Free Essay

Functional Foods

In: Religion Topics

Submitted By Jobzzes
Words 1243
Pages 5
NAME: | Jobs Jacobs Zuma Biolae | COURSE | INTERMEDIARY METABOLISM | COURSE CODE | BCH 803 | | |

Conditions that favor the use of protein as source of energy and how it is achieved.
The fraction of metabolic energy obtained from amino acids, whether they are derived from dietary protein or from tissue protein, varies greatly with the type of organism and with metabolic conditions.
In animals, amino acids undergo oxidative degradation in different metabolic circumstances:
1. During the normal synthesis and degradation of cellular proteins (protein turnover): some amino acids that are released from protein breakdown and are not needed for new protein synthesis undergo oxidative degradation
2. When a diet is rich in protein and the ingested amino acids exceed the body’s needs for protein: synthesis, the surplus is catabolised; amino acids cannot be stored.
3. During starvation or in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus: when carbohydrates are either unavailable or not properly utilized, cellular proteins are used as fuel.
4. Cachexia: wasting of body tissues as seen in cancer and other chronic illnesses
Under all these metabolic conditions, amino acids lose their amino groups to form alpha-keto acids, the carbon skeletons of amino acids. The alpha-keto acids undergo oxidation to CO2 and H2O or, often more importantly, provide three- and four-carbon units that can be converted by gluconeogenesis into glucose, the fuel for brain, skeletal muscle, and other tissues.

One important feature distinguishing amino acid degradation from other catabolic processes is that every amino acid contains an amino group, and the pathways for amino acid degradation therefore include a key step in which the alpha-amino group is separated from the carbon skeleton and shunted into the pathways of amino group metabolism.

An overview of amino acid catabolism in mammals.
The key functional amino acids necessary for amino acid metabolism are:
*Glutamine
*Glutamate
*Alanine
*Aspartate

Glutamate and glutamine play especially critical roles in nitrogen metabolism, acting as a kind of general collection point for amino groups. In the cytosol of hepatocytes, amino groups from most amino acids are transferred to alpha-ketoglutarate to form glutamate, which enters mitochondria and gives up its amino group to form NH4+.
Excess ammonia generated in most other tissues is converted to the amide nitrogen of glutamine, which passes to the liver, then into liver mitochondria. Glutamine or glutamate or both are present in higher concentrations than other amino acids in most tissues. In skeletal muscle, excess amino groups are generally transferred to pyruvate to form alanine, another important molecule in the transport of amino groups to the liver.

STARVATION
Starvation is a condition in which there is depletion or unavailability of vital nutrients for optimal health. In normal physiologic state, carbohydrates serve primarily as energy source especially since they are readily oxidized to yield high-energy compounds such as adenine triphosphate, ATP and other high-energy phosphate molecules.
Secondary to carbohydrates as energy source is the oxidation of lipids through lipolysis to provide substrate which are invariably fed into the Kreb’s Cycle to yield energy. Proteins serve as last resort alternatives in being oxidized having first undergone deamination to give rise to short-chain carbon skeletons which are used as fuel or used in the synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) during starvation.

Metabolic Adaptation
This involves the process of taking on alternative sources of fuel to sustain physiological processes. In starvation and other stress-inducing conditions listed above, alternative pathways are harnessed to yield glucose especially for organs that greatly depend on it like the brain.
The activation of these pathways is a function of the interplay between hormones, enzymes and substrates. Thus, the following metabolic priorities are considered:
*Gluconeogenesis
*Transamination and Deamination

Gluconeogenesis, derivation from tissue proteins
In starvation glucose concentration is markedly decreased and invariably results in a drop of the plasma concentration of insulin which is secreted by the β-islets cells of the pancreas. Since insulin influences the presentation of glucose transporters on the surface of most tissues, these transporters (GLUT 4) are resorped into intracellular vesicles.
By reason of the reciprocal correlation between insulin and glucagon, glucagon is secreted to counter the hypoglycemic state of plasma by inhibiting glycogen synthetase while activating glycogen phosphorylase in the liver. The resulting glucose 6 phosphate is hydrolysed by glucose 6 phosphatase, releasing glucose into the blood stream.
Glucagon also inactivates pyruvate kinase and activates phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase in the liver to facilitate gluconeogenesis.
Muscle glycogen cannot contribute directly to plasma glucose since it lacks glucose-6-phosphatase. To therefore supply glucose to the blood, it makes use of an indirect energy-saving process employing the inhibitory action of accumulated pyruvate in the muscle consequent to the inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase by a buildup of acetyl CoA due to fatty acid oxidation. This pyruvate is transaminated to Alanine at the expense of amino acids from muscle tissue. The Alanine and keto-acids resulting from this is exported from the muscle and taken up by the liver, where the Alanine is transaminated to yield pyruvate. Thus, this cycle continues at the expense of muscle tissue protein. This is a similar process found in other tissues during starvation.

