Premium Essay

Frog Disertation

In: Science

Submitted By californiakki
Words 1385
Pages 6
Reyes, Charles Jourdan F. January 14, 2013
V BS Biology Bi183.1 Section A

Exercise 1: Baseline Data

Figure 1. Force (N), ECG (mV) and heart rate (bpm) of the pithed frog.

Figure 2. Force (N) per unit time (s) of the pithed frog.

Figure 3. ECG (mV) per unit time (s) of the pithed frog.

Table 1. Time between QRS and the start of ventricular contraction(s).

1. Observe the heart and describe its behavior. Is this behavior consistent with what is shown in the data above?
Yes. The heart of the frog rhythmically contracts and relaxes. This behavior is supported by the general fluctuations observed force values and the consistent patterns of the ECG occurring in regular intervals.

2. Explain the basis for the delay between the atrial and ventricular contractions.
The said delay is mainly caused by the A-V node and its adjacent conductive fibers, causing an overall delay of 0.13 second (Guyton and Hall 2006). Conduction in the transitional, nodal, and A-V bundles is dampened by the decreasing number of gap junctions along the pathway of conduction, creating great resistance against the conduction of excitatory ions from one fiber to another. This ensures that the atria completely empty blood into the ventricles before ventricular contraction occurs.
3. Describe the relationship between the ECG QRS complex and the beginning of ventricular contraction. What is the physiological significance of this relationship?
A typical electrocardiogram normally exhibits P, Q, R, S, and T waves, all of which represent electrical voltages produced by the heart. The QRS waves occur as a result of the electrical depolarization of the right and left ventricles, an event that triggers ventricular contraction and the subsequent rise in ventricular pressure. This complex is used to determine the axis of the ECG (Guyton and...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...Bizarre extinct frog brought back to life March 16, 2013, 10:55 am By environment reporter Sarah Clarke ABC Imagine a frog that can swallow its eggs, brood its young in its stomach and give birth through its mouth. The gastric brooding frog existed 30 years ago, but the extraordinary amphibian is now extinct. In a world first, a team of Australian scientists has taken the first major step in bringing it back to life. They have successfully reactivated its DNA and produced an embryo. Professor Mike Archer from the University of New South Wales is part of the team, which also includes researchers from the University of Newcastle. He says the amphibian was no ordinary frog. "In the stomach these eggs went on to develop into tadpoles and the tadpoles then went on to develop into little frogs," he told ABC radio's AM program. "And like any pregnant mum, when you have little babies rattling away in your stomach saying, 'let me out', she would then open her mouth and out would pop little frogs. "The first people that saw that were aghast. By the time anybody got excited about it, suddenly it was extinct. "So that's certainly one of the driving reasons why this would be a focal animal for seeing if we can de-extinct this amazing frog." That is exactly what a team of Australian scientists is doing. After locating a few carcases stored in a deep freezer, they have been able to recover tissue from the gastric brooding frog. Using a laboratory technique known as somatic cell nuclear......

Words: 591 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Frogs vs Tods

...Frogs vs. Toads Frogs and toads are “small, tailless animal” that belongs to the amphibian class. (Forester 536 & Gibbons 303) Everyone thinks that frogs and toads are different from one another but in fact “there is no clear distinction between” them (Burnie & Wilson 440). Most people find it very difficult to differentiate between a frog and a toad that they often mix them up. Their physical features are very much alike but they are different on the basis of anatomy and habitat. When you see a creature hopping along the side of the creek, can you tell if it’s a frog or a toad? Frogs are very unique because “some frogs have colorful markings” (Forester 536). While as toads are marked in a “drab shades of brown, tan, gray, or black that serves as camouflage” (Campbell 217). Besides their markings, “almost all frogs have the same basic body structure” (Forester 536). Frogs have “long, powerful hind legs, which they use for jumping” (Forester 536). “Frogs can leap long distances, but also use their limbs to swim, burrow, and even to glide from tree to tree” (Wake 337). Unlike frogs, toads “generally have squat bodies and short legs” (Campbell 217). They do not “jump” like frogs so they “make short hops or even walk” (Campbell 217). As opposed to skin, frogs have “thin, moist skin” (Forester 536) and “the skin of most toads is dry, rough, and covered with warts” (Gibbons 303). There is an advantage to a toad’s dry skin. It’s “warty skin allows it to inhabit drier regions than...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Free Essay


