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Friedman

In: Business and Management

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Physiology of Blood

Components, Characteristics, Functions of Blood Major Components of Blood 1. Formed elements - the actual cellular components of blood (special connective tissue) a.erythrocytes - red blood cells b.leukocytes - white blood cells c.platelets - cell fragments for clotting 2. Blood plasma - complex non-cellular fluid surrounding formed elements; protein & electrolytes.

Separation of Components in a Centrifuge VOLUME LAYER clear/yellowish PLASMA 55% top thin/whitish buffy coat proerythroblast ->early (basophilic) erythroblast ->late (polychromatophilic) erythroblast ->(hemoglobin) normoblast -> (nucleus ejected when enough hemoglobin)reticulocyte -> (retaining some endoplasmic reticulum)

ERYTHROCYTE life span: hemocytoblast -> reticulocyte 3-5 DAYS reticulocyte -> ERYTHROCYTE 2 DAYS (in blood)
ERYTHROCYTE lifespan 100-120 DAYS
(primarily destroyed by macrophages in the spleen)

3. Regulation of Erythropoiesis a. hormonal controls - erythropoietin is the hormone that stimulates RBC production DECREASED oxygen level in blood causes KIDNEYS to increase release of erythropoietin 1. Less RBCs from bleeding 2. Less RBCs from excess RBC destruction 3. Low oxygen levels (high altitude, illness) 4. Increased oxygen demand (exercise)

Eythropoietin now genetically engineered and synthesized to stimulate erythropoisis
Testosterone can also mildly stimulate production of RBCs in humans b. Iron - essential for hemoglobin to carry oxygen i. 65% of Fe in body is in hemoglobin ii. liver and spleen store...

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