Fracking

In: Science

Submitted By cnmaxwell
Words 722
Pages 3
Geo-200-A
February 1, 2012

Are We Fracking or Making Fraccidents?

Fracking is a relatively new process of natural gas extraction. Fracking refers to the procedure of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting fluid into cracks to force them further open. The step-by-step process to fracking is this: First they start out by drilling vertically into the ground to a desired depth. It then turns ninety degrees and continues horizontally several thousand feet into shale, which is believed to contain trapped natural gas. A mixture of water, sand, and various chemicals, that fracking companies will not disclose, is pumped into the well, which splits the shale so that the natural gas can escape. The natural gas escapes through the cracks made in the shale and is brought back up to the surface to be processed. In the US today, people are arguing about whether or not fracking should be done.
The goal of fracking is to create a passage way for the natural gas to come back up the well to the surface where it can be processed and refined. There are lots of layers of natural gas and oil in the shale. The pressure they use to make the fractures in the rock is immense, but without a passageway there is no way the natural gas can return to the surface. Therefore there is need for a well to be drilled several thousand feet into the ground. In doing so, the drilling into the shale rock creates fractures, which releases the natural gas and allows it to rise to the surface.
There are many pros and cons to fracking. Some pros to fracking are: potential energy independence. The United States Department of Energy estimates that we will get, roughly, 2.6 trillion barrels of oil reserves if fracking is done. Natural gas burns cleaner than other fossil fuels. Some researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology found that replacing coal power plants…...

Similar Documents

Fracking

...Harvesting Natural Gases Jamie Christensen English 102 September 16, 2012 Shannon Lewis Harvesting Natural Gases I. Introduction A. Although natural gas is the next step to our clean energy initiative, the lack of regulations on fracking is leading to air and water pollution, droughts and undisclosed chemicals which are used in the process. II. What is the Fracking? A. Fracking is a process to harvest Natural Gases from the earth core. 1. There are two different processes of fracking, Hydraulic and horizontal fracking. 2. Chemicals are released into wells to harvest the gas. B. The current regulations for fracking are left to each state to determine how the process works. 1. A FRAC Act requires the companies to tell what chemicals are used, but there is loophole. 2. EPA is barred from regulating the ground water. III. II. There are two main benefits of fracking; better source of energy and long term quality. A. Natural gas is a better quality of energy for the United States. 1. Natural gas is clean, safe, colorless, shapeless and odorless. 2. Natural gases burn at lower temperatures so they last longer. B. With Natural gases the dependency on foreign oils will decrease. 1. The price of oil is on the rise. 2. Natural gases are harvested in the United...

Words: 2103 - Pages: 9

Fracking

...Geo-200-A February 1, 2012 Are We Fracking or Making Fraccidents? Fracking is a relatively new process of natural gas extraction. Fracking refers to the procedure of creating fractures in rocks and rock formations by injecting fluid into cracks to force them further open. The step-by-step process to fracking is this: First they start out by drilling vertically into the ground to a desired depth. It then turns ninety degrees and continues horizontally several thousand feet into shale, which is believed to contain trapped natural gas. A mixture of water, sand, and various chemicals, that fracking companies will not disclose, is pumped into the well, which splits the shale so that the natural gas can escape. The natural gas escapes through the cracks made in the shale and is brought back up to the surface to be processed. In the US today, people are arguing about whether or not fracking should be done. The goal of fracking is to create a passage way for the natural gas to come back up the well to the surface where it can be processed and refined. There are lots of layers of natural gas and oil in the shale. The pressure they use to make the fractures in the rock is immense, but without a passageway there is no way the natural gas can return to the surface. Therefore there is need for a well to be drilled several thousand feet into the ground. In doing so, the drilling into the shale rock creates fractures, which releases the natural gas and allows it to rise to...

Words: 722 - Pages: 3

Fracking

...Fracking...Is it the Right answer? Darrell E Davison BCOM/275 JAN 1 2012 Betsy Wampler Fracking...Is it the Right answer? In the 21st century world we live, the advances in technology and research have created an environment that information is passed instantly. The world wide web and social media are instruments used to pass information to the masses quicker than anytime in human history. That information now more than ever is used to spread awareness on matters of importance to promote action in a group of people. On of the major issues the public now faces is the issue of Energy. On a broad scale, the production of Energy and also its consumption is the fodder of political pundits and environmentalist no longer. Recent elections here in the United States along with several successful documentaries have brought an unprecedented level of awareness to the arguments made by proponents of both sides of issues. In America, these lines seem to even ride along political divisions. Conservatives tend to be less likely to adhere to warnings of environmentalist, while Liberals seem to lean more toward acceptance. A fairly new technology has come to the nation’s forefront and promoted some spirited debate. The issue is Hydraulic Fracturing or as it is commonly referred to “Fracking”. We will examine the pros and cons of both and why it should not be used as an option to future Energy Production What is Fracking? The process of” Fracking” means injecting...