METABOLISM IN DIABETES MELLITUS TYPE 1
Insulin deficiency is a protein catabolic state. Insulin enhances short-side-chain amino acid intracellular uptake, stimulates transcription and translation of RNA, increases the gene expression of albumin and other proteins and inhibits liver protein breakdown enzymes. In insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients most of the whole-body protein turnover studies have shown that insulin deficiency increases protein breakdown and increases amino acid oxidation and that these effects are reversed by insulin treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that a substantial increase in leucine transamination during insulin deprivation contributes to leucine catabolism in IDDM patients. Protein synthesis in the insulin-deprived state is also increased although to a lesser extent than protein breakdown, and this increased whole-body protein synthesis is reduced with an insulin infusion; thus the effects of insulin are largely mediated through its effects on protein breakdown. The metabolic derangements in diabetes frequently involve disturbances in substrates and hormones other than insulin

Conditions that favor the use of Ketone bodies as energy source.
In adipose tissue the decrease in insulin and increase in glucagon results in inhibition of lipogenesis, inactivation of lipoprotein lipase and activation of intracellular hormone-sensitive lipase. The overall result of this is the increased amount of glycerol (a substrate for gluconeogenesis) and free fatty acids used by heart, liver and skeletal muscles as their preferred metabolic fuel, and at the same time sparring glucose.
Although muscles preferentially take up and metabolise free fatty acids in the fasting state, this cannot meet all its energy requirements by β oxidation. Contrastingly, the liver has a better capacity for β oxidation than it requires to meet its own energy needs, and as fasting is prolonged, it forms more acetyl CoA than can be oxidized. This acetyl CoA is used to synthesize the ketone bodies which are used as major fuels for skeletal and heart muscles, and still also meet some of the brain’s energy needs.
In prolonged starvation, glucose may represent less than 10% of whole body energy-yielding metabolism.
As fasting is prolongedthe plasma concentration of ketone bodies increase markedly as shown in the graph below using the relative changes of metabolic parameters during the onset of starvation:

This also reveals the influence of hormones such as insulin and glucagon relative to the ketone body and free fatty acid concentration in plasma

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Spanish Consumers' Perception of Functional Foods

... Oisin Halpin Leyre Santana León Universidad Carlos III Madrid 8.11.2013 Spanish Consumers‘ Perception of Functional Foods – A case study of Puleva Omega-3 Spanish Consumers‘ Perception of Functional Foods – A case study of Puleva Omega-3 Table of Contents 1. Introduction 2 1.1. Presentation of the Problem 2 1.1.1. Focus of our Study 2 1.2. Purpose of the Thesis 3 1.2.1. Research Question 3 1.3. Clarification of the Main Concepts 3 1.4. Structure of the Thesis 4 2. Methodology and Theory 5 2.1. Methodology 5 2.1.1. Research Design 5 2.2. Method 8 2.3. Research Techniques 8 2.3.1. Laddering 8 2.3.2. Questionnaire 10 3. Potential Conclusions 14 3.1. Recommendations to the Ebro Puleva Company 16 Appendices 17 Appendix 1 – Types of functional food. 17 Appendix 2 – SWOT Analysis of PO-3. 17 Appendix 3 – Purposes of Mixed Methods Research. 18 Appendix 4 – Hypothetical Laddering Interview + MEC 19 Appendix 5 – The Questionnaire Design. 20 Bibliography 32 1. ------------------------------------------------- Introduction Consumers increasingly believe that what they eat directly affects their state of health (Mollet and Rowland, 2002). Foods are no longer intended to only satisfy hunger and provide vital nutrients; they are also called upon to improve the general condition of the body (e.g. pre- and probiotics) and mental well-being,...

