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Francés. Gramática francesa
Autor: Ricardo Ruben FALLERI GHERBI

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Presentación del curso
El idioma francés (le français, la langue française) es una lengua romance hablada en todo el territorio de Francia metropolitana. Si te gusta el francés y quieres reforzar tu gramática este curso te será de gran ayuda. Aprende los artículo, sustantivo, adjetivo y muchas otras cosas que te serán de gran ayuda para tu aprendizajes en la gramática del idioma francés.

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1. Artículo indefinido y definido
El artículo indefinido sirve para situar una persona o un individuo o una cosa dentro de una categoría de personas o de cosas parecidas: Sylvie, c´est une fille. = Silvia es una niña. Sylvie, c´est une fille de troisième. = Silvia es una niña de tercero. Sylvie, c´est une fille du collège. = Silvia es una niña del colegio.

/=.... diferente Une fille /= Un garçon (Una niña /= Un niño) Des filles /= Des garçons (Unas niñas /= Unos niños). Maculin /= Féminin (Masculino /= Femenino) Singulier /= Pluriel (Singular /= Plural) EL ARTÍCULO DEFINIDO (L´article Défini)

IMPORTANTE: se emplea "l´" (l + ` : la letra ele más apóstrofe) delante de una palabra singular, masculina o femenina, que comienza con vocal o h muda. Esto se llama "l´élision" (Sacar la "a" o la "e" al artículo). Masculino: l´ami, l´homme = el amigo, el hombre. Femenino: l´année, l´heure = el año, la hora. El artículo definido permite: a) Distinguir una persona o una cosa de las otras: Sylvie, c´est la fille aux cheveux blonds. (Silvia es la niña de cabellos rubios). b) Hablar de una persona o de una cosa ya mencionada o conocida en la situación: Mets le livre dans l´armoire. (Pon el libro dentro del armario). c) Designar una categoría general de cosas o de personas: J´aime la viande et les légumes. (Me gusta la carne y las verduras). d) Designar una cosa o una persona única en su género: Le soleil (El sol)

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Le soleil (El sol) La langue française (La lengua francesa). e) Los nombres de países toman o llevan el artículo definido: La France (Francia). L´Italie (Italia). Le Portugal (Portugal). La Grèce (Grecia). Les États (Unis (USA o EEUU). L´Espagne. (España). IMPORTANTE: pero no va el artículo después de las preposiciones francesas "en" y "de" seguidas de los nombres de países femeninos: Aller en France = ir a Francia. Venir d´Espagne = venir de España. ATENCIÓN: no es igual, o no es lo mismo, con: Aller au Portugal = ir a Portugal. Venir du Chili = venir de Chile.

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2. Artículos contractos (Les Articles Contractés)
SINGULAR: (Singulier)

PLURAL: (Pluriel).

NOTAS IMPORTANTES: SINGULAR MASCULINO: "á" + "le" = "au" - La preposición francesa "à" + el artículo definido "le" hace "au" = en español "al" Aller au cinéma. = Ir al cine. - No se puede decir: aller à le cinéma, entonces "à" + "le", se reemplaza por "au" que es "al" en español. - La preposición francesa "de" + el artículo definido "le" hace "du" = en español "del". Venir du marché. = Venir del mercado. - No se puede decir: venir de le marché, o sea venir del mercado, "de" + "le", se Reemplaza por "du", que quiere decir en español "del". PLURAL MASCULINO Y FEMENINO: "aux" = "à" + "les" (a los, a las) - La preposición francesa "à" + el artículo definido plural "les" francés, se transforma en "AUX" (a los, a las). No se puede decir: "à les", se debe decir: "aux". Je donne un cahier aux garçons. (Yo doy un cuaderno a los niños). Je donne un cahier aux filles. (Yo doy un cuaderno a las niñas). "des" = "de" + "les" (de los, de las).