Words: 1126 - Pages: 5

Fracking

...Oil companies and gas companies have developed a new way for drilling natural gas. The process is called hydraulic fracturing. It is also commonly known as “fracking”. Natural gas is an extremely flammable gas mixture that consists od methane and a few other hydrocarbons that occur naturally under our soil. The technique of fracking has only recently become economically available with rising prices in fuel. Facking has many waste products and some side effects that are caused by the unnatural forces and the materials that are being used. Fracking is the process of extracting natural gas rom layers of shale rock deep within the earth’s surface. Areas that are being drilled are known as “Plays”. Plays are locations where oil and gas companies actively search for natural gas inside of the shale rock formations. There is a two-step process for drilling natural gas by using hydraulic fracturing. The first is that a production well id drilled thousands of feet deep into the earth’s surface and the gradually leveled so theat the drill bit is traveling horizontally through the ground. The second step is where the name fracking comes from because this is where the process of mixing sand, water, and chemicals (many which are known to be harmful) are forced under very high pressure down into the shale rock through the horizontal part of the drill. The extreme pressure causes the shale rock to fracture releasing the natural gas within. The added chemicals help reduce problems such...

Words: 1217 - Pages: 5

Fracking

...Running head: FRACKING AND THE EFFECTS ON THE ENVIRONMENT Fracking and the Effects on the Environment and Public Health G. White Professor Wells English 215 Research and Writing August 2, 2013 Fracking and the Effects on the Environment and Public Health People are now recognizing some serious concerns to the public health and the drinking water becoming contaminated, because the fracturing of shale in our communities and what can be done to stop it all. The hydraulic fracturing of shale needs to be, banned until further investigations are completed to determine how safe it is to people and the environment surrounding the drilling site. It all started with a few cases of illness, which everyone assumed was a virus that was going around. Over the past couple of years, these illnesses have become a very serious problem, not only to people but to animals and livestock too. This is a big concern and it is obvious that it is not a genetic disease as first thought. Far too many families, who are living near these drilling sites and have contracted the same illnesses in many different areas across the United States,. Is this a coincidence or facts of serious problems taking place in the United States from fracking? It is very important that everyone should be aware and to take notice how close to where they live and if any hydraulic fracturing is taking place because there is much more to this story than many people realize. The hydraulic fracturing...

Words: 2164 - Pages: 9

Fracking

...I am from Elsipogtog First Nation, New Brunswick. My community members have been protesting against shale gassing and fracking for a couple of months now, fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is the process of extracting natural gas from shale rock layers deep within the earth. The general public seems to have a lack of knowledge about fracking, because my community members seem to be the only ones who stand up against fracking. I am making these assumptions, because the fight for water and resistance against fracking has become a racial issue. Through social media, people have been generating hurtful and racial comments. Stigma’s that my community members are acting out in a radical fashion because they’re uneducated. What they need to realize, and to realize very quickly, is that this is not a fight for the Indian race, but rather a fight for the human race. There are a few members who are not from my society that support anti-fracking, but don’t do anything about it. I am actually very proud of my community members, for showing such unity, moral standards and courage to stand up for one of our essential natural resources. Elsipogtog in Mi’kmaq means, “River of Fire” and that fire helped spark a nationwide and worldwide awareness of the effects of fracking. First Nations from all over Canada stand in Solidarity with Elsipogtog; I personally had no idea that there were that many Fist Nations in Canada, so it was a beautiful sight for me. Celebrities such as, Susan Sarandon...

Words: 876 - Pages: 4

Fracking

... third of the water is recovered. A normal fracing operation in Marcellus shell requires up to five million gallons of fracing fluid, water accounts for 95% per well. Water pollution, during extraction of gas, a brew of toxic chemical mix has to be pumped into the shale at high pressure. The mixture of water, sand, lubricants, chemicals to keep bacteria and microorganisms from blocking pipes dissolves in the pipes (Brooks, 2013). These toxics at times through well blowouts and leaks may accidentally find their way up the surface thus contaminating human drinking water with cancer-causing properties, which may have been used during fracing. Greenhouse gas emissions, a study conducted by Cornell Prof. Robert Howarth concludes, “Emission of shale gas is at least 20% greater and perhaps more than twice on the 20-year horizon.” Tests show signs of methane gas, a major component of shale gas. Poor Oil and gas law and regulations, the regulatory framework of areas experiencing most development are not well laid out. As a result, newly developing states are suspending the use of hydraulic fracturing (One-year Moratorium on Fracing, New Jersey, 2011). Opinion The benefits outweigh the challenges in application of the hydraulic fracturing, clean energy (shale gas), Lowering output cost in production and maximum tapping of natural gas in the US. Hydraulic fracturing has introduced new methods of gas extraction which may prove vital to the economy. However the government should......

