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Friendly, Comunicable

In: Philosophy and Psychology

Submitted By Magreth
Words 1772
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Stilurile funcționale ale limbii române
1.Stilul colocvial
Stilul colocvial (familiar) se utilizeaza in sfera relatiilor de familie, in viata de zi cu zi.
CUPRINDE (sfera de utilizare) - relaţii interpersonale în planul vieţii cotidiene.
CARACTERISTICI:
• conform specificului discursului: discurs ficţional/ stil artistic, discurs nonficţional/ stil ştiinţific; • recurge la elemente suprasegmentale (ton, gestică, mimică); • are o mare încărcătură afectivă; • regulile gramaticale pot fi încălcate; • pot fi folosite elemente de argou sau jargon; • sunt folosite particularităţi regionale sau socio-profesionale; • se realizeaza dezvoltarea spontana, neintentionata a limbii. • un anume grad de afectivitate; • folosirea unor formule de adresare, pentru implicarea ascultatorului; • utilizarea mijloacelor non-verbale; oscilare intre economie si abundenta in exprimare. Economia se manifesta prin intrebuintarea cliseelor lingvistice, a abrevierilor de tot felul, dar mai ales prin elipsa, ca urmare a vorbirii dialogate, precum si prin mijloace extralingvistice (mimica, gestica) care permit intreruperea comunicarii, restul fiind sugerat. Abundenta in exprimare este materializata prin repetitie, prin utilizarea zicalelor, proverbelor, locutiunilor si expresiilor, prin evitarea cuvintelor abstracte care sunt substituite prin perifraze. • prezenta unor termeni regionali sau chiar argotici; • folosirea diminutivelor, augmentativelor, substantivelor in vocativ sau a verbelor la imperativ; • simplitate, degajare si naturalete. • conform relaţiei E-R (beneficiar) Emiţătorul poate fi specializat sau nespecializat. Receptorul poate fi şi el specializat sau nespecializat. In cadrul acestui stil, relaţia emiţător-receptor poate fi şi de rudenie. • conform efectului mesajului Acord Identificare Internalizare • conform funcţiei mesajului (scop): Informare Educare Divertisment Publicitar • conform încărcăturii emoţionale a mesajului Emoţional Persuasiv Manipulant Prohibitiv Critic Polemic CALITĂŢILE GENERALE ALE STILULUI • Claritate • Proprietate • Corectitudine • Precizia • Puritatea
PARTICULARITĂŢI LINGVISTICE
Lexicale: Argou; Jargon;Neologisme la moda; Cuvinte tipice unor graiuri
Morfo-sintactice: Pronume, adjective, adverbe nehotarate. Aproximari prin numerale si substantive. Pronume si verbe cu specific regional; enunturi fragmentate. Izolari, inversiuni, elipse. Digresiuni, paranteze.
Stilistice: Diminutive. Argumentative. Cuvinte cu sens peiorativ. Superlative expresive. Vocative, interjectii,imperative. Zicale.
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Exemplu :

Iubite Domnule Slavici,

Prin poşta de astăzi, am trimis o scrisoare D-lui librariu Socec, poftindu-l să-mi răspundă dacă binevoieşte a piimi în desfacere cărţi didactice de ale noastre: Metodă nouă, învăţătorul copiilor, Regulile limbei române de
Maiorescu etc, dându-i de la mie înainte, rabat de 35%.
Noi am avea plăcere să facem şi această negustorie (deşi nu-i vreo pricopseală), gândindu-ne la mulţimea ce s-ar putea trece; mai ales că chiar acum suntem la corectura coalei I, ediţia XVI, şi am putea trage cu înlesnire un număr şi mai mare de exemplare.
Vă rog dar, în puterea prieteşugului, dragă D-le Slavici, abateţi-vă în treacăt pe la Socec, intraţi în vorbă cu el despre această afacere, stăruiţi să ne răspundă ori da, ori ba şi totodată comunicaţi-mi şi Dv. rezultatul.
Vă salut cu dragă inimă!
Salutări şi sărutări din parte-mi D-lor Eminescu, Nica, Gaster.