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- La preposición francesa "de" + el artículo definido plural "les" francés, se transforma en "des" (de los, de las), no se puede decir: "de les", se debe decir: "des". Je viens des États-Unis. (Yo vengo de los EEUU o USA). Je viens des Îles Caïman. (Yo vengo de las Islas Caimán).

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3. Artículos partitivos (Les Articles Partitifs)
Du, de la, de l´, des = son artículos partitivos. No tienen equivalente en español. Los artículos partitivos indican una parte de cierta cantidad, de cierta cosa. Los artículos partitivos se emplean para designar una parte de un conjunto que uno no puede contar o medir. (Es la preposición francesa "de" + los artículos definidos (le, la, l´, les): Je Je Je Je mange du pain. = Yo como pan. mange de la viande. = Yo como carne. bois de l´eau. = Yo tomo agua. mange des gâteaux. = Yo como tortas.

Masculino Singular: DU. Femenino Singular: DE LA. Masculino y Femenino Singular: DE L´ (Delante de vocal o h muda). Masculino y Femenino Plural: DES.

IMPORTANTE: Se emplea la preposición francesa "de" y no el artículo partitivo: a) Con la forma negativa: Je n´achète pas de pain. (En lugar de: DU) = Yo no compro pan. Je n´achète pas d´encre. (En lugar de: DE L´) = Yo no compro tinta. b) Con un adverbio de cantidad: Beaucoup /= Peu (Mucho /= Poco). J´ai beaucoup de pain. (En lugar de: DU). = Yo tengo mucho pan. J´ai peu de viande. (En lugar de: DE LA) = Yo tengo poca carne. c) Delante de un adjetivo calificativo: Je mange de belles pommes. = Yo como lindas manzanas. (Tendría que ir "DES", pero se pone "DE" porque "belles" lindas es un adjetivo calificativo).

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4. Sustantivo (Le Nom)
LOS SUSTANTIVOS PROPIOS (Les noms propres):

- Pierre (Pedro). - Sylvie (Silvia). - Monsieur Vincent (Señor Vincent). Son invariables, se escriben con una letra mayúscula. Los nombres de persona no llevan el artículo, salvo cuando designan el conjunto de una familia: Les Vincent = Los Vincent. (La familia Vincent). Mon ami Latour (Mi amigo Latour). Paris (Paris). La Bretagne (Bretaña). L´Italie (Italia). Les Legrand (Los Legrand).

LOS SUSTANTIVOS COMUNES (Les noms comuns):

- Une chaise (Una silla). - La tristesse (La tristeza). EL GÉNERO: MASCULINO O FEMENINO (Le genre: masculin ou féminin): En francés, cada sustantivo común, puede ser: - de género masculino (Masculin): Le Chat (El gato). Le train (El tren). - de género femenino (Féminin): La chienne (La perra) La chaise (La silla). Para los seres vivos, el sexo y el género, coinciden:

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- Une femme (Una mujer) - Un garçon (Un niño). - Une chatte (Una gata). El género de los otros sustantivos comunes varía. FORMACIÓN DEL FEMENINO DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS (La formation du féminin de noms): en general toman "e":

- En general no se dobla la consonante precedida de "i": Cousin = cousine. (Primo, prima).

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5. Sustantivo diferente

CIERTAS TERMINACIONES INDICAN EL GÉNERO: - Le chanteur; la chanteuse (El cantante, la cantante). - Le directeur; la directrice (El director, la directora). - Le chat; la chatte (El gato, la gata). Las terminaciones siguientes indican, por lo general, el género del sustantivo:

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FEMENINO: E: - Une adresse (Una dirección). - Une chaise (Una silla). - Une heure (Una hora). EXCEPCIONES: - Un livre (Un libro). - Un mueble (Un mueble). IE, UE, OUE: - L´Italie (Italia). - La rue (La calle). - La roue (La rueda). ÉE: - La rentrée (La vuelta, el regreso). - La mariée (La casada). ION: - La profession (La profesión). - La description (La descripción). TÉ: - La beauté (La belleza). - La liberté (La libertad). MASCULINO: Con sonido de vocal: Un Un Un Un Chat (Un gato) = chá : la t no se pronuncia. chien (Un perro). cousin (Un primo). gâteau (Una torta).

