employees a rewarding work experience. According to George Homan’s theory of exchange in groups, a group becomes more attractive to potential members by offering maximum rewards but at a minimal cost to the new member (Losh, 2012). Google knows “that every employee has something important to say, and that every employee is integral to our success. We provide individually-tailored compensation packages......

Words: 1279 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune All children in the world have tried this. A feeling that you have let your father or mother down. For most children this is not something that will give psychological problems, like a parent complex, and it will be forgot after a short amount of time and life will continue. But in the text "A Fortune", written by Joy Monica T. Sakaguchi, this is not the case. Our narrator is struggling with a father complex and this is something that gives him difficulty in his adult life. This text is written in first person. The style is quite neutral but still has informal trait. An example of informal words is "helluva" (p.7, l.31). The text uses a lot of colloquial language and uses dialogs. The novella does also jump in time. An example of this is the first page. The very first sentence begins with: "It was a Sunday" and further down at line 34 it says: "Like I said, it was a Sunday". Our narrator is a person who started pickpocketing when he was five years old and has done it throughout his entire life. (p. 7, l. 4) It was his Pop (dad) who taught him to steal but the narrator's mom wanted him to live a life where he was honest. Despite the mother's effort, the narrator does not fancy his mother that much: "She's this ugly lady (...) I inherited her looks. Crooked teeth, oily hair, and bony knees are my curses." (p. 7, l. 16-18) The narrator has inherited some of his mother's genes and that is not a good thing, since the narrator thinks his mom is ugly. The narrator......

Words: 888 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

A Fortune

...A Fortune A Fortune is a short story that portrays the issues that may occur regarding to parenting and how it affects children. It takes up themes like turning bad experiences into deeds, and how we as individuals can change other people’s life just by showing understanding. The story is based on the remembrance of the narrator and main character, which causes the narration to be non-omniscient. The fact that story is told from the main characters point of view, makes the narrator’s feelings and perception permeate all happenings throughout the story. The language of the story is characterized by spoken language, which gives the reader an impression of a story directly told by the narrator. Colloquial language is seen in sentences such as “… but it’s a helluva lot” on first page line 31, where the phrase is written as it is pronounced. This gives the story an offhand attitude. By that you can tell that the narrator must be a casual character who does not want to make the story formal. This makes the main character relatable and humane, which emphasizes the purpose of the story: The way that the main character relates to the child makes the reader realize how important it is to get in contact with other people and show understanding. By the narrator’s account of growing up in a rough environment, you can tell that he has not got the best conditions for a great, easy life later on. It is logical, that if a child grows up with parents who do not know how to show......

Words: 396 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

A Fortune

...BY JONATHAN KWOK (C) A Fortune 3. November 2011 The novel was called “A fortune” and was written by Joy Sakaguchi. It revealed the story of a young man going around pickpocketing as a living. The man was also the narrator of the story, therefore, the story was told entirely from his perspective. Therefore, readers only got one side of the story. One day, he saw a man with a large wallet, and decided to steal it. He hovered round the man for a while before pickpocketing the wallet. During his time following the man, he quickly found out that he had a seven-year-old son called Jeremy, whom his father treated rather harshly. The narrator even mentioned how the father would occasionally yell at his son. Later that day, the narrator found Jeremy leaning the wall of a liqueur store, while the narrator wanted to leave the wallet somewhere without being seen or noticed. He only did so because he cared for the child, and didn’t want him to get more flack once the father found out his wallet was missing. The narrator decided to talk to Jeremy before taking him back to his home. They spent the evening reading out fortune cookies loud that the narrator had collected from the local low-price Chinese buffet restaurant. It turned out that Jeremy loved the fortune cookies, therefore, the narrator decided to give him all his fortune cookies. The seven-year-old boy didn’t think he deserved those cookies, but the narrator wanted to prove him his worth, and started boosting Jeremy’s......

Words: 1050 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

A Fortune

...Essay grid: Introduction – a good way to get started is to briefly introduce the main theme of the text in a way that catches the reader’s attention. | The story is about fortunes and material wealth. The narrator of the story has been pickpocketing since he was five and has lots of money hidden in a cardboard box in the room the narrator has rented. One Sunday he sees a man with a bulging wallet and decides to follow the man and his son. When the narrator sees his moment to steal the wallet, he takes it and gets away. But when he comes back the boys stands against a wall and the narrator takes him with him home. | Characterisation of the main character. Useful links:1) General advice on characterisation2) Advanced advice | The Narrator: Has been pickpocketing since he was five. Has a “fortune” of money hidden in his apartment, but he do not count the money. The narrator has never counted his fortune, because he is afraid of knowing waht he is worth. He grew up with his mom, who tried to raise him good. His father was not very good and did not give him any attention as a kid and when he died, the narrator was not sad. He has a strong sympathy for the kid and keeps telling the boy how much he is worth. He also likes Chinese fortunes a lot and keeps every single one of them in a box. He describes himself as ugly with crooked teeth, oily hair and bony knees. The boy: He is described as quiet and very unhappy. He does not like his home, and when the narrator drops him off...

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Hello

...Group Assignment-Step2 You should complete this assignment AFTER you have negotiated your group contract and signed into your group. Here is the process for selecting the company you will study for the Group Project and beginning the process. 1. Find your group number in the group page posting on Blackboard announcement page. 2. The groups will be numbered 1, 2,3,4,5 etc. 3. See this link http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune500/2009/full_list/ 4. Each group will use the group of Fortune 1,000 companies that compares to its group number a. Group One may select any company in the Fortune 1-100 list b. Group Two may select any company in the Fortune 101-200 list c. Group Three may select any company in the Fortune 201-300 list etc. 5. Under NO conditions may or should two groups be studying/presenting the same company 6. Consider the topics you must cover in your report and do some initial research on the company and determine if you have access to the research information needed to complete your assignment. 7. Download, negotiate, complete and POST your Group Contract in your Group File Exchange link 8. Each member then go to the Group Discussion Board and post the following notice, “I have read and agree to the terms of the Group ___ contract.” 9. This assignment should be posted and complete BY MONDAY off Week 3 July 28. 10. Your “Instructor Draft” of this project is due at the end of week seven,......

Words: 262 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Media Analysis

...with city executives that threaten to undo all his exertions. The school located in Paterson, New Jersey, has below average basic skills test scores. Consequently, it is faced with the likelihood of being taken over by the municipal. Therefore, the mayor asks the institute administrator for help, and he proposes that they employ the scandalous Joe Clark as the school head. Clark reluctantly agrees to become its next head. And when Clark arrives, he shakes things up by recasting instructors as well as calling all of them ineffectual. And it is not long before a lot of individuals demand for his removal. However, but at the same time, Clark gains the admiration of some of the instructors and the learners when he gradually turns round the fortunes of the school. Information is exchanged for a variety of reasons and it flows both ways. Communication plays a crucial role in modeling and upholding acceptable superior-subordinate relations. There are numerous concepts at play in superior-subordinate communication. Key among them include feedback, upward influence, and trust. First, upward communication or influence refers to the process where information is transmitted from the lower (subordinates) levels of an organization to the upper (superiors) levels of an organization. Such kinds of communication include estimations, proposals, complaints, grievances, petitions, reports among others. This is very important because it plays the role of the feedback to a successful downward......

Words: 884 - Pages: 4