I. Creangă

N.B. Acum un an am vorbit cu Socec chiar eu şi ne-a lăsat cu 40%- Poate să lese cu 35%. în sfârşit, ori aşa, ori aşa; asta spre ştiinţa D-voastre.
Marfa, ce-i drept, e prostuţă; dar am văzut şi mai proastă vărizăndu-se la dânsul, dacă are noroc...
IC. (LE. Torouţiu, Studii şi documente literare)

2.Stilul oficial (juridic-administrativ)
A. STILUL JURIDIC

CUPRINDE: domeniul legislativ (articole de lege, Constituţia, Codul penal, Codul muncii etc), texte elaborate de organul judiciar.
CARACTERISTICI ALE STILULUI:
-funcţie referenţială;
-enunţuri cu formă impersonală
-conţinut normativ;
-enunţuri clare, lipsite de ambiguitate;
-folosirea unui inventar lexical cu termeni clar definiţi;
-folosirea clişeelor formale;
-utilizarea unor clişee care indică atitudinea necesară (se completează cu majuscule, se scrie numai în chenarul albastru, se va completa, se scrie cu litere de tipar etc);
-respectă proprietatea termenilor;
-foloseşte terminologia de specialitate;
-foloseşte neologisme;
-în raport cu realitatea, mesajul este preponderent denotativ;
-conform relaţiei E-R (emitator-receptor)beneficiar. Emiţător - specializat, adică organul legislativ; în acest tip de text, emiţătorul dă receptorului instrucţiuni în legătură cu modul în care trebuie înţeles textul. Instrucţiunile sunt realizate prin mijloace lexicale (trebuie, e obligatoriu, e interzis) sau prin mijloace formale (art. 1,2). Receptorul este de obicei specializat - cel care trebuie să aplice legea, dar şi nespecializat - cel care vrea să cunoască legea.
-conform efectului mesajului: Acord, fiindcă autorii sunt persoane credi-tabile în domeniul juridic. Emiţătorul poate controla efectul mesajului asupra receptorului (tip de discurs unde funcţia perlocuţionară este controlabilă).
-conform funcţiei mesajului: informare, educare.
-conform încărcăturii emoţionale a mesajului: neutru, prohibitiv.
PARTICULARITĂŢI LINGVISTICE
Lexicale:terminologie specifica Morfologice:substantive provenite din infinitive lungi; -Substantive abstracte; -Verbul "a trebui", verbul "a putea"; -Folosirea infinitivului cu valoare de imperativ; -Verbe la diateza reflexiv-pasiva, preferinta pentru anumite verbe, locutiuni si expresii; -Forme impersonale; -Expresii verbale impersonale. Sintactice:Coordonare sisubordonare; - constructii infinitivale; -fraze coordonate; Stilistice:clisee; -elipsa, verbele copulative; -fara figuri de stil si digresiuni.

