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Gabriel Prosser

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Gabriel Prosser

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Gabriel Prosser
Part of a series of articles on...

1712 New York Slave Revolt
(New York City, Suppressed)
1733 St. John Slave Revolt
(Saint John, Suppressed)
1739 Stono Rebellion
(South Carolina, Suppressed)
1741 New York Conspiracy
(New York City, Suppressed)
1760 Tacky's War
(Jamaica, Suppressed)
1791–1804 Haitian Revolution
(Saint-Domingue, Victorious)
1800 Gabriel Prosser
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1805 Chatham Manor
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1811 German Coast Uprising
(Territory of Orleans, Suppressed)
1815 George Boxley
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1822 Denmark Vesey
(South Carolina, Suppressed)
1831 Nat Turner's rebellion
(Virginia, Suppressed)
1831–1832 Baptist War
(Jamaica, Suppressed)
1839 Amistad, ship rebellion
(Off the Cuban coast, Victorious)
1841 Creole, ship rebellion
(Off the Southern U.S. coast,
Victorious)
1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee
Nation
(Southern U.S., Suppressed)
1859 John Brown's Raid
(Virginia, Suppressed)

Gabriel (1776 – October 10, 1800), today commonly – if incorrectly – known as Gabriel Prosser, was a literate enslaved blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion in the Richmond area in the summer of 1800. Information regarding the revolt was leaked prior to its execution, and he and twenty-five followers were taken captive and hanged in punishment. In reaction, Virginia and other state legislatures passed restrictions on free blacks, as well as prohibiting the education, assembly and hiring out of slaves, to restrict their chances to learn and to plan similar rebellions. In 2002 the City of Richmond passed a resolution in honor of Gabriel on the 202nd anniversary of the rebellion. In
2007 Governor Tim Kaine gave Gabriel and his followers an informal pardon, in recognition that his cause, "the end

Gabriel Prosser of slavery and the furtherance of equality for all people – has prevailed in the light of history."

Life and background
Born into slavery at Brookfield, a tobacco plantation in Henrico County, Virginia, Gabriel had two brothers,
Solomon and Martin. They were all held by Thomas Prosser, the owner. As Gabriel and Solomon were trained as blacksmiths, their father may have had that skill. Gabriel was also taught to read and write.[1]
By the mid-1790s, as Gabriel neared the age of twenty, he stood "six feet two or three inches high". His long and
"bony face, well made", was marred by the loss of his two front teeth and "two or three scars on his head". White people as well as blacks regarded the literate young man as "a fellow of great courage and intellect above his rank in life."[1] Gabriel's Rebellion
Gabriel planned the revolt during the spring and summer of 1800. On August 30, 1800, Gabriel intended to lead slaves into Richmond, but the rebellion was postponed because of rain. The slaves' owners had suspicion of the uprising, and two slaves told their owner, Mosby Sheppard, about the plans. He warned Virginia's Governor, James
Monroe, who called out the state militia. Gabriel escaped downriver to Norfolk, but he was spotted and betrayed there by another slave for the reward offered by the state. That slave did not receive the full reward.
Gabriel was returned to Richmond for questioning, but he did not submit. Gabriel, his two brothers, and 23 other slaves were hanged.[2]

