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Fundamental of Business Writing

In: Business and Management

Submitted By moeguen
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Chapter One Introdution: Fundamentals of Business Writing

I. The major differences between school writing and business writing School writing, typically in the form of essays, is aimed at impressing the audience, i.e. examiners. To score high, student writers have to use fairly complicated vocabulary and sentences in their written work. Business writers, however, mainly aim to communicate information to their colleagues, clients, and other associated parties. They are relatively free to use what language that can get the business done efficiently and effectively.

II. Seven steps in the process of wring 1. clarifying your aim 2. identifying your readers 3. making a general plan 4. sketching a synopsis (大纲) 5. drafting your text 6. putting the draft aside 7. revising and editing

★ Writing is a recursive and creative process. The detailed plan is not adhered to in actual writing. Writers frequently come up with ideas that are activated in the process of writing. Writers read the text they have already produced to help generate more ideas. In effect, the writing process is no linear at all but is characterized by recursive ness and creativeness.

III. Three principles of business writing 1. Clarity – means setting your message across clearly. (See detailed information on page 4) 2. Consideration – good business writers take their readers’ needs, problems, and reactions to the writing into consideration. And they put themselves in the readers’ position. (P 5) 3. Correctness – means business writers should use language and approaches that are appropriate to the purpose of writing. (P 6)

IV. Intercultural Awareness in Business Writing (See P 7-8) V. Ethical issues in business writing

★ Intercultural and ethical issues are relevant to business writing. People in intercultural business are usually from different cultures. They are likely to have different ways of doing business. Such differences may cause problems for them when they meet for business.

Business, in essence, is profit-driven. This ultimate goal may run against moral considerations, or ethics. Business ethics is brought forth to address this possible conflict. In addition, language in use is never neutral by nature.
VI. Assignments 1. Ask the students to do warranty to III orally in class. 2. If possible, do Ex. IV. in class. Do the exercise in their informal exercise book. They don’t have to hand in.

Chapter Two The Layout of Business Letter

I. The Seven Essential Parts of a Business Letter: 1. The letterhead, the dateline, the inside address, the salutation, the body of the letter, the complimentary close, and the signature The sample on page 12 of the textbook can clearly show the seven essential parts.

II. The Optional Parts of a Business Letter Discuss the sample on page 15 with the students in class. The optional parts of the business letter cannot be found in many business writing books. Therefore, remind the students of these parts. The following is a summary of the complete elements in a business letter (indented form).

| 1. Heading |
|2. Ref. No. |
| |
| 3. Date |
| |
|4. Inside Address |
| |
|5. Attention Line |
| |
|6. Salutation |
|7. Subject Line |
|8. Body of the Letter |
|………………………………………………………… |
|…………………………………………………………… |
|…………………………………………………………… |
|……………………………………………………………. |
|9. Complementary Close |
|10. Signature |
|11. Typist Initials |
|12. Enclosure Notation |
|13. Copy Notation (Carbon Copy) |
|14. Postscript |

★ Note: 1. Reference Number: this refers to the coded number created by the sender so that it is easy for him to arrange and keep the files. The reference number is only for the sender’s convenience and is irrelevant to the addressee. For example: Your Ref. No. TG-7883 Our Ref. No. CQ-8912 Sometimes the reference number is mentioned in the first paragraph of the body. Let’s take another example. “We refer to your letter of September 21, 2002, ref. No. AG-31800…” 2. Copy Notation (Carbon Copy): when copies of the letter are sent to others, the names of these people should be typed after “cc” (carbon (复写纸) copy) at the left margin. If you do not want the addressee to know the others are getting the letter, your secretary can type “bcc” (blind) carbon copy) and the recipients’ (收件人) names on the carbon copies only. For example: cc: Tim Richardson bcc: Helen Clark 3. Identification Mark: Business letters often require the initials of the message dictator and the typist so that it is easy to identify and arrange the files. The initials appear at the left margin below the signature. The dictator’s initials are capitalized while those of the typists are either capitalized or not. Colons or slashes are used to separate the dictator and the typist. For example:

JFK: MT JFK: mt JFK/mt ↓ ↓ dictator’s typist’s initials initials 4. Postscript

5. Pagination

|Ms Helen Beaman 2 Mar 12, 2004 |
| |
|Ms Helen Beaman |
|Mar 12, 2004 |
|Page 2 |

Sample One (Indented form) (for both essential parts and optional parts)

|Xi’an Textile Import and Export Corporation |
|98 Chang’an Road |
|Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 |
|Tel: 8899677 Fax: 8800678 |
| |
|August 20, 2005 |
| |
|Our Ref: MT/1 |
|Your Ref: |
| |
|The India Trading Company |
|16 High Road |
|New Delhi, India |
| |
|Attention: Sales Manager |
| |
|Dear Sir or Madam: |
| |
|Subject: Coat Buttons |
| |
|We learn from an advertisement that you are exploring various coat buttons. As the texile and garment companies need them to |
|make coats, we are interested in knowing what the quality and the price are. |
| |
|Will you please send us a copy of your catalogue, with details of your prices and terms of payment? We should find it most |
|helpful you could supply samples of the goods. |
| |
|Very truly yours, |
|Li Dayou |
|Li Dayou |
|General Manager |
|Xi’an Textile Import & Export Corp |
| |
|JFK/mt |
| |
|Encl. 4 photos |
| |
|Cc: Tim Richardson |
| |
|Ps: Please visit our website: http//:www. |

Sample Two (blocked form)

|L. Wilkinson Super Chain Store |
|24 Broadgate Road |
|Beeston |
|Nottingham NG81PL |
|United Kingdom |
| |
|July 23, 2004 |
| |
|The China National Light Industrial Products I & E Corp |
|56 Chang’an Avenue |
|Beijing, China |
| |
|Dear Sir or Madam: |
| |
|The air pumps we imported from your corporation sell very well in our chain stores throughout England. We wonder if you |
|could provide new supply in this market as soon as possible. |
| |
|It will be a pleasure to hear from you. |
| |
|Sincerely yours, |
|Larry Smith |
|Larry Smith |
|Sales Manager |

III. The Layout of the Envelope
Refer to page 17 in the textbook. That is a typical envelope. And the following sample also shows a typical English envelope.

|Stamp |
| |
|British Overseas Trading Co. |
|32 Baker Street |
|London EC 3 |
|England |
| |
|Dr. Li Desheng |
|Xi’an Textile Trading Corp. |
|18 Chang’an Road |
|Xi’an, Shaanxi 710060 |
|People’s Republic of China |

III. The Design and Presentation of a Business Letter

The sample on page 18 of the textbook is clearly displayed how a business letter should be designed.

IV. Assignments 1. Do Ex. 1 on page 20 in the informal exercise book. I’ll check next time. 2. Complete Ex. 2 of the this page in the formal exercise book and hand in by due time.

Chapter Three Business Correspondence (I) — The Direct Approach to Good-News and Neutral Messages

I. The definition of the direct approach The direct approach means arranging ideas in a direct order, usually beginning with the most important and working downward. This approach is good for all good-news and neutral messages. It gives the reader the sense of immediacy.

II. The general structure of good-news and neutral messages (4 steps) (Refer to P22)

1. Begin with the main point. 2. Present necessary explanations. 3. Cover the remaining part of the objective. 4. End with adapted goodwill.
III. The direct approach to enquiries and responses to inquiries

1. Different spelling of the word “enquiry”: “enquire”, “enquiry”, “inquire”, or inquiry. 2. The structure of the direct approach to enquiries and responses to inquiries 1. Begin a message with an inquiry. 2. Explain the urgency next. 3. End with a lure of potential business. 3. Usually the direct approach is used among the people who know each other very well. But it is also proper even with acquaintances. (See P22-23). Besides the direct approach is also used to response to inquiries.

