Free Essay

Galaxy Collisions

In: Science

Submitted By Mimi04
Words 730
Pages 3
What are galaxies? “A galaxy is an enormous collection of a few million to trillions of stars, gas and dust held together by gravity. They can be several thousand to hundreds of thousands of light-years across.” 1 All the stars that we see, observe, or use to guide us through direction, they all belong to one galaxy, and that galaxy is our own Milkyway. At some dark night, you could observe a fuzzy, cloudy strings of very dense stars those are the “disk and bulge”.

The result of gravitational force:
As mentioned earlier in the definition, a galaxy is held together by gravitational force, which means that every galaxy has its own gravitational force acting on it. When galaxies come together or move at a short distance, there are two possible results, one is the gravitational force will push them apart, or they will collide. When two objects or in this case galaxies, come together they would exert some of their gravitational force on each other, as an effect both galaxies can change shape. “Both crashes and near misses between galaxies are referred to as "interactions”. You can see two galaxies interacting. You can see they are being distorted by the gravitational interaction between them.” 2 The second effect is collision, as galaxies become fairly close together, its might merge together and collide. This merging/collision is sometimes known as a pair, or as a companion of one another. Sometimes smaller galaxies can just merge with larger ones; this is called the ripple effect collision. “The Cartwheel galaxy is an example of this type of collision. The outer ring of blue stars in this galaxy indicates a ripple of star formation resulting from the collision.” 1
The reasons for the collision is based on many factors, for example the number of galaxies engaged, their size, mass, type, the distance between them, their gravitational force, and so on. As we just saw how galaxies collision, a common question will be could stars also collide?, well logical people will say yes, cause what’s a galaxy it’s a collection of millions and trillions of stars, and we proved that galaxies collide so that basically means stars do as well. In fact stars are very far away that the collision between them are very rare. “In fact, the Milky Way Galaxy is colliding with the Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy right now” 2 In additional to our milky way collision, the Antennae galaxies which is made up of two spiral galaxies, are also in the progression of collision, and as mention the process take hundreds of millions of years.
“When two galaxies interact, clouds of gas inside each galaxy may become compressed.” 2 Compressing clouds could lead to collapse of galaxy under their own gravity, as a result transform into stars “This process can lead to a burst of star formation in interacting galaxies, leaving a new generation of stars in a galaxy where normal star formation may have ceased long ago.” 2
The history of galaxies collision:
The topic of “Galaxies colliding” in the 1970s was so strange that people never believed it; they considered it a myth, until François Schweizer came in the late 1970s, and presented his theory of the newborn star clusters as the outcome or result of those collisions. This made him the first discoverer of galaxies collision. Some astronomers argue, that these star clusters were there in the first place (when the universe began), and that it haven’t established into something significant yet. Then comes the Hubble Telescope, which was launch in 1990, and after being in use it has proven Schweizer’s theory. During that time, “Schweizer has proved with the birth of 1000 new stars in the colliding Antennae galaxies, that stars were actually being formed from the collision.” 3 Astronomers weren’t very conceived with that fact back in the days, but now most of them agree and proved its existence, and the fact that galaxies can do all sort of acts example merge, change shape and so on.

1- http://amazing-space.stsci.edu/resources/explorations/galaxies-galore/teacher/scientificbackground.html

2- http://cas.sdss.org/dr3/en/proj/basic/galaxies/collisions.asp

3- http://www.phenomenalwomen.com/showcase/science/april-dean.htm

4- Struck, Curtis, 100,101 (2011)

5- http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~m_rulison/astronomy/group/fall%2099/galaxy_collisions.htm