Historiography
The historian Douglas Egerton offered a new perspective on Gabriel in his book Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia
Slave Conspiracies of 1800 & 1802 (1993). He based this on extensive primary research from surviving contemporary documents. Egerton found that Gabriel was a skilled blacksmith who was mostly "hired out" by his owner in Richmond foundries. Hiring out was the way that slaveholders earned money from their slaves, whom they needed less for labor as they had reduced the cultivation of tobacco as a crop. The market for tobacco was depressed, but Virginia planters also had to deal with depleted soils because of the crop. Slaveholders leased skilled slaves for jobs available in Virginia industries. Egerton concluded that Gabriel would have been stimulated and challenged at the foundries by interacting with co-workers of European, African and mixed descent. They hoped Thomas
Jefferson's Republicans would liberate them from domination by the wealthy Federalist merchants of the city. In that environment, Gabriel also would have heard about the uprising and struggles of slaves in Saint Domingue.
Egerton believed that Gabriel had two white co-conspirators, at least one of whom was identified as a French national. He found reports that documentary evidence of their identity or involvement was sent to Governor Monroe but never produced in court, and suggests that it was to protect the Republican Party. The internal dynamics of
Jefferson's and Monroe's party in the 1800 elections were complex. A significant part of the Republican base were major planters, colleagues of Jefferson and Madison. Egerton believes that any sign that white radicals, and particularly Frenchmen, had supported Gabriel's plan could have cost Jefferson the presidential election of 1800.
Slaveholders feared such violent excesses as those related to the French Revolution after 1789 and the rebellion of slaves in Saint-Domingue. Egerton believed that Gabriel planned to take Governor Monroe hostage to negotiate an end to slavery. Then he planned to "drink and dine with the merchants of the city".
Egerton noted that Gabriel did not order his followers to kill all whites except Methodists, Quakers and Frenchmen; rather, he instructed them not to kill any people in those three categories. During this period, Methodists and Quakers were active missionaries for manumission, and many slaves had been freed since the end of the Revolution in part due to their work. The French were considered allies as they had abolished slavery in their Caribbean colonies in
1794.

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Gabriel Prosser
Gabriel initially escaped on a ship owned by a former overseer. Egerton found that he was a recently converted
Methodist who repeatedly overlooked information as to Gabriel's true identity. A slave hired out to work on the ship turned in Gabriel, seeking the reward so that he could purchase his own freedom. The state paid him only $50, not the $300 advertised.

Influence
Gabriel's uprising was notable not because of its results — the rebellion was quelled before it could begin — but because of its potential for mass chaos and widespread violence. In Virginia in 1800, 39.2 percent of the total population were slaves; they were concentrated on plantations in the Tidewater area and west of Richmond.[3] No reliable numbers existed regarding slave and free black conspirators; most likely, the number of men actively involved numbered only several hundred.[4]
From 1780 to 1810, the number of slaves freed in the Upper South had grown markedly, as some slaveholders were inspired to free slaves by the American Revolution and its ideals. Methodists and Quakers especially worked to convince slaveholders to manumit slaves. The percentage of free blacks as part of the black population rose from less than 1 percent in 1782 to more than 10 percent by 1810. By that time, Virginia's free blacks numbered 30,466 or 7.2 percent of the total black population.[5] By 1810 nearly three-quarters of Delaware's blacks were free.[6]
Some Virginia slaveholders were nervous about the sharp increase in the number of free blacks in the slave state.
They were uneasy as well by the violent aftermath of the French Revolution and the uprising of slaves in the 1790s in Saint Domingue. In 1792 France granted social equality to free people of color, and in 1793 French Revolutionary commissioners in Saint-Domingue granted freedom to all the slaves. Whites and free people of color, some of whom were also slaveholders, emigrated as refugees to the US during the years of upheaval, now known as the Haitian
Revolution. They added to the population of free people of color in Charleston, Richmond and New Orleans. In addition, slaveholders brought thousands of ethnic African slaves with them, especially adding to the African population of New Orleans. In 1804 the black and mulatto revolutionaries succeeded in gaining freedom, declaring the colony the independent black nation of Haiti.
Gabriel had been able to plan the rebellion because of relatively lax rules of movement for slaves between plantations and the city, as so many had been hired out, and others traveled to and from the city on errands for their masters. After the rebellion, many slaveholders greatly restricted the slaves' rights of travel when not working. Fears of a slave revolt regularly swept major slaveholding communities.
Prior to the rebellion, Virginia law had allowed education of slaves to read and write, and training of slaves in skilled trades. After the rebellion, and after a second conspiracy was discovered in 1802 among enslaved boatmen along the
Appomattox and Roanoke Rivers, the Virginia Assembly in 1808 banned hiring out of slaves and required freed blacks to leave the state within 12 months or face re-enslavement (1806). Free blacks had to petition the legislature to stay in the state, and were often aided in that goal by white friends or allies. In addition to the catalyst of Gabriel's
Rebellion, the law against residency was prompted by the marked increase in population of free people of color in
Virginia, as noted above in manumission of slaves after the American Revolution. The very existence of free blacks challenged the conditions of slave states.