B. STILUL ADMINISTRATIV

CUPRINDE: domeniul legislativ, administrativ, texte elaborate de organul administrativ.
CARACTERISTICI ALE STILULUI:
• enunţuri cu formă impersonală
• conţinut normativ
• enunţuri clare, lipsite de ambiguitate
• inventar lexical cu termeni clar definiţi
• prezenţa clişeelor
• respectă proprietatea termenilor
• foloseşte terminologia de specialitate
• are un număr mai mare de formule fixe decât stilul juridic (cerere, telegramă etc.)
• obiectiv şi impersonal
• accesibil, clar şi precis
• conform relaţiei E-R beneficiar. Emiţător - specializat adică organul legislativ. Receptorul este de obicei specializat - cel care trebuie să aplice legea.
• conform efectului mesajului: Acord, fiindcă autorii sunt instituţii creditabile în domeniul administrativ, (act oficial)
Notă! în cazul cererii, scrisorii oficiale, telegramei, efectul mesajului vizează acordul/ dezacordul/ aprobare/ dezaprobare/ respingere/ informare.
• conform scopului: funcţie conativă.
• conform încărcăturii emoţionale a mesajului: neutru, prohibitiv.
PARTICULARITĂŢI LINGVISTICE
Lexicale:Terminologie specifică: adeverinţă, adresă, cerere, certificat, domiciliu, dosar indemnizaţie
Morfologice:substantive provenite din infinitive lungi; -Verbul "a trebui", verbul "a putea"; -Folosirea infinitivului cu valoare de imperativ; -Verbe la diateza reflexiv-pasiva, preferinta pentru anumite verbe, locutiuni si expresii; -Forme impersonale; -Expresii verbale impersonale.
Sintactice: - constructii infinitivale; -fraze coordonate;
Stilistice -fara figuri de stil

3.Stilul publicistic
Stilul publicistic este propriu ziarelor si revistelor destinate marelui public; este stilul prin care publicul este informat, influentat si mobilizat intr-o anumita directie in legatura cu evenimentele sociale si politice, economice, artistice etc. Modalitatile de comunicare sunt: monologul scris (in presa si publicatii), monologul oral (la radio si televiziune), dialogul oral (dezbaterile publice), dialogul scris (interviuri consemnate scris);
ARTICOLUL, CRONICA, REPORTAJUL, FOILETONUL, INTERVIUL, MASA ROTUNDA, STIREA, ANUNTUL PUBLICITAR
CARACTERISTICI ALE STILULUI 1. are funcţie de mediatizare a evenimentelor; 2. conţine informaţii economice, politice, sociale; 3. influenţează opinia publică (discurs persuasiv); 4. în conformitate cu strategiile persuasive, discursul se poate adresa raţiunii sau afectivităţii; 5. strategia persuasivă se bazează pe argumente: A.persuasiunea adresată raţiunii aduce argumente de specialitate, de tip cauză-efect; (cauze-situaţie de analizat şi/ sau problemă-soluţii-rezultate/ modalităţi de aplicare a soluţiilor); B.persuasiunea adresată afectivităţii aduce argumente de popularitate, superioritatea unor produse în raport cu altele similare, mărturia unor beneficiari ai produsului, tradiţie, grija faţă de destinatar. 6. dimensiunea persuasivă ţine de publicitar; 7. are funcţie conativă; 8. exprimă atitudini; 9. orientat spre maximă accesibilitate şi actualitate. 10. utilizarea limbii literare, dar si a unor formulari tipice limbajului cotidian; 11. receptivitatea la termenii ce denumesc notiuni noi ( neologisme ), preocuparea pentru inovatia lingvistica (creatii lexicale proprii), utilizarea unor procedee menite a starni curiozitatea cititorilor; titluri eliptice, adeseori formate dintr-un singur cuvant, constructii retorice (repetitii, interogatii, enumeratii, exclamatii etc.), utilizarea larga a sinonimelor; tendintele de aglomerare sintactica; tendinta eliminarii conjunctiilor copulative . 12. utilizarea unor mijloace menite sa atraga publicul (exclamatii, grafice, interogatii, imagini etc)
Notă!
1. Unele forme se apropie de stilul colocvial, artistic sau ştiinţific, prin faptul că îmbină informaţia cu o prezentare/ comentare a acesteia, ceea ce, uneori, presupune şi o anumită implicare subiectivă a autorului. 2. Conţinutul reflectă realitatea imediată şi este completat cu mijloace extralingvistice de tipul: fotografie, caricatură, hartă, schemă, statistică, tabel.
PARTICULARIĂŢI LINGVISTICE
Lexicale: Este evitat limbajul profesional (el se foloseşte în publicaţiile de specialitate). Termenii noi sunt explicaţi prin analogie: raporturi de asemănare/ diferenţiere stabilite între două sau mai multe obiecte, fenomene, fiinţe etc. Utilizeaza titluri socante pentru a atrage atentia, pentru acoperirea subiectului sau pentru oreferire nemijlocita la continut.
Morfologice:Foloseşte preponderent diateza activă
Sintactice: Construit cu propoziţii enunţiative cât mai accesibile şi mai simple. Formulări eliptice care să impresioneze şi să atragă atenţia.
Stilistice: Detaliile sunt precise şi elocvente. Stilul cel mai sensibil la inovaţie. Se utilizeaza uneoriprocedee artistice (asemanatoare cu stilul beletristic).