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Fracking

...Outline for Research Paper Topic: Fracking & Water Contamination in USA pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to inside. Hydraulic Fracturing or otherwise known as Fracking is a technique of drilling and injecting fluid into the ground at a high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks to extract natural gas. United States has numerous shale gas bases. Each gas well requires an average of 400 tanker trucks to carry water and supplies to and from the site. The water brought in is mixed with sand and chemicals to create fracking fluid. Approximately 40,000 gallons of chemicals are used per fracturing. In order to frack it needs up to 600 chemicals including carcinogens and toxins such as lead, uranium, mercury, ethylene glycol, radium, hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde. The fracking fluid is then pressure injected into the ground through a drilled pipeline, which goes about contaminating the wells, and threatens potential earthquake. The mixture reaches the end of the well where the high pressure causes the nearby shale rock to crack, creating fissures where natural gas flows into the well. During this process, methane gas and toxic chemicals leach out from the system and contaminate nearby groundwater. Methane concentrations are 17 times higher in drinking water wells near fracturing sites than in normal wells. Contaminated well water is used for drinking water for nearby cities and towns. There have been over 1000 documented cases of water contamination next to...

Words: 384 - Pages: 2

Fracking

...Fracking Reflection The final presentation of the semester taught me a lot about fracking and the issues associated with it. Fracking is a process in which liquid mixed with sand and chemicals get injected underground at a high pressure into a wellbore to make it easier to extract the gas and oil which we use every day. Fracking is controversial because while there are many economic benefits to it, there are also many environmental concerns that come along with it. I believe the environmental concerns outweigh the economic benefits and fracking should not be allowed to take place anywhere in the country. We have enough environmental problems without having to worry about the affects fracking has on the environment. The economic benefits of fracking include the high amounts of hydrocarbons that would not otherwise be easily extracted from the ground. Extracting these can lead to oil prices decreasing in the long run and a higher supply of domestic fuel. Without fracking, approximately 45% of natural gas that we get domestically will be unattainable. While these benefits seem extremely promising, the environmental issues fracking causes are too devastating for it to be allowed. Environmental effects of fracking are contaminated water, increased air pollution, trillions of gallons of wasted water used in the process of fracking, and radioactivity in areas of fracking. All of these cause major health issues and potentially kill people living in areas where......

Words: 284 - Pages: 2

Fracking

...Mathew Lee 5/27/14 Chemistry Fracking Essay Fracking is a very controversial topic of conversation that’s has been around for years, but has just recently reached the forefront of the environmental scene because of increase in its activity and added opposition against this controversial topic of retrieving natural gas. Fracking is defined as the process of drilling down into the earth before a high-pressure water mixture is directed at the rock to release the gas inside. This process seems very dangerous at first sight since the process of drilling deep into the ground and releasing natural gas from rocks in the ground does not sound environmentally safe and may harm our local water supply and poison us. Fracking works by huge horizontal pipes or “veins” being placed inside large vertical wells full of rocks filled with natural gas, after this the horizontal pipe is then filled with water and is forced into the well at high speeds and pressures forcing the rocks to be cracked or broken apart which thus releases the gas inside them into the tiny cracks created. Furthermore, the gas and oil is then collected and placed in large storage tanks for distribution and use. The chemicals used in fracking are a large amount (up to 600), however the main chemicals used by...

Words: 1156 - Pages: 5

Fracking

...Lameka Thomas C. Arena Outline Paper C April 7, 2014 Fracking involves the extraction of natural gas from underground layers of shale. Through high-pressure injections wells dug deep into the ground, water mixed with toxic chemicals is used to create fissures in the shale through which the oil is then retrieved. This practice has made America the largest producer of energy in the world, yet the industry has its share of critics (np). In the article off, THE WASHINGTON FREE BEACON “ Fact-Checking “. They talk about the movie Gasland Part II and the things they discovered while filming the documentary. The areas impacted by this are Texas, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia and many more. Majority of the complaints are chemicals getting into the water of residents home and lands (np). Fracking is a growing industry that poses a number of troubling issues at the same time that it has increased American’s energy production considerably. 1. Topic Sentence: The Industry Defense talks about companies involved and what the future hold in the Industry. a. America's Natural Gas Alliance, Ardent is a privately held, independent oil and gas company headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Marcellus Shale). b. America's Natural Gas Alliance exists to promote the economic, environmental and national security benefits of greater use of clean, abundant, domestic natural gas. c. The benefits of oil and gas development extend throughout the state in...