EXCEPCION: la moto (La moto), se pronuncia motó. C: Un sac (Una bolsa). F: Un oeuf (Un huevo). L: Le sel (La sal). P: Le rap (El rap). R: Le coeur (El corazón). EXCEPCIONES: La mer (El mar); la cour (El patio).

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AGE: - Le garage (El garage). MENT: - Le commencement (El comienzo). EL NÚMERO:SINGULAR O PLURAL - (LE NOMBRE: SINGULIER OU PLURIEL). FORMACIÓN DEL PLURAL DE LOS SUSTANTIVOS (LA FORMATION DU PLURIEL DES NOMS): En general llevan, o toman una " s " en el plural: - La table ->Les tables (La mesa, las mesas). - Le livre ->Les livres. (El libro, los libros). Los terminados en " s ", " x ", " z ", conservan esa terminación y no cambian en el plural. - Le bras -> Les bras. (El brazo, los brazos). - La croix -> Les croix. (La cruz, las cruces). - Le nez -> Les nez (La nariz, las narices). Los terminados en " AU ", toman una " x" en el plural: - L´étau -> Les étaux (El torno, los tornos). Los terminados en " EU ", toman una " x ", en el plural: - Un cheveu -> Des cheveux (Un cabello, Unos cabellos). EXCEPCIÓN: le pneu -> Les pneus (El neumático, los neumáticos). Los terminados en " OU ", toman una " x ", en el plural: Le Le Le Le Le Le genou -> Les genoux (La rodilla, las rodillas). bijou -> Les bijoux (La joya, las joyas). caillou -> Les cailloux (La piedrita, las piedritas). chou -> Les choux (El repollo, los repollos). hibou -> Les hiboux (El búho, los búhos). pou -> Les poux (El piojo, los piojos).

EXCEPCIONES: - Le cou -> Les cous (El cuello, los cuellos). - Le clou -> Les clous (El clavo, los clavos). - Le trou -> Les trous (El agujero, los agujeros). Los terminados en " EAU ", toman una " x ", en el plural: - Le bateau -> Les bateaux (El barco, los barcos). - Le tableau -> Les tableaux (El pizarrón, los pizarrones).

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- Le bureau -> Les bureaux (El escritorio, los escritorios). Los terminados en " AIL ", cambian por " AUX ", en el plural: Un travail -> Des travaux (Un trabajo, unos trabajos). Le vitrail -> Les vitraux (El vitral, los vitrales). Le corail -> Les coraux (El coral, los corales). L´émail -> Les Meaux (El esmalte, los esmaltes).

EXCEPCIONES: - Un rail -> Des rails (Un vía, unas vías). - Un chandail -> Des chandails (Un pullóver, unos pullóveres). Los terminados en " AL ", cambian por " AUX " en el plural: - Un journal -> Des journaux (Un diario, unos diarios). - Un signal -> Des signaux (Una señal, unas señales). - Le cheval -> Les chevaux (El caballo, los caballos). EXCEPCIONES: Le Le Le Le Le bal -> Les bals (El baile, los bailes). carnaval -> Les carnavals (El carnaval, los carnavales). chacal -> Les chacals (El chacal, los chacales). festival -> Les festivals (El festival, los festivales). récital -> Les récitals (El recital, los recitales).

En la escritura, los sustantivos comunes toman " s " en el plural: - La fête -> Les fêtes (La fiesta, las fiestas). - Le sac -> Les sacs (la bolsa, las bolsas; también la cartera, las carteras). - La fille -> les filles (La niña, las niñas). Pero algunos sustantivos, ya sea terminados en " S " o en " X ", son invariables: - Le fils -> Les fils (El hijo, los hijos). - La voix -> Les voix (La voz, las voces). ATENCIÓN: - Al hablar, el sustantivo no cambia su pronunciación, su forma de pronunciarse, y cambiará la pronunciación del artículo: Mon cousin -> Mes cousins (Mi primo, mis primos). (mon cuzén /= mé cuzén) Le copain -> Les copains (El compañero, los compañeros). (L copén /= lé copén) Une maison -> Des maisons (Una casa, unas casas). (In mezón /= dé mezón).