...not a particularly dominant or influential nation in the world. Unlike its petulant cousin to the north, South HOMETOWN has not garnered much attention from the world. It does not possess plentiful resources, finances or land mass. On a personal level I was once much like my country—insignificant and unnoticeable. I didn't play sports or embark on any adventures or challenges. I lived a boring life. If I were a flavor, I'd be vanilla. At the age __, things changed. A strong desire birthed within me to do something meaningful with my life. Dreams of attending university and plotting a career path dominated my thoughts. Looking around at my situation, I quickly realized that HOMETOWN was not the suitable place to achieve that dream. I was a frog in a well. I began to search for what I felt would be the ideal setting to study and to fulfill my goals. My quest soon culminated with (College). Here was an institution that had all the elements I was looking for as an international student preparing to make a global impact. New York is one of, if not the most, cosmopolitan cities in the world. It thrives with people of various nationalities and ethnicities. Even though the grand stage of __________ is a far cry from my home city, (COLLEGE)'s multicultural student body and international focus is exactly the environment where I'd feel at home. In addition, because of its focus, and international campuses, (COLLEGE)'s academic programs offer relevant, and first-hand perspectives on......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Where Did All the Frogs Go?

...Where did all the frogs go? Imagine years into the future from now, the newly born kids won’t even know what a frog even is, how sad would that be? No more familiar ribbit in the middle of the night. Amphibians are still very important to humans, to the ecosystem, and to predators. If the amphibians become extinct, they will be nothing but a memory. Frogs control pests like flies, mosquitoes, and other insects that have the capability of carrying a disease. If a mosquito is carrying a disease and bites a human, they could get malaria, which can cause death. Frogs decrease the chance for humans to get deadly diseases like that. As amphibians decrease, problems may increase. Loosing fifty percent of the amphibians would put them almost extinct; they are already on the endangered list, which wouldn’t be good if we lost even more of the population. Conversationalists think that because amphibians are small, they are not as important to focus on, but they are wrong. Like mentioned above, amphibians control the insect population. The loss of the amphibians will also cause their predators to die as well. Amphibians have been teaching us many things; they have been alive for 350 million years, surviving dinosaurs, meteors, and also humans. That is a long period of evolutionary success. They adapt to wide range of environments like deserts, forests, and ponds. They still teach us things today, like new medicines and cures that are used from the chemicals......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Friends four or five hours just to play for a choir and drag her along, but she is there. Sometimes when i'm sitting in my office thinking, and worrying about something I just pick up the phone and it seems as if all of my problems go away. When she is in need of something she doesn’t even have to ask. Every weekend is special because now she is at LSU in Baton Rouge, so we take turns visiting each other every weekend. So I end by telling you a little story. A group of frogs were traveling through the woods, and two of them fell into a deep pit. When the other frogs saw how deep the pit was, they told the two frogs that they were as good as dead. The two frogs ignored the comments and tried to jump up out of the pit with all their might. The other frogs kept telling them to stop, that they were as good as dead. Finally, one of the frogs took heed to what the other frogs were saying and gave up. He fell down and died.The other frog continued to jump as hard as he could. Once again, the crowd of frogs yelled at him to stop the pain and just...