Traditionally the writer tempted to begin with an explanation or other talk. Early textbooks on correspondence made a point of delaying vital information as a way to show courtesy and respect. This practice persists today. (See P23-24)

VI. The direct approach to orders

1. Terms and expressions ① (promotional) literature: (infml) pamphlets or leaflets. (推销)宣传册 eg. Please send me any literature you have on camping holiday in Spain. 2. Order forms are usually provided by the sellers in the promotional literature. As a writer all you have to do is to fill in the blanks as required and return the forms to the seller. (See P25-26)

V. The direct approach to order acknowledgements 1. Terms and expressions: 1. acknowledgement: letter, etc stating that something has been received. (表示收到某物的)回信,收条,回帖等。/ 致谢,答谢 2. look to sb for/look to sb to do sth: rely on sb./ expect sb to provide sth or do sth 依赖或指望某人提供…… 2. The general structure of the order acknowledgements 1. Specifying the delivery date. It is best to begin the acknowledgement with a specific date of delivery. 2. Building goodwill. Expressions of appreciation are necessary to build goodwill and express gratitude. 3. Reselling products or services. A special acknowledgement with positive information helps the customer especially the new one familiarize with your products. (See P26-27)

VI. The direct approach to complaints and claims 1. Introduction Complaints and claims are typical bad news messages. Bad news messages are usually written in the indirect approach. But many people also believe that the direct approach can be used for certain complaints and claims. 2. The reasons for using the direct approach to complaints and claims. 1. Business people want to know as soon as possible when something wrong has happened to their products or services so that they can correct the situation immediately. 2. Directness lends to clarity of purpose. 3. The structure of the direct approach to complaints and claims (See P27-28) The direct approach can be used for some complaints and claims, particularly when they are small in value and significance and when the evidence is conclusive. 1. State the problem directly. 2. Give enough facts to warrant a claim. 3. End positively with a friend but firm tone. Note: Discuss the sample on P28 with the students together in class, helping them understand the organization of the direct approach used in the sample.

VII. The direct approach to other situations Besides the situations mentioned above, the direct approach is also applied to many other occasions. As a matter of fact, many routine messages are organized in the direct approach. They are intended to inform rather than to persuade. Though they take the same general form, adaptation may be required for some occasions. (See the sample on P29).

VIII. Assignments: 1. Ask the students to read what we have learned in class, discussing Ex I & II. On P30 with their pardoners. 2. Do Ex III, IV, and V in class. 3. Written assignment: Ex VI. Every student must hand in his assignment in due time.

IX. Comments on the students assignments: 1. Many students do not know how to use the word “dozen”. Eg. We need three dozen eggs. Pack them in dozens.

When the word “dozen” is used to express the number, its plural form is the same as the singular one. Eg. Four dozen Princess handbags 2. Some of the students fail to use the direct approach in their writing. They use rather roundabout way to explain the pints, instead. 3. A few students seem not to understand the situation in the exercise described. They do not understand the relationship between the sellers.

Chapter Three Business Correpondence (II) — The Indirect Approach to Bad-News Messages

I. Introduction The ability to say “no” is essential to the success of a business. II. The main reason for using the indirect approach to bad-news messages The main reason for this approach is that negative messages may be received more favorably when good news is released first. III. The general structure of bad news messages 1. Begin with a buffer. (See the examples on P34-35) 1. A buffer is a device or a piece of material for reducing the shock. In our case, a buffer refers to a delay of bad news. It means some writing that reduce the negative impact of the bad news. 2. The good news is a good buffer if you have both good news and bad news. 3. The buffer may be something to which the readers will respond positively if there is no good news. 4. Make a reference to the some early communication or even some small talk that will not betray your bad news if the situation is the worst. 2. Explain why the refusal has to be made. Present the reasons for refusal tactfully and convincingly so that the negative impact can be alleviated. 3. State the refusal. 4. Close positively. Do not apologize for your refusal. End the message on a happy note. At least, you should not remind your readers of the negative message. You may end your message with “please call us for service.”

IV. Adapt the general structure to particular bad-news messages 1. Say “no” to an order (See the sample on P36) Efforts should be made to retain the customer and to keep goodwill when order must be declined. 2. Say “no” to an adjustment requirement (See the sample on P37-48) 1. In writing an adjustment refusal, the general structure can be adapted with emphasis on the explanations supported by facts, evidence, and survey reports. 2. Offer alternative solutions because your buyer will welcome a solution to the problem. 3. Do not blame the customer for anything. The refusal is delivered in a tactful manner. 3. Say “no” to credit request (P38-39) 1. Credit means the practice of permitting a buyer to receive goods or services before payment. 2. The organization of a credit refusal may take the general structure for the indirect approach, with emphasis on courtesy and tact. 3. Some financial terminology ※ L/C (letter or credit): A document whereby a bank, at the request of a customer, undertakes to pay money to a third party (the beneficiary) on presentation of documents specified in the letter (e.g. bills of lading (提货单)and policies of insurance). The obligation of the bank to pay is independent of the underlying contract of sale and so is not affected by any defects in the goods supplied under the contract of sale. A contract of sales of goods may require the buyer to open an irrevocable letter of credit in favor for the seller. This cannot be revoked by the issuing bank or the purchaser of the goods before its expiry (ending.) date, without the payment to the beneficiary. A firmed letter or credit is one in which the negotiating bank guaranteers payment to the beneficiary should it not be honoured by the issuing bank. ※ D/P (documents against payment): Payment terms for exported goods in which the shipping documents are sent to a bank, agent, etc., in the country to which the goods are being shipped, and the buyer then obtains the documents by paying the invoice amount in cash to the bank, agent, etc. Having the shipping documents enables the buyer to take possession of the goods when they arrive at their port of destination; this is known as documents against payment. ※ D/A (documents against acceptance): A method of payment for goods that have been exported in which the exporter sends the shipping documents with a bill of exchange to a bank or agent at the port of destination. The bank or agent releases the goods when the bill has been accepted by the consignee. (收货人) V. Assignments: 1. Do exercise I after class with the desk mates or in a group. Also have a try and do some discussion in class before the text explanation next semester. Activate the students and create a good atmosphere in class. 2. Do Ex II and III in class and have a discussion. 3. Ask the students to do Ex. IV. after class and write the improved letter in their informal exercise book. Next time before class.