4.Stilul artistic (beletristic)
Stilul beletristic are drept caracteristica fundamentala functia poetica a limbajului (expresiva, sugestiva); (artistic) se foloseste in operele literare.
CUPRINDE: operele literare în proză, versuri şi operele dramatice; tot aici pot fi incluse eseurile, jurnalele, memoriile, amintirile.
CARACTERISTICI:
1. libertatea pe care autorul şi-o poate lua în raport cu normele limbii literare; 2. contrastul dintre sensul denotativ şi sensul conotativ al cuvintelor (în special în poezie, prin modul neobişnuit în care se folosesc cuvintele); 3. caracterul individualizat al stilului; 4. unicitate şi inovarea expresiei; 5. bogăţie lexicală - din punct de vedere statistic; 6. sensuri multiple ale aceluiaşi cuvânt; 7. înglobează elemente din toate stilurile funcţionale, dar şi din afara limbii literare (arhaisme, regionalisme, elemente de argou, elemente de jargon); 8. mesajul are funcţie poetică, centrată asupra lui însuşi, asigurându-i acestuia o structură care îl face perceptibil la nivelul formei şi adesea uşor de fixat în memorie. Prin funcţia poetică, un mesaj nu mai e un simplu instrument, un vehicul pentru informaţie, ci un text interesant în sine: plăcut, frumos, obsedant, amuzant etc. Pregnanţa mesajului e produsă de simetrii, repetiţii, rime, ritm, sensuri figurate etc. Funcţia poetică se manifestă desigur în poezie, dar nu numai în ea; e prezentă în vorbirea curentă, în expresii şi locuţiuni populare, în sloganuri, proverbe etc. 9. folosirea termenilor cu sens figurat ca si a celora care, prin anumite calitati, trezesc in constiinta cititorilor imagini plastice, emotii, sentimente; 10. o mare complexitate, data fiind diversitatea operelor literare cat si faptul ca fiecare autor isi are propriul stil; 11. bogatia elementelor lexicale (cuvinte din fondul principal lexical, termeni regionali, arhaici, neologisme, termeni de jargon sau argou etc); 12. extinderea semantica prin utilizarea sinonimiei si a polisemiei unor termeni; 13. cuvintele sunt utilizate cu functia lor conotativa; 14. relieful enuntului poate fi intarit chiar si prin abaterea de la uzul curent al limbii.
CALITĂŢILE GENERALE ALE STILULUI: 1. Claritate: exprimarea clară a gândurilor şi a sentimentelor. 2. Proprietăţi: utilizarea mijloacelor lingvistice adecvate pentru exprimarea gândurilor şi sentimentelor. 3. Corectitudine: respectarea normelor limbii în organizarea comunicării. 4. Precizia: utilizarea riguroasă a termenilor în organizarea enunţurilor. 5. Puritatea: utilizarea mijloacelor lingvistice admise de limba literară.
PARTICULARITĂŢI LINGVISTICE
Lexicale: Polisemantism; Sensul conotativ; Varietate lexicală
Morfologice: Valori expresive ale părţilor de vorbire; Mărcile subiectivităţii
Sintactice: Diversitatea raporturilor de subordonare; Inversiuni, dislocări topice
Stilistice: Prezenţa procedeelor artistice
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Exemplu de text artistic (beletristic)

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