6- http://www.galaxyzoo.org/galaxy_morphological_types

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Galaxy

...Milky Way to crash with Andromeda Our entire galaxy is set to crash into the neighboring Andromeda. The collision would create an entirely new hybrid galaxy and dramatically change the view of the night sky from Earth. The astronomers and researchers are now sure the galaxy that contains the Earth is ceased to exist.  Years of observations from the Hubble Space Telescope indicate the Andromeda galaxy is coming towards us at a speed of about 250,000 miles per hour and a head-on hit is imminent, Four billion years from now, it will be complete by about six billion years from now. Roeland van der Marel, an astronomer with the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, which operates Hubble, told the media. "The galaxies will collide, and they will merge together to form one new galaxy." The new galaxy will likely be of an elliptical shape rather than the barred spiral Milky Way. And will completely change our night sky, with Andromeda suddenly dominating.  Scientists assure that the sun and Earth are unlikely to be hit by stars or planets from Andromeda because of the vast emptiness of the two galaxies.  Therefore, Earth, they say, should easily survive what will be a 1.2 million mile per hour galactic merger. Even at that speed, the event would take about 2 billion years. "It's like a bad car crash in galaxy-land," van der Marel describes it. Both the Milky Way and Andromeda are about the same size and same age 10 billion years old...

Words: 337 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

El Gordo Apod

...spanish. This name is given to the largest distant galaxy cluster discovered, also known as ACT-CL J0102-4915. Felipe Menanteau, a Research Scientist at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, states, "This cluster is the most massive, the hottest, and gives off the most X-rays of any known cluster at this distance or beyond." Menanteau describes the characteristics of this enormous cluster unlike any seen before. El Gordo is located approximately 9.7 billion light years away from Earth and its mass is measured three billion times as much as our sun. A cluster unlike any previously discovered. The photo for April 22, 2014 of “El Gorgo Massive Galaxy Cluster” stuck out from other pictures taken on NASA’s Astronomy Picture of The Day. The appearance of this galaxy was especially fascinating. I was drawn by the image’s bright spots and blue and pink colors. The image is a combination of a visible light image by the Hubble Space Telescope in 2002, an X-ray image from the Chandra Observatory of the hot gas in pink in 2014, and computer generated dark matter in blue through gravitational lens distortions. The bright spots in the image are galaxies within and beyond the cluster. Remains of radiation from the Big Bang along with electrons from hot gas in the galaxy cluster creates the warping seen from earth. Hubble's high resolution shows the distortion in space caused by gravity. This warps the background of galaxies in the image. The more mass in the cluster the......

Words: 903 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Physics

...Chapter 10 : The Sun THE SUNS ATMOSPHERE * the sun is so hot that it neither has a liquid or solid matter anywhere inside of it * moving down into the sun there is denser and hotter masses Photosphere (“sphere of light”) * The photosphere is the innermost of layer of the three layers that comprise the suns atmosphere * A gas layer of the sun that has the most visible light * It is about 400 km thick * Density of the photosphere is low by the earth standards about 0.01% as the air we breathe * Photosphere has a blackbody spectrum that corresponds to an average temp of 5800K * The photosphere appears darkest toward the edge or limb of the solar disk , a phenomenon called limb darkening, * This occurs b/c we see regions of different temp at different depths of the photosphere Granules * lightly colored convection features about 100 km in diameter seen constantly in the solar photosphere * time lapse photography shows that granules form, disappear then reform in cylces that last several minutes Chromosphere (“sphere of color”) * is a dim layer of less dense stellar gas that is above the photosphere * It is the layer we normally see * Astronomers can also study the chromosphere through filters that pass light with specific wavelengths strongly emitted by it – but not by the photosphere – or through telescope sensitive to nonvisble wavelengths that the chromosphere emits intensely Spicules -......

Words: 7381 - Pages: 30

Free Essay

Cosmology

...Cosmology As we have learned, Edwin Hubble showed that the farther away a galaxy is, the faster away from the Milky Way it is moving. This gives the appearance that the Milky Way is at the center of the universe, and all galaxies are moving away from us, possibly due to some large explosion, The Big Bang. The Hubble's Law can be applied to any observer in any galaxy. No matter where you are, an expanding universe will give the same appearance. The expansion of the universe is not like the explosion of a bomb sending fragments in all directions. Space itself is expanding. We can detect photons that appear to have moved at different speeds through space. However, as the speed of light is constant, it is space that is moving relative to the photon. The galaxies are fixed relative to space, but space itself is moving. We have seen no 'edge' to the universe and there are an equal number of galaxies in every direction. Also, galaxies can move relative to space, but at times gravity can accelerate one galaxy toward another faster than space expands. When light waves travel through space, they are stretched by expansion and this increases the wave's wavelength, making it appear redder. Using the Hubble Law, we can estimate the age of the universe. At some point in the distant past, matter in the universe must have been densely packed. From this point, the universe would have expanded at some high speed to become today's universe. Assuming a constant expansion over time, we......