Words: 8078 - Pages: 33

Free Essay

Blooming Prospects of Functional Foods

...BLOOMING PROSPECTS OF FUNCTIONAL FOODS Ashish Mishra1, T.R. Genitha2 1. B. Tech. Food Tech Student, 2. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Food Process Engg, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology & Sciences, Allahabad 211007 Corresponding author: genithaimmanuel@yahoo.co.in Introduction The tenet "Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food," espoused by Hippocrates nearly 2,500 years ago, is receiving renewed interest, now popularly used for Functional foods. The term functional foods was first introduced in Japan in the mid-1980s and refers to processed foods containing ingredients that aid specific bodily functions in addition to being nutritious. The Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board (IOM/FNB, 1994), Japan defined functional foods as "any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional nutrients it contains." Functional foods are foods that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition due to certain physiologically active components, which may or may not have been manipulated or modified to enhance their bioactivity. These foods may help prevent disease, reduce the risk of developing disease, or enhance health. Rapid advances in food science and technology, an aging population, the rapid rise in health care costs, and changing government marketing and labeling regulations have also had an impact on the functional foods market. Functional foods have......

Words: 3151 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

The Roles of Hr

...have a human resource deparment. All HR deparments have roles that play for the organization regardless of the type and size. The purpose of the human deparment is to assist the human portion of the company. Its imporant that each organization has a HR deparment that is effiecient and has great quality this benefit the organization is varies ways. The functional roles of the HR deparment are very important towards the human because human are known to be very important to an organization. (Stringer) A very imporant function of the HR deparment is recruiment. The role of the recruiment function is to make sure that they recruit the right people for the job. (Stringer) They also then have made sure the each person they hired is in the correct job postions based upon their skills and abilities. This is a very important job and has a huge impact on the impact because as long as the employee do their jobs correct the organization will be a success. They also help with the interview process testing the employee abilities that they have for the job. Training the employees for the skills that are required for a job is also a functional role of the HR deparment. They have a trainging specialist that teaches the employees the learning objective and methods they need to do their job correctly. (Stringer) Most time the training is for leadership jobs such as supervisors and managers. They have to provide them with correct resources they need to evaluate an employee. They also teach......

Words: 543 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Case Study of Coke

...PEST CASE STUDY: COCA COLA PEST analysis examines changes in a marketplace caused by Political, Economical, Social and Technological factors. Look at the following statements abstracted from various sources, and group them under the following headings: Political; Economic; Social; Technological After the shock of the attacks on September 11, 2001, and despite the debilitating effect of the Iraq War, the USA’s economy had returned to sustained growth by 2006. However, things have changed quite dramatically recently; following the sub-prime loan catastrophe in the housing market, the economy is again in trouble. Most economists are now predicting a severe recession (negative growth for a year or more), and some predict depression (prolonged recession and contraction of the economy by more than 10 per cent). There have been recent major government interventions around the world, most notably in the banking sector, in an attempt to prevent the world economy from following the USA in a downwards spiral; it is too early to tell if, how and when these efforts will be successful. The recent election of Barack Obama as president is seen by many as a glimmer of hope, but it is recognised that once he takes office on January 20th 2009 he will be inundated with a whole sheaf of major internal problems that will take time, ingenuity and cash to sort out. Internationally, the range of political instabilities, civil unrest, military posturing, protectionism, economic distress, and......

Words: 4464 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

A Journal Critique on the Synthesis of New Derivatives of Resveratrol and to Explore Its Potential Health Benefits

...high-calorie diet lived longer than similarly fed mice not given resveratrol. Resveratrol protected mice fed a high-calorie diet from obesity-related health problems by imitating the effects of caloric restriction (Maddox, 2012). Resveratrol also incredibly lengthen the lifespan of worms, yeast, and some fishes (Adams, 2011). In the experiment, local black grapes were gathered and were classified as Vitis vinifera. The skin was separated from the fruit and was placed in dark, cool area. To avoid oxidation of the plant extract, the steps were done away from direct light. The skin was shaken with ethyl acetate and was kept for 72 hours and was filtered. The filtrate was dried using a rotary evaporator to get one-tenth of its original amount. The functional and phenolic groups present in the resveratrol were tested using standard methods. Aromaticity and the...