Chapter Three Business Correspondence(III) — The Indirect Approach to Sales Messages

I. The Nature of Sales Messages 1. The features of sales messages 1. he essence of sales messages: is persuasion. And the nature of persuasion is to gain readers’ support and motivate them to act. ② Persuasive messages were written in indirect approach. ③ Sales messages must convincingly present facts and reasons. 2. Existing contracts vs strangers ① Persuasive messages written to existing contracts are quite different from those to strangers. Sales messages from new sources are often viewed with caution and suspicion. 2. Sales letters are written to strangers. To accomplish their purpose, sales letters must overcome readers’ resistance to the request in the messages, or even to the receiving of such messages. More importantly, they must convince their readers that they will gain something more valuable than the time or money they are going to spend.
II. The General Structure 1. What is the “direct marketing? Sales messages are sent to potential clients without invitation, a practice commonly known as direct-mail marketing. 2. The general structure of the sales message ① To arouse attention Sales messages must, first of all, attract the attention of the targeted readers. In a direct-mail marketing, many designers place an attention-getter on the envelope. It may be an offer of a gift (“Free gift inside”). It may be a brief sales message 9’12 months of Time at 60% off the newsstand (bookstall 书摊) price”). It may be a picture or a message. As for e-mail, the subject line is the main place for getting attention. The window pop-up is the attention getter that leads you to other websites. It is one of the very popular sales promotional endeavor on the internet. The sales message will appear when you click on the icon in the pop-up window. There are many ways to arouse attention. The only limit is your imagination. ② To create interest and desire The critical point is to make your goods or services attractive and unique. In order to feature your product or service, you must study the product or service and then choose the right appeal. A appeal means the strategy you use to present a product or service to your readers. Peals can be divided into two broad categories: emotional and rational. In emotional appeals, your persuasive efforts are directed to how people feel, taste, smell, hear, and see. The also include strategies that arouse us through love, anger, pride, fear, and enjoyment. In rational appeals, your persuasive efforts are directed to reason – to the thinking mind. Such appeals include strategies based on saving money, making money, doing a job better, or getting better use from a product. In any given case, many appeals are available to you. The choice depends on the product or service, and on your readers. Such products as perfume, candy and fine food lend themselves to emotional appeals. On the other hand, such products as automobile tires, tools, and industrial equipment are sold through rational appeals. The choice of appeals may have something to do with the product life cycle and marketing strategy. (See P46) 3. To convince Once you have obtained your reader’s attention and developed it into interest and desire, you proceed to present your product or service as fulfilling his desire better than any others’. You would point out your product and stress all the benefits that your product can offer. The following methods can tell you how to convince your readers and customers. ① Analyze your product carefully to determine your strongest psychological selling points. ② Select the most important psychological selling point about your product or service, and build your sales message around it. ③ Show how your product or service will make your reader’s job easier, increase his status, make personal life more pleasant, and so on. ④ Remember to describe the physical features of your product in terms of their benefits to your reader. Help him imagine himself using your product or service – and enjoying the satisfaction of doing so. 4. To motivate action (See the samples on P48) ① Tell your readers how to obtain the product or service ② Request your reader to provide personal information on an enclosed card, to come to your showroom for a demonstration, or to authorize a home sales visit. ③ Offer incentives that will make your reader responsive.
III. Selling on the Internet: Putting These All Together (See the sample on P49) 1. The differences between sales message writing and normal business writing. 1. Sales writing is usually highly conversational, fast moving, and aggressive. 2. Sales writing uses techniques that are incorrect or inappropriate in other forms of business writing: sentence fragments, one-sentence paragraphs, folksy (simple in manners and customs.朴实的,亲切的) language, and etc. 3. It uses mechanical emphasis devices (underline CAPITALIZATION, boldface, italics, exclamation marks, colors) to a high degree. 4. It uses graphics and graphics devices as well as a variety of type sizes and fonts. 5. Its paragraphing often appears choppy. 6. Sales messages are quite long, compared with other types of messages, for instance, good-news and bad-news messages. Obviously, the direct-mail professionals believe that whatever will help sales is appropriate. You have to study hard and practice for long time before you can be proficient in writing sales messages.

VI. Assignments: 1. Ask the students to review the whole chapter and do Ex. 1 to 3 on P50 after class. Next time, before class there will be a discussion about the exercise and the proper answers. 2. Encourage the students to try different websites and get more real samples of sales messages on Internet. ※ Assignment feedback: Some students cannot fully understand the exercise on P50. Since the exercise presents many sentence fragments and new terms used on Internet, the students are very puzzled. So a discussion n class with the whole class is very necessary.

Chapter Four Memos and E-mails
I. Memos 1. The definition Memos vary to a great extent in formality and complexity and have quite wide applications for both internal and external communication. In this chapter, we concentrate on memos for internal use. Memos are simple, efficient means of communication within an organization. They are simple because they usually omit the expensive formality of the letterhead, inside address, salutation, complimentary close and signature block, which are commonly used in business letters. They are efficient because their format convey the writer’s point quickly and directly to the readers. 2. The usage of memos In a company, memos are used to announce policies, disseminate (spread (ideas, beliefs) widely) information, delegate (entrust duties to sb. In a lower position) responsibilities, instruct employees, and report the result of a research or an investigation. Companies also rely on memos to keep employees informed of company goals, to motivate employees to achieve the goals, and to build employee morale. 3. Historical Context (background) Learning something about the origin of memos may help clarify the function of their special format and the informal writing style typical in internal business communication. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century in the United States, memos developed from business letters. At that time, businesses saw two great changes. 1. Small businesses grew into large organizations through merger and acquisition or through their own development, resulting from rapid economic growth. The internal business correspondence experienced a fundamental change because of the increasing demand for written information within the organization. A brief, direct and efficient style began to be used. 2. The invention of the typewriter pushed forward the development of the memo’s distinctive format. Professional typists favored standardized formats. And the vertical files were widely accepted in the office work.

II. Five features of Successful Memos 1. Subject headings. Headings as To, From, Date, and Subject, are guidewords in memos, which help readers immediately know the date, the sender, and the purpose of the message. 2. Single topic. A successful memo discusses only one topic. Limiting the topic helps the reader concentrate on the subject and take action on the subject quickly. A single topic also makes it easy to file and retrieve the memo. 3. Conversational tone. The tone of memos tends to be conversational because both the writer and the reader are familiar with each other. Therefore, you may use ordinary words, first-person pronouns, and occasional contractions, like don’t, I’m, you’re, or we’ll. Yet, this does not mean you should be casual with your writing. You shouldn’t include any remark that you wouldn’t make to the face of your colleagues. 4. Conciseness. As an efficient form of internal communication, memos contain only what you intend to convey. Often you do not have to provide background information when you are certain the reader knows about the subject discussed in the memo, nor do you need to make as much goodwill effort as you do in letters to your business partners outside of the organization. You should avoid wordy expressions and sentences. 5. Visual signaling. Effective memo writers highlight important words, phrases, points, and sections with 1. numbers or bullets listed vertically; 2. boldface or italics; 3. headings and subheadings.

III. Two components of Memos (P56) 1. Memo headings. Most companies provide letterhead memo stationery with printed headings on the left near the top of the first page (See Figure A on P56). The elements of the headings may appear in a different order (figure B), decided by custom, the style manual of the company, or by the file system. Sometimes you may write a memo that is authorized or approved by your supervisor. In this case, you may put your supervisor’s name on the “Through” line (Figure C).

|To: ______________ | |Date: _____________ | |Date: _____________ |
|From: ____________ | |To: ______________ | |To: ______________ |
|Date: _____________ | |From: ____________ | |From: ____________ |
|Subject: ___________ | |Subject: ___________ | |Through: _________ |
| | | | |Subject: __________ |

Figure A Figure B Figure C 2. Memo messages. Most memo messages contain three parts: 1. Opening. Start a memo with a quick introduction to the message by restating, or emphasizing the purpose of the message once again. Then you can start the discussion. 2. Body. The body of the memo supplies the reasons, details, or explanations that support the main idea. 3. Closing. You may end a memo with an urge for action if the memo requires some action or decision. (See P58).

