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Functional Health Assessment

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Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment
|Functional Health Pattern |Toddler |Preschool-Aged |School-Aged |
|Assessment (FHP) |Erickson’s Developmental Stage: |Erickson’s Developmental Stage: |Erickson’s Developmental Stage: |
|Pattern of Health Perception and|*Toddlers rely on their parents for |*Preschoolers now have an interest of being curious|*School age children perceive health as by germ |
|Health Management: |health promotion. Parents should |about the body of the opposite sex. |theory, punishment theory, or external forces |
| |model the perceptions and behavior |*The perception of their external body is based on |theory. |
|List two normal assessment |desired for health promotion. |they see and do, but internally is vague. |* They understand their health regarding symptoms, |
|findings that would be | | |and are able to participate in health promotion. |
|characteristic for each age | | | |
|group. | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| | |*Preschoolers have anxiety about their body and |*Some problems can arise when the school age child |
| |*The parent perception of health |fear of mutilation and death are their concerns. |is passive health care consumers by asking fewer |
| |needs more information. |*Preschoolers size compared to adult causes them to|questions regarding their health. |
| |* The parents are in need of health |have a sense of vulnerability and fear of loss of |* Some child view their sickness as an evil eye, and|
| |promotion in order to help the child |control.(Edelman &Mandle,2010,p.48) |believe that they have been cursed because of their |
| |model health perception and health | |belief of the karma theory(Edelman, C. & |
| |management. | |Mandle,2010, p.511) |
| |(Edelman.,& Mandle,2010 p.458) | | |
|Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern: |*Toddler should eat food rich with |*Preschoolers should eat a variety of foods with at|*School age children should consume 1200-1800 |
| |iron. |least five serving of fruits and vegetables per |calories per day. |
|List two normal assessment |*Toddler should be weaned from breast|day, and calcium intake of 500mg/dL. |* Should eat three meals and one to two snacks |
|findings that would be |milk and the bottle. |*Also, should eat half of their diet in |,daily , and drink 3 cups of milk, and eat foods |
|characteristic for each age | |carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and limit the intake|with vitamins A and C , meats 5 oz., fruits and |
|group. | |of salts and sugar. |vegetables 2 -2 ½ cups daily.(Edleman, C.& Mandle, |
| | |(Edelman,C.&Mandle,2010,p.482 |2010,p.512) |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddler should not drink milk or |*Iron deficiency anemia can cause behavior, and |*School age children are at risk for diabetes and |
| |juice from a bottle at night since |cognitive deficits. |iron deficiency anemia, hypertension, due to poor |
| |this causes dental caries. |*Problems with caries due to intake of sugar, and |nutrition. |
| |*Toddler should not drink whole milk |obesity due to increased intake of fats and |*School age children with poor nutrition can lead to|
| |in a bottle since this decrease a |processed foods, and decreased physical activity. |obesity, and being overweight (Edelman,C. & Mandle, |
| |child’s appetite at meal |(Edelman,C.& Mandle,2010,p.482) |2010, p.514) |
| |time.(Edelman.& Mandle,2010 p.459 ) | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Elimination: | |*Preschooler should have developed independent |*School age children should have full bladder and |
| |*Toddler should now begin to be |toileting skills. |bowel control by the age of 5, along with being able|
|List two normal assessment |toilet trained around 18 months. |*Should be expected to change their clothing if |to undress, wipe ,and wash hands.(Edelman,C. |
|findings that would be |(Edelman, C. &Mandle, 2010 p.461). |they become soiled, and wash their hands and flush |&Mandle,2010,p.514) |
|characteristic for each age |*It is normal for the toddler to have|the toilet.(Edelman,C. &Mandle,2010,p.482) |*School age children should have a normal bowel |
|group. |a bowel movement after a meal. | |pattern of 1-2 bowel movements daily, and should |
| | | |void at least 6-8 times daily.(Edelman,C.& |
| | | |Mandle,2010 p.514) |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*The toddler will become frustrated |*Preschooler may soil their clothing. |*School age children may have a problem with |
| |if toilet training is introduced to |* Preschooler may have a problem with enuresis and |enuresis (day dribbling), and with bed wetting. |
| |soon before the toddler is ready |encopresis. |(Edelman,C. Mandle,2010,p.516) |
| |emotionally and physically. |(Edelman, C. &Mandle,2010,p.483-484) | |
| |*The toddler may soil in their | | |
| |clothes, and the parent should not | | |
| |scold the child, but ignore the | | |
| |behavior.(Edelman,C.& Mandle, | | |
| |2010,p.461) | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Activity and |*Toddler should engage in play. |*Preschooler does modeling and activity of play |*School age children play with their peers, as a |
|Exercise: |* Toddler should develop rituals |involves other children. |preference. |
| |around their eating and sleeping. |*During play the preschooler does the role of and |*School age children exercise by group activities |
|List two normal assessment |(Edelman. & Mandle, 2010,p.461) |adult by mimic, and not that of a younger child, |and organized sports.(Edelman, C., & Mandle, |
|findings that would be | |and involves dramatic play, sometimes imaginary |2-10,p.516) |
|characteristic for each age | |plots with fantasy. (Edelman, C. & Mandle, 2010, | |
|group. | |p.484). | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddlers will engage in parallel |*Problems can arise when the preschooler chooses |*Problems can arise with the school age child if the|
