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French Word

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Submitted By betty01
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Unité 1 Leçon 1 Leçon 2 Leçon 3 Leçon 4 Unité 2 Leçon 5 Leçon 6 Leçon 7 Leçon 8 Unité 3 Leçon 9 Leçon 10 Leçon 11 Leçon 12

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ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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 Augmentation (n.f.)  Augmenter (v.)  Cancer (n.m.)  Chiffre (n.m.)  Climat (n.m.)  Correspondre (v.)  Développer (v.)  Devenir (v.)  Diminuer (v.)  Énergie (n.f.)  Évolution (n.f.)  Futur (n.m.)  Guerre (n.f.)  Hésiter (v.)

Increase To increase Cancer Figure, number Climate To correspond To develop To become To reduce Energy Evolution, change Future War To hesitate

 Métier (n.m.)  Nourriture (n.f.)  Opinion (n.f.)  Optimiste (adj.)  Paix (n.f.)  Partie (n.f.)  Pétrole (n.m.)  Population (n.f.)  Quotidien (n.m.)  Relation (n.f.)  Riche (adj.)  Terre (n.f.)  Transporter (v.)  Vivement

Job, occupation, trade Food Opinion Optimistic Peace Part Oil, petroleum Population, people Daily Relation, relationship Rich Earth, ground To carry, to transport Vivaciously

 Autant  Nommer (v.)

As much To name, to list, to appoint

 Salaire (n.m.)

Wages, pay, salary

 Choix (n.m.)  Chômage (n.m.)  Congé (n.m.)  Contrôleur (n.m.)  Coup (n.m.)  Courage (n.m.)  Création (n.m.)  Déranger (v.)  Économie (n.f.)  Gestion (n.f.)

Choice Unemployment Holiday, vacation Ticket inspector, controller Blow, stroke, knock Courage Creation To disturb Economy Management

 S’inquiéter (v.)  Justement (adv.)  Laboratoire (n.f.)  Proposition (n.f.)  Qualité (n.f.)  Réfléchir (v.)  Ressources

To worry Just, justly, precisely Laboratory Proposition, suggestion Quality To think Human resources Retirement Specialized

humaines (n.f.pl.)
 Retraite (n.f.)  Spécialisé (adj.)

 Administration (n.f.) Administration

 Formation (n.f.)  Former (v.)  Général (adj.)  Incident (n.m.)  Ingénieur (n.m.)  Institut (n.m.)  Laïque (adj.)  Mélanger (v.)  Niveau (n.m.)  Obligatoire (adj.)  Pauvreté (n.f.)

To move forward, to progress Future  Avenir (n.m.) Stock exchange  Bourse (n.f.) 1. Executive 2. Frame  Cadre (n.m.) Notebook  Cahier (n.m.) To count  Compter (v.)  Connaissance (n.f.) Knowledge To cut  Couper (v.) To spend  Dépenser (v.) Difficulty  Difficulté (n.f.)
 Avancer (v.)

Cultural background, education To form, to shape, to train General Incident Engineer Institute Secular To mix Level Compulsory Poverty
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ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Doctorat (n.m.)  Droit (n.m.)  Enseignement (n.m.)  Étape (n.f.)  Étudier (v.)  Exister (v.)  Extrait (n.m.)  Final (adj.)

Doctorate, PhD Law, right Education Stage, stop To study, to learn To exist Extract, excerpt Final

 Primaire (adj.)  Religion (n.f.)  Respecter (v.)  Réunir (v.)  Second (adj.)  Signe (n.m.)  Solution (n.f.)  Technicien (n.m.)

Primary Religion To respect To join together Second Sign, mark Solution Technician

 Ajouter (v.)  Ambulant (adj.)  Baguette (n.f.)  Capable (adj.)

To add Itinerant Baguette, stick, chopstick Capable, able

 Manquer (v.)  Mémoire (n.f.)  Observer (v.)  Personnel (n.m.)  Plante (n.f.)  Produire (v.)  Ramener (v.)  Se renseigner (v.)  Réparateur (n.m.)  Salé (adj.)  Société (n.f.)  Suffire (v.)  Téléviseur (n.m.)  Vitamine (n.f.)

To miss, to lack, to be short of, to fail Memory To watch, to observe Workforce, staff, personnel Plant To produce To bring back To make enquiries Repairer Salted Society, company To be enough Television, TV set Vitamin

 Commercial (adj.) Commercial  Commercialisation Marketing

(n.f.)
 Commercialiser (v.)  Diriger (v.)  Emploi (n.m.)  S’ennuyer (v.)  Fabrication (n.f)  Financier (adj.)  Garde (n.m.)  Gardien (n.m)  Lieu (n.m.)

To market To manage Job, employment To be bored Production, manufacture, made in... Financial Guard Guard Place

 Marque (n.f.)

Brand, mark

 Séduisant (adj.)

Attractive, seductive

 Armoire (n.m.)  Cosmétique (n.m.)  Couramment  Disponible (adj.)  Entretien (n.m.)  Étonner (v.)  Exact (adj.)  Exemple (n.m.)

Wardrobe Cosmetic Fluently, common Available 1. Maintenance 2. Interview To amaze, to surprise Exact, correct, accurate Example

 Expérience (n.f.)  Franchement  Horreur (n.f.)  Nul (adj.)  Plaire (v.)  Plutôt  Responsable (n.m.)  Sexy (adj.)

Experience Frankly, honestly Horror Null, nil, hopeless, rubbish To be attractive Rather Person in charge Sexy

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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« Veuillez agréer mes... »  Améliorer (v.)  Architecture (n.f.)  Bâtiment (n.m.)  Catégorie (n.f.)  Chômeur (n.m.)
 Domaine (n.m.)  Durée (n.f.)

 Agréer (v.)

Sincerely yours To improve Architecture Building Category Unemployed Domain, field Duration

 Médiathèque (n.f.)

Media library Minimum Half Engine, driving force Net, neat, clear Opportunity, chance, occasion Pole Fulfilment, achievement, realization (Salaried) employee Security Feeling Social Care Trade union

 Minimum (adj.)  Moitié (n.f.)  Moteur (n.m.)  Net (adj.)  Occasion (n.f.)  Pôle (n.m.)  Réalisation (n.f.)

Expression  Expression (n.f.)  Fonctionnaire (n.m.) Public service employee, civil servant To administer, to manage Strike  Grève (n.f.)  Impressionner (v.) To impress  Indépendant (adj.) independent Attached, enclosed  Joint (adj.)
 Gérer

 Salarié (n.m.)  Sécurité (n.f.)  Sentiment (n.m.)  Social (adj.)  Soin (n.m.)  Syndicat (n.m.)

To accuse, to blame, to charge  Alimentation (n.f.) Diet, food, food distribution To authorize, to allow  Autoriser (v.) Biscuit, cookie  Biscuit (n.m.) Cannon, gun  Canon (n.m. Bell  Cloche (n.f.) Anger, rage  Colère (n.f.) Covered, clouded  Couvert (adj.) 1. To forbid  Défendre (v.) 2. To defend  Distributeur (n.m.) Vending machine, dispenser To use, to employ  Employer (v.) Smoke  Fumée (n.f.) To keep, to look after  Garder (v.) To put on weight  Grossir (v.)
 Accuser (v.)

 Imiter (v.)  Juge (n.m.)  Local (adj.)  Mère (n.f.)  Mur (n.m.)  Outil (n.m.)  Peindre (v.)  Portrait (n.m.)  Pourtant  Procès (n.m.)  Récréation (n.f.)  Règle (n.f.)  Transformer (v.)  Vache (n.f)

To imitate, to copy, to mimic Judge Local Mother Wall Tool To paint Portrait Yet, even so Trial, lawsuit Playtime Rule To transform Cow

 Élection (n.f.)  Gramme (n.m.)  Insécurité (n.f)  Municipal (adj.)  Peser (v.)