Words: 1341 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Astronomy

...Astronomy 2B03: Lecture 2: What’s Out There? * Objects in the universe come in a hierarchy of scales and sizes: * Planets * Stars * Galaxies * The universe as a whole * These scales are so different from one step to the next that they are incredibly hard to comprehend all at once – no “everyday” experience to refer them to * If the Earth were a basketball how big would the moon be? Tennis ball * How many Earths would fit into the Sun? ~ 1 million * How many Jupiter’s would fit inside the Sun? 900 * How many Moons would fit inside the Earth? 50 * If we say the distance from here to Toronto (71 km) represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far are we from Pluto? From Hamilton to Mexico, or from Hamilton to Calgary * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far is the Earth from the Moon? From here to the edge of campus (Sterling and Forsyth) * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how big is the Earth? 3 meters * If we say the distance from here to Toronto represents the distance between the Earth and the Sun, how far is the Sun from the next nearest Star? 1/10th the distance from the Sun to Earth Lecture 3: The Earth: * Our starting point and only home * Both land and water * The only planet to have liquid water at its surface * Atmosphere:......

Words: 18912 - Pages: 76

Free Essay

Universe

...THE UNIVERSE When we look up in the night sky we can see the stars and the moon. And because it is natural to be curious, we ask questions and we want answers. When our view was limited by what our eyes could see, the sky was our Universe. Then the telescopes deepened our view, photography enhanced it, and spectroscopy broadened it. The universe grew from a sky of stars to a realm of galaxies, to an expanding universe of galaxies. Many people believe that nature, the sun and moon, the star, even human beings never had a beginning. There is an endless, external cycle of birth, life and death that constantly repeats itself and it never began and will never end. In the Book of Genesis in the Bible, it was written that at first the world did not exist and that God is the only one who existed. So He created the world. The universe is the totality of everything that has ever existed. It is so large that it contains billions of stars, and all of the planets, galaxies and all of space. The study of the universe is called Cosmology. Traditional Views about the Universe 1. Geocentric Universe Greeks believed that the earth was a sphere that stayed motionless at the center of the universe or the geocentric (Earth-centered) view. Orbiting the earth were seven wanderers (planetai in Greek) including the sun, the moon and the known planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. Greece was centered as the “Golden Age” of early astronomy. Claudius Ptolemy created the book......

Words: 13032 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

Mysterious Dark Matter

...the first a few hundred thousand years) was an expanding gas composed primarily of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and the mysterious dark matter. In the present, scientists are still bombard about dark matter and what it really is. Although, scientists do not know what dark matter is, they are certain of what it is not. Dark matter is not in the form of stars and planets that we see and it is known to make up about 25% of the entire Universe. By using the effect of gravitational lensing, astronomers are able to determine that dark matter is not affected by most of the other baryonic matters. They also found that dark matter is the responsible substance that makes up most of the masses in the universe (found in galaxies, dwarf galaxies, and cluster galaxies). Dark matter is also the primary influence of gravitational pulls.   The mysterious and magnificent space that seems almost empty to the naked eye has fascinated mankind for as long as history can remember. The universe seems empty because it is made up of gas which is primarily composed of particles such as protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter. Dark matter is known to make up about 25% of the entire Universe but scientists have yet to understand completely about this mysterious subatomic particle. What is dark matter and where did it come from? What is really the natural function of dark matter? Where and how can dark matter be found? These questions have been the ultimate challenge for......