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Es el artículo, en el ejemplo anterior, quien determina el número: - Mon /= Mes (Mi /= mis) - Le /= Les (El /= los) - Une /= Des (una /= Unas).

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6. Plural de los sustantivos compuestos
Le pluriel des noms composés): 1. DOS SUSTANTIVOS (Deux noms): Los dos sustantivos toman la marca del plural: - Le chat-tigre -> Les chats-tigres. (El gato montés, los gatos montés - L´oiseau-mouche -> les oiseaux-mouches. (El colibrí, los colibríes). 2. UN SUSTANTIVO Y UN ADJETIVO (Un nom et un adjectif): El sustantivo y el adjetivo toman la marca del plural: - Le grand-père -> Les grands-péres. (El abuelo, los abuelos). - La basse-cour -> les basses-cours. (El corral, los corrales). 3. DOS SUSTANTIVOS SEPARADOS POR UNA PREPOSICIÓN (Deux noms séparés par une préposition): Varía sólo el primero. - L´arc-en-ciel -> Les arcs-en-ciel. (El arco iris, los arco iris). - Le cheuf-d´oeuvre -> Les cheufs-d´oeuvre. (La obra maestra, las obras maestras). 4. UN VERBO Y UN SUSTANTIVO (Un verbe et un nom): En este caso, varía solo el sustantivo. - Le taille-crayon -> Les taille-crayons. (El sacapuntas, los sacapuntas). - Un tire-bouchon -> Des tire-bouchons (El tirabuzón, los tirabuzones).

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7. Adjetivo calificativo (L´adjectif qualificatif)
El adjetivo calificativo concuerda en género y en número con el sustantivo con el pronombre: - La grande fille brune (La niña grande castaña). - Le petit garçon (El pequeño niño). - Elles sont grandes (Ellas son grandes). En la parte escrita: se agrega generalmente " E " al masculino para formar el femenino: petit -› petite. (Pequeño, pequeña). bon -› bonne (Bueno, buena). gros -› grosse (Gordo, gorda). heureux -› heureuse (Feliz, feliz). Beau, bel -› belle (Bello, bella). nouveau, nouvel -› nouvelle. (Nuevo, nueva). Un petit garçon /= Une petite fille. (Un pequeño niño/=una pequeña niña). Un beau garçon /= Une belle fille. (Un chico lindo/=una chica linda). Un bel enfant /= Une belle enfant. (Un bello niño/=una bella niña). Un vieil homme /= Une vieille femme. (Un hombre viejo/=una mujer vieja).

Bel, nouvel, vieil: se usan cuando el sustantivo masculino comienza con vocal o h muda. En el lenguaje oral o hablado: 1) No hay cambios. - Mince -› mince. (Delgado, delgada). Se pronuncia mense. - Bleu -› bleue. (Azul, azul). Se pronuncia blê, donde la e es nasal. 2) Se agrega un sonido de consonante: - Grand -› grande. (Grande, grande). - Blanc -› blanche. (Blanco, blanca). - Vert -› verte. (Verde, verde). - En el masculino "grand", la letra "d", no se pronuncia. - En el masculino "blanc", la letra "c", no se pronuncia. - En el masculino "vert", la letra "t", no se pronuncia. - Pero en el femenino "grande", se hace sonar la letra "d". - Pero en el femenino "blanche", se hace sonar la letra "ch". - Pero en el femenino "verte", se hace sonar la letra "t". 3) La vocal nasal, se transforma en vocal: - Italien -› Italienne. (Italiano, italiana). Italián, italiénne.

