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Functioning of Brain

In: Science

Submitted By Humaira
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Pages 10
The Neuroscience on the Web Series:
CMSD 620 Neuroanatomy of Speech, Swallowing and Language
CSU, Chico, Patrick McCaffrey, Ph.D. | |

Chapter 4 Cerebral Lobes, Cerebral Cortex, and Brodmann's Areas | | The Cerebral LobesEach cerebral hemisphere is divided into four lobes; the frontal, parietal, temporal, and the occipital.The Frontal Lobe is the most anterior lobe of the brain. Its posterior boundary is the fissure of Rolando, or central sulcus, which separates it from the parietal lobe. Inferiorly, it is divided from the temporal lobe by thefissure of Sylvius which is also called the lateral fissure.This lobe deals with with higher level cognitive functions like reasoning and judgment. Sometimes called executive function, it is associated with the pre-frontal cortex. Most importantly the frontal lobe contains several cortical areas involved in the control of voluntary muscle movement, including those necessary for the production of speech and swallowing.Broca's Area is found on the inferior third frontal gyrus in the hemisphere that is dominant for language. This area is involved in the coordination or programming of motor movements for the production of speech sounds. While it is essential for the execution of the motor movements involved in speech it does not directly cause movement to occur. The firing of neurons here does not generate impulses for motor movement instead it generates motor programming pattern. This motor plan is sent to upper motor neurons in the precentral gyrus (motor strip) which in turn send the signals to to the lower motor neurons (cranial and spinal nerves) which take the signals to muscle end plates.Broca's area is also involved in syntax which involves the ordering of words, and morphology-the allomorphs at the ends of words e.g., hat+s=hats.Injuries to Broca's area may cause apraxia or Broca's aphasia.The precentral gyrus,...

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