Words: 1795 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

11 Funtional Health Pattern

...Health Promotion and the Individual CHAPTER 6 161 Box 6-1 Functional Health Patterns Assessment (Adult) Functional Health Patterns Assessment (Adult) d. Perceived ability (code for level) for: Feeding Dressing Cooking Bathing Grooming Shopping Toileting General mobility Bed mobility Home maintenance Functional Level Codes: Level 0: full self-care Level I: requires use of equipment or device Level II: requires assistance or supervision from another person Level III: requires assistance or supervision from another person and equipment or device Level IV: is dependent and does not participate 2. Examination a. Demonstrated ability (code listed above) for: Dressing Cooking Feeding Bathing Grooming Shopping Toileting General mobility b. Gait ________ Posture Absent body part? (Specify.) c. Range of motion (joints) Muscle firmness d. Hand grip Can pick up a pencil? e. Pulse (rate) (rhythm) Breath sounds f. Respirations (rate) (rhythm) Breath sounds g. Blood pressure h. General appearance (grooming, hygiene, and energy level) HEALTH PERCEPTION-HEALTH MANAGEMENT PATTERN 1. History a. How has general health been? b. Any colds in past year? When appropriate: absences from work? c. Most important things you do to keep healthy? Think these things make a difference to health? (Include family folk remedies when appropriate.) Use of cigarettes, alcohol, drugs? Breast self-examination? d. Accidents (home, work, driving)? e. In past, been easy to find ways to follow suggestions......

Words: 1023 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Illiteracy

...2. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this report is to highlight the economic and social cost of illiteracy to the global economy. It will discuss the causes and issues surrounding illiteracy, the direct link between poverty and illiteracy and how tackling literacy has a very real and measurable impact on the growth of an economy. 3. DISCUSSION 3.1 DEFINITION OF ILLITERACY Complete illiteracy means a person cannot read or write at all. Of equal relevance is the concept of functional illiteracy, which means an individual may have basic reading, writing and numerical skills but cannot apply them to accomplish tasks that are necessary to make informed choices and participate fully in everyday life. Such tasks may include:  Reading a medicine label  Reading a nutritional label on a food product  Balancing a chequebook  Filling out a job application  Reading and responding to correspondence in the workplace  Filling out a home loan application  Reading a bank statement  Comparing the cost of two items to work out which one offers the best value  Working out the correct change at a supermarket. Poor literacy also limits a person’s ability to engage in activities that require either critical thinking or a solid base of literacy and numeracy skills. Such activities may include:  Understanding government policies and voting in elections  Using a computer to do banking or interact with government agencies  Calculating the cost and potential return of a......

Words: 381 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Use Cases

...Running head: ASSIGNMENT 2: USE CASES Assignment 2: Use Cases Lawrence A. Mayo, Jr. Dr. Johnnie E. Drake CIS 210 11/4/12 Abstract Your abstract should be one paragraph and should not exceed 120 words. It is a summary of the most important elements of your paper. All numbers in the abstract, except those beginning a sentence, should be typed as digits rather than words. To count the number of words in this paragraph, select the paragraph, and on the Tools menu click Word Count. Assignment 2: Use Cases A use case is a methodology that is used in system analysis as a means to identify, clarify, and organize system requirements. The use cases has make up of several possible sequences for users to interact with a system of a particular environment that is in relation to a particular goal. There are a group of elements that the use case consists of, these elements in be in either the classes or interfaces category. Use cases give a description of how users will perform tasks. There are two main parts of a use case; the steps a user will take to accomplish a particular task on the ATM machine, and the way the ATM should respond to the user's actions. A use case will begin with a user's goal and end when that goal is fulfilled. A use case will describe the interaction sequence between a user and an ATM machine. Each use case captures the actor (the user of the ATM machine), the interaction (what does the user want to do?), and the goal (what is the user's goal?).......

