Premium Essay

Foundations of Pyschology

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By ninawrite00
Words 757
Pages 4
Foundations of Psychology This paper will identify the major schools of thought in psychology and examine their major assumptions. The two beginning schools of thought were structuralism and functionalism. The major schools of thought in psychology are the psychodynamic, behaviorist, cognitive, and evolutionary perspective. This paper will also identify the primary biological foundation of psychology linked to behavior. These primary biological foundations are the central nervous system and the behavioral genetics.
Psychodynamic Perspective The Psychodynamic perspective is a school of thought that was initially developed by Sigmund Freud. This perspective focuses on three main points. The first point is that an individual’s actions are determined by the way thoughts and emotions are connected in the individuals mind. The second point is that most of the mental events happen outside of conscious awareness. The third point is that the mental events that happen tend to conflict with each other. Many psychologists disagree with this theory because there is nothing that relates scientifically. The psychologists that agree with this theory are working on incorporating the concepts into scientific psychology (Kowalski & Weston, 2011).
Behaviorist Perspective The behaviorist perspective focuses on what is common between the environmental events and the actual observable behaviors. “According to behaviorist, scientific knowledge comes from using experimental methods to study the relationship between environmental events and behavior (Kowalski & Weston, 2011).” Some behaviorists believe that conscious thought is not able to be studied using science because only the individual can access them to report. B.F. Skinner came up with a systematic approach that showed how a subject could be controlled by their environment by using reinforcement and punishment....

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Foundations of Pyschology Paper

...Foundations of Psychology Quandra Johnson Psychology/300 General Psychology March 07, 2014 Bradley Johnson, Ph.D. Foundations of Psychology Psychology is the study of the nature of homo sapiens, better known as scientific study and investigation of mental stabilities and activities. Through knowledgeable psychology was established from a powerful history of human beings that endeavored to acquire practical insight into one’s consciousness or demeanor. This type of study teaches what influences the behavior and mindset of men. Psychology has obtained roots in philosophy. There are numerous major schools of thought along with fundamental theories and assumptions which will be examined within this paper. Behavioral neuroscience or behavioral psychology involves evolution, heredity, adaptation, and ability to learn. The first psychology research laboratory ever launched was by Wilhelm Wundt that led to acknowledgement of psychology as a science in 1879(Peterson, &Nelson, 2011). In the early 1900’s it was thought that an individual’s environment affected learned reactions and behaviors. Maslow believed that people acquire and improve responses from incentives in their surroundings (Maslow, 1982). The Four Main Psychological Perspectives Are: The Psychodynamic Perspective This method was formed by a man named Sigmund Freud who thought ones actions dictated their mental thoughts or they were connected in some way (Robin Kowalski, 2011). Also he believed our......

Words: 1218 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

The Role of Heresity and Environment in Learning Theory

...The Role of Heredity and Environment in Learning Theory ​The role of heredity and environment in the learning theory is one with varying views. Each view relies strongly on the developmental process of children. Urie Bronfenbrenner posits that a child’s environment plays the biggest role in the child’s development and learning experience (Ormrod, 2014). While Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky believe that a child’s cognitive development is most important to the learning experience (Ormrod, 2014). The purpose of this essay is to explore each of these theories and how they apply to my personal knowledge and understanding of the learning experience. I will begin with an overview of each theory and then move to how aspects of each apply to personal experiences and beliefs. Ultimately coming to the conclusion that no single theory fully represents my understanding of learning. While each theory as many strengths, one cannot have a fully developed understanding of the learning process without aspects of all three theories. ​According to Ormrod (2014), Bronfenbrenner’s theory of development relies strongly on the “multiple layers of environmental influence” (p. 21). At the most basic level is the child’s family, next is the child’s neighborhood and community, and finally the child’s state and country (Ormrod, 2014). Bronfenbrenner believed that the child’s culture played a significate role in effecting the child’s development in every layer. Furthermore, these layers interact with...

Words: 935 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Foundations of Psychology

...Foundations of Psychology Foundations of Psychology Psychology is the understanding of people’s behaviors, emotions, and thoughts through research and studies from scientists and researchers. Psychology is complex and difficult to understand. A person who wants to gain insight on what psychology is about should begin with the elements of the foundation (Pastorino., Doyle-Portillo, 2006-2011). For a person to begin to understand psychology; gaining insight and useful knowledge about the major schools and biological aspects which are associated with the specific areas of psychology is a good way to start (Pastorino., Doyle-Portillo, 2006-2011). Structuralism was known as one of the dominate schools of psychology in the United States of America and Germany. It was led by Titchener and Wundt through the years 1890 to 1920. This school focused on how elements of consciousness and basic elements were related. This was done through several types of testing on trained subjects. Once subjects were trained they were exposed to several optical illusions, visual stimuli, and audio tones. This was believed to test the several aspects of the mind, hearing, touch, sensation, and perception in vision. Once these subjects went through the tests; they were asked to analyze their experiences. Introspection experiments helped experiment subjects at a normal, basic term. This was done so a researcher could not place their state or feelings with the subject that is being......