Election Gramme, gram Insecurity Municipal To weigh

 Poids (n.m.)  Policier (n.m.)  Recruter (v.)  Seulement  Voter (v.)

Weight Policeman To recruit Only To vote
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ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Piste (n.f.)

Track, trail

Authorization, permission  Extraordinaire (adj.) Extraordinary, amazing
 Autorisation (n.f.)  Hirondelle (n.f.)  Loger (v.)  Parfumerie (n.f.)

 Prototype (n.m.)  Reportage (n.m.)  Révolution (n.f.)  Secteur (n.m.)

Prototype Report, reporting, reportage Revolution Sector

Swallow To live at, to stay at perfumery

To administer, to manage Candidate  Candidat (n.m.)  Communiste (adj.) Communist Deputy, M.P.  Député (n.m.) To divide  Diviser (v.) Education  Éducation (n.f.) To elect  Élire (v.) Finance  Finance (n.f.)  Gouvernement (n.m.) Government List  Liste (n.f.) Law, rule  Loi (n.f.) Majority  Majorité (n.f.) Minister  Ministre (n.m.)
 Administrer (v.)

 Outre-mer  Parti (n.m.)  Pouvoir (n.m.)  Préfet (n.m.)  Président (n.m.)  Présidentiel (n.m)  Province (n.f.)  Regrouper (v.)  Socialiste (adj.)  Succéder (v.)  Union (n.f.)  Voix (n.f)

Overseas Party Power Prefect president Presidential Province, country To bring together Socialist To succeed Union Vote, voice

 Arrêt (n.m.)  Atelier (n.m.)  Automobile (n.f.)  Bourse (n.f.)  Chaîne (n.f.)  Chance (n.f.)  Débat (n.m.)

Stop, halt Workshop Automobile, car Stock exchange Chain, line Luck, chance Debate

 Interview (n.f.)  Météo (n.f.)  Meurtre (n.m.)  Moto (n.f.)  Mystère (n.m.)  Psychanalyste (n.m.)  Rapporter (v.)  Récent (adj.)  Scène (n.f.)  Sélection (n.f.)  Série (n.f.)  Sommaire (n.m.)  Suite (n.f.)  Télécommande (n.f.)  Zapper (v.)

 Dessin animé (n.m.) Cartoon Direct  Direct (adj.) 1. Direction 2.  Direction (n.f.)  Enquêter (v.)  Événement (n.m.)  Familier (adj.)  Fou (adj.)  Incompréhensible

Interview Weather forecast Murder Motorbike Mystery Psychoanalyst 1. To bring back 2. To yield 3. To report Recent Stage, scene Selection Series Summary Following, next Remote control To zap

management To investigate Event Familiar Crazy, mad, insane Incomprehensible Information, news

(adj.)
 Information (n.f.)

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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 Comédien (n.m.)  Doucement

Comedian, actor Slowly, gently

 Rapidement

Quickly

 Admirer (v.)  Arracher (v.)  Article (n.m.)  Baobab (n.m.)  Branche (n.f.)  Commencement (n.m.)  Descendre (v.)  Dieu (n.m.)  À l’envers  Escalier (n.m.)  Étonner (v.)  Feuille (n.f.)  Fleur (n.f.)  Formidable (adj.)  Fort (adj.)

To admire To root out, to tear out, to snatch Article, item Baobab Branch Beginning To go down, to come down God Upside down, in reverse Stairs To astonish, to amaze Sheet, leaf Flower Great, wonderful Strong

 Honneur (n.m.)  Invention (n.f.)  Lever (v.)  Orgueilleux (adj.)  Plantation (n.f.)  Planter (v.)  Plateau (n.m.)  Producteur (n.m.)  Punir (v.)  Racine (n.f.)  Sentir (v.)  Sourire (v.)  Toast (n.m.)  Vers

Honour Invention To raise, to lift Proud, arrogant Planting To plant Tray Producer To punish Root To smell, to feel To smile Toast 1. Towards 2. Around

 Avoir lieu (v.)  Apprécier (v.)  Baisse (n.f.)  Cœur (n.m.)  Comparer (v.)  Condamner (v.)  Copie (n.f.)  Culture (n.f.)  Déclaration (n.f.)  Ensuite  Essentiel (adj.)  Féminin (adj.)  Généreux (adj.)  Gouverneur (n.m.)  Humour (n.f.)  Informer (v.)  Inondation (n.f.)

To happen, to take place, to occur To estimate, to appreciate Drop, fall, decline Heart To compare To condemn, to sentence Copy Culture Declaration, statement Then Essential Feminine, female Generous Governor Humour To inform Flood

 Intérêt (n.m.)  Nombreux (adj.)  Page (n.f.)  Participant (n.m.)  Préciser (v.)  Présent (adj.)  Récemment  Record (n.m.)  Règlement (n.m.)  Sauf  Simplicité (n.f.)  Tissu (n.m.)  Titre (n.m.)  Se trouver (v.)  Valoir (v.)  Vers (poésie) (n.m.)

Interest Numerous Page participant To specify, to make clear present Recently Record Regulation, rules Except, save, apart from, unless Simplicity Tissue, fabric, cloth Title To be located, to be found To be worth, to cost Verse

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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 Aise (à l’) (expr.)  Auditif (adj.)  Bagage (n.m.)  Baisser (v.)  Balbutier (v.)  Construction (n.f.)  Dépendant (adj.)  Emporter (v.)  Explication (n.f.)  Illuminer (v.)  Jeter (se) (à l’eau)

(To feel) at ease Auditory, hearing Baggage, luggage To lower, to fade, to decline To babble, to stammer Construction, building Dependent To take away, to carry away Explanation To light up To leap (into the water) The following day

 Maximum (n.m.)  Même  Orthographe (n.f.)  Proche (adj. /n.)  Réfléchi (adj.)  Renseigner (v.)  Reporter (n.m.)  Retenir (v.)  Sonore (adj.)  Spontané (adj.)  Test (n.m.)  Traduction (n.f.)

Maximum Same, even Spelling, orthography Near, nearby, close to Well thought-out To give information to To postpone To hold back, to retain Loud, sound Spontaneous Test Translation

(v.)  Lendemain (n.m.)

 Leçon (n.m.)

Lesson

 Promettre (v.)

To promise

 Au fait (expr.)  Barbecue (n.m.)  Boulot (n.m.)  Cheminée (n.f.)  Courant (au-de) (expr.)  Double (adj.)  Galerie (n.f.)

By the way Barbecue Work Chimney, mantelpiece Well-informed Double Gallery

 Gîte (n.m.)  Informatique (n.f.)  Marchand (adj.)  Obliger (v.)  Pantacourt (n.m.)  Remarquer (v.)  Tenue (n.f.)

Room, home Information technology Shopping, commercial To oblige, to force Capri pants To notice Dress, appearance

 Accepter (v.)  Accorder (v.)  Agence (n.f.)  Agence

To accept, to agree To grant, to give Agency Marriage bureau Farmer Elsewhere Except, apart, aside To go deeper In advance Single, bachelor Field Consideration, esteem To contact, to get in touch with Cordially, kindly

 Former (se) (v.)  Fuser (v.)  Grâce à  Immigration (n.f.)  Intention (n.f.)  Internaute (n.)  Lancer (v.)  Numérique (adj.)  Occuper (un lieu) (v.)  Permettre (v.)  Positif (adj.)  Renaître (v.)  Respectueux (adj.)  Salutation (n.f.)

To form, to learn To jet, to fly Thanks to Immigration Intention Net surfer To throw Digital, numerical To occupy To allow Positive To come back to life Respectful Regards
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matrimoniale (n.f.)
 Agriculteur (n.m.)  Ailleurs  À part (expr.)  Approfondir (v.)  Avance (par) (expr.)  Célibataire (n.)  Champ (n.m.)  Considération (n.f.)  Contacter (v.)  Cordialement

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Côté (n.m.)  Dehors (adv.)  Dévoué (adj.)  Discuter (v.)  Distinguer (v.)