| |play and will not share with other |television as a pass time and by doing so, |uses psychological and physical pressure to get |
| |toddlers. (Edelman, C. & Mandle, |interaction with other children and parents are |their child involve in sports.(Edelman, C.& |
| |2010, p.461). |missed. |Mandle,2010,p.517) |
| |*Toddlers under 2 years old should |* Preschooler which watches television of adult’s |*Problems can also arise by too much television, and|
| |have no screen time, TV, or videos is|shows might misinterpret the adult’s shows, which |computer use leading to decreased physical activity.|
| |an activity not recommended, but |are violent, and contain moral decisions. | |
| |exploration of their environment. |* Problems with obesity could result as lack of | |
| | |physical activity due to watching too much | |
| | |television for the preschooler. | |
|Cognitive/Perceptual Pattern: |*Toddlers learn by the use of objects|*The preschooler is now able to be oriented in |*School age child should master new ideas which |
| |and events. |space, and develops an awareness of the location of|requires intact senses, and should understand |
|List two normal assessment |* Toddlers should have mastered the |the home with the neighborhood. |concepts regarding objects, and concept of |
|findings that would be |basics of language function, form, |* The preschooler is now able to structure daily |observation of substances. |
|characteristic for each age |and content by age 3. (Edelman, C., |activities, and has a sense of value for |* School age child should be able to understand |
|group. |&Mandle, 2010, p.463). |activities, objects, and people. (Edelman, C. & |classifying and ordering. (Edelman, C. & Mandle, |
| | |Mandle, 2010, p.486). |2010, p.517) |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddler may appear to be acting out,|*Preschooler could have problems with amblyopia. |*School age child may have problems with mastering |
| |as noted as terrible twos, but they |*Preschool has difficulty with discriminating right|learning due to sensory deficits such as visual |
| |are learning by repetition. |and left mirror images, such as confusing letters, |problems such as hyperopic, farsighted. |
| |*Toddlers who withdraw from |b,d,p. (Edelman,C. &Mandle,2010,p.487). |*School age child may also have problems with |
| |interactions, and has impaired | |learning by not having intact hearing, and this |
| |communication may need to be | |deficit compromises learning in school, and |
| |evaluated for Autism. (Edelman, C., &| |important socialization with peers.(Edelman,C. & |
| |Mandle, 2010, p.463). | |Mandle, 2010,p.519) |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Sleep and Rest: |*Toddler should be sleeping 12 hours |*Preschool should sleep from 8-12 hours during the |*School age children should sleep 8-12 hours daily, |
| |a day, and 1or 2 naps. |night. |without naps. |
|List two normal assessment |*Toddler should have quiet time. |*Preschool should have quiet time daily. Preschool |* School age children does not have a problem with |
|findings that would be | |have bedtime rituals which consisting of activities|going to bed(Edelman, C.&Mandle, 2010,p.517) |
|characteristic for each age | |before bed time. (Edelman, C. & Mandle, 2010,p.485)| |
|group. | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddler tries to prevent getting |*Preschooler makes have problems with night waking.|*School age children may have problems with sleep |
| |rest by making requests. |*Preschooler may have problems sleeping in their |disturbances such as night terrors, sleep walking, |
| |*Toddler may have a problem with |own bed. (Edelman, C. &Mandle, 2010, p.286). |and sleep talking. |
| |night terrors. (Edelman, C. & Mandle,| |*Enuresis is also a problem with sleep |
| |2010, p.463.) | |disturbance.(Edelman,C.&Mandle, |
| | | |2010, p.517). |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Self-Perception and |*Toddler should have a sense of |*Develops a sense of initiative by their motor |*School age child focus is on their personality |
|Self-Concept: |autonomy by not depending on others. |activity, and active imagination. |development, and the child should have a sense of |
| |*Toddler should overcome the sense of|*Preschoolers self-esteem is built by reinforcing |industry. |
|List two normal assessment |doubt and shame.(Edelman, C. |skill, and accomplishing tasks. |*The school age child focus should be on success in |
|findings that would be |&Mandle,2010,p.466) | |personal tasks, and social tasks. (Edelman, C. & |
|characteristic for each age | | |Mandle, 2010, p.521). |
|group. | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*As a result of the toddler seeking |*If preschool is criticized they will feel guilty |*Problems with inferiority will result if repeated |
| |autonomy could result in a conflict |and inadequacy. |failure at attempted tasks. |
| |with the parent when the toddler |* The preschool is not allowed to try new |*School age child self-concept is viewed by as |
| |refuses to obey. |experiences by parents which delays promotion of |others see them, and their self-esteem also is |
| |*Toddler may have a temper tantrum in|development of initiative.(Edelman, C.& |viewed by as how others see them. (Edelman, C. & |
| |order to accomplish |Mandle,2010,p.491) |Mandle, 2010, p.521). |
| |autonomy.(Edelman,C. | | |
| |&Mandle,2010,p.466) | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Role-Relationship Pattern: |*Toddler knows the roles of parents |*Preschoolers understandings the gender |*School age child learn about behaviors which are |
| |and sibling by how the roles relate |expectations regarding jobs, activities, and |acceptable through limit setting, |
|List two normal assessment |to the toddler. |competencies of people in the environment. |*School age models their behavior after people they |