Words: 780 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Developmental Psychology

...Developmental Pyschology The scientific study of human development aims to understand and explain how humans change throughout their lifetime. In the beginning this approach aimed towards infants and children to study the mind so that education and learning could be more effective but it now includes aging, adult development, adolescence, and the whole lifespan; basically early life to death. It also includes scientific inquiry which means its recognizes humans of all societies and cultures who are in a constant rate of change and growth. The branches included are all the aspects of human growth, such as emotional, physical, social, intellectual and personality development. Charles Darwin was actually the first to be credited with conducting the first systematic study dealing with developmental psychology. This study of psychology also branches into sociology, education and health care because of its association, not only with the physical aspects, but with cognitive and social forms as well. Developmental psychology also plays an important role in numerous subjects such as anthropology, education, history, sociology and psychology. Those subjects apply to many careers pertaining to the study of human development. The three goals of developmental psychology are to describe, explain, and to optimize development. With developmental psychology comes tons of research. Majority of study begins with hypothesis. The goal of the research is to analyze the interested area and......

Words: 913 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Family

...PAPER 1 What Makes a Dysfunctional Family Appear Normal Name University 10/26/11 THESIS: DENIAL LEADS TO DETERIORATION OF DYSFUNCTIONAL FAMILIES Introduction There is a very thin line between functional families and dysfunctional ones. At the same time, the term ‘functional families’ does not give the true picture of such families. This is because it describes a nonexistent phenomenon. There is no such a thing as a completely functional family. Instead, there is a desirable family, one which exhibits very few of the characters that describe the dysfunctional families. Every family has problems of their own and it is how they tackle them that define them in terms of functionality. Of course all families desire to be close to perfect and try to solve their problem whenever they arise. However, what is most important is identifying a problem, accepting that it actually exists, diagnosing its source and solving it in a way that limits its recurrence. This paper aims to establish how denial is an obstacle to families’ efforts towards regaining their functional status and why dysfunctional families remain so. Study Problem There is an inadequacy of the information available for psychologists and other social work experts on which they should base their strategies for helping families develop effective communication in an attempt to solve the family and social problems. ...

Words: 2572 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

A Response Paper on Drama

...29.09.2012 ‘Tragedy is an imitation of an action’ is what Aristotle said about the theater genre, tragedy. I have been curious about the ‘imitation of an action’ part and asked myself question such as what could the’ imitation of an action’ as a phrase in this context of tragedy mean so, under the light of the emphasis our instructor put on the chapter ‘the definiton of tragedy’ in ‘Aristotle’s Poetics’ reading that we were assigned to read and since I wanted my question to be cleared and I also wanted to understand the foundation of tragedy and prepare myself, base knowledge wise, for readings that were to come, I started my reading with that particular chapter. Through the chapter I partially understood, through my own reading without anyone’s help, the combination of artistic beauty of changing the places of the words, harmonious rhythms of songs that provide an emballishment to the ongoing play on the stage and the crucial components such as ‘the soul of tragedy’ and another component as important as the plot that I am not too confident about whether I absorbed its meaning and relation with other parts of a tragedy, that element is thought. I think through the chapter I found an answer to my question of what is imitation of an action, let me expand my question for beter understanding and my own answer through the information I gained through my reading . I think my question of what imitation of an action is pretty straightforward to understand, in literal base I......

Words: 4388 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Transformational Leadership

...|  Transformational Leadership: Characteristics and Criticisms   Iain Hay School of Geography, Population and Environmental ManagementFlinders University         A prime function of a leader is to keep hope alive. (John W. Gardner)Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm. (Ralph Waldo Emerson)Setting an example is not the main means of influencing another, it is the only means. (Albert Einstein) Collectively, these three short quotations capture some of the key characteristics of transformational leadership, a form of leadership argued by some (Simic, 1998) to match the Zeitgeist of the post-World War II era. Academic debate about the nature and effectiveness of transformational leadership has developed since key work on the topic emerged in the 1970s.  This short paper sets out to provide summary answers to three main questions about transformational leadership. What is it? How is it applied? What are some of its key weaknesses? In the course of the discussion, the following pages also provide a brief background to the origins of transformational leadership theory and point quickly to a possible theoretical future for a transformed transformational leadership.  Transformational Leadership TheoryAccording to Cox (2001), there are two basic categories of leadership: transactional and transformational. The distinction between transactional and transformational leadership was first made by Downton (1973, as cited in Barnett, McCormick & Conners, 2001) but the idea...