III. E-mails E-mail, electronic mail, shows the importance of this relatively new communication medium. It was a means of transmitting messages through the computer network within organizations, but now it links people and business all over the word. 1. Features of E-mail Messages An e-mail message is different from paper correspondence or telephone conversation. It possesses the characteristics of both of these communication forms. 1. You may write an e-mail message in a business letter format to your customers, suppliers, or others. Casual e-mail messages for job-related communication are likely to do your organization great harm. 2. E-mail messages are usually very quick but many contain grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors. 3. E-mail is most effective when you send simple messages. But when you deliver the long or complicated documents, you should attach them to the message. This feature gives tremendous power to this communication medium. 4. E-mail messages can be stored in the computer system for up to five years.
VI. Eight Rules that an E-mail Message usually follow. 1. What is “etiquette”? Netiquette, a new word blended with “internet” and “etiquette”, is a set of common rules developed by e-mail message writers. 2. Eight Rules that an e-mail message writers should follow: 1. An e-mail message should fit into one screen. Don’t send dense and lengthy messages. 2. When sending a long document, do it as an attached file with a brief table of contents or a short paragraph summarizing the key point on the first screen. Use headings to break up a long text and make each paragraph short. 3. The level of formality of an e-mail message depends on the purpose and audience. Use correct spelling and grammar even when you write an internal message. 4. Computer and e-mail system vary. 5. Check your e-mail messages regularly and respond as quickly as you can. 6. Don’t send messages containing biased, abusive language or obscene ( 淫秽的) photos. 7. Use e-mail abbreviations and emoticons sparingly. Emoticons or sideways faces made with punctuation marks and letters, are used to represent the writer’s mood. They are very often used for casual messages but not appropriate for business messages. 8. Use abbreviations only when you know your readers will understand them.

V. E-mail format Most e-mail messages contain two major parts: headings and messages. 1. Headings. (See P60) 2. Salutation. 3. Body. 4. Closing.

Chapter Five Meeting Materials

I. Meeting Notices II. Meeting Agendas
III. Minutes 1. Definition. Minutes are the written records of business meetings. They record decisions, review past activities, and provide the evidence of decision-making processes. 2. Nine Principles for Writing Minutes 1. Keep minutes brief and to the point. 2. Give complete information on each topic discussed at the meeting. 3. Transcribe motions (formal proposal to be discussed and voted on at a meeting. 动议,提议) word for word. 4. Summarize what occurs and paraphrase discussions. 5. Use headings and subheadings to categorize each major section, for instance, Discussion, Action Take. 6. Avoid abstractions and generalities. Be specific. 7. Use names and titles to refer to people consistently and avoid suggesting deference (respect) to a certain participant unintentionally. 8. Avoid adjectives and adverbs that suggest good or bad qualities, keeping minutes as objective as possible. 9. Use the passive voice to describe the events and change participants’ informal words into formal words.

VI. Content of Minutes (See P62) VII. Exercises: 1. Ask the students to do Ex. I of P64 in class and have a discussion. 2. Ask the students to look through Ex. II and III. Quickly in class and have a discussion. 3. Do Ex. IV. after class. And this is the written assignment. Every student must make sure that he has to hand in his assignment in time.
※ Comments on the students’ assignments: 1. In one class almost half students do not fully understand the situation described in the textbook. 2. Some of them are confused the audience and writer. 3. Some do not really know how to use the word “faculty” properly. 4. A Very few students are unclear about the format of the memo.

Chapter Six Business Reports

I. Different Categories of Reports Business reports can be dived into different categories according to different ways. 1. By content: feasibility report, laboratory report, proposal report 2. By function: informational report, analytical report 3. By printed form: absence report, accident report, trip report, petty cash report 4. By format: memo report, letter report, manuscript 5. By time: preliminary report, progress report, periodic report, final report 6. By formality: informal report, formal report 7. By length: short report, long report

II. Functions of Report 1. Two purposes of Business report 1. To provide information. 2. To analyze the collected data and to supply conclusions and recommendations. 2. Two Categories of Business reports according to the purposes: 1. Informational reports are reports to provide information. Reports like trip reports, situational reports, compliance reports, and investigative reports are informational reports. 2. Analytical reports provide data, analyses, and conclusions on the issue that the writer has been asked to investigate. Reports like feasibility reports, justification or recommendation reports, and yardstick reports belong to this category.

III. Trips for Creating good Business Reports 1. Follow the standard report structure. 2. Use headings and subheadings to divide the report into sections. 3. Use transitional words or phrases that link ideas together.

IV. Direct and Indirect Approaches (See samples on P70) 1. The direct approach is the pattern that presents a solution to the problem at the beginning. When you know your readers are supportive or are familiarize with the topic, you can organize the report in a direct pattern. 2. The indirect report is a report that emphasizes the conclusions and recommendations towards the end of the report. If your readers know little of the subject or they may be disappointed with the findings, you may choose the indirect pattern.

V. Format and Length of Report 1. There are four commonly used formats: 1. Printed form. Companies prepare the forms for certain types of reports. These reports deal with routine information. You just supply the information asked for. 2. Letter form. Reports in letter format are usually prepared for outside readers. They have all the letter components and reports sections. They may be up to 5 pages in length. 3. Memo. Reports written in memo format are for internal use. Memo reports may have headings and subheadings which may make them easy to read. 4. Manuscript. Reports in manuscript format are formal reports, running from a few pages to several hundred pages. Long reports need special parts before and after the next. 2. The length of the report depend on the subject and purpose of the report, as well as the readers’ familiarity with the subject and the possible conclusion.

VI. Informal Reports 1. Format and length. Informal reports are short, normally running from a few paragraphs to a few pages. They, either in letter format or in memo format. 3. Essential elements of the informal reports. 1. Introduction. This is the first part of the report. Usually the writer may announce the subject of the report and provide background information. He may also summarize conclusions and recommendations to make this part into an executive summary, giving his readers enough essential information. 2. Body. In the body of the report, the writer should organize the data he has collected for the report and present a clear and logical account of the subject. He may use headings to identify major divisions and use visual aids to make it easier for his readers to catch the important points even if he writes the report in letter format. 3. Conclusions. The report writer should summarize his findings in the last part of the report, drawing conclusions and /or making recommendations.

VII. formal Reports 1. The general features of the formal reports. 1. Length: a formal report can be short or long. 2. Format: informal or analytical, direct or indirect. 3. Language: formal. 2. Three components of formal reports 1. Prefatory part. This part is composed of the following seven parts: a. Cover. Many companies have standard covers for reports and proposals, imprinted with the company’s name and logo. The title should be printed on the cover. If the company do not have standard covers, you can find proper covers which are attractive and appropriate for the subject in stationery stores. A decent cover gives readers a good impression on the report. b. Title fly and title page. The title fly is a plain sheet of paper with only the title of the report on it. It is not the essential part, but the report looks formal with it. The title page includes: the title of the report, the name, title, and address of the person or organization for whom the report is prepared; the name, title, and address of the person and organization that prepared the report; the data on which the report was submitted. c. Letter of authorization and letter of acceptance.. The letter of authorization is a letter inviting the writer to produce the report. The letter of acceptance is a letter accepting the task to conduct the study and to write the report. d. Letter of transmittal. The letter of transmittal, or cover letter, addresses the receiver of the report. e. Executive summary. This is an independent piece of writing, summarizing the major points of the report. It may contain headings, well-developed transitions, and even visual aids. Some experts suggest the writer to put the executive summary before the table of contents. f. Table of contents. It contains all the headings and subheadings and their beginning page numbers in the table of contents. Items that appear before the table usually are not listed. g. List of illustrations. If many tables and figures are involved in the report, they need to be listed. ②. Text of the report. The text of a typical formal report contains the following three parts:

a. Introduction. Te section tells the readers the report’s purpose, previews its contents and organization, and sets up the tone of the report. b. Body. In this section, you should present, analyze, and interpret the findings and use them to support your conclusions and recommendations. c. Conclusion and recommendations. This is the final section of the report. The writer will discuss what his findings mean. This answers the question that has caused him to write the report. He may include measures that he think can solve the problem. 4. Supplementary Parts This section is provided in long reports. The section consists of three parts; an appendix, a bibliography, and an index. a. An appendix contains the materials that you didn’t want to put in the report. b. A bibliography is the list of sources you cited when writing the report. c. An index lists the names, place, and subjects that have appeared in the report.

