Free Essay

Free Will Versus Determinism

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By germino4
Words 379
Pages 2
Argument and logic
Free will versus determinism is the excerpt I chose for this argument and logic assignment .Free will and determinism have opposite meanings so the belief of free will and also atoms doing what they do being predetermined cannot be true .unless the given circumstance makes it true .Let me explain free will is defined as the power given to human beings to make their own choices that is unconstrained by external circumstances or by fate or divine will .Determinism is defined as that every event or act and decision is an inescapable consequence of antecedents that are independent of free will .Which states that humans do not have free will to chose. This is not caused because anything or anybody is trying to control humans it just is. This belief is true in religion and cause and effect .Many religious people believe that the existence of god supports determinism .Because that god is all knowing and all powerful so there is nothing that god does not know or that he does not already know .If people had free will there would be things that people would do that god does not already know about and that would limit god being all powerful .The other argument about determinism is cause and effect this argument says the same thing would always occur due to the event .Let’s say you throw a rubber ball on the ground it would hit the ground and bounce back up .Throwing the ball against the floor was the cause and the effect was the ball bouncing .Based on this everything has a cause and an effect but if everything can be predicted then nothing can change future events .I don’t see that being accurate because according to what decisions or choices we make change what happens in the future of our lives .I myself believe in free will and I do believe that the mind has ability to chose with intelligence and threw experience .Of course our choices cannot be without an outcome they are attributed threw self awareness and the things we value and want .

Moore-Bruder. (). Metaphysics and Epistemology. Retrieved from Moore-Bruder, PHI105 website

Moore-Bruder. (). The Pre-Socratics. Retrieved from Moore-Bruder, PHI105 website.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Psy 405 Theories of Personalities

...scientist had difficulty coming to an agreement on the source and motivation of personality. Personality theories were vulnerable to unique personalities of the scientists that created them. To evaluate some of the similarities and differences between the theories, a good start begins with Adler and Sullivan. Alfred Adler was the founder of individual psychology and its six tenets that describes the source for personality. Harry Sullivan founded interpersonal theory that gives significant importance to a social context “Without other people, humans would have no personality” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p.213). The two theories contain similarities and differences between them in regards to basic or underlying assumptions, deterministic views versus free will, and awareness of the self. Basic or Underlying Assumptions The basic or underlying assumptions of individual and interpersonal theories, share a social interest and social context respectively, as a source for personality development. Social interest by Adler explains individual connections to people around them. Society connects people together for safety, survival, and procreation. Individuals depend on each other as much as a child would depend on their parents. Likewise, Sullivan’s interpersonal theory shares the same importance for society and human connection. Along each step of development there is a great importance to establish intimacy without encountering interference from anxiety (Feist & Feist, 2009). Intimacy......

Words: 1146 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Free Will or Determination

...FREE WILL OR DETERMINISM 1 Free Will or Determinism Ashley Magee American InterContinental University FREE WILL OR DETERMINISM 2 Abstract This essay will discuss free will versus determinism. This will be a dialogue between an imaginary Socrates and me. A series of questions will be discussed to describe determinism and free will. FREE WILL OR DETERMINISM 3 Socrates: What is your definition of determinism? Ashley: Determinism is the thought that each event is caused by something. Since human actions could be looked at as an event then each choice is because of a cause. Socrates: So, if every event is based on a cause then we do not have free will. Ashley: I don’t believe human action is an event, I feel like we all make our own decisions and our fate is determined by our decisions. Socrates: What is your definition of free will? Ashley: Free will is to act without the confinement of fate. This is acting at one’s own concern. Socrates: Is it not true that we all have our own fate? Ashley: I believe that our fate lies in our own hands. It is up to us to decide how we live our lives. Socrates: Do you feel that every event has an explanatory cause? Ashley: I do not feel that way. Some things just can’t be explained and we will never know why some things happen. Socrates: Is it not true that everything happens for a reason? Ashley: I think that everything happens because of the decision that we made. Whether good or bad things......