Side Outside Devoted, faithful To discuss To distinguish

 Semblable (adj.)  Sincère (adj.)  Square (n.m.)  Veuf (n.m.)

Alike Sincere Square Widower

 Accent (n.m.)  Ancrer (v.)  Attirer (v.)  Attraction (n.f.)  Avoir lieu (v.)  Bal (n.m.)  Bataille (n.f.)  Celtique (adj.)  Chêne (n.m.)  Cor (n.m.)  Courir (v.)  Couronne (n.f.)  Course (n.f.)  Défilé (n.m.)  Déguiser (v.)  Dégustation (n.f.)  Discussion (n.f.)  Fédéral (adj.)  Fest-noz (n.m.)  Fléchette (n.f.)  Foire (n.f.)

Accent To anchor To attract Attraction To happen, to take place, to occur Ball, dance Fight, battle Celtic Oak 1. Corn 2. Horn To run Crown Race Parade, march 1. To dress up 2. To mask Tasting Discussion Federal Breton festival Dart Fair

 Folklore (n.m.)  Importer (v.)  Jet (n.m.)  Lancer (v.)  Lutte (n.f.)  Majeur (adj.)  Manège (n.m.)  Maquiller (v.)  Masque (n.m.)  Orchestre (n.m.)  Province (n.f.)  Rater (v.)  Renouveau (n.m.)  Rire (v.)  Sans doute  Spectaculaire (adj.)  Stade (n.m.)  Succès (n.m.)  Taureau (n.m.)  Vainqueur (n.m.)  Vallée (n.f.)

Folklore To import 1. Throw 2. jet To throw Struggle, fight Major Merry-go-round To make up, to disguise Mask Orchestra Province To miss, to fail Revival To laugh 1. Most probably 2. undoubtedly Spectacular Stadium, stage Success Bull Winner Valley

 Canoë (n.m.)

Canoe

 Rivière (n.f.)

River

 Cuillère (n.f.)  Déconcentrer (v.)  Désagréable (adj.)  Faire plaisir (v.)  Fin (adj.)  Moche (adj.)  Particulier (adj.)  Recette (n.f.)

Spoon To distract, to devolve, to dilute Disagreeable To please Thin, fine, subtle, delicate Ugly Particular, private Recipe

 Résister (v.)  Retrouvaille (n.f.pl.)  Sauce (n.f.)  Secret (n.m.)  Servir (v.)  Tranche (n.f.)  Truffe (n.f.)  Valoir (mieux) (v.)

To resist, to withstand Reunion Sauce Secret To serve, to be used (as, for...) Slice Truffle To be worth

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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 Ail (n.m.)  Amande (n.f.)  Amer (adj.)  Armistice (n.m)  Arroser (v.)  Bol (n.m.)  Bouillir (v.)  Bouteille (n.f)  Calendrier (n.m.)  Canard (n.m.)  Carafe (n.f.)  Casserole (n.f.)

Garlic Almond Bitter Armistice To water, to drink Bowl To boil Bottle Calendar Duck Carafe Saucepan To heat up, to warm Pressure cooker To stick Commemoration Basket Knife To cook Cooking, baking To cut, to carve Residence To have at one's disposal Emotion, feeling Spice 1. To wipe 2. to endure To spread Bean Foie gras Stride Fork Fresh Raspberry To fry Pancake To inflate, to swell Drop

 Huile (n.f.)  Huître (n.f.)  Ingrédient (n.m.)  Laurier (n.m.)  Lumière (n.f.)  Moule (n.f.)  Moutarde (n.f.)  Muguet (n.m.)  Nappe (n.f.)  Oie (n.f.)  Oignon (n.m.)  Parcours (n.m.)

 Chauffer (v.)  Cocotte-minute

 Pâte (n.f)  Percer (v.)  Persil (n.m.)  Piquer (v.)  Placer (v.)  Poêle (n.f.)  Poivre (n.m.)  Poivrer (v.)  Poudre (n.f.)  Poule (n.f)  Retirer (v.)  Réveillon (n.m.)  Saladier (n.m.)  Saupoudrer (v.)  Seau (n.m.)  Sec (adj.)  Sel (n.m.)  Serviette (n.f.)  Talent (n.m.)  Tasse (n.f.)  Thym (n.m.)  Trou (n.m.)  Verser (v.)  Victoire (n.f.)  Vinaigre (n.m.)

Oil Oyster Ingredient Laurel Light Mussel Mustard Lily of the valley Tablecloth Goose Onion 1. Route 2. career, (school) record Pasta To pierce Parsley To prick To place, to put Frying pan Pepper To pepper Powder Chicken (hen) To remove, to take off Christmas Eve, New Year's Eve (Salad) bowl To dust, to sprinkle Bucket Dry Salt Napkin, towel Talent, skill Cup Thyme Hole To pour Victory Vinegar

(n.f.)
 Coller (v.)  Commémoration

(n.f.)
 Corbeille (n.f)  Couteau (n.m)  Cuire (v.)  Cuisson (n.f.)  Découper (v.)  Demeure (n.f.)  Disposer (v.)  Émotion (n.f.)  Épice (n.f.)  Essuyer (v.)  Étaler (v.)  Fève (n.f.)  Foie gras (n.m.)  Foulée (n.f.)  Fourchette (n.f.)  Frais (adj.)  Framboise (n.f.)  Frire (v.)  Galette (n.f.)  Gonfler (v.)  Goutte (n.f)

 Assurer (v.)  Bien (n.m.)  Cap (n.m.)  Chercheur (n.m.)  Cheval (n.m.)

To assure Well, good, right Cape Researcher Horse

 Jury (n.m.)  Mémoriser (v.)  Originaire (adj.)  Presse (n.f.)  Pulvériser (v.)

Jury To memorise To originate from Press To pulverise, to spray, to smash
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ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Clé (n.f.)  Destin (n.m.)  Équivalent (n.m.)  Gain (n.m.)  Garde-robe (n.f.)  Haras (n.m.)  Influencer (v.)  Insolite (adj.)  Invisible (adj.)

Key Destiny Equivalent Gain, profit Wardrobe Stud farm To influence Unusual Invisible

 Quand même  Réciter (v.)  Recruter (v.)  Rêve (n.m.)  Sociologue (n.m.)  Somme (n.f.)  Superbe  Table d’hôte (n.f.)

Even though, all the same To recite To recruit Dream Sociologist Sum, amount Superb Fixed full course meal

 Accompagner (v.)  Amener (v.)  Pilote (n.m.)

To go with, to accompany To bring Pilot To push

 Raccompagner (v.)  Rallye (n.m.)  Reculer (v.)

 Pousser (v.)

 Sponsor (n.m.)

To walk, take or drive somebody back Rally To move back, to postpone, to lose ground Sponsor

 Antiquaire (n.m.)  Autodidacte (adj.)  Carnivore (adj.)  Crocodile (n.m.)  Dedans  Dégonfler (v.)  Dessus (au-de)

Antique dealer Self-educated Carnivorous Crocodile Inside To deflate Above, over it, on it

 Gonflé (adj.)  Hésitation (n.f.)  Montgolfière (n.f.)  Reine (n.f.)  Scrabble (n.m.)  Serpent (n.m.)

Puffed-up, inconsiderate Hesitation Hot-air balloon Queen Scrabble Snake

 Abstrait (adj.)  Âne (n.m.)  Applaudir (v.)  Art (n.m.)  Artistique (adj.)  Atterrissage (n.m.)  Attraper (v.)  Blague (n.f.)  Caricature (n.f.)  Chou (n.m.)  Coloriste (n.m.)  Comique (adj.)  Défaut (n.m.)  Descendant (n.m.)  Douanier (n.m.)  Entourage (n.m.)  Exploiter (v.)  Exposer (v.)  Frapper (v.)  Huissier (n.m.)  Humoriste (n.m.)