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- Bon -› bonne. (bueno, buena). 4) Algunas irregularidades: Delante de vocal o "h" muda. - Beau, bel -› Belle. (Bello, bella). - Nouveau, nouvel -› Nouvelle. (Nuevo, nueva). - Vieux, vieil -› Vieille. (Viejo, vieja). El adjetivo calificativo se pone, se coloca, por lo general, después del sustantivo, salvo: Grand, petit, jeune, vieux, beau, joli, bon, mauvais, (y sus femeninos). - Un beau vélo. (Una bella bicicleta). - Un bon gâteau. (Una buena torta). - Un jeune garçon. (Un joven niño). - Une vieille voiture americaine. (Un viejo coche americano). LA FORMACIÓN DEL FEMENINO DE LOS ADJETIVOS CALIFICATIVOS (La formation du féminin des adjectifs qualificatifs): En general agrega una "E" al masculino, por ejemplo: - Ver- Verte (Verde, verde). Los adjetivos calificativos terminados en "E" son invariables: - Rouge -> rouge. (Rojo, roja). - Jaune -> jaune. (Amarillo, amarilla). - Timide -> timide. (Tímido, tímida). Los terminados en "ER", hacen "SSE": - Gros -> grosse. (Gordo, gorda). - Bas -> basse. (Bajo, baja). EXCEPCIÓN: Gris -› grise. Los terminados en "L", hacen "LLE": - Exceptionnel -> exceptionnelle. (Excepcional, excepcional). Los terminados en "F", hacen "VE": - Neuf -› neuve. (Nuevo, nueva). - Sportif -› sportive. (Deportivo, deportiva). Los terminados en "ON", hacen "ONNE": - Bon -› bonne. (Bueno, buena). Los terminados en "EN", hacen "ENNE": - Ancien -› ancienne. (Antiguo, antigua).

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EXCEPCIÓN: Persan -› Persane. (Persa, persa). Los terminados en "T", hacen "ETTE": - Coquet -› coquette. (Coqueto, coqueta) - Net -› Nette. (Neto, neta). EXCEPCIONES: Complet -› complète. (Completo. Completa). Concret -› concrète. (Concreto, concreta). Discret -› discrète. (Discreto, discreta). Inquiet -› inquiète. (Inquieto, inquieta). Secret -› secrète. (Secreto, secreta).

Los terminados en "OU", hacen "OLLE": - Fou -› folle. (Loco, loca). Los terminados en "EUR", hacen "EUSE": - Menteur -› menteuse. (Mentiroso, mentirosa). EXCEPCIONES: Meilleur -› meilleure. (Mejor, mejor). Antérieur -› antérieure. (Anterior, anterior). Extérieur -› extérieure. (Exterior, exterior). Inférieur -› inférieure. (Inferior, inferior). Intérieur -› intérieure. (Interior, interior). Postérieur -› postérieure. (Posterior, posterior). Supérieur -› supérieure. (Superior, superior). Majeur -› majeure. (Mayor, mayor). Mineur -› mineure. (Menor, menor).

Los terminados en "C", hacen "CHE": - Blanc -› blanche. (Blanco, blanca). - Franc -› franche. (Franco, franca). Los terminados en "TEUR", hacen "TRICE": - Provocateur -› provocatrice. (Provocador, provocadora). - Protecteur -›protectrice. (Protector, protectora). - Moteur -› motrice. (Motriz, motriz) Los terminados en "EUX", hacen "EUSE": - Honteux -› honteuse. (Vergonzoso, vergonzosa). - Peureux -› peureuse. (Miedoso, miedosa). PARTICULARIDADES:

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Long -› longue. (Largo, larga) Frais -› fraîche. (Fresco, fresca) Vieux -› vieille. (Viejo, vieja). Gentil -› gentille. (Gentil, gentil). Mou -› molle. (Blando, blanda). Fou -› folle. (Loco, loca). Beau -› belle. (Bello, bella). Nouveau -› nouvelle. (Nuevo, nueva). Faux -› fausse. (Falso, falsa). Roux - rousse. (Pelirrojo, pelirroja). Doux -› douce. (Dulce, dulce). Public -› publique. (Público, pública).