Words: 1003 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Free Will vs Determinism

...Ted Honderich Determinism Vs Free Will Psychology 101-1322 Professor: James Pattison By: Belinda Bielicki July 2, 2011 Determinism versus Free Will: The most important and the oldest philosophical question is perhaps that of free will and determinism. Do people have free will, or are our actions pre-determined? Ted Honderich defined determinism as the philosophical idea that every event or state of affairs, including every human decision and action, is the inevitable and necessary consequence of antecedent states of affairs. "Nothing occurs at random, but everything for a reason and by necessity." Determinism is used by philosophers to account for some of the choices and actions that cause or create the effects of causal sequences; these sequences raise questions about the freedom of the choices and actions. Determinists believe our decisions are controlled by previous exposure to differing situations and environments and that each and every one of our actions is caused by a specific prior action or cause. (a occurs because of b, b occurs because of c..etc) In the belief of a determinist, man is no exception to this rule and therefore we are not "free" due to our actions being a result of a previous cause. If we are to dispute that this in fact is true, than we as human beings cannot be held responsible for our actions, as we have no control over them, they are automatic. However this is not the case, when a human commits an act, they are held responsible......

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Free Will vs. Determinism

...Avery Suazo Free Will VS. Determinism Though it can be loosely traced back to modern arguments, which mainly revolve around religion, free will versus determinism has been a staple of debate for over a millennia. The side of free will argues that there is nothing inhibiting us, as humans, from making the choices we choose to make. I think that determinism, the other side of the argument, is incredibly vague and ambiguous; while free will is much more viable in every way. First, I will articulate the definitions and intricacies of both ideas; then, I will elaborate as to why free will is the winning choice in this debate; and finally, I will conclude with my final thoughts. Let’s start off with free will. The theory states that it is the ability to choose without constraint from any outside source of interference (e.g. social pressures, religion, law). By this theory, one can assume that any action is done by the will of the individual, which in turn proves that every action done has a sole agent responsible for said action. For example: Tommy goes to the store, he buys bananas. His mom calls and asks him to pick up some juice while he’s there. Note that Tommy may be naturally inclined to fulfill his mom’s request, but in no way is he out of control what choice he makes. Notice: inclined. He would likely choose to buy the juice as well as his bananas, because he is a good son and doesn’t mind spending the money for juice. He could also completely ignore what his mom......

Words: 937 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Introduction to Personality

...Introduction to Personality PSY/405 December20, 2010 Abstract There are all types of intelligence that influences many different areas of an individual’s personality in so many different ways. The fact that intelligence can sometimes be considered as a part of personality. These issues of personality have been debated over time. Some of the main points are to bear in mind for that both intelligence and personality is a prominent of individuals many differences. Therefore, personality cannot be so easily defined in individuals. Therefore, personality can be referred as our many attempts to capture and to summarize all individual essences. Personality therefore is known as personality, in which this is the science for describing and for understanding individuals. After saying this, personality is also known as a coring area of studies for different types of psychology. So putting these together within intelligence, these topics of personality can have a constitution for most of the significant areas of individual’s differences within studies. Introduction to Personality There is not a chance for two people to be exactly the same and not even identical twins are the same. Some individuals are anxious, some individuals like the idea of risk-taking; some individuals are phlegmatic, some individuals are very high-strung; some individuals are very confident, some individuals are very shy; some individuals is very quiet, and some individuals is ......

Words: 1235 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Introduction to Personality

...Introduction to Personality Wilma Leibbrandt PSY 405 Dr. Phillip Morris May 7, 2012 Personality Theories For centuries, theorists are fascinated in how humans behave, and if factors and influences are involved to help shape a person’s personality. More than 100 years ago, Sigmund Freud became intrigued by the human’s behavior in which he combined philosophical speculations with primitive methods to understand the hidden factors to a person’s symptoms. Most theorists gained better understanding of personality by identifying factors of behavior in themselves, and applying this information in theories (Feist & Feist, 2009). Definition Even though psychologists have different views about the true definition of personality, but are still one of the most important topics in psychology. Humans are so unique, each with his or her personality, which makes it such a challenge in identifying typical personalities. “When psychologists use the term “personality, “they are referring to something more than the role people play” (Feist & Feist, 2009, p. 3). However, most theorists agree that the term “personality” can be defined as the characteristic patterns of behaviors, feelings, and thoughts, which make an individual unique. Mostly, an individual’s personality remains consistent throughout one’s life. These basics of personality includes consistency of behaviors during one’s life, physical, and mental processes that influence one’s behavior in which the......