Abstract Donkey, ass, idiot To applaud Art Artistic Landing To catch Joke Caricature Cabbage Colourist Comical Defect, flaw, lack Descendant Customs officer Entourage To exploit To exhibit, to display To hit, to strike 1. Bailiff 2. Usher Humorist

 Ignorance (n.f.)  Ironie (n.f.)  Moquer (v.)  Mouvement (n.m.)  Néfaste (adj.)  Période (n.f.)  Personnalité (n.f.)  Phare (n.m.)  Pinceau (n.m.)  Plaisanter (v.)  Posséder (v.)  Queue (n.f.)  Regard (n.m.)  Révéler (v.)  Taquiner (v.)  Terminal (n.m.)  Terminer (v.)  Toile (n.f.)  Tragédie (n.f.)  Tremper (v.)

Ignorance Irony To mock Movement Noxious, harmful Period Personality Lighthouse, beacon Brush To joke To possess, to own, to have Tail, rear, queue Glance, look To reveal To tease Terminal To finish Web, canvas, cloth Tragedy To soak

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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 Ambition (n.f.)  Annuaire (n.m.)  Autorisation (n.f.)  Blouse (n.f.)  Carton (n.m.)  Casque (n.m.)  Clandestin (adj.)  Comportement

Ambition Phone book, yearbook Authorization, permit Overall, blouse Cardboard Helmet Illegal Behaviour Understanding, comprehension Cord, string, cordon Creativity, creativeness Cook Curiosity Elegance Balance, equilibrium Gaiety, cheerfulness Generosity Grey

 Honnêteté (n.f.)  Intolérance (n.f.)  Jouet (n.m.)  Langage (n.m.)  Maillot (n.m.)  Ordre (n.m.)  Parole (n.f.)  Passéisme (n.m.)  Pessimisme (n.m.)  Pratique (adj.)  Rayon (n.m.)  Réflexion (n.f.)  Rejeter (v.)  Rose (adj.)  Sociable (adj.)  Spontanéité (adj.)  Tapis (n.m.)  Timidité (n.f.)

(n.m.)
 Compréhension

Honesty Intolerance Toy Language Bathing trunks, swimming costume Order Speech Backward-looking attitude Pessimism Practical, convenient, handy Ray, beam, radius, shelf, department Thought, remark, reflection To reject, to refuse Pink Sociable Spontaneity Carpet Shyness

(n.f.)  Cordon (n.m.)
 Créativité (n.f.)  Cuisinier (n.m.)  Curiosité (n.f.)  Élégance (n.f.)  Équilibre (n.m.)  Gaité (n.f.)  Générosité (n.f.)  Gris (adj.)

 Affirmer (v.)

To assert

 Cause (à-de)  Exploration (n.f.)  Explorer (v.)  Grotte (n.f.)  Pénible (adj.)

Because Exploration To explore Cave Painful, tiresome

 Perdre (se) (v.)  Salir (v.)  Spéléologie (n.f.)  Surprise (n.f.)

To lose To (make) dirty, to soil Speleology Surprise

To board, to approach, to tackle So, as, that way  Ainsi To chat  Bavarder (v.) Bouquet, bunch  Bouquet (n.m.)  Chère (bonne) (n.f.) To eat well Complement, remainder,  Complément additional On the other hand  Contre (par) Cover, blanket  Couverture (n.f.)
 Aborder (v.)  Désorganiser (v.)

 Manière (n.f.)  Manifeste (adj.)  Naturellement  Revanche (en-)  Soigneusement  Store (n.m.)  Sujet (n.m.)  Taire (v.)  Tas (n.m.)

Way, manner Obvious Naturally Revenge Carefully Blind, shade Subject To conceal, to say nothing about Pile, lots of
11

To disorganize

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

Firmly  Fermement  Hors-d’œuvre (n.m.) Starter Impolite, rude  Impoli (adj.)
 Indiscret (adj.)  Instantanément  Intervenir (v.)  Légume (n.m.)

 Tas (un- de)  Témoignage (n.m.)  Transmettre (v.)  Valeur (n.f.)  Volet (n.m.)  Volontiers

Indiscreet, inquisitive Instantly To intervene Vegetable

A lot of Testimony To transmit, to pass on, to hand over Value Shutter 1. Willingly 2. With pleasure

 Au-delà  Aventurier (n.m.)  Arriver à (v.)  Bout (n.m.)  Cabane (n.f.)

Beyond Adventurer To succeed, to reach, to come to A bit of, the end, a bit of Hut

 Inventaire (n.m.)  Libérer (v.)  Mât (n.m.)  Médiatique (adj.)  Objectif (n.m.)  Observation (n.f.)  Ouvrage (n.m.)  Péninsule (n.f.)  Peuplé (adj.)  Planète (n.f.)  Polaire (adj.)  Probablement  Rame (n.f.)  Rejoindre (v.)  Risque (n.f.)  Rocheux (adj.)  Sauter (v.)  Scientifique (n.m.)  Solitaire (adj.)  Témoigner (v.)

Inventory To free, to release Mast Media library Objective, goal, aim, target Observation Work Peninsula Populated Planet Polar Probably 1. Oar 2. Underground train To join Risk, hazard Rocky To jump, to leap Scientist Lonely, solitary To testify, to give evidence Attempt To attempt, to tempt Mark, trace Sled, sleigh, sledge Trapper Only, solely, exclusively Sail Wilful, voluntary, volunteer Will

Circle  Cercle (n.m.)  Collaborateur (n.m.) Associate, contributor,
 Courant (n.m.)  Crabe (n.m.)  Crustacé (n.m.)  Décourager (v.)  Dépasser (v.)  Dramatique (adj.)  Dresser (v.)  Échec (n.m.)  Échouer (v.)  Encourir (v.)  Énergique (adj.)  Enlever (v.)  Essai (n.m.)  Expédition (n.f.)  Faillir (v.)  Fauve (n.m.)  Fiction (n.f.)  Filmer (v.)  Flore (n.f.)  Îlot (n.m.)  Inconscient (adj.)  Indiquer (v.)

collaborator Current, trend Crab Crustacean, seafood Discourage To overtake, to surpass Appalling, dramatic To erect, to raise, to put up, to tame Failure To fail To incur Energetic To remove, to take off Test, trial

Expedition  Tentative (n.f.) To nearly... on the verge  Tenter (v.) of... Big cat  Trace (n.f.) Fiction  Traineau (n.m.) To film  Trappeur (n.m.) Flora  Uniquement Islet Unaware To point, to indicate
 Voile (n.f.)  Volontaire (adj.)  Volonté (n.f.)

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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Anguished  Angoissé (adj.) Stupid  Bête (adj.)  Débrouiller (se) (v.) To manage to Crazy, mad  Dingue (n.m.) Electricity  Électricité (n.f.) To move away  Éloigner (s’) (v.) Test  Épreuve (n.f.) To worry  Faire (s’en) (v.)

 Fenêtre (n.f.)  Garage (n.m.)  Inquiet (adj.)  Mécanique (n.f.)  Panique (n.f.)  Port (n.m.)  Rassurer (v.)  Vraiment

Window Garage Anxious, worried Mechanics Panic Port To reassure Really

To announce  Annoncer (v.) To beat, to defeat  Battre (v.) Celebrity  Célébrité (n.f.)  Championnat (n.m.) Championship  Compétition (n.f.) Competition  Concurrent (n.m.) Competitor Contingent, quota  Contingent (n.m.) Cyclist  Cycliste (n.m.) To date  Dater (v.) To declare  Déclarer (v.) To distribute  Distribuer (v.) Drug use  Dopage (n.m.) Sport number worn by a  Dossard (n.m.)
 Édition (n.f.)  Élancer (s’) (v.)