Words: 815 - Pages: 4

Fracking

...Fracking Jada Stuckert Introduction to Biology 103 – Professor Crespo University of Maryland University College History Hydraulic fracturing “Fracking” is the process of injecting water, sand and chemicals at high pressure underground to break apart the rock and release natural gas to be used by consumers. While this explanation seems simple enough there is actually a lot more involved, so let’s being with this history. The fracking process itself began as an experiment in 1947 by Stanolind Oil and Gas Company in Kansas, however the first commercially successful application took place in Oklahoma in 1949 by Halliburton. While the initial experiments didn’t simulate the well in which the technique would later be applied it was the actual “birth” of hydraulic fracturing. Fracking allows older oil and natural gas fields to remain functional by recovering oil and natural gas from almost impossible geological formations like tight shale formations in certain areas of the United States. Fracking is not a drilling process. Fracking actually begins after a hole is already drilled. Most of these wells are existing oil and gas wells. The generalized process of fracking is outlined below. 1. Water trucks deliver water for the fracturing process. If a bay is being used water is simply delivered through a pump. 2. Separate trucks deliver a mix of sand and chemicals (what chemicals) 3. Both the water and the sand/chemical solution is injected at high pressure...

Words: 1237 - Pages: 5

Fracking

...A Colossal Fracking Mess Just a decade ago, only the smallest sliver of the U.S. population had even heard of hydraulic fracturing, or fracking. Today, it’s one of the most incendiary environmental topics going. Natural gas is found underground, and is produced when trapped gas is released above ground.  Hydraulic fracturing is a process that extracts natural gas from the ground. In order to try to break our country’s dependence on foreign oil supplies, we have begun to dip into our own natural gas supply.  As harmless as the billion dollar producing oil companies would want us to believe, environmental groups, scientists, and average citizens have raised concerns about the negative impact of hydraulic fracking on the environment and surrounding communities. From an ethical perspective we might look at the harms and benefits of fracking. Is U.S. energy independence more important than the potential for harm to those affected by fracking procedures? Hydraulic fracturing poses the greatest current threat for communities because its potential for environmental and human damage is vast and its management is fairly unregulated. Modern day hydraulic fracturing results from the marriage of two technologies: hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling. Although these technologies are not new, it was not until 2002 or 2003 that they were first combined. In a typical fracking operation, pressurized water, sand and chemicals are injected into shale rock formations to release...

Words: 1628 - Pages: 7

Fracking

...Introduction: Coal seam and shale gases are two commonly found forms of unconventional gas in Australia. Gas is a fossil fuel and is considered cleaner than coal as it produces up to 70% less greenhouse emissions when burned (Gardner, 2015). Coal seam and shale gases are also cheaper than other renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar. Coal seam and shale reserves are widely found across Australia, particularly in Eastern Australia. Fracking, or more commonly known as Hydraulic Fracturing, is the technique used to extract coal seam and shale gases from rock as it improves the flow of gases that are difficult to access (Pearson, 2015). With the ability to use the fracking method to extract coal seam and shale gases, the mining industry considers this a viable and practical mining technique. However, there are debates on the social and environmental impacts of this mining practice. What is Fracking: Fracking is the process by which heavy machinery drills down into the hard rock layer below the earth’s surface. Fluid is then injected into the ground through a pipeline, while methane gas and chemicals are used to hold open the cracks in the rock layer (Dong, 2014). High pressure water mixture, containing sand and chemicals, is then directed at the rock, releasing the gas inside. It is a procedure that has been available for over 60 years (globally), as an alternative to the traditional unconventional gas extraction methods, but was not considered a cost effective...

Words: 1161 - Pages: 5

Fracking

...Fracking and its major implications it has on the earth In today’s day and age, societies are a lot more aware of the environment and furthermore, concerned for the Earths sustainability. Although this is the case for most, Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) often target developing countries that are rich in resources and therefore take them for all they’ve got. One such example is fracking the earth, in order to extract natural gases that could potentially benefit corporations and contribute to their bottom line dramatically. Although this has it’s positives, the implications of fracking could have incredibly serious repercussions, particularly the preservation of the earth and it’s current resources. “Fracking” is the process in which one would drill thousands of meters below the earth’s surface and inject fluid that is then pumped into the shale at an incredibly high pressure, which then shatters the rocks in order to release shale gas. This particular natural gas is trapped within sedimentary shale rock formations and is found richly in many areas of the world. Fracking breaks most of the regulations in the sustainable environments handbook, and as you can imagine, this causes a massive up brawl in the societies that are pro-environment and sustainability. Although this point of view is prominent and relevant, the opposing side has an equally compelling argument. Global thoughts on the idea of fracking Globally, the topic is thought to be both “one of the...

Words: 4193 - Pages: 17