Words: 1139 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Carbon Nanotubes

...Abstract Cancer is a generic term to describe a group of diseases which came in form of uncontrolled proliferation of cells. There are over 200 different types of cancer have been recognized, each of which acquires its name uniquely according to the type of issue the cell originates in. Many cancer victims succumb to cancer not because of the primary tumor, but the systematic effects of metastases on other regions away from the affected site. Therefore many treatment and research aim to prevent the metastatic process at the early period. There are currently many therapies in clinical use, and many advanced technologies that help to achieve better result and nanotechnology is the potential candidate to fight against cancer. Nano-materials such as Carbon-nanotubes (CNTs)1, quantum dot, and dendrimers all have unique properties that can be taken advantage of for diagnosis and treatment of cancer. CNTs have the potential to deliver many types of drug directly to targeted cells and tissues at a much higher efficiency compared to the conventional methods. With the help of many recent discoveries in nanotechnology based materials, determining the toxicity of nanoparticles is also a very important task. Thus, in this review, the experiment aims to explore the biomedical application of carbon-nanotubes with the particular emphasis on the use as oncologic therapeutic agent. Introduction United States holds number 7 in the top ten highest overall cancer rates at 300 per 100,000 of......

Words: 1186 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Acc 560

...Activity based Costing (ABC) in Service Industries Activity based Costing (ABC) in Service Industries The Total Gym was developed 1974 by Tom Campanaro and his partners Dale McMurray and Larry Westfall of San Diego CA. The device encouraged “functional exercise” a way of duplicating movements the body performs in everyday life, with and against gravity. The device piqued the interest of Physical Therapists and other medical professional. The total Gym was found to engage all muscle groups, allowing over 100 functional exercises on different levels of inclined resistance. The device also featured a full range of motion and variable resistance levels (heavier resistance near the top and light resistance when more horizontal). The Total Gym is a brand name and product line of exercise machines used for strength training, stretching and Pilates training designed by EFI Sports Medicine Inc. of San Diego, Ca. The various models are manufactured for 3 different types of customers: Medical and Fitness Facilities and Home Consumers (“History of Total Gym”. 2013). Total Gym is the world’s leading privately-held manufacturer of functional and bodyweight training equipment. Founded in 1974, the San Diego-based company’s Total Gym products are used in 14,000 physical therapy clinics, athletic training facilities, hospitals, universities, professional sports teams and health clubs, inspiring over 24 million workouts per year worldwide. Total Gym has a 15-year relationship......

Words: 828 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Pt1420 Unit 1 Research Ass 1

...| Exploring Programming Language | Unit 1 Research Assignment 1 | | | 5/3/2014 | PT1420 | The five most popular programming languages in the 1970’s were: 1970: Pascal 1972: C 1972: Smalltalk 1972: Prolog 1973: SQL Pascal The Pascal programming language was developed by Niklaus Wirth. It was created in 1968 but it wasn’t published until 1970. It was developed to provide the features other programming languages didn’t offer at that time. His main reason for developing Pascal was efficiently implement and run, to allow for the development of structured and well organized programs, and to serve as a tool to teach the important concepts of computer programming. The program was named after a mathematician named Blaise Pascal. It was used as the primary language in the Apple Lisa and for the Mac in the early years of the computer. SQL SQL, which is short for, Structured Query Language, was designed by an IBM research center in 1974-1975. The Oracle Corporation introduced it as a commercial database system in 1979, the first time it was introduced. It has been a favorite query language for the use of database management systems for the microcomputer and mainframes, but is being supported by the PC database. C C was created at the Bell Laboratory in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. It was created for the purpose in designing UNIX. Prolog Was created from 1971-1973 and was distributed in 1974-1975. It was created not as a programming language on purpose......

Words: 988 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Functional Decomposition

...Section 4.3 Switching Algebra Functional Decomposition Alfredo Benso Politecnico di Torino, Italy Alfredo.benso@polito.it Why? Goal: • Translate a large and complex circuit into a network of small and simple circuits • Express a switching function of n variables as a composition of switching functions of less than n variables Motivation: • Reduce the complexity of simplification • Reduce the size of a circuit by finding common circuit elements Theoretical background: • Shannon’s Expansion Theorem (SET): – Simple type of decomposition – f(x1, x 2, ..., xn) = x 1f(1, x 2, ..., xn) + x’1 f(0, x 2, ..., xn) 1 Residues • The function that is obtained from setting one of the variables, say xi, equal to 1 is called xiresidue. If xi is set to 0, the resulting function is called xi’-residue. • The notation for the xi–residue function is fi(1); for the x’i–residue is fi(0). Boolean Difference • The “Boolean Difference” (or Boolean Derivative) indicates whether f is sensitive to changes in the value of xi and is defined as: ∂f = fi (0) ⊕ f i (1) ∂xi Example • f(w,x,y,z) = wx + w′ z′ , find values of x and z to sensitize circuit to changes in w. fw = x , fw′ = z′ ∂f = z′ ⊕ x = z′x′ + zx ∂w z=x=1 o r z=x=0 will sensitize circuit to changes in w 2 Simple Disjoint Decomposition Definition: • A switching function f(x1, ..., xn) is functionally decomposable iff there exists switching functions G and H (simple) x1 f xn A G B H where A ∪ B = {x 1...