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Cane Toads

...WHAT EFFECTS ARE CANE TOADS PRODUCING TOWARDS THE SUSTAINABILTY OF ECOSYSTEMS AND THE SURVIVAL OF NATIVE SPECIES Chelcy Jordan SUST 1000 October 10 2012 The introduction of invasive species can often lead to unpredictable alterations and a shift within natural ecosystems. Cane toads were originally introduced to Australia in 1935. They were brought into Australia to prey on specific pests that were attacking sugar cane plants. Cane toads are highly adaptive and can easily adjust to climate changes and feeding grounds. The growth of reproduction in cane toads has formed a species invasion on the habitat of native animals. Immense competition and a shift in ecosystems are a result of their significant growth rate. What effects are cane toads producing towards the sustainability of ecosystems and the survival of native species? Many animals, and plant species have been either finding new ways to adjust to changes caused by the introduction of cane toads. Cane toads have impacted natural ecosystems so drastically that they have left a strenuous effect on native species ability to maintain their own survival. This is crucial when looking at the effects cane toads have on sustaining plant and animal life within ecosystems. Dramatic changes in an ecosystem could potentially fail due to inadequate nutrients and energy distribution. It is important to examine ways in which cane toads affect ecosystems so environmentalists can predict potential negative shifts and try to......

Words: 2157 - Pages: 9

Free Essay


...its mother. 6. Many birds incubate their eggs by sitting on them to keep them warm until they hatch. 7. Emperor and king penguins, which live in Antarctica, warm their eggs by resting them on top of their feet. 8. Many snakes begin life in eggs too, but snake eggs are tough and leathery rather than hard and brittle. 9. A snake called the Indian rock python lays between 50 and 100 eggs at a time. 10. Since snakes are cold blooded, the mother rock python has to twitch her muscles to create heat. 11. During the two months it takes for the eggs to hatch, the mother python stays in one place and dose not even eat. 12. Frogs lay their eggs in jelly – like clumps along the edge of a pond. 13. Mother frogs do not take care of their eggs. 14. When a baby, or tadpole, hatches, it doesn’t look anything like an adult frog. 15. It has a tail, it has no legs or eyes, and it is completely helpless. 16. The tadpole grows legs, its tail begins to shrink, and it looks more and more like its parents. 17. Some baby animals do not hatch from eggs. 18. Mammals differ from other kinds of animals in other ways as well. 19. They are warm blooded, they usually have hair or fur, and their babies are fed with milk that comes from the mother. 20. Kangaroo babies are less than I inch (2.5 centimeters) long when they are...

Words: 317 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Frogs V Toads

...Compare and Contrast Frogs and Toads Frogs vs. Toads When you see a creature hopping a farseeing the side of the creek, bathroom you tell if its a frog frog or a toad? Many people rear end non tell the difference amidst the two. They ar similar in many ways. When flavor at the two, there are some differences in them. For instance the frog and toad both have bulging eye; however, the frogs eyes are s illuminely bigger than the toads. As you read on you will learn the differences and similarities between the frog and toad. There are 2000 known species of the frog compared to the 300 kinds of toads. A frog is a small, slim, four legged amphibian with smooth skin and foresighted powerful hind legs with webbed feet. The biggest frog is the Giant frog, sometimes called Goliath Frog, in West Africa. This Giant frog laughingstock grow up to a foot in length. The frog is green or brown skinned with dark markings, pointed head, long hind legs, and can get one to four inches in length. Some frogs have suckers on their feet which help them cling to tree diagram trunks as they climb, known as tree frogs. The toad on the other hand has dry, warty skin with non as powerful hind legs. Toads are also lucubrate compared to the slim frog. The toad will puff up with conduct at times. Toads walk slow and have shorter legs than the frog. Toads are light brown skinned with brown markings; dry skin, flabby and can get up to three inches in length. The frog belongs to the family......