Presence To foresee, to forecast, to plan, to anticipate, to expect Entirely, completely Main, principal  Entièrement  Principal (adj.) Around, about Platform, quay,  Environ  Quai (n.m.) embankment Horse riding To go up, to go back  Équitation (n.f.)  Remonter (v.) up Favourite Bank, shore  Favori (n.m.)  Rive (n.f.) To be among, to appear  Téléspectateur (n.m.) T.V. viewer  Figurer (v.) (on a list) Ton, tonne Jogging  Footing (n.m.)  Tonne (n.f.) Tournament  Hippodrome (n.m.) Racecourse  Tournoi (n.m.) Most of To trace, to draw  La plupart  Tracer (v.) Widely, greatly Violence  Largement  Violence (n.f.)  Malhonnêteté (n.f.) Dishonesty
 Présence (n.f.)  Prévoir (v.)

competitor Publishing, edition To rush, to dash

 Marathon (n.m.)  Marquer (v.)  Match (n.m.)  Média (n.m.)  Mener (v.)  Minceur (n.f.)  Nation (n.f.)  Organisateur (n.m.)  Parmi  Patinage  Planche (n.f.)  Plongée (n.f.)  Pratiquer (v.)

Marathon To mark Match Media To lead Thinness, slimness Nation Organizer Among Skating Board Diving To practise, to do

 Accrocher (v.)  Ampoule (n.f.)  Appareil (n.m.)  Aspirateur (n.m.)  Baignoire (n.f.)

To hang Bulb, phial, blister Machine, device, apparatus Vacuum cleaner Bathtub

 Lave-vaisselle (n.m.) Dishwasher Detergent  Lessive (n.f.) Washing, linen, items  Linge (n.m.)  Lit (n.m.)  Ménage (n.m.)

of laundry Bed Cleaning, housework,
13

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Bouton (n.m.)  Bricolage (n.m.)  Bricoleur (n.m.)  Complémentaire

Button Do-it-yourself D.I.Y. D.I.Y. man, handyman Complementary To sew 1. Knife, fork and spoon 2. place setting To clear away, to rid Hard, harsh, tough Equality Interview, discussion, maintenance To peel To hang out, to stretch out, to spread out Sink Oven Ideal To impose Inside, interior Kit Washbasin, washbowl Washing machine

 Meuble (n.m.)  Miroir (n.m.)  Nettoyer (v.)  Poubelle (n.f.)  Poussière (n.f.)  Ranger (v.)  Rare (adj.)  Réfrigérateur (n.m.)  Repassage (n.m.)  Repasser (v.)  Résoudre (v.)  Sale (adj.)  Sol (n.m.)  Sondage (n.m.)  Surgelé (n.m.)  Tâche (n.f.)  Tirer (v.)  Vaisselle (n.f.)  Vider (v.)

household Furniture Mirror To clean Dustbin Dust To tidy, to put away Rare Fridge, refrigerator Ironing To iron To solve, to resolve Dirty, filthy, nasty Ground, floor, soil Poll, survey Frozen food Task, job, mission To pull The dishes To empty

(adj.)  Coudre (v.)  Couvert (n.m.)
 Débarrasser (v.)  Dur (adj.)  Égalité (n.f.)  Entretien (n.m.)  Éplucher (v.)  Étendre (v.)  Évier (n.m.)  Four (n.m.)  Idéal (adj.)  Imposer (v.)  Intérieur (n.m.)  Kit (n.m.)  Lavabo (n.m.)  Lave-linge (n.m.)

 Appartenir (v.)  Aucun  Banc (n.m.)

To belong to None Bench, seat

 N’importe …  Saluer (v.)

Any... (it doesn't matter) To greet, to say hello to

 Avertir (v.)  Colocataire (n.m.)  Compter sur (v.)  Confiance (n.m.)  Domicile (n.m.)  Fier à (se) (v.)

To warn Co-tenant To rely on, to count on Confidence, trust Place of residence, home, address To trust

 Locataire (n.)  Méfier (se-de) (v.)  Réparation (n.f.)  Sentir (v.)  Tout à l’heure

Tenant, lodger To distrust Repairing To smell, to feel Later, earlier, in a while

Alimentary, (of, for) food  Alimentaire (adj.) Rainbow  Arc-en-ciel (n.m.) Candidature, candidacy  Candidature (n.f.) Career  Carrière (n.f.) Should this happen  Cas échéant To cohabit  Cohabiter (v.)  Conformisme (n.m.) Conformity,
 Contenter (se) (v.)

conventionality To make do with

 Licencier (v.)  Limiter (v.)  Manuel (n.m.)  Mentir (v.)  Modèle (n.m.)  Montant (n.m.)  Perfectible (adj.)  Pharmacien (n.m.)  Pourvoir (v.)  Précarité (n.f.)

To fire, to dismiss To limit Manual, textbook To lie Model Amount, sum Perfectible Pharmacist, chemist, druggist To provide, to equip Precariousness
14

To fear  Craindre (v.)  Délocalisation (n.f.) Off shoring

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Dégouter (v.)  Déplacer (se) (v.)  Dépourvu (adj.)  Efforcer de (s’) (v.)  Élite (n.f.)  Embauche (n.f.)  Estimer (v.)  Étiquette (n.f.)  Examiner (v.)  Fusion (n.f.)  Injustice (n.f.)  Innovation (n.f.)  Insatisfait (adj.)

To drip To move, to travel Lacking in To endeavour to do, to try one's best to Elite Hiring To estimate Label To examine Fusion, melting Injustice Innovation Unsatisfied

 Qualifié (adj.)  Réconcilier (se) (v.)  Requérir (v.)  Restructuration (n.f.)  Revenu (n.m.)  Satisfait (adj.)  Sécurité (n.f.)  Souhait (n.m.)  Spécialiste (adj.)  Synonyme (n.m.)  Système (n.m.)  Usine (n.f.)  Vedette (n.f.)

Qualified, skilled To reconcile To require Restructuring, reorganisation Income Satisfied Security Wish Specialist Synonymous System Factory, plant Celebrity, star

Lying on  Allongé (adj.) Aluminium  Aluminium (n.m.) Silver, money  Argent (n.m.) Broom  Balai (n.m.) Concrete  Béton (n.m.) Wood  Bois (n.m.) Brick  Brique (n.f.)  Brosse à dents (n.f.) Toothbrush Desk  Bureau (meuble) (n.m.) Coffee maker, coffeepot  Cafetière (n.f.) Sofa, settee  Canapé (n.m.) Square  Carré (n.m.) Centimetre  Centimètre (n.m.) Hi-fi system  Chaîne hi-fi (n.f) Chair  Chaise (n.f) Champion  Champion (n.m.) Bedside  Chevet (n.m.) Chest of drawers  Commode (n.f.)  Congélateur (n.m.) Freezer Cotton  Coton (n.m.) Duvet  Couette (n.f.) Cushion  Coussin (n.m.) Cube  Cube (n.m.) Leather  Cuir (n.m.) Gas cooker  Cuisinière à gaz (n.f.)
 Cuivre (n.m.)  Diamant (n.m.)  Dimension (n.f.)  Drap (n.m.)  Embarrasser (v.)  Enchère (n.f.)  Étagère (n.f.)

 Fer (n.m.)  Gant (n.m.)  Halogène (adj.)  Hauteur (n.f.)  Illustration (n.f.)  Laine (n.f.)  Largeur (n.f.)  Longueur (n.f.)  Marbre (n.m.)  Marqueur (n.m.)  Matelas (n.m.)  Matière (n.f.)  Métal (n.m.)  Micro-ondes (n.m.)  Millimètre (n.m.)  Or (n.m.)  Oreiller (n.m.)  Pelle (n.f.)  Plastique (n.m.)  Plomb (n.m.)  Porcelaine (n.f.)  Précieux (adj.)  Recouvrir (v.)  Rectangle (n.m.)  Recueil (n.m.)  Rideau (n.m.)  Robot (n.m.)  Savon (n.m.)  Textile (n.m.)  Traversin(n.m.)  Triangle (n.m)  Velours (n.m.)