VIII. Preparations for Business Reports Before you write a report, you should do a series of preparations. 1. Defining the problems and the purposes 1. Write a problem statement, which shows the issue that has caused you to work on the report. 2. Be ready to write the statement of purpose, which defines the objectives of the report. 2. Conducting the research ① From two sources to find the information to support the quality of the report.. A. The primary sources--provide information that you collect by yourself for your report. B. The secondary sources –offer information that has been previously collected for other purposes. The internet, publications, company files, and government documents are the important secondary sources. 1. Four ways of doing research. When the information you need is not available from the secondary source, you must collect data by doing research. A. Reading company’s documents. B. Making observations. C. Conducting surveys. D. Carrying out experiments. 3. Data analysis. After doing the research, you can start analyzing the data and interpret the findings. This process is to search for relations among the facts. 4. Drawing conclusions and making recommendations This is the last step of preparation you should make before you write a report. 1. A sound conclusion is necessary. When you draw a conclusion, you must make sure that A. It should fulfill the original statement of purpose; B. It must be based on the information provided in the report; C. It must be logical. 2. Based on the analysis and conclusion, you can make recommendations. A. A conclusion differs from a recommendation. It offers an opinion or interpretation of what the facts mean. B. A recommendation suggests ways to solve the problems the research started with. It provides concrete measures to solve the problem and fulfill the report objective.

IX. Exercise 1. Ask the students to do Ex. I in their informal exercise book. And next week I’ll check. 2. Do Ex. II in class. 3. Do Ex. III after class orally. 4. Do Ex. IV in class. 5. Write a report according to the requirements described on the textbook. Everybody must hand in due time.

Chapter Seven Informational and Analytical Reports

I. Informational Reports Informational reports help the management collect information about corporate operations. In this chapter, we’ll discuss three types of informational reports. 1. Periodic Reports 1. Definition You are expected to write periodic reports regularly describing all the jobs assigned during the reporting period. ② The form and content of the periodic reports Many organizations provide a standard report form that employees can periodically fill out. The contents of periodic reports vary depending on the nature of the report or the company’s standards. 3. Three points which should be included when writing a periodic report. A. Summarize regular activities and events during the reporting period. B. Describe unusual events to which the management should pay attention. C. Highlight the problems and needs. 2. Situational Reports ① Definition Situational reports cover nonrecurring situations, including reports, progress reports. etc. They are often prepared in memo format like other informational reports. The tone of these reports is informal and the length varies, depending on the actual situation and readers’ expectation. ② Structure You may start a situational report with a brief introduction to the situation to familiarize readers with the topic and end it with a closing. ③ Two types of situational reports A. Trip Reports (See the sample on P86) Aa. Definition and purposes Many companies require employees to prepare a report after they return from a business trip. In the report they should describe their experiences and accomplishments, so that management will know what and how they did on the trip, and other employees may benefit from their trip. In a trip report, you need to identify the destination and the dates of the trip in the subject line. To make the report readable, you may use headings for each of the events. Ab. Structure You may start the report with a statement that answers the question, “What have I learned from my trip that the company can use?” In the body of the report, you should explain why you made the trip, whom you visited, and what you accomplished. Finally you conclude the report with recommendations if you think it valuable for the company to act on them. B. Progress Reports (See the sample on P87) Ba. Definition A progress report provides information about the process of a project, describing its status, whether it is on schedule and within the budget. It may be for the external use, submitted by a contrasting company to a client company; or for the internal use, informing management of the progress of a project or of the progress in implementing the measures that management has worked out. Bb. Structure You should write a series of progress reports on a regular basis throughout the life of the project. All the reports should be in the same format. In the introduction of the first progress report, you need to identify the project and in subsequent reports, you have to summarize the progress made since the previous one was submitted. In the body of the report, you should describe the project’s status under the subheadings of cost, schedule, and others that you think your readers need to know. You may end the report with conclusions and recommendations for necessary changes in the project. 3. Investigative Reports ① Definition and purposes Investigative reports are written in response to a request for information. The purse of such report is to provide data for a specific situation. ② Structure In the introduction part, you describe the information about the investigation. In the body of the report, you may include the facts and findings. You can end the report with a summary. No conclusions or recommendations are required for investigative reports.
II. Analytical Reports 1. Justification/ Recommendation Reports ① Definition A justification report is to seek approval when you want to justify or recommend something, such as installing a new computer system, hiring new employees, raising funds, or adopting a new method. Therefore, persuading readers to take action becomes the main purpose of such reports. ② Two approaches to develop the report Large organizations sometimes have standard forms with conventional headings for such reports, but you often have to decide how to organize them. You choose a direct approach or an indirect approach. A. Direct approach. Aa. Identify the problem existing in the operation briefly. Ab. Propose the recommendation, solution, or action. Ac. Explain the benefits of the recommendation. Ad. Discuss pros, cons, and costs. Ae. Summarize the recommendation and action to be taken. B. Indirect approach Ba. Describe the problem that the report focuses on. Use the data you have collected to show how serious the problem could be. Bb. Present the alternative solutions to the problem, starting with the one you least want to recommend and ending with the best solution you propose. Bc. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of your recommendation. Bd. Summarize your recommendation. 2. Feasibility Reports ① Definition. A feasibility report analyzes the available information to determine whether a project is worth doing and what is the chance of success. You should convince your readers that the project should be carried out and a particular plan is the best for doing it successfully. ② Organization of the report A. Present your decision. B. Describe the background and problem initiating the proposal. C. Discuss the problems that may result. D. Calculate the costs associated with the proposal. E. Provide the estimated timetable for implementing the proposal. 3. Yardstick Reports ① Definition Yardstick reports examine two or more solutions to a problem that needs solving. The best way to reduce the number of the solutions is to establish a yardstick to evaluate all of them. ② Organization A. Start by describing the problem or need. B. Present possible solutions and alternatives. C. List the criteria for comparing the alternatives. D. Evaluate each alternative against the criteria. E. Summarize the evaluations. F. Make the recommendation.
III. Exercises: 1. Ask the students to discuss Ex.I after class. 2. Do Ex. II. N the formal exercise book and hand in it next week in the due time. 3. Discuss Ex. III. After class.
VI. Problems appearing in the students’ assignments. 1. Many reports are not characterized by some kind of report. In fact, this report is to suggest written in form of recommendation and feasibility report. 2. Some students do not write in a proper form required by the direction of the exercise. 3. There are, again, many language problems.