|findings that would be |*Toddler tends to expect certain |*Values ideas and information from their peers, and|love or admire. |
|characteristic for each age |roles from parents. |does role play to learn about new roles and to |*School age child will have school, and peer group |
|group. | |relieve stress.(Edelman,C. & Mandle, 2010,p.492) |relationship as a priority to promote socialization |
| | | |skills (Edleman, C. & Mandle, 2010, p.523. |
| | | | |
|List 2 potential problems that a| | | |
|nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddlers can regress to regain a |*Preschoolers can be negatively influenced by |*School age child may have problems with may get |
| |sense of mastery, when dealing with |inaccurate roles of male and female are depicted. |punishment |
| |sibling rivalry. |*Preschooler may become react to changes by |For a bad behaviors. |
| |*Toddler can get into fights with |displaying regression, confusion, or irritability |*School age child have may experience child abuse |
| |sibling in order to get rewards. |especially when they don’t understand. |which leads |
| |(Edelman, C. &Mandle, 2010, p.467). |(Edelman, C,&Mandle,2010,p.493) |to problems later on in life such as anxiety |
| | | |depression, and physical symptoms and |
| | | |illness.(Edelman, C. & Mandle,2010 p. 524) |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Sexuality – Reproductive |*Toddler will now explore their |*Preschooler knows that there are two genders, |* The school age child identifies their sexual |
|Pattern: |genital area by touching it. |which they identify with their own gender. |identity with the parent of the same gender. |
| |*Toilet training leads to the toddler|*Preschools has body image as part of gender |*School age child will learn the concept of gender |
|List two normal assessment |being curious about their genital |identity which they are curious about their body |and expected behavior which is incorporated into the|
|findings that would be |organ.(Edelman, C.&Mandle, 2010, |and sexual functions.(Edelman,C. & Mandle, 2010, |child’s self-concept, and there are desires to know |
|characteristic for each age |p.468) |p.493) |about their sexual function of their body, so they |
|group. | | |engage in exploration of body parts of others. |
| | | |(Edelman, C. & Mandle, 2010, p.525). |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddler may engage in masturbation |*Preschooler who seeks information about sexual |*The school age child which explores a child of the |
| |from exploration of their genitals. |information can sometimes can be viewed as naughty |same gender is viewed as wrong by parents.(Edelman, |
| |*Toddler exploration could lead to |or thus promotes negatively for the child. |C. & Mandle, 2010, p.525) |
| |discomfort or embarrassment for the |*Preschool may get a negative gender role model by |* The school age child seeks sexual information from|
| |parent. |television. |their peers, which sometimes may be the wrong |
| | |(Edelman, C.& Mandle,2010,p.493) |information. |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Coping and Stress |*Toddler copes by using temperament. |*Preschooler uses coping mechanisms like those of a|*School age children have to deal with stressors as |
|Tolerance: |* Toddler will imitate parent’s means|toddler such as separation anxiety, regression, |a result us a variety of coping skills such as |
|List two normal assessment |of coping. |denial, repression, and projection. |defense, mechanisms of regression, denial, |
|findings that would be | |* Preschooler copes with stressors by fantasy play |repression, projection, displacement, and |
|characteristic for each age | |(Edelman, C. Mandle, 2010, p.494). |sublimation. |
|group. | | |*The child may also use humor as a means to cope. |
| | | |(Edelman,C. & Mandle, 2010, p.527) |
|List wo potential problems that | | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddler can regress when feeling |*Preschooler may at times display temper tantrums |* School age child which does not cope will have |
| |over whelmed with stressors. |as a means to communicate to adults. |after effects such as |
| |*Toddler will have a problem with |* When the preschooler uses projection and fantasy |will behave in a juvenile manner. |
| |coping if not allowed to time to |this can cause the parents not to trust the |*The child who is exposed to stressors can develop |
| |rehearse before the stressor comes. |preschooler. (Edelman,C. & Mandle, 2010,p.494), |depression.(Edelman, C. & Mandle,2010,p.527) |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|Pattern of Value and Beliefs: |*Toddler relies on their parents to |*Preschoolers values are done by modeling, and |* The school age child will base their decisions on |
| |establish values and beliefs for |induction explanation which influence moral |moral development. |
|List two normal assessment |them. |behaviors. |*The child’s values come from cultural, religion, |
|findings that would be |*Toddlers belief that there are rules|*Preschoolers will express their values by stating |and parental values, and the concept of right and |
|characteristic for each age |and that you will be punished if |what they want to be when they grow up. |wrong. |
|group. |misbehaved. | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
|List two potential problems that| | | |
|a nurse may discover in an | | | |
|assessment of each age group. | | | |
| |*Toddlers tend not to get attention |*Preschoolers which experiences the death of a love|* Child may engage in lying, stealing and cheating |
| |when they are good, but only when |one may have behavioral, and sleep |regarding moral behaviors.(Edelman,C.& |
| |they are bad. |disturbances.(Edelman,C.& Mandle, 2010,p.494) |Mandle,2010,p.528) |
| |*Toddlers may have a problem because | | |
| |religion beliefs which are passed on | | |
| |by the family do not mean that child | | |
| |will end up being a good child. | | |
| |(Edelman, C. &Mandle, 2010, p.469). | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |
| | | | |