Iron Glove Halogenous, halogen Height Illustration Wool Width Length Marble Marker Mattress Matter, material Metal Microwave Millimetre Gold Pillow Shovel, spade, dustpan Plastic Lead China, porcelain Precious To cover, to re-cover Rectangle Collection Curtain Robot Soap Textile Bolster Triangle Velvet

Copper Diamond Size, dimension Sheet To embarrass Auction Shelf

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

15

 Collier (n.m.)

Necklace

 Avertir (v.)  Billetterie (n.f.)  Cabaret (n.f.)  Compter (sur) (v.)

To warn Ticket office Cabaret To rely, to count

 Consulter (v.)  Fric (n.m.)  Réparation (n.f.)  Taper (v.)

To consult, to check Money Repair, repairing To knock, bang, slam, beat, type, clap, hit, slap ...

 Abonnement (n.m.) Subscription, season

ticket Shelter  Abri (n.m.) Benefit, welfare,  Allocation (n.f.) allowance  Approvisionner (v.) To supply To press, to push  Appuyer (v.) Gross, raw, rough  Brut (adj.) To calculate  Calculer (v.) Notebook, book  Carnet (n.m.)
 Charge (n.f.)  Chauffeur (n.m.)  Clavier (n.m.)  Clôturer (v.)  Comparer (v.)  Confidentiel (adj.)

 Mobile (adj.)  Obtenir (v.)  Opération (n.f.)  Ouvreuse (n.f.)  Plombier (n.m.)  Pourboire (n.m.)  Pourcentage (n.m.)  Prélèvement (n.m.)  Recharger (v.)  Reçu (n.m.)  Récupérer (v.)  Relevé (de compte)  Remise (n.f.)  Renouvellement
(n.m.)

Moving, removable To obtain Operation Usherette Plumber Tip Percentage Withdrawal, debit, sample To reload, to refill, to recharge Receipt To get back, to save, to recover (Monthly) statement Discount Renewal Withdrawal Sales Tax Property tax Button, key To touch Wages Payment Label, sticker, tax disc Transfer

Charge, burden, responsibility, load Driver Keyboard To enclose, to fence To compare Confidential overdrawn To spend To put down, to deposit Deposit, warehouse To desire, to want, to wish To save In principle, in theory Ticket office (Income) tax To insert

 Découvert (à) (n.m.) Without cover,  Dépenser (v.)  Déposer (v.)  Dépôt (n.m.)  Désirer (v.)  Économiser (v.)  En principe  Guichet (n.m.)  Impôt (n.m.)  Insérer (v.)

(n.m.)
 Retrait (n.m.)  Solde (n.m.)  Taxe (n.f.)  Taxe foncière (n.f.)  Touche (n.f.)  Toucher (v.)  Traitement (salaire)
(n.m.)

 Versement (n.m.)  Vignette (n.f.)  Virement (n.m.)

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

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To act  Agir (v.)  Archéologue (n.m.) Archaeologist Artisan, craftsman  Artisan (n.m.) Attaché  Attaché (n.m.)  Bibliothécaire (n.m.) Librarian Butcher  Boucher (n.m.) Baker  Boulanger (n.m.) Building site, roadworks  Chantier (n.m.) To click  Cliquer (v.)  Commerçant (n.m.) Shop, shopkeeper  Concepteur (n.m.) Designer Consultant  Consultant (n.m.)
 Diplomate (n.m.)  Économiste (n.m.)  Efficace (adj.)  Entraîner (v.)  Entreprenant (adj.)  Environnement

Diplomat Economist Efficient To drag, to sweep along Enterprising Environment

Grocery shop Garage manager, mechanic Honest  Honnête (adj.) Gardener  Jardinier (n.m.) Mason  Maçon (n.m.) Marketing  Marketing (n.m.) Joiner  Menuisier (n.m.) Soldier  Militaire (n.m.) Way, means  Moyen (n.m.) Multimedia  Multimédia (n.m.) Pastrycook  Pâtissier (n.m.) To profit, to take  Profiter (v.) advantage  Psychologue (n.f./m.) Psychologist Jigsaw puzzle  Puzzle (n.m.) Restaurant  Restaurant (n.m.) Sociologist  Sociologue (n.m.) Designer, stylist  Styliste (n.m.) Down-to-earth  Terre à terre (adj.)
 Épicier (n.m.)  Garagiste (n.m.)

(n.m.)

 Officier (n.m.)  Malgré

Officer In spite of

 Malheureusement  Tellement

Unfortunately ... so much ...

Wing  Aile (n.f.)  Ambassadeur (n.m.) Ambassador
 Avouer (v.)  Batterie (n.f.)  Bêtise (n.f.)  Bloquer (v.)  Communication  Constat (n.m.)  Deviner (v.)  Embêter (v.)

 Enfoncer (v.)  Faire exprès (v.)  Jurer (v.)  Maladresse (n.f.)  Ministère (n.m.)  Reprocher (v.)  Tarder (v.)  Tournée (n.f.)  Valoir la peine (v.)

To admit, to confess Battery, drums Stupidity To block, to freeze Communication Report To guess To bother

(n.f.)

To drive in, to sink in To do something on purpose To swear Blunder, clumsiness Ministry To reproach, to blame To be a long time coming Round, tour To be worth

 Accélérer (v.)  Angle (n.m.)  Assurance (n.f.)  Bénéficier (v.)  Cambrioler (v.)

To accelerate, to speed up Angle, corner Assurance, confidence, insurance To benefit To burgle

 Freiner (v.)  Garer (v.)  Heurter (v.)  Incendie (n.m.)  Matériel (adj.)

To slow down, to brake To park To hit, to strike Fire, blaze Material
17

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

 Causer (v.)  Ci-joint  Conducteur (n.m.)  Constater (v.)  Contribution (n.f.)  Corporel (adj.)  Couvrir (v.)  Croiser (v.)  Dégât (n.m.)  Démarrer (v.)  Doubler (v.)  Endommager (v.)

1. To cause 2. to chat, to  Maternité (n.f.) talk Attached, enclosed  Pare-brise (n.m.) Driver  Permis de conduire (n.m.) To notice  Renverser (v.) Contribution Corporal, physical, bodily To cover To meet, to cross Damage To start up 1. to double 2. to overtake To damage
 Rouler (v.)  Serrure (n.f.)  Souscrire (v.)  Stationner (v.)  Véhicule (n.m.)  Vieillesse (n.f.)  Violemment  Vol (n.m.)

Maternity Windscreen, windshield Driving licence To knock down, to reverse, to spill To roll, to drive The lock To subscribe To park Vehicle Old age Violently 1. Robbery 2. flight

ÉCHO A2 – Lexique franco-anglais © CLE International, 2012

18

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Explain, in 1,050 to 1,400 Words, How the Following Ideas and Ideals Influenced the Events and Motivated the Participants in the French Revolution

...The French Revolution started in 1789 and ended in the late 1790’s. It represented a time in history where Napoleon Bonaparte ascended to power and all his escapades occurred. There were many ideas and ideals that influenced the French Revolution that affected the way European power changed and the changed the European nation. Of these ideals and ideal, there was a group of them that all related to each other. Liberty, equity, and fraternity (brotherhood) were statements that were said a lot and usually together during the French Revolution, yet they each had their own meaning and ideals in the overall Revolution. Liberty in the French Revolution was the idea of the citizens not being oppressed, especially from government (“The ideas,” n.d.). During the French Revolution, the King was signing orders that would put citizens in prison without a trial or due process. In order for the French people find liberty from the King and his tyranny and oppression, the French people drew up a new constitution in order to have more freedoms within the country, along with making Napoleon their ruler to remove the king from power. Equity was another ideal that was powerful during the French Revolution. Equity was about having all members of France being represented in all facets of government. During the revolution, the members of the Third Estate wanted to be equal of those in the Second Estate when it came to government representation. By pushing for the equality in government, the......