Words: 596 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Ehhfhcb

...Acetate buffer pH 4.5 23.469 0.098 Phosphate Buffer pH 6.8 23.350 0.093 7.1.3: Physical properties Table 7.3: Physical Evaluation of Aspirin Physical properties Observations Bulk density(gm/mL) 0.682 Tap density(gm/mL) 0.883 Carr’s index (%) 22.72% Hausner’s ratio 1.29 7.1.4: Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy The IR spectrum of the pure Aspirin sample was recorded by FTIR Spectrometer is shown in Figure 7.1 which was compared with standard functional group frequencies of Aspirin as shown in Table 7.4 Table 7.4: Reported and observed IR frequencies of Aspirin Functional groups (Observed Frequency) (cm-1) (Reported Frequency) (cm-1) O-H-(Stretch) 3350.00 3100-3500 O-H stretch from CO-OH dimer 2991.59 3200-2800 Aromatic C-H stretch 3015.99 3150-3050 Aliphatic C-H Stretch 2898.28 2950-2850 -C=O stretch 1695.82 1700 Aromatic C=C stretch 1548.73 1600-1500 Aromatic C-H bending 713.46 600-850 The Functional group frequencies of Aspirin were in the reported range which indicates that the obtained sample was of Aspirin and was pure. Figure 7.1: FTIR spectrum of pure Aspirin 7.1.5: Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) The DSC spectrum of pure drug was obtained and is given in Figure 7.2....

Words: 332 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Illiteracy a Challenging Problem in Our Society Today.

...ILLITERACY A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN OUR SOCIETY TODAY. CHE DIVINE AFOH STRAYER UNIVERSITY PROFFESSOR; AUDREY. L. VAUGHAN AUGUST 16TH 2015. Even though we search how to solve the problems of illiteracy, illiteracy is a serious problem in pour society today because illiteracy causes high rate of unemployment, high crime rates, health issues and loss of talents inbuilt in our youths leading to low self-esteem. Illiteracy is a pressing concern especially for poor countries, it affects all other aspects of life and personal behavior of the uneducated one. There are several causes which may lead someone to be uneducated or to escape from school. In this essay I will discuss some causes of illiteracy and its effects on our society, and how we can treat it. Illiteracy is a global problem we are facing in our society today of which it greatly affects all our day to day life activities. I will first start with the problem unemployment in which one of the reasons for this is the high illiteracy level in our society. Unemployment is a situation where youths and the general population are unable to get jobs to meet up with their day to day responsibilities and bills. When people are not able to read and write...

Words: 934 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Arial

...Answer Briefly: 1. (a) Define the following. Saponification Functional Group Isomerism 2. Explain how will you prepare following. Carbolic Acid from Benzene Acetaldehyde from acetylene Acetal from formaldehyde 3. What are phenols? How are they classified? Explain why phenols are acedic in nature. 4. What are Organometallic compounds? How will you prepare the following from methyl magnesium bromide. Vinegar Isopropyl Alcohol Ethane 5. Draw the structures and give the I.U.P.A.C names of the following. Vinyl Chloride Neo-pentae Tert-butyl methyl ether Picric acid 6 . What product or products are formed when the following compound is nitrated. Bromo Benzene Nitro Benzene 7 . What is methylated spirit? Give its composition. 8. Partial hydrogenation of 2-Butyne forms two geometrical isomers. Write the equation and the condition necessary to obtain these isomers. 9. –COOH and –CN groups deactivate the benzene ring. a. Which property of these groups causes this deactivation? b. Giving a suitable example compare the directive influence of –NO2 and –Cl group, when attached with benzene. (OR) Benzene is a highly unsaturated compound, but it does not give addition reaction with bromine even in the presence of Lewis acid. Name and explain the process which gives this extra stability to benzene. Q.10 . a. In the preparation of alkyl halides from alcohols SOCl2 is the best......

Words: 492 - Pages: 2