Short Answer Questions

Address the following based on the above assessment findings. Expected answers will be 1-2 paragraphs in length. Cite and reference outside sources used.

1) Compare and contrast identified similarities as well as differences in expected assessment across the childhood age groups.

The child in each age group desired to have approval from their peers, and wanted a sense of belonging. However, as the child grows up the the child did not desire as much interaction with that of their family, but that of their peers. The family indeed does have an influence on how the child develops, however, so did the child’s environment as well. In the toddler, and the preschool age child there was a need of rituals before bed time, but on the other hand with the school age child there was not. Also, all ages feel the need to explore their environments as a means to grow, learn a And have a sense of wellbeing.

2) Summarize how a nurse would handle physical assessments, examinations, education, and communication differently with children versus adults. Consider spirituality and cultural differences in your answer. The nurse should handle educationing the child, differently since the child seeks gratification and praise, when making accomplishment, therefore, the nurse should offer rewards to the child, during education, and regard the physical assessments should explain what they are doing before they do it and have the parent present as a means of reassure for that child.

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Children's Functional Health Assessment Pattern

...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority (Edelman, Kudzma,&Mandle, 2010) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | Child learns to be more independent and acquires new skills. He/she relies on the caregiver for the health management. -Choosing a toy to play with. -Not afraid to walk away from their parent | Child explores his/her interpersonal skills via initiating activities, know parts of their body. -Able to verbalize pain -Leading others | Child develops sense of pride in his/her achievements, understand the need for healthy checkups. -Know how to read and write -Confident and able to achieve goals. | | -Accidental injuries -Poor dental hygiene | -Feeling guilty for being nuisance. -Become slow in interacting with others | - Feeling of inferiority -Frequent illnesses | Nutritional-Metabolic Pattern: List two normal assessment......

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...Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP) | Toddler Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | Preschool-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Initiative vs. Guilt (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | School-Aged Erickson’s Developmental Stage: Industry vs. Inferiority. (Edelman & Mandle, 2010) | Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management: List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group. List two potential problems that a nurse may discover in an assessment of each age group. | They can vocalize when they are sick. Health management is dependent on caregivers. Brushing teeth and washing hands. | Preschoolers can verbalize pain and how they feel. Curiosity of their own body and its functions become present. Preschoolers tend to have more of an accurate perception of their own bodily parts and their function. They know what their bodily parts are responsible for doing. | School-age children have awareness of their bodily functions. Cultural influences may also add/give to the school-age child's perception of illness. They have more of an intellectual understanding of what health is and what can cause illness. | | No health history or screenings. Poor oral hygiene on the caregiver’s part can lead to further dental issues. Parental knowledge deficit can......

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