FORMACIÓN DEL PLURAL DE LOS ADJETIVOS CALIFICATIVOS (Formation du pluriel des adjectifs qualificatifs): En general agregan " S ", al masculino: - Vert -› Verts. Los terminados en " S ", " X ", no cambian en el plural: - Gris -› gris. - Roux -› roux. Los terminados en " EAU ", " EU ", toman " X ": - Beau -› beaux (Bello, bellos). - Hébreu -› Hébreux (Hebreo, Hebreos). EXCEPCION: - Bleu -› bleus (Azul, azul). Los terminados en " AL ", hacen " AUX ": - Amical -› amicaux (Amigable, amigables). EXCEPCIONES: Austral -› australs (Austral, australes) Boréal -› boréals (Boreal, boreales). Fatal -› fatals (Fatal, fatales). Final -› finals (Final, finales). Glacial -› glacials (Glacial, glaciales). Natal -› natals (Natal, natales). Naval -› navals (Naval, navales).

CONCORDANCIA DEL ADJETIVO CALIFICATIVO (L´accord de l´adjectif qualificatif): El adjetivo calificativo concuerda en género (masculino o femenino) y en número (singular o plural) con el sustantivo al cual califica:

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Un bon garçon = un buen niño. Une bonne fille = una buena niña. De bons garçons = unos buenos niños. De bonnes filles = unas buenas niñas.

ATENCIÓN: A. Con dos sustantivos del mismo género: el adjetivo concuerda en género con los dos sustantivos y se pone al plural: - Une mère et une fille contentes. (Una madre y una hija contentas) B. Con dos sustantivos de géneros diferentes: el adjetivo se pone en masculino plural: - Une mère et un fils contents. (Una madre y un hijo contentos).

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8. Significación de los sustantivos calificativos
LE COMPARATIF, LA COMPARAISON (El comparativo, la comparación): - COMPARATIVO DE SUPERIORIDAD: "plus ... que" (Más ... que): - Madame Dubois est plus riche que Madame Vincent. (La sra Dubois es más rica que la sra Vincent). - COMPARATIVO DE IGUALDAD: "aussi ... que" (Tan ... como): - Monsieur Dubois est aussi riche que Monsieur Vincent. (El sr Dubois es tan rico como el sr Vincent). - COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD: "moins ... que" (Menos ... que): - Madame Vincent est moins riche que Madame Dubois. (La sra Vincent es menos rica que la sra Dubois). CON LOS VERBOS: - Il mange plus que toi = él come más que tú. - Il mange autant que toi = él como tanto como tú. - Il mange moins que toi = él como menos que tú. CON LOS SUSTANTIVOS: - Ils ont plus d´argent que vous = Ellos tienen más dinero que Uds. - Ils ont autant d´argent que vous = Ellos tienen tanto dinero como Uds. - Ils ont moins d´argent que vous = Ellos tienen menos dinero que Uds. COMPARATIVOS IRREGULARES: - Bon (Adjetivo) = meilleur. - Bien (Adverbe) = mieux. EL SUPERLATIVO: - Madame Dubois est très riche. = La sra Dubois es muy rica. SUPERLATIVO RELATIVO (Le superlatif relatif): - Monsieur Duval est le plus riche de sa familla. (El sr Duval es el más rico de su familia). - Madame Duval est la plus riche de sa famille. (La sra Duval es la más rica de su familia). - Monsieur et Madame Duval sont les plus riche de sa familla. (El sr y la sra Duval son los más ricos de su familia).