Words: 24361 - Pages: 98

Premium Essay

Business Performance Measurement

...This page intentionally left blank Business Performance Measurement Drawing together contributions from leading thinkers around the world, this book reviews recent developments in the theory and practice of performance measurement and management. Significantly updated and modified from the first edition, the book includes ten new chapters that provide a comprehensive review of performance measurement from the perspectives of accounting, marketing, operations, public services and supply chain management. In addition to these functional analyses the book explores performance measurement frameworks and methodologies, practicalities and challenges, and enduring questions and issues. Edited by one of the world’s leading experts on performance measurement and management, Business Performance Measurement will be of interest to graduate students, managers and researchers who wish to understand more about the latest developments in this rapidly changing field. Andy Neely is Deputy Director of the ESRC/EPSRC AIM Research initiative, Professor of Operations Strategy and Performance at Cranfield School of Management, and Visiting Professor of Operations Management at London Business School. Business Performance Measurement Unifying theories and integrating practice Second edition Edited by Andy Neely CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, São Paulo Cambridge University Press The Edinburgh Building,......

Words: 191452 - Pages: 766

Premium Essay

Isi List

...ISI, IBSS & SA DHET - FOR 2012 SUBMISSION TITLE LIST COUNTRY ISSN E-ISSN PUBLISHER'S DETAILS Subject classifaction International Accreditation - SA JOURNALS 4Or-A Quarterly Journal Of Operations Research ISI SCIENCE A + U-Architecture And Urbanism ISI ARTS & HUMANITIES A Contrario IBSS Aaa-Arbeiten Aus Anglistik Und Amerikanistik ISI ARTS & HUMANITIES Aaohn Journal ISI SCIENCE Aaohn Journal ISI SOC SCIENCE Aapg Bulletin ISI SCIENCE Aaps Journal ISI SCIENCE Aaps Pharmscitech ISI SCIENCE Aatcc Review ISI SCIENCE Abacus: Journal Of Accounting, Finance And Business Studies IBSS Abacus-A Journal Of Accounting Finance And Business StudiesISI SOC SCIENCE Abdominal Imaging ISI SCIENCE Abhandlungen Aus Dem Mathematischen Seminar Der UniversISI SCIENCE Abstract And Applied Analysis ISI SCIENCE Abstracts Of Papers Of The American Chemical Society ISI SCIENCE Academia-Revista Latinoamericana De Administracion ISI SOC SCIENCE Academic Emergency Medicine ISI SCIENCE Academic Medicine ISI SCIENCE Academic Pediatrics ISI SCIENCE Academic Psychiatry ISI SOC SCIENCE Academic Radiology ISI SCIENCE Academy Of Management Annals ISI SOC SCIENCE Academy Of Management Journal ISI SOC SCIENCE Academy Of Management Journal IBSS Academy Of Management Learning & Education ISI SOC SCIENCE Academy Of Management Perspectives ISI SOC SCIENCE Academy Of Management Perspectives IBSS Academy Of Management Review ISI SOC SCIENCE Academy Of Management Review IBSS Academy Of Marketing Science Review IBSS......

Words: 151197 - Pages: 605

Premium Essay

Researching and Writing

.... ReseaRching and WRiting a disseRtation a guidebook foR business students Colin Fisher second edition . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students . We work with leading authors to develop the strongest educational materials in management, bringing cutting-edge thinking and best learning practice to a global market. Under a range of well-known imprints, including Financial Times Prentice Hall, we craft high-quality print and electronic publications which help readers to understand and apply their content, whether studying or at work. To find out more about the complete range of our publishing, please visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk . Researching and Writing a Dissertation: A Guidebook for Business Students Second edition Colin Fisher with John Buglear Diannah Lowry Alistair Mutch Carole Tansley . Pearson Education Limited Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England and Associated Companies throughout the world Visit us on the World Wide Web at: www.pearsoned.co.uk First published 2004 Second edition 2007 © Pearson Education Limited 2004 © Pearson Education Limited 2007 The right of Colin Fisher to be identified as author of this work has been asserted by him in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,......

Words: 142971 - Pages: 572