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Jfkdj

...it’s not about speaking the language, it’s about understanding it. And if you want to speak the language you need to take it slow, or else you won’t learn it. It’s about hard work and dedication. The theme of the text is learning a foreign language, and the perspective is from the forty-year old person who is also in the class, learning French. He writes about his experiences on learning French. The forty-year old person who’s in the story is learning to speak French in Paris, and has a teacher who is cruel to the ones who can’t speak French. For example if a girl in the class doesn’t know the exact correct words or verbs, she gets held down and the teacher is trying to get them down in shame. The teacher also poked a girl in her eye with a fresh sharpened pencil and the teacher didn’t spend much time apologizing. The teacher seems cold, harsh and angry with the student and seems like she doesn’t really care if they learn something. She acts like this so they feel shameful of even trying to learn French. She makes them all equal even though they all have differences. Even though she is like this, she makes the narrator learn more French than he could ever imagine. The narrator speaks in a very funny and ironic language, because he talks about irrelevant stuff like, a stegosaurus eating a ham sandwich. The class didn’t speak fluent English, and some of them are saying sentences like: “sometimes me cry alone in night… that be common for I, also, but me more strong,......

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A Level English Language

...Question Using suitable examples, describe and comment upon some of the reasons for language change. Language changes, as do all things in the living world, as language reflects and affects the society which uses it. The mechanics of language change show language as a system with larger and larger scale trends, which allows us to examine the conditions necessary for change. The process of change occurs gradually, and the rate of this change does conform to a pattern. For instance, if you get an influx of foreign words, few people use them, and they spread slowly until people have become familiar with them. When they have, the word usage stabilizes. Another factor affecting language change is hyper-correction. This occurs when a sentence is corrected so frequently that the deviant form becomes the norm in spoken English. For example, the sentence Jill and me went to the fair is often corrected to Jill and I went to the fair. The result of this is that the phrase and me has become disdainful and unacceptable. The ultimate effect of this is an exaggerated use of the term and I. For example, Mother gave the book to John and I is a deviant form which has become the norm in spoken English. Research has also discovered many other reasons why language changes. William Labov conducted a study in America investigating the use of the letter r. He used three sets of shop assistants from high-class, middle-class, and lower-class stores and found that all three sets......

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“Our Knowledge Is Deeply Inter-Twined with and Not Separable from Our Language.”

...examples to show that knowledge and language cannot be separable. Language in general is always controlled by knowledge as they come hand in hand. It can be expressed through different forms depending on the context and media. Language can be communicated verbally, through the use of words, using signs and signals. For example, a small issue like making a phone call can be shown using actions, signs and words, however this relates to the knowledge one has about making phone calls, hence the language has to be there. Also, on the road, drivers are very familiar with road signs all around the world as it is universal, this makes it an issue considering if knowledge is universal. In my opinion, knowledge is universal because all the drivers anywhere in the world can understand the content and therefore be able to communicate fully without hesitation. The question that arises is that; do you know knowledge the same as I do, and if we speak different languages to express the same knowledge, can the knowledge we wish to express be different? In some languages, there are situations where there is no particular word to express ideas. This has occurred in French when we say “manger bien ou bien manger.” In French, this means eat healthy or eat a lot, but in English it means eat well or well eat. The direct translation does not make sense at all...

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Lexical Borrowing

...origin), welcomes foreign words, not homogenous lg like French (majority of expressions was taken from F.) reasons: lg feels a need for a new word; to pre-denote a special concept (Sputnik, gradually disappeared from lg; certain lg has a kind of prestigious position (matter of fashion, but overuse of English words; matter of political force); distinction of functional style (matter of development) – three synonymical expressions of diff. origin (anglo-saxon origin: home, French words (additional meanings): resindence, Latin words: domicile, Greek origin, etc.) layers of three origins : hunt/chase/pursue rise/mount/ascend ask/question (certain amount of intensity)/interrogate high tolerance in English; in French and in German – used to avoid it; in Czech – had to defend its position to German, Linguists tried to set certain rules for using words=re-establishion of Czech lg English changes pronunciation of borrowed words (E. is simply a germanic lg, but more Romans lg in vocabulary) the basic vocabulary=core vocabulary (be, have, do) is Anglo-Saxon, surrounding periphery of v. maybe borrowed (count a word each time that occurs) wave of new adoptions: swift adotion - in some periods in lg more words than usual are adopted, in the 13. century after the Norman conquest, natural mechanism!! self-regulated – if there are too many foreign words, number of them drops (závisí na lgs) King Jame´s Bibel: team of scholars of Oxford University used Anglo-Saxon´s words in......

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English Written Language

...The standardization of spelling is mainly due to dictionaries, that determine how a word should be spelled, pronounced and defined based on its usage, moreover, dictionaries must take the changes and differences into account. Writing speech differ form the oral speech, as it has the possibility to insert punctuation, however, nowadays, writing in order to reflect the oral patterns can be accepted under certain circumstances. Those circumstances are mostly related to the Internet and the netspeak (Crystal, 2001), in which the written type look more spoken than any other type. Netspeak is often criticized as a threat to the literacy of children, but it’s still spreading and has its own features ; tolerance for typos and misspelling, optional capitalization, use of abbreviations, use of emoticons, allegro speech. Printing words had an impact on people’s language acquisition, once people realize how a word is spelled, they automatically change its pronunciation from the former, incorrect one to the correct one, that is why pediatrician encourage literacy and exposure to books the earliest for...

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Words

...constitutes a "word" involves determining where one word ends and another word begins—in other words, identifying word boundaries. There are several ways to determine where the word boundaries of spoken language should be placed: Potential pause: A speaker is told to repeat a given sentence slowly, allowing for pauses. The speaker will tend to insert pauses at the word boundaries. However, this method is not foolproof: the speaker could easily break up polysyllabic words, or fail to separate two or more closely related words. Indivisibility: A speaker is told to say a sentence out loud, and then is told to say the sentence again with extra words added to it. Thus, I have lived in this village for ten years might become My family and I have lived in this little village for about ten or so years. These extra words will tend to be added in the word boundaries of the original sentence. However, some languages have infixes, which are put inside a word. Similarly, some have separable affixes; in the German sentence "Ich komme gut zu Hause an", the verb ankommen is separated. Phonetic boundaries: Some languages have particular rules of pronunciation that make it easy to spot where a word boundary should be. For example, in a language that regularly stresses the last syllable of a word, a word boundary is likely to fall after each stressed syllable. Another example can be seen in a language that has vowel harmony (like Turkish):[5] the vowels within a given word......

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Journey to the World of Words

...BASBAS, BEVERLY GARABILES BS Accountancy Journey to the World of Words “Not to know is bad, not to wish to know is worse.” We can relate the proverb above to the significance of knowing something. Something that is worthy to be learned and discovered. Something that takes a very important role in our daily intellectual intercourse. Something that you are actually using as part of your everyday lives but in the end of the day, we’re not even reminiscing all of those if they were used effectively or unconsciously hurt someone’s feelings. ---- “WORDS!” Every word that comes from our mouth is part of our personal and social responsibility as a human. So, with this great accountability we must consider ourselves to be an instrument in studying the meaning of words that we are exploiting every second. Should I say, we must give importance to SEMANTICS which focuses on the relations between signifiers such as words, phrases, signs and symbols and what they stand for or their denotation. The word semantics itself denotes a range of ideas, from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language to denote a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. When I was in high school, I had a hard time in choosing the appropriate word for my sentence from a couple of somewhat synonymous words. For me, this is not just an ordinary problem because I am chosen as the editor-in-chief of our school paper and often selected to be the......