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- Monsieur Martin est le moins riche de sa famille. (El sr Martín es el menos rico de su familia). - Madame Martín est la moins riche de sa famille. (La sra Martín es la menos rica de su familia). - Monsieur et Madame Martin sont les moins riche de sa famille. (El sr y la sra Martín son los menos ricos de su familia). CON LOS ADJETIVOS Y LOS ADVERBIOS: - Ils sont les moins rapides de tous les concurrents. (Ellos son los menos rápidos de todos los concurrentes). - Ils sont les plus rapides de tous les concurrents. (Ellos son los más rápidos de todos los concurrentes).

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9. Adjetivos posesivos (Les adjectifs possessifs)
Cambian según el poseedor (1ª, 2ª ó 3ª persona del singular o del plural): Ce Ce Ce Ce sont sont sont sont mes livres. = Son mis libros. tes parents. = Son tus padres. ses amis. = Son sus amigos. leurs filles. = Son sus hijas.

Concuerdan en género y número con el sustantivo que los sigue (no con el poseedor).

IMPORTANTE: mon, ton, son van cuando lo que sigue es un sustantivo Femenino que comienza por vocal: - TON amie (Tu amiga) = no se puede decir "ta amie".

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10. Adjetivos demostrativos (Les adjectifs démonstratifs)

IMPORTANTE: En el masculino singular, se reemplaza "CE" por "CET" delante de un sustantivo que comienza por vocal o h muda: IMPORTANTE: En el masculino singular, se reemplaza "CE" por "CET" delante de un sustantivo que comienza por vocal o h muda: - Cet élève = este alumno. - Cet homme = este hombre. Los adjetivos demostrativos concuerdan en género y en número con el sustantivo que les sigue. Los adjetivos sirven para designar: - Una cosa o una persona que se muestra: Prenez ce livre, cet ordinateur et ces feuilles. (Tomen este libro, esta PC y estas hojas). - Una cosa o una persona que viene de ser mencionada: Je ne connais pas cette ville. (Yo no conozco esta ciudad).

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11. Cuantificadores (Les quantificateurs)
Son todas las palabras que expresan la cantidad o el número de manera precisa o aproximada (indefinida). CANTIDAD CERO: -"Ne ... pas de" + sustantivo = Elle n´a pas de frère. (Ella no tiene hermaNo). CANTIDAD APROXIMADA: -"Peu de" + sustantivo singular o plural (Poco de) = Il y a peu d´eau dans le ver. (Hay poco agua en el vaso). Il y a peu d´élèves dans la classe. (Hay pocos alumnos en la clase). -"Assez de" + sustantivo singular o plural (Bastante de) = Il y a assez d´eau dans le ver. (Hay bastante agua en el vaso). Il y a assez d´élèves dans la classe. (Hay bastantes alumnos en la clase). -"Beaucoup de" + sustantivo singular o plural (Mucho de) = Il y a beaucoup de gâteaux sur la table. (Hay muchas tortas sobre la mesa). -"Trop de" + sustantivo singular o plural (Demasiado de) = Tu as invité peu d´amis et trop de gens nouveaux. (Tú invitaste pocos amigos y demasiada gente nueva). "QUELQUES" Y "PLUSIEURS" (Algunos, varios): -Indican un pequeño número. -Il y a vuelques élèves dans la cour. (Hay algunos alumnos en el patio). -Plusieurs personnes sont montées dans le bus. (Varias personas subieron al autobús) = más de tres. CANTIDAD PRECISA: -Tout (Toute, tous, toutes) = todo, toda, todos, todas. -Il a mangé toute la tarte! (Él se comió toda la tarta!). -Il a visité tous les monuments de la ville. (Él visitó todos los monumentos de la ciudad). LOS ADJETIVOS NUMERALES: -Pueden combinarse con los artículos definidos o los adjetivos posesivos y