Chapter Eight Business Proposals and Business Plans

I. Business Proposals 1. Definition. A business proposal is a kind of analytical report, written to persuade the audience to follow a plan or course of action. It can be produced for internal or external uses. 2. Two types of business proposals. ① A solicited proposal – The proposal is called solicited one when you are asked to submit it. ② An unsolicited proposal – It is one that you decide on your own to submit even though no one has asked you to submit it. 3. Internal business proposals ① Format – often in memo format, suggesting a change or an investment within the organization. ② Structure – introduction, body, and conclusion. A. In the introduction – state clearly what problem exists and convince your readers that the solution your are proposing is needed urgently. Address the problem directly at the beginning. B. In the body – suggests a practical solution to the problem. Describe the solution in detail. C. In the conclusion – reconfirm that the proposal will solve the problem and that you have confidence to carry out the plan. 4. Capital Appropriations Proposals – a proposal committing a large sum of money known as a capital appropriations proposal. ① Structure A. Introduction – you should provide all the background information that readers may need to make a decision in this part. You should also briefly describe any feasibility study you may have conducted and the conclusion reached based on the study. B. Body – you should identify all the equipment or property you are asking for and justify your expenditure. The proposal needs to include all the following items. Ba. A brief description of the ite to be purchased Bb. The alternative choice you have considered Bc. The life expectancy of the item Bd. The specific products, services, or projects to be supported by the item Be. The impact on the company if the item is not purchased Bf. The expected return on investment Bg. The latest feasible date of acquisition 5. External Proposals – vary in length and format, depending on the nature of the proposals. ① Structure – two parts A. Prefatory part – the cover, title fly and title page, table of contents and list of illustrations; or copy of the REF (the request for proposal), letter of transmittal, executive summary. B. The text of proposal Ba. Introduction – you should refer to the RFP if it is a solicited proposal. In this section, you must highlight the major points of your proposal and the benefits, showing the clients that your proposal can solve their problems. Bb. Body – provides the specific information. C. Conclusion – this is the last chance to persude the reader to accept your proposal. 6. Some characteristics of business proposals Business proposals are a kind of analytical report, aiming at persuading the audiences to follow a plan or to take an action. To achieve the objective, business proposals should include all the information needed to convince the audience that what is proposed to do is worth doing. They also need to emphasize the benefits the audience will get if they follow the plan.

II. Business Plans 1. Definition – A business plan is a written proposal that allows potential supporters to evaluate the ideas for a new business venture. 2. Differences between business proposals and business plans Business plans are written to attract investors or business partners to start a new venture, while business proposals are for various purposes, such as bidding for a contract, or purchasing new equipment. 3. The important information in a business plan Business plan writers should include a brief introduction of the company, its objectives, and the people who will run the business. They should show a clear picture of the market and their marketing strategies. They need demonstrate their awareness of the business environment and their ability to deal with the changes in it. They include a financial analysis to show the investors that the new venture will make profits. 4. Characteristics of business plans ① The most common purposes of business plans A. Persuade potential investors to invest in the business. B. Allow readers to assess the profitability and goals of the new venture C. Provide the employees with guidance and direction. D. Convince suppliers and customers that the new venture is promising. E. Clarify the objectives of the new venture. F. Create strategic alliances with other business partners. ② The tone and format of business plans tend to be formal and persuasive. The following subjects are very often contained to cover all the aspects of the business venture. A. Company profile and its objectives B. Market analysis and strategy C. The context in which a business is operated D. Financial analysis 5. Contents of business plans ① Introduction – You can start with a title page, a table of contents, and an executive summary in the same way as you start a formal proposal. Then you can move to the body of the plan. ② Body of the plan A. Company profile B. Market analysis and strategy C. The context D. Financial analysis

III. Exercises 1. Read the text and discuss Ex. I. After class. 2. Choose one of the topic in Ex. II. To develop an informal unsolicited proposal. 3. Do Ex. III. After class. 4. Discuss Ex. VI. After class.

VI. Comments on the students’ assignments 1. Most students have done the required assignments on time. But a few ignored to do discussion work. 2. Language problem is still the biggest problem in the written assignment. It shows the the students, especially a few are very poor in the basic use of language. 3. Some students did not log onto the internet, ignoring the knowledge outside the class. But this is very important for this course. Many modern technology and devices are increasingly used in the present business society. The new concept on the world are very important for the business writers.

Chapter Nine Annual Reports

I. Introduction 1. Definition The corporate annual report, also called annual account, is a legally required document that companies publish annually. It reports on the operations and finances of the company during the previous year, including the strengths, weaknesses, or failures. 2. Purposes It may explain the efforts the company is making to improve its situation and forecast the coming year’s operations. 3. Functions ① It used to comprise only a set of financial statements, but now it contains more information. ② It is often used by senior executives as a showpiece reflecting their company’s philosophy and character. ③ It communicates on corporate performance to readers. ④ It plays a role in projecting favorable corporate image. 4. The audience of the annual report: shareholders, bankers, professional investment analysts, the financial press, labor unions, employees, teachers, legislators, etc.
II. The Annual Report and Its Sections The annual reports are different from company to company. But typically they fall into six major sections. 1. Six sections of annual reports. (See P148) ① Financial highlights. ② Chairman’s statement to the shareholders ③ Chief executive’s review ④ Board of directors ⑤ Financial statements ⑥ Auditor’s report
III. Writing the Annual Report 1. Some factors which should be taken into consideration while writing the annual report. ① Consider the purpose of the annual report. A. Companies have to comply with the requirements of regulatory bodies. B. Companies are relatively free to choose the areas of operations for highlighting. ② Consider the audiences of the annual report. ③ Make proper use of visual aids. ④ Handle the language of the annual report with great care. A. Be careful with the modal verbs or adverbs expressing opinions and avoid diminishing the objectivity of the report. B. Use the present and present Perfect tense of verbs to create a sense of reality. C. Choose proper words as subjects. D. Give a concise heading to each part. E. Avoid overuse of technical words.

IV. Exercises 1. Do Ex. I. In class. 2. Do Ex. II. In the informal exercise book without handing in but being ready to be checked next week. 3. Do Ex. III. After class. Students are encouraged to use computer to visit different websites, identifying some differences between the annual reports in different countries.

Chapter Ten Press Releases

I. Introduction 1. Definition (P129) The press release, is also called news release, which is a type of journalistic writing. 2. Functions To announce to the public the new products or services, special events of the companies or organizations, management changes, or sponsorship of social-action or cultural programs. They are often prepared by the companies public relations department. 3. Form Delivered by hand or mailed to the newspapers, TV and radio stations and professional or trade publications or internet web sites. 4. Two purposes of press releases 1. Express (explicit) purpose – obviously informs the public about the company and its products or services. 2. Hidden purpose – projects a favorable corporate image. 5. Features 1. It should be concise, clear, and accurate 2. Different purposes decide on the choice of words, and structures, tone of writing, length of the release. 3. It should avoid 6. Two audiences 1. The news editors – they are the gatekeepers who will decide the fate of the news release. 2. The ultimate readers – they are the ultimate consumers of the news.
II. Layout of the Press Release 1. Four elements included in the releases 1. Letterhead – comprises the name and address and telephone number of the news source. 2. Release date – the date on which the release is to be published. 3. The headline – the main idea of the news. 4. The lead paragraph – the first paragraph, contains all the critical information of the news. The other paragraphs contain information arranged in order of descending importance. 2. When there are more than one page to the press release, all the pages after the first are numbered at the top. The bottom of the pages except the last one is marked with “more”. The last page is marked with “End” or “# # #” after several spaces below the last line.
III. Seven important issues should be mentioned when writing the press release 1. Brainstorming what to write. 2. Making the news interesting. 3. Writing objectively. 4. Making your paragraphs self-contained. 5. Revising the draft. 6. preparing photographs. 7. Submitting the release for publication.
IV. Exercises 1. In class do Ex. 1 of P134 in form of discussion. 2. Ask the students to do Ex. 2 of the same page as above after class and check and discuss it next time before the new chapter. 3. Written assignment: do Ex. 3 of P 136 after class. Every student is asked to hand in his assignment at 10: 00 am during the break on Friday morning. Delayed assignments will not be marked nor given scores.