Words: 372 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay


...Tikhomirova 1 Tatiana Tikhomirova Marcio Pre-Degree I 3 March 2014 Life Cycle of a Frog Despite the fact that the frog is a small animal, in terms of symbolism, it is of some interest. In ancient Egypt, because of its fertility, as well as a striking transformation from egg to a tadpole, and then in the quadruped animal, the frog was considered strange creature and was a symbol of emerging and ever-renewing life. Often, the ancient gods of care arising out of the mire, depicted with frog heads. Goddess of child-birth, who was a good helper of the popular religion, looked like a frog. (“Heqet”) This essay will describe frog’s transformation from egg to adult frog by three steps. First of all, frogs lay eggs. When multiple eggs stick together, they are collectively known as frogspawn. After fertilization, the innermost portion liquefies to allow free movement of the developing embryo. Most eggs are black or dark brown, and it has the advantage of absorbing heat from the sun, which holds the insulating capsule. Frogs lay a lot of eggs because there are many dangers between fertilization and grown frog. Those eggs that die turn white. Life starts right as the central yolk splits in two. It then divides into four, then eight, etc. Soon, the embryo starts to look more and more like a tadpole, getting longer and moving in egg. Usually, about 6-21 days after being fertilized, the egg will hatch. Most eggs are found in calm or static waters. When the rain comes along, after......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Anurans in Sitio Pahiron Cagayan de Oro City

...Anurans in Sitio Pahiron Brgy. Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City A Research Proposal Presented to the Biology Department, Xavier University Cagayan de Oro City In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course Seminar and Problem I (Bio 20L) By: Antonette S. Paquera July 2015 APPROVED: Dr. Astrid Sinco Adviser ACCEPTED: Ms. Christine Lovelle Mahinay Reader Project Title: Anurans in Sitio Pahiron Brgy. Lumbia, Cagayan de Oro City Proponent: Antonette S. Paquera Project Duration: 4 months (June 2015-September 2015) Project Budget: Php 55, 680.90 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE Title Page A....................................................................................................................i Title Page B....................................................................................................................ii TABLE OF CONTENTS..............................................................................................iii LIST OF FIGURES.......................................................................................................v LIST OF PLATES.........................................................................................................v LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................v I. Introduction......................................................................................................

Words: 4854 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Blossom and Grueba

...Blossom and Grueba Blossom and Grueba Deep in a swamp in a faraway town lied a lily pad community known for its marshy waters and remoteness, called Caymaris. Within its population there was a beautiful bullfrog named Blossom whom every one envied, for her long green legs, slender torso, and stunning emerald eyes, she was the talk of the bog. Other Inhabitants all prayed one day to be as alluring as her. Though Blossom was the fairest Bullfrog in her town, her sister Grueba did not have any of these attributes. She was polar opposite of Blossom, the kindest, hardworking Frog you could ever meet. She was always willing to lend a helping hand to anyone in need and volunteered to deliver food to all the hungry frogs of the town. Her torso was compact, round, and her eyes were off centered and as black as coal, and the legs she used to carry out her kindness were short and stumpy. Blossom never wanted any of the bayou to know that Grueba was her sister, for she thought she’d be ridiculed. Daily Blossom would go about her routine of awaking dressing prim and proper even styling her hair with a neatly done ponytail and a gigantic white bow adhering it together. While Grueba's hair was always a mess, and all the kids teased her and called her names. Every morning on their treacherous walk to school across the wetland and through the forest Blossom would be sure to stride far ahead of Grueba, to ensure that none of her classmates could see that they were......

Words: 1144 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Purple Frig

...made an unusual discovery of a new species of frogs. The strange looking new amphibian is known to be a sole surviving member of amphibians that evolved more than 130 million years ago. Scientist calls this species discovery as a ‘once in a century find’ because of it’s belonging to an ancient group of amphibians that once shared the same land with dinosaurs. Formally discovered in 2003, the poignous frog, also known as the “Purple Frog”, has been the talk of all scientist discoveries because of its comic features and behaviors. Although this new species has recently been discovered with highly distinctive and comical appearances, its behaviors adaptive values benefit the amphibian by increasing its total fitness. However scientists might now be able to research this rare species because it is slowly decreasing in population. The purple frog has a sidesplitting appearance with a distinctive habitat in an unusual range of geographical location. This new species of frog can be described as a typical frog at first glance but as you pay closer attention you notice its distinctive appearances compared to other species of frogs. The body has a similar shape like most frogs yet it has a plump bloated body shape with short fore and hind limbs that end in webbed feet with rounded toes. Each hind foot has a large, white wart look-a-like growth that is most likely used for digging in their moist soil locations. The small head shape of the frog seems almost too small for such a short......