Words: 1125 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Intro

...Introduction to Personality Paper Personality separates individuals in a form far more exclusive than any other form. People may share similar skin, hair, eye color, height and weight, ethnicity, and religious beliefs but no two people possess the same personality traits. Personality, stated by Feist & Feist (2009), has no single definition but is a pattern of permanent traits and unique characteristics offering individuality, and consistency to an individual’s behavior. This research paper explores personality theory, and addresses the definition of personality, examines theoretical approaches, and analyzes factors that may influence an individual’s personality development. Definition of Personality Feist & Feist (2009), explain that personality stems from the Latin word persona, which references a theatrical mask Roman actors in Greek dramas wore. These masks or personas were wore as a projection of a role or replicate a different character. The definition of personality today is quite different than that of Roman and Greek times and is mostly based on observable behavior described by characteristics, and traits. Traits equate from an individual’s behavioral consistencies, and characteristics demonstrate one’s unique attributes such as physical aspects, intellect, temperament, and wit. Traits also offer exclusive characteristics, which provide a person individuality, and stability to his or her behavior. According to Feist & Feist (2009, p. 4), personality is best......

Words: 1027 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Personality Overview

...Personality Overview Theories of personality are truly amazing as each theorist speculates from his or her own point of view. All theories are a reflection of their author’s personal background, childhood experiences, interpersonal relationships, philosophy of life and the way they look at the world (feist & feist, 2009). In the following document strengths and limitations will be discussed in relation to underlying assumptions, deterministic versus free will, and awareness of self through conscious and unconscious motives for behavior. The psychoanalytic theory presented by Sigmund Freud paved the way for future psychoanalysts to add their own theories. According to McLeod (2007) Psychodynamic approach assumptions include our feelings that are powerfully affected by unconscious motives. Our behavior and feelings as adults are rooted in our childhood experiences and all behavior has a cause, even slips of the tongue. Therefore all behavior is determined. Personality is made up of three parts and behavior is motivated by two instinctual drives. Parts of the unconscious mind are in constant conflict with the conscious part of the mind. According to Berryhill, (2011) one major concept and underlying assumption of Freud’s theory subdivides the human mind into three distinct categories. According to his theory the components of the mind include the conscious, preconscious and the subconscious areas. The conscious mind also includes our current thinking processes, behaviors and...

Words: 1411 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Free Will

...Prof. Kellenberger Phil 310 Free Will When grumpy old Scrooge of the famous movie A Christmas Carol went home on Christmas eve, he had no idea what awaited him. He experienced a night of anguish and terror after three ghosts visit him. Scrooge was a grumpy mean-spirited man after the death of his sister Fan. Just to prepare him for his “life” in death, his dead partner and friend Marley, who facilitates the entire nightmare, shows him the lost lonely spirits who were mean-spirited in their earthly lives. The first ghost who visited him that night was “the ghost of Christmas past”. This ghost serves to remind him how others had been kind to him during past Christmases in his youth and how people in his past embodied the Christmas spirit. This ghost served to instill guilt and remorse. Next, “the ghost of Christmas present” appears to Scrooge and shows him how everyone is enjoying Christmas and spreading the Christmas spirit around town. It also shows how his servant Bob, despite his meager earnings enjoys Christmas with his family. It also shows Scrooge his nephew Fred enjoying Christmas with his family. The two families only show downcast moods when discussing Scrooge. However, Fred maintains hope that his uncle Scrooge can change. After that, the most dreary “ghost of Christmas yet to come” appears to Scrooge. He shows Scrooge how Bob’s son death saddens everyone and leaves them feeling a sense of loss. He then shows him a rich dead man who nobody misses and......

Words: 1836 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...OCR A2 Psychology Unit G544 Part B Approaches, Perspectives, METHODS, ISSUES AND DEBATES IN psychology Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................................. Perspectives Learning Objectives ...................................................................................................... Behaviourist Perspective Definition ............................................................................................................ Assumptions ........................................................................................................ Ivan Pavlov ‘Pavlovian Conditioning’ ................................................................ Watson & Raynor ‘Little Albert’ Experiment ..................................................... B.F. Skinner ‘Operant Conditioning’ ................................................................... Strengths and Weaknesses ................................................................................... Psychodynamic Perspective Definition ............................................................................................................. Freud’s Tripartite Theory of Personality ................................................... Assumptions ......................................................................................................... Freud’s Psychosexual Stages...

Words: 879 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Introduction to Personality

...The characteristics have the ability to explain those attributes that are shown only by that certain person. These can include intelligence and temperament. Theoretical Approaches to Personality Study The process of studying the personality side of psychology weighs heavy on the basic human nature idea that a person will find what makes them tick through their viewpoints, perspectives and the ideas that person possesses. There are six dualistic dimensions that human nature deals within psychology. They are determinism versus free choice, pessimism versus optimism, casualty versus teleology, conscious versus unconscious determinants of behavior, biological versus social influence, and uniqueness versus similarities. The concept of a person having freedom of choice is the belief that any behavior is governed by the forces that are within the control of a human being. Determinisms attempt to show that behavior can be directly influenced by manipulation. Optimism is used to describe the overall positive outlook on things...