Legacy and honors
Gabriel's rebellion served as an important example of slaves' taking action to gain freedom.
• In 2002 the City of Richmond adopted a resolution to commemorate the 202nd anniversary "of the execution of the patriot and freedom fighter, Gabriel, whose death stands as a symbol for the determination and struggle of slaves to obtain freedom, justice and equality as promised by the fundamental principles of democratic governments of the Commonwealth of Virginia and the United States of America."[7]

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Gabriel Prosser
• In the fall of 2006, the Virginia State Conference of the NAACP requested Gov. Tim Kaine to pardon Gabriel in recognition of his contributions to the civil rights struggle of African Americans and all peoples.[7]
• On August 30, 2007, Governor Kaine informally pardoned Gabriel and his co-conspirators. Kaine said that
Gabriel's motivation had been "his devotion to the ideals of the American revolution — it was worth risking death to secure liberty." Kaine noted that "Gabriel's cause — the end of slavery and the furtherance of equality of all people — has prevailed in the light of history", and added that "it is important to acknowledge that history favorably regards Gabriel's cause while consigning legions who sought to keep him and others in chains to be forgotten."[8] The pardon was informal because it was posthumous.

Representation in other media
• Arna Bontemps wrote Black Thunder (1936), a historical novel based on Gabriel's Rebellion

Songs
• Tim Barry, a singer/songwriter from Richmond, wrote and performed “Prosser’s Gabriel” for the album 28th &
Stonewall. It chronicles the events of Gabriel's life, focusing on the attempted revolution.
• Gabriel is mentioned in Public Enemy's song "Prophets of Rage".

Notes
[1] Douglas R. Egerton (1993). Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina
Press. pp. 21–22. ISBN 9780807844229.
[2] Eric Foner, Give me liberty!: An American History, Volume I, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006, p.259
[3] "Historical Census Browser" (http:/ / fisher. lib. virginia. edu/ collections/ stats/ histcensus/ ), University of Virginia Library, accessed 21 Mar
2008
[4] Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815, Chapter 14
[5] Peter Kolchin, American Slavery: 1619-1877, New York: Hill and Wang, 1994, p. 81
[6] Kolchin (1994), p. 78
[7] C. Ruth Ebrahim, "Virginia State NAACP Conference requests pardon of Gabriel" (http:/ / www. co. caroline. va. us/ gabirelpardon. html),
The Caroline Register, Oct 2006, accessed 23 Jul 2008
[8] Associated Press, "Gov. 'Pardons' Gabriel's Rebellion Slave" (http:/ / www. bookrags. com/ news/ gov-pardons-gabriels-rebellion-moc/ ), The
Washington Post, August 31, 2007.

Sources
• Aptheker, Herbert. American Negro Slave Revolts. New York: International Publishers, 1983 (1943).
• Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
• Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2006.
• Sidbury, James. Ploughshares into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel's Virginia, 1730-1810. New
York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

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Article Sources and Contributors

Article Sources and Contributors
Gabriel Prosser Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?oldid=477656288 Contributors: Aatomic1, Achowat, AlexPlank, Altaar, Angelbo, Arunsingh16, Bento00, BernieHN,
Blacklightrock, BlastOButter42, BrownHairedGirl, CanisRufus, Casiacat, Cbustapeck, Cobaltbluetony, Colbuckshot, Corriebertus, D, Dadrussian, Dafidius, Darwinek, Dave souza, Deb,
Deeahbz, Deor, Dhartung, Dimadick, Dirkbb, Discospinster, Domthedude001, Doritofreak93, Dureo, Edinburgh Wanderer, Elektrikgorilla1, Feneeth of Borg, Futurebird, Gadfium,
GhostofSuperslum, Good Olfactory, Grigorovl, H2o Thizzle, Hagerman, Hink23, Hmains, Howcheng, Hut 8.5, Intelligentsium, JWestX, Jengod, Jered, John Nevard, Leondegrance,
Llawnrodded, Looxix, Lunchscale, MBaran, MPS, Malik Shabazz, Maralia, Matt.smart, Maury Markowitz, MinutiaeMan, Morgan Riley, Mortus Est, NailPuppy, Nat Krause, Neutrality, North
Shoreman, PFHLai, Parkwells, PatGallacher, Paul-L, Philip Trueman, Pietdesomere, Pohick2, Pseudo-Richard, Random User 937494, RedWolf, Redeagle688, RodC, RogDel, Royboycrashfan,
Runseanrun, Savidan, Slakr, Smokizzy, Son of More, Superslum, Svartulfr1, TORR, The Thing That Should Not Be, The wub, TheGrappler, Torqueing, Velocicaptor, W00tf4ce, Welders,
Wildhartlivie, WillC, Wmahan, Yuckfoo, Ziggurat, Ὁ οἶστρος, 250 anonymous edits

Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
Image:North american slave revolts.png Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:North_american_slave_revolts.png License: Public Domain Contributors: Abuttlmao

License
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported
//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/

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...He was so focus on her passed life and worried that it reoccurring, he deprived her of real love. Everyone deserves a second chance better yet should be given the benefit of the doubt. Just because I stole in my past, doesn’t necessarily mean that I am or will remain a thief for the rest of my life. If wanted a robot he should have married one. Nobody is perfect. People learn from their mistakes and sometimes change for the better. Take for example, the many relationships of Kim Kardashian. According to Wikipedia, in 2000, Kim married music producer Damon Thomas; their relationship ended in divorce in 2004. Subsequently she dated R&B singer Ray J, NFL star Reggie Bush and Dallas Cowboys wide receiver Miles Austin. She also dated model Gabriel Aubry. She is now dating rapper Kanye West. Does that make Kim less of a Woman? I do not believe so. Sometimes all of the break ups are not just her fault. But many people are constantly judging her to be useless and unserious woman just because of her pass. When who really Kim is a very smart, family oriented young woman and an entrepreneur. And I believe she is going to be happily settle down when the time is right. When I was in high school, my uncle Fulton had a pretty girlfriend name Patricia. I use to call her “Sis Pat”. She was the most holy lady I have ever met in my entire life at that time. Everyone in my family used to love her because she was polite, calm, could cook, and clean. She did everything to the “T”. She was......

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Political Culture

...fundamental values, sentiments and knowledge that give form and substance to political processes”. Heywood’s view on political culture is that it is ‘the pattern of orientations to political objects such as parties, government, the constitution, expressed beliefs, symbols and values. Political culture differs from public opinion in that it is fashioned out of long-term values rather than simply people’s reactions to specific policies and problems’ (Heywood, 2002: 200). The process through which we learn about politics and how our political attitudes and values can be influenced is through political socialization. The main agents of political socialization are the family, education, mass media and the government. Two American scholars, Gabriel Almond and Sidney Verba, studied political culture and published a book a book of their studies, ‘The Civic Culture’. Its purpose was to identify the political culture within which a liberal democracy was most likely to survive and develop. Almond and Verba (1989) identified three pure types of political culture the parochial, subject and participant. ‘A parochial political culture is marked by the absence of a sense of...

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...Father Gabriel Richard Catholic High School Christian Service Hours Report Form 2014-2015 "Truly I say to you, as you did it to one of the least of these my brethren, you did it to me." Matthew 25:40 Summer service due by September 5th. Service completed during the school year due no later than 1 week of completion of service. Late forms will not be accepted. Your Name: ____________________________________________________________ Your Grade: _________ Parent’s Signature: _____________________________________Date of service:____________________ Do not place forms in mail boxes or turn into the office. Forms are handed directly to these designated teachers: Sr. Sarah ~ SENIORS Mrs. Norton ~ JUNIORS Ms. Buckler ~ SOPHOMORES Mrs. Scherr ~ FRESHMEN The final deadline to turn in your forms is April 30, 2015 Please refer to the Student- Parent Handbook for complete details regarding Christian Service. Any questions about your service should be directed to the teacher listed above for your grade level. Please look for a monthly progress report on Edline which will show your hours approved. You must maintain a copy of all forms turned in for your records. Part I: Where did you perform this service? Name, Address, Phone Number of agency: ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ Names of other FGRHS students who also served with you ____________________________________________ REFLECTION: On the back......

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