Chapter Eleven Technical Descriptions

I. Introduction
1. Definition –The technical description is a verbal representation of a product or process.
2. Function – indispensable to a product catalogue, purchase order.
II. Three Types of Descriptions
1. Description of external features — One type of description concerns only the external features of commodities. They are common in product catalogues and purchase orders. (Remind the students of description cosmetics boxes, medicine boxes, and etc. in their everyday life.)
2. Description of procedure — is very similar to instructions. It involves a process or procedure. It is mainly intended to give readers an understanding of the general process, rather than instructing them how to work through it. They may include the legal steps necessary to form a corporation or the steps necessary to develop a film or to assemble objects.
3. Description of products — gives detailed information on a product, such as its appearance, functions, components, etc.
III. Method of development
The method of development depends on the types of description. All the writing skills learned before can be used if necessary.
IV. Language of descriptions Analogy, smile, and metaphor are commonly used in descriptions of new devices or processes.
V. Illustrations in Descriptions Illustrations in the form of photographs, drawings, and diagrams are very powerful visual aids. 1. Photographs — are often used to accompany technical descriptions. 2. Drawings – present a three-dimensional view of an object or mechanism. 3. Diagrams – are often used to show the abstract relationship among the parts of a mechanism.
VI. Exercises 1. Do Ex. I, and II on P144 in class. (discussion) 2. 2. Describe a device you use at school to a reader who knows little about it. 3. Ask the students to log onto the Internet and get more samples of technical descriptions both in English and Chinese.

Chapter Twelve Operating Instructions

I. Introduction 1. Definition: Operating instructions tell people how to do something. 2. Differences between operating instructions and technical descriptions: Operating instructions — enable the reader to do sth. With minimum hesitations, do not necessarily require him to understand the operation. 3. Readers of operating instructions –-- people from all walks of life such as accountants, technicians, surgeons and etc.

II. Four essentials that can achieve the results of your writing 1. Understanding your task 2. Analyzing your Audience 3. Choose a proper layout 4. Use languages skillfully

III. Seven Components of Instructions 1. Heading 2. Introductory explanation 3. Tools or materials 4. Warnings 5. General background 6. sequenced Instructions 7. trouble-shooting guide

IV. Language of Instructions 1. Use simple imperatives. 2. Avoid using modal verbs. 3. Use more positive sentences than negative sentences. 4. Avoid relative words. 5. Avoid ambiguity. 6. Be careful with technical words.

V. Exercises 1. Ask the students to do Ex. I and II on P155 and 166 after class. Check them next time. 2. Do Ex. III. On P156 as their formal assignment and hand in it on due time.

Chapter Thirteen Questionnaire

I. Introduction 1. Definition –- The questionnaire is a form that consists of a series of questions on a topic or group of topics designed to be answered by a number of people. 2. Functions –- to gather information for a report or a presentation.
II. Layout of the Questionnaire 1. Four sections of the questionnaire A. The instruction – on how to complete the questionnaire, and where to return it. B. A set of questions – answered by the readers. C. Demgraphic information – such as age, gender, education, or occupation of the respondents. D. A thank – noted for the trouble on the part of the respondents.
III. Preparing a Questionnaire 1. Framing the questions A. Formulate questions whose answers can be readily computed. B. Make your questions easy to undersatnad C. Avoid loaded questions. D. Include one or two cross-referencing questions. E. Avoid potentially biased questions. F. Ask open questions as well as closed questions. G. Arrange your questions properly. 2. Designing and presenting choices A. Give all the possible choices. B. Avoid central options. C. Be careful with stereotypical responses.

Chapter Fourteen Contracts

I. Unique Features of Contract Writing 1. The language of contract writing is very formal. 2. Many contracts are written in Chinese first and then translate into English. 3. Many companies have their standard contracts. You can complete the contracts simply by filling in the blanks. 4. Creation or borrowing is the very common way to be used to write a contract. 5. The purpose of contract writing is to spell out rights and obligation of the contracting parties.

II. Sales Contracts 1. Introduction ① Sales contracts -- The term “sales contracts” here particularly refers to the contracts for import and export. They are tangible records of important agreements you enter into with others. ② Three Points which should take into consideration. A. Be clear. B. Be complete. C. Be aware of legal requirements. 2. A checklist of some essential clauses contracts ① Price – The price shall specify the currency and the appropriate Incoterm and the name of place which may be a point of receipt/delivery, a pot of loading, or a port of discharge. ② Delivery – The time of delivery refers to the date on which or period within which the seller undertakes to perform his delivery obligations under the contract of sale, and in particular under the relevant Incoterms selected by the parties. ③ Terms of payment – It is important to designate the mode and time of payment. ④ Documents – It is standard practice in international trade that the seller provides the buyer with certain documents: invoice, transport document, certificates of origin and inspection. ⑤ Claims – Claims may be lodged on quality and quantity. The time for quality inspection is usually longer than the time allowed for quantity inspection. ⑥ Settlement of disputes ⑦ Governing law – It is always advantageous to name the law of one’s own country as the governing law. ⑧ Modification of agreement ⑨ Notice – this clause sets forth how notices and other communications are to be given to the parties involved. ⑩ Ambiguity – This clause stipulates than any ambiguous language in the contract shall be interpreted in a way that this is not for or against any party. 11. Assignment – This clause sets forth the rights or prohibitions on the contract’s assignment. 3. Sales terms and conditions ① Sales terms and conditions in most cases serve as complement to sales contracts. ② Sales terms and conditions can be very long, running dozens of pages. They can also be as short as a sentence. ③ Sales terms and conditions sometimes differ from or conflict with sales contracts. ④ Sales terms and conditions are indispensable to E-commerce, especially B to C business models.

III. Exclusive Agency Agreement 1. Introduction As China becomes a member of the WTO, international trade is sure to grow. Many large corporations of China, like Haier, have a presence, to open branch office or even establish manufacturing facilities in their targeted regions. But others have agents located in the importing country. Agents solicit orders from local buyers and collect a commission or a free from the exporters. An agent may work on an exclusive or non-exclusive basis. 2. Types of agents ① Non-exclusive agent – This type of agent can present the exporter in an importing country or can buy from exporter at anytime without an annual quota. He has no rights to exclude other agents from operating in the same area dealing in the same products, or representing the same company. ② Exclusive agent – This type of agent represents the exporter in an importing country, in a region or an area. An exclusive agency usually requires an annual quota, and prohibits the agent from representing competitors. The rights and obligations of both the agent and the principal are defined in an agreement. 3. A checklist of some essential clauses in exclusive agency agreements ① Scope of products – This clause is necessary for product exclusivity. ② Coverage – For an exclusive agency agreement, there must be a definition of coverage. ③ Minimum sales volume – It is important to stipulate the minimum volume of business. ④ Commission – This is the reward for the agent’s work. ⑤ Advertising and promotion – This clause spells out the obligation of the agent to advertise and promote the products and promotion can be specified in terms of money to be spent or other specific actions. ⑥ Compensation for the injured party – If an agent is not performing as good as agreed, the principal can terminate the agreement. Otherwise the principal has to compensate the agent. The compensation may be one year’s commission or even more if the agreement has lasted for many years.