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English Hard for Outsider?

...TECHNOLOGY MAKING THE WORLD SMALLER With television and the internet, more and more people are exposed to more and more language. Even just visiting a chatroom on the internet, there’ll be influence from diverse languages in the chatters’ usernames. Hollywood ensures that English is widespread through movies. Within individual countries, centralized television and expanded communication in general exert a moderating influence that counteracts the countries’ natural tendencies to diverge into multiple dialects. For example, if the United States were suddenly cut off from eachother and isolated, over a period of hundreds of years, the East Coast and West Coast would diverge from eachother linguistically until they were incomprehensible to eachother. But with technology as it is now, that isn’t going to happen. Instead, what dialect does exist, tends to slowly converge. LANGUAGES DYING OUT Some small languages are actually dying out, with younger generations using a more convenient lingua franca instead. In Ireland, for example, the state is doing whatever it can to preserve the Irish language, but the truth is English is used more and more. With smaller languages weakening, the trend is toward a smaller number of languages each with more market share. Of course, these sort of changes take place on the scale of hundreds or thousands of years. People generally don’t want to try learning every language in the world, because there are too many to learn. Imagine,......

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Reading and Viewing Guide

...READING AND VIEWING GUIDE Title: Cinderella | I think it means: It’s the name of the main protagonist in the story, it means “of the ashes” in French. This is because after Cinderella would finish her work, she would sit at the corner of the chimney where there were cinders and ashes. | Key Words and Phrases: 1.)“Cinderwench”2.) “There came thither the finest princess, the most beautiful ever was seen with mortal eyes; she showed us a thousand civilities, and gave us oranges and citrons.” | I think these words are included because…1.) “Cinderwench” is what Cinderella’s elder stepsister called her to mock her, cinder because she was dirty and wench because it means servant or a prostitute. 2.) This phrase was said by Cinderella’s stepsister to her and what’s ironic is that the “finest princess” she’s talking about is Cinderella. This shows that her stepsisters find her to be really attractive but are just jealous. | Big Ideas and Quotations:“When she got home she ran to seek out her godmother, and, after having thanked her, she said she could not but heartily wish she might go next day to the ball, because the King's son had desired her.” | I remember this because…This quote shows that Cinderella was indeed very special, since she impressed the Prince and he choose her over the several other girls at the ball. | Resolution: The Prince falls in love with Cinderella and marries her. | I think the Big Idea is…That there is hope for everyone and that the good......

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Gay Language

...quite a different language altogether? And were you not surprised that you could understand some of the words they were saying? Yes. It is gayspeak, that wonderful lingo, argot, or jargon, which Filipino gays in general seamlessly switch into when they are gathered together or most immediately when they are around other people in order perhaps to “cloak” their intimate conversations, the better to protect the “virgin” ears of those around them. Historically though, it is known as swardspeak, a word coinage in the 1970s attributed by Jose Javier Reyes to columnist and movie critic Nestor Torre. Reyes himself devoted a book on the subject titled Swardspeak: A Preliminary Study. No other term has replaced swardspeak in local usage since the 70s but Ronald Baytan (in his essay “Language, Sex, and Insults: Notes on Garcia and Remoto’s The Gay Dict”) opines that the term sward these days has become anachronistic, making it improper to call the language of the gay people as “swardspeak” preferring instead to term it gayspeak. Consciously or unconsciously, even straights or heterosexuals have peppered their vocabulary with words traceable to gayspeak. Mention the word anech (from “ano” or “what” in English with anesh, anik, anikla as varieties) to anyone in the metropolitan area and in all likelihood, the person being spoken to will reply as casually. There are also the familiar words chika, chuva, and lafang. Thanks or no thanks to media (depending on which side you’re in),......

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Vocabulary Instruction: Best Practices

...this poem as a reference to what he is sure will be his own death. However, as I think of this person being a professor would it be an irony that instead of being death it may talk about life as a teacher? For whom the bell tolls, it tolls for thee, not to remind us of death but to remind us of our service to Mankinde. Does that bell toll for our students to get to class or does that bell toll to remind us of the commitment we made when we decided to be teachers of those students. Now that I have your attention the following information has been asked of me to be considered as I explain my plan for vocabulary instruction. Considering the fact that Karen Bromley tells us in her article Nine Things a Teacher should Know about Word that the larger the students vocabulary , the better they will read and understand the text they are reading . She starts out by telling us that the English...

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Functional Areas of Business

...management and be creative and lead will be a successful manager. Planning, organizing, leading and [in academic writing, if this is a series, place a comma before the final conjunction (and)] organizing is the primary goal and functions of the manager. Henry Mintzberg wrote about and studied manager’s style came up with a very unique [Unclear. Unique means there is nothing like it--from the French word "un" (one). Something is unique or it is not. Terms like very, more, less, or slightly do not apply. Use something like "very unusual," "very distinctive," "very different," etc.] way of assessing the managerial roles. His first assessment discussed the interpersonal roles which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] involves interacting with others, the informational role was assessed by the manager giving and receiving information, being [Doctoral rule (but good advice for any academic writer)--If not a noun (as in "human being"), the word "Being" is hard to imagine; it means "existing." Try to rewrite this without using "being"--with action words like "attending," "working," "living," "experiencing," simply "as"--or even removing "being" completely] able to facilitate to his subordinates and the final role was the decisional role which [Use "that" for a restrictive phrase (or place a comma before "which")] allowed the manager to be able to [Wordiness: Remove "be able to"; the sentence will read more smoothly without it] make......

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Literacy Narrative

...when they learned to read and write. In fact, most people do not. I am one of those people that do not. So, this is not so much a story of “how” as much as it is a story of some recollections of my journey through literacy as a whole. From my first big kid book, to learning a new language, and everything in between. Not all of these recollections are necessarily positive ones, though. My father had a lot of negative influence on me when I was younger, and I believe he is the reason I am still not the greatest student. Once when I was in first grade, my class was taking our weekly spelling test. None of the words were particularly difficult, considering we were only in first grade. In fact, I specifically remember the word “pie” being one of the words. For whatever reason, though, I could not seem to keep up with my teacher as she called out the words. She would call out a word, and before I could finish writing, she had already called out the next, and the next, and the next. Eventually, being the cry baby I am, I started sobbing uncontrollably because I was sure I was going to fail. In the middle of the test! Once she realized I was crying, she turns to me and asks, “What’s wrong?” I felt way too embarrassed to tell her and the whole class that I could not keep up with them, so I ended up blurting out, “I just miss my dad.” My dad had been in and out of jail due to DUIs for most of my childhood, and this happened to be a time when he was in jail. I honestly did not......

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Figurative Language In The Veldt

...story Bradbury uses figurative language when he talks about the veldtland and “the hot straw smell of lion grass, the cool green smell of the hidden lake, the great rusty smell of animals, [and] the smell of dust like a red paprika in the hot air” (Bradbury 1). This provides the reader with an exceptionally striking idea of the exact feeling of standing in the veldt/nursery in that instant. The figurative language puts one in that moment while reading and keeps the reader’s mind active and engaged and their imagination flowing while reading the story. Another instance in the story where Bradbury uses figurative language is when describing the lions in the nursery stating, “the yellow of them was in your eye like the yellow of and exquisite French tapestry, the yellows of lions and summer grass, and the sound of matted lion lungs exhaling on the silent noontide, and the smell of meat from the panting, dripping mouths” (Bradbury 2). This quote paints an extremely vivid image. The description of the sound and smell and sound are so incredibly detailed that the reader has no question as to what Bradbury was intending when describing the lions. Another example of Bradbury’s impactful use of figurative language if found when describing the children, “cheeks like peppermint candy, eyes like bright blue agate marbles, a smell of ozone on their jumpers from their trip in the helicopter” (Bradbury 4). The preceding quote supplies the reader with an immensely detailed description of the......

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