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-Pueden combinarse con los artículos definidos o los adjetivos posesivos y y los adjetivos demostrativos. -Donez-moi ces deux livres, s´il vous plaît. (Deme estos dos libros, por favor). LAS UNIDADES DE MEDIDA (Les unités de mesure): -Achète trois bouteilles de jus de fruits, et un kilo de pommes de terre. (Compra tres botellas de jugo de frutas y un kilo de papas). LOS NÚMEROS CARDINALES (Les numéros cardinaux), o también son adjetivos numerales cardinales. -Son invariables, salvo: "UN", "UNE": -1 = un -2 = deux -3 = trois -4 = quatre -5 = cinq -6 = six -7 = sept -8 = huit -9 = neuf -10 = dix -11 = onze -12 = douze -13 = treize -14 = quatorze -15 = quinze -16 = seize -17 = dix-sept -18 = dix-huit -19 = dix-neuf -2 0 = v i n g t -21 = vingt et un -2 2 = v i n g t - de u x -30 = treinte -31 = treinte et un -40 = quarante -41 = quarante et un -50 = cinquante -51 = cinquante et un -60 = soixante -61 = soixante et un -70 = soixante-dix -71 = soixante et onze -72 = soixante-douze -73 = soixante-treize -74 = soixante-quatorze -75 = soixante-quinze -76 = soixante-seize.

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-77 = soixante-dix-sept -78 = soixante-dix-huit -79 = soixante-dix-neuf -80 = quatre-vingts -81 = quatre-vingt et un -82 = quatre-vingt-deux -90 = quatre-vingt-dix -91 = quatre vingt et onze -92 = quatre-vingt-douze. - 100 = cent

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12. Números ordinales
(Les números ordinaux) o también llamados adjetivos numerales ordinales: Se agrega la terminación "ième" al número cardinal a partir del número Dos (2): - Deux + ième = deuxième. (segundo/a) - Trois + ième = troisième (tercero/a). Salvo: premier / première = de uno ( primero/a) Todos los adjetivos numerales cardinales terminados por una "E", pierden esta "E", cuando se les agrega la terminación "Ième": - Quatre = quatrième (4to.) - Mille = millième (1000º) EXCEPCIONES: - 5 = cinq, hace cinquième (Agrega una "U" para que se pueda pronunciar) - 9 = neuf, hace neuvième (La "F" se convierte en "V" corta).

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13. Adjetivos indefinidos
(Les adjectifs indéfinis): Los adjetivos indefinidos agregan al sustantivo una idea vaga, indefinida. - AUCUN: aucun coiffeur n´est silencieux. (Ningún peluquero es silencioso) - AUCUNE: aucune brosse à cheveux n´est sale. (Ningún cepillo de cabello está sucio). MUY IMPORTANTE: con los adjetivos indefinidos (AUCUN, AUCUNE), en la forma negativa, sólo se emplea la partícula "NE" de la negación. - AUTRE: Voilà un autre magasin. (He allá otro negocio). - AUTRE: C´est une autre parfumerie. (Esta es otra perfumería). - CERTAINS: Certains parfums son français. (Ciertos perfumes son franceses). - CERTAINES: Certaines crèmes de beauté sont nuisibles. (Ciertas cremas de belleza son perjudiciales. - CHAQUE: Chaque coiffeur a sa clièntele. (Cada peluquero tiene su clientela). - CHAQUE: Chaque femme a son parfum. (Cada mujer tiene su perfume). - PLUSIEURS: Plusieurs flacons ont été achetés. (Varios frascos han sido comPrados). - PLUSIEURS: Tu as plusieurs biscuits. (Tu tienes varios bizcochos). - TOUS: Tous ces peignes sont en plastique. (Todos estos peines son de plástico). - TOUTES: Toutes les roses sont parfumées. (Todas las rosas son perfumadas). - QUELQUES: Je vois quelques peignes qui me plaisent. (Yo veo algunos peines que me gustan). - QUELCONQUE: Donez-moi une lime quelconque. (Deme una lima cualquiera). Autor: Ricardo Ruben FALLERI GHERBI Prof. de Francés, Ecólogo Social. Neuquén Capital, Patagonia Argentina. Email: falleri-gherbi@yahoo.fr fallerigherbi@yahoo.com.ar

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