VI. Exercises 1. Ask the students to do the exercise on page 127 after class.

Supplementary Parts
Part 1 Application Letters
I. Letters of Application 1. guidelines for writing a letter of application A. Written on the best quality paper you can afford. B. Not longer than one page of A4. C. typed, unless the job advertisement suggests otherwise. D. Personalized, if possible. E. Business-like in language and standard in format. F. Carefully checked for the correct use of grammar and spelling.
II. Samples

Sample 1

Supplementary Part 2

Letters of Recommendation

I. Guidelines for writing a letter of recommendation 1. Introducing the relationship between the writer and the applicant and the writer’s willingness to write the letter. 2. Describing the good impressions the writer has of the applicant. 3. Introducing the relevant abilities and excellent achievements of the applicant. 4. Describing other qualities or strong points of the achievements of the applicant. 5. Ensuring the concerned company or institution of the contributions the applicant may make and wishing preferential consideration of the applicant.
II. Guidelines for taking an interview 1. Dress appropriately. 2. Be punctual. 3. Be prepared. 4. Be sincere and confident.
III. Guidelines for writing a letter of acceptance or refusal 1. Guidelines of writing a letter of acceptance: A. Express your enthusiasm for the news. B. Confirm the date you are to report to work or study with assurance that you will be there. C. Indicate your anticipation in getting started. 2. Guidelines for writing a letter of refusal: A Express your appreciation for the offer. B. Give the reseason why you must refuse. C. End on a pleasant note, such as saying something favourable about the company or the people you met at the interview.

Graduation Certificate

Jenny X, female, a native of XX County, Shaanxi Province, born on September 12, 1986, has studied English as her major in this university from September, 2003 to July, 2007. She has been permitted to graduate upon completing all the courses with satisfactory results in accordance with the undergraduate program.

After examination and verification, it is decided to confer on her the degree of Bachelor of Arts in accordance with the stipulation of THE DEGREE REGULATIONS OF THE PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA.

President: Sishe Hu

Xi’an International Studies University

July 1, 2007
School Serial No. 89094


NAME OF THE PROGRAM: Teaching and Practice on International Secretary Training in the 21st Century

AWARD LEVEL: The Second Place


PROGRAM SUBMISSION SCHOOL:Xi’an International Studies University

INSTITUTION: Shaanxi Provincial Government

December, 1999

Serial No.: SJX99369


Ms Queen X has been cited as a model teacher for 2003 – 2004 academic year in succession. This Certificate of Honour is hereby given in commendation of her.

INSTITUTION: Xi’an International Studies University

September 2, 2003

Supplementary Part 3

Resume or Curriculum Vitae

Basics of C.V.

A CV or Curriculum Vitae is: • Your Life History • Your job history • Your achievments • Your Skills
A CV or curriculum vitae is a marketing tool. With your CV you will be able to promote yourself. Imagine the CV as being a brochure that will list the benefits of a particular service. The service being your time and skills! When writing a CV look at it from your employers point of view. Would you stand out against the competition (the other candidates) and would the manager want to talk you for a possible job? You have to ask yourself these questions when writing your CV or curriculum vitae.
Networking and interviewing are essential for your job hunt and your CV is just the first step in the job search. However a CV will be your first contact with potential employers and will open the door. If you are invited for an interview you would then be in a position to explain and expand on what is in your CV.
A CV is an essential tool in your job search. When applying for a vacancy you generally first have to send your CV to present yourself to the prospective employer.

There are five major CV stlyes: • Targeted CV • Inventory CV • Chronological CV • Functional CV • Combination CV Each CV style is suitable for different situations. Follow the links above to learn more about each CV style.

CV Writing Considerations More important than your CV format is the actual content of your CV and how it is presented. You only have a limited time to show your skills and capture the reader's attention. Make sure the most important information is in the top third of the CV document. Your skills summary, objective or personal profile will achieve this objective. A CV must have focus. When a recruiter reads your CV he should understand your career path. Always keep your objective in mind while writing your CV. Avoid lengthy and boring job descriptions; whenever possible, write your job description in bullet point form. Make sure potential employers will understand how they will benefit from employing you. The employers need to see your achievements and understand how you are able to implement these achievements in your company.
Examples of accomplishments would be: save money, increase turn over or profits, improved productivity, better customer quality. Include actual figures where available.

Targeted CV

| |
| |This kind of CV is a way to focus your career towards a particular objective, within a specific industry or a specific |
| |company. |
| |A targeted CV is written in a way that highlights skills, qualifications and experience that match the requirements of the |
| |advertised position. Writing a targeted CV is effective when: |

• You know the requirements of a particular position • You know which company you will be sending your CV to • You are sending your CV in reply to a specific job advert • You need to compose different CVs each corresponding to a different career objective

Inventory CV

| |
| |The Inventory CV is used when sending your CV to: |
| |Various recruiters |
| |When you do not have a specific job objective |
| |This kind of CV is a more general overview of your skills, achievements and qualifications. A general objective or career |
| |strategy behind an inventory CV helps in being slightly more specific towards your career goals. |
|General career goals can be: |
|"a secretary working with a local company" |
|"a computer programmer" |
|"a sales person" |

Having a general career objective in mind can help you focus on those particular skills, abilities and experience required for the job. Your CV should show that you are competent by demonstrating your relevant previous experience and qualifications. If you are unemployed or desperate to switch jobs, the inventory CV is a good time saver. You can write a custom cover letter for each job you apply for and you can send the same CV to all recruiters. If you are interested in several careers write several inventory CVs each for a particular career goal.

Chronological CV

| |
| |The chronological CV shows your career's progression and growth. The information moves from the beginning of your career to|
| |the present situation. The CV is easy to read and one can easily go through the career history. |
| |The chronological CV is advised where : |
| |You have a solid career history with continuation within the same area and where there are no major gaps. |
| |Your responsibilities have increased in each career change. |
| |You had high profile job roles. |
| |Your most recent jobs are the most important in your career history. |
| |The job advert specifies this kind of CV. |

Functional CV

| |
| |The functional CV emphasises your accomplishments, skills and qualifications at the beginning of your CV. The timeline is |
| |not an issue. Your career history is positioned at the end of your CV where you could also list small details about your |
| |previous jobs. The functional CV focuses on your skills and accomplishments rather than your life history. What you have |
| |done rather than when and where. |
| |Employers are not happy with such CVs as they are often an indication that a candidate is trying to hide a gap or defect in|
| |his career history. |
| |The functional CV is used in the following situations |
| |You are looking for your first job |
| |You do not want to advertise your age |
| |Your major achievements happened a few years ago |
| |You have been unemployed for a period of time |
| |You are changing careers |

Combination CV

| |
| |A combination of the chronological and functional formats, this type of CV starts with a description of your achievements, |
| |skills and abilities (functional) and shows the employer "what you are made of". Following is a chronological listing of |
| |your career in chronological format. |
| |This CV format is welcomed by recruiters. |
| |You should consider using it when: |
| |You have a good, sound employment history. |
| |A chronological CV is required for the position you are applying for. |
| |You have a strong career history but want to immediately show you have the right skills for the job. |

Samples of Resumes


Personal Details
Date of Birth : Nov. 30, 1986
Nationality: Chinese
Marital Status: Single
Sex : Female
Address: South Chang’an Road 123
Telephone: 029- 12345678

2004-present: Learning English for B. A. in Business English at Business School, Xi’an International Studies University
1998-2004: SD Middles School
1992-1998: DYT Elementary School

Work Experience
2004-present: Teaching Children English in the Kindergarten in spare time in Xi’an
2008: Working as a volunteer for Asia-Europe Forum

Merits and Award
In 2005 chosen as a “Three good” student in Xi’an International Studies University

Reading extensively, Listening to music

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