Words: 1113 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Introduction to Personality Paper

...distinctive qualities of a person. Personality is defined as, “…a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person’s behavior” (Feist & Feist, 2006, p. 4). Analyzing Personality Much of my own understanding of personality comes from what I was told as I was raised, that it is what makes one person different from the next, good or bad. However, I also accept that there are other sources, more defined than my own. The understanding of personality comes from the collected views of many theorists; all of which have cleverly divided personality into six: pessimism versus optimism; uniqueness versus similarities; determinism versus free choice; conscious versus unconscious determinants of behavior; biological versus social influences; causality versus teleology. Free choice entails the belief that behavior is ruled by forces that are within the capabilities of...

Words: 1008 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Human Nature

...influential factors like the environment that have shaped a person the way they are. For this paper, I will express my opinion on how the environment is the driving force behind feelings, behaviors, thoughts and beliefs strictly based on my own life experiences. Based on that I will conclude as to why people seek therapy and what my role as a counselor is. This is an evaluation of my own life philosophies that will give me a better understanding of my own personal theory. Personality Freewill versus Determinism Life is full of opportunities, what someone will make of them is mainly up to their determinism. I believe that sixty percent of determinism makes up a person’s personality while the other forty percent is free will. It is my opinion that free will has to originate from someone’s genuine desire for change. I believe that many people lack free will because it takes a lot of will power from within; something that people struggle with.. This is why I believe that determinism plays a bigger role in a person’s personality because before a person can do things on their own, their environment and or biology are the determining factors. For example, my brother Matt’s struggles with making the right choices because he has always been exposed to an unhealthy environment and his personality is a reflection of all the chaos. While his environment has been what has influenced his choices up to this point I also believe that he is not mentally capable of making the right......

Words: 2801 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

The Matthias Schultze-Kraft Movement

...Haynes designed the experiment; Matthias Schultze-Kraft and Daniel Birman performed research; Matthias Schultze-Kraft, Daniel Birman, Marco Rusconi, Carsten Allefeld, Kai Görgen, Sven Dähne, Benjamin Blankertz, and John-Dylan Haynes contributed new analytic tools; Matthias Schultze-Kraft and Benjamin Blankertz adapted the BBCI toolbox for this experiment; Matthias Schultze-Kraft and Daniel Birman analyzed data; Matthias Schultze-Kraft, Daniel Birman, and John-Dylan Haynes wrote the paper; and Marco Rusconi and Benjamin Blankertz contributed to writing the paper. The research likely took place at Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, a teaching hospital in Berlin, Germany. Charité is closely affiliated with the Freie Universität Berlin or the Free University of Berlin in Berlin, Germany. The study was published on December 14, 2015 (and received for review on July 10, 2015). The primary question in this experiment was whether it was possible for a person to stop a movement even after the readiness potential was triggered. The readiness potential is the measure of activity in the motor-related brain regions that preceded voluntary muscle movement. The test was whether subjects can win against a brain-computer interface which is designed to predict their movements based off their EEG (Electroencephalography) activity. One possibility was that the RP triggers a chain that can’t be cancelled, but in the end, the study found the RP could be stopped as long it was not pass the......

Words: 916 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Theories of Personality

...the purpose of psychology is to describe, analyze, and explain conscious sensations and feelings. Behaviorists believed conditioning could change human behavior. Gestalt psychologists theorized humans and some animals perceive the world around them in an organized pattern. Psychoanalysts believed that powerful inner forces from the unconscious mind develop and influence human behavior. This paper will discuss the personality theories proposed by Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung. This discussion will include a description of each theory. In addition, this paper will analyze the strengths and limitations of these theories. Finally this paper will compare and contrast each theory based on basic and underlying assumptions, deterministic versus free will, and awareness of self. Sigmund Freud Sigmund Freud, a psychologist from Vienna, was the first person to propose the Psychoanalytical Theory of Personality. Though his work, he suggested the personality is comprised of three separate elements, the id, the ego, and the super ego (Burger 2008). The id, present at birth, is entirely unconscious, and includes primitive and instinctive behaviors. The id is driven toward immediate gratification, known as the pleasure principle (Burger 2008). The id is important in early life, ensuring that the demands of an infant are met. If these needs are not satisfied, then the individual will experience anxiety. This is the reason that babies cry when they are...

Words: 1188 - Pages: 5