Words: 1475 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Frogs are a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek an-, without + oura, tail). The oldest fossil "proto-frog" appeared in the early Triassic of Madagascar, but molecular clock dating suggests their origins may extend further back to the Permian, 265 million years ago. Frogs are widely distributed, ranging from the tropics to subarctic regions, but the greatest concentration of species diversity is found in tropical rainforests. There are approximately 4,800 recorded species, accounting for over 85% of extant amphibian species. They are also one of the five most diverse vertebrate orders. The body plan of an adult frog is generally characterized by a stout body, protruding eyes, cleft tongue, limbs folded underneath and the absence of a tail. Besides living in fresh water and on dry land, the adults of some species are adapted for living underground or in trees. The skin of the frog is glandular, with secretions ranging from distasteful to toxic. Warty species of frog tend to be called toads but the distinction between frogs and toads is based on informal naming conventions concentrating on the warts rather than taxonomy or evolutionary history; some toads are more closely related to frogs than to other toads. Frogs' skins vary in colour from well-camouflaged dappled brown, grey and green to vivid patterns of bright red or yellow and black to advertise toxicity and warn off predators. Frogs......

Words: 503 - Pages: 3

Free Essay


...tree. On the ground at its feet, something strangely familiar hops by: a frog. Ichthyostega, prehistoric predecessor to the modern frog, lived 370 million years ago during the Devonian Period. Sometimes referred to as "the first four-legged fish," skeletal remains of this earliest-known amphibian were first discovered in East Greenland. Surprised? Few people realize just how ancient frogs are. For 190 million years, the ancestors of modern frogs have roamed (if not ruled) the earth, looking much the same as they do today. The secret to their success is their amazing adaptability. As amphibians, frogs have one webbed foot in each of two worlds. The advantages of this double life are clear to see: Are land predators giving you trouble? Dive into the water. Not enough to eat in the pond? Hop out and see what they're serving on shore. Frogs have evolved to live in an astounding variety of climates. They can be found just about anywhere there's fresh water, from the desert to the Arctic, on all continents except Antarctica. Though they thrive in warm, moist tropical climates, frogs also live in deserts and high on 15,000 foot mountain slopes. The Australian water-holding frog is a desert dweller that can wait up to seven years for rain. It burrows underground and surrounds itself in a transparent cocoon made of its own shed skin. Frozen Wood Frog Like all amphibians, frogs are cold-blooded, meaning that their body temperatures change with the......

Words: 357 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Lession Plan

...Lesson Plan Cindy Dean PED212 Foundation of Movement Motor Activities Instructor: James Woodward January 13, 2014 Lesson Plan For this assignment paper I have chosen elementary school students which are in the third grade. The group of students range from seven to nine year old. Evolving achievements for several third grade students it is likely that they go through physical development at this age group include stable development example. At this age their gross motor skills are more developed than their fine motor skills. Elementary students learn through movement. Physical education is an important part during these developmental years. Children are able to run and jump as well as having control of large muscles in their legs. The body and mind rarely work together. They have a difficult time holding small things, catching or putting something together using their fingers. The total number of students in this lesson plan classroom is thirty. The school is Mary L. Fonseca Elementary. There will be some fundamental skills that we will try to teach the elementary students; for example jumping and landing. Locomotors skills we will teach them skipping, running, sliding, galloping, leaping, hopping, and non- locomotors skills students we will teach twisting. The student objective goals would be that the end of the course students will successfully jump and land on balance in different ways. The students successfully improve their distance as well as height....

Words: 650 - Pages: 3