Words: 1861 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Astronomy 101 Final Q&a

...of the following can't be considered an acceptable hypothesis?" A. Dark matter, (invisible matter which still has gravitational attraction), determines the orbits of stars in the the galaxy B. Mass increases with velocity C. Matter came into existence together with time D. The megagalaxies of the universe will become invisible to each other in time. E. all are acceptable hypotheses 3. A theory is an integrated explanation of numerous “proven”_____. A. facts B. laws C. controls D. hypotheses E. guesses 4. What is the correct sequence of steps in the scientific method? I. State a problem II. Analyze and interpret data III. Develop a hypothesis IV. Share the results with other scientists V. Design and perform experiment to test the hypothesis A. I – II - III - IV – V B. III – I - V – II – IV C. V – IV – III – II – I D. I – III – V – II – IV E. V – II – I – III - IV 5. Ptolemy's model sought to explain retrograde motion by _____. A. adding circles to epicycle orbits B. adding circles to elliptical orbits C. adding epicycles to elliptical orbits D. adding epicycles to circular orbits 6. Due to retrograde motion some planets will rise in the west and set in the east. True or False 7. Which of the following is correctly ordered from largest to smallest in size? A. Moon, neutron star, white dwarf, galaxy B....

Words: 3959 - Pages: 16

Free Essay

Where Is Tension Is Romeo and Juilet

...Project 2061, American Association for the Advancement of Science ---------------------------"The effort to understand the universe is one of the very few things that lifts human life a little above the level of farce, and gives it some of the grace of tragedy."—Steven Weinberg Steven Weinberg is winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979, and author of the book "The First Three Minutes". 2 Introduction Science at the beginning of the twenty-first century can make some bold, yet simple observations: 1) the universe has evolved; 2) we are a result of that evolution. “We are the first generation of human beings to glimpse the sweep of cosmic history, from the universe's fiery origin in the Big Bang to the silent, stately flight of galaxies through the intergalactic night.” (National Research Council) Order in the Universe Cosmology is the study of the evolution of the universe from its first moments to the present. In cosmology the most fundamental question we can ask is: Does our universe have intelligible regularities that we can understand—is it ordered? This question lies at the heart of the scientific revolution beginning in the sixteenth century. That revolution began with the discoveries by Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton of order in our world. Today our scientific understanding of nature’s order has reached a critical threshold. Only now can we begin to piece together a coherent picture of the whole. Only...

Words: 8900 - Pages: 36

Free Essay

Dark Matter

...19th century scientists observed that stars orbiting nearby galaxies were rotating faster than expected. The speed calculated indicated that the gravity created by them could not contain the matter within the stars. Therefore meaning that the stars should have been ripped apart from their own gravity. This indicated that there could be some other form of matter that is acting within the galaxy; which could have certain properties that explain the larger amount of gravity e.g. more massive matter. Properties of Dark Matter: Figure 1 Figure 1 Dark matter is hard to “get your head” around as scientists say that you can’t see it; then how can it exist? Dark matter is said to be “non-luminous”, therefore it does not absorb, give off or reflect light, which means we cannot observe the existence of Dark Matter (But we could detect it: See section on “Detection”). Detection: Although we cannot see Dark Matter it supposedly makes up 22% of the universe, compared to 4% of normal matter (See Figure 1). The evidence of how dark matter could exist is from experiments held in particle accelerators, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. As Dark Matter does not interact with electromagnetic forces, the detectors may not be able to detect dark matter in a collision of two or more particles in an experiment. However if the energy of the particles before the collision is not equal the energy of the products after the collision the energy could be lost to Dark matter that we cannot......

Words: 519 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Supermassive Blackholes

...until the early 1970’s that an intense an intense X-ray source was found in the constellation Cygnus called Cygnus X-1. As the years passed, in the spring of 1972, Cygnus X-1 was identified with a star known by its classification number HDE226868 (which is a radio source). Astronomers have since found convincing evidence for a supermassive black hole in the center of the giant elliptical galaxy M87, as well as in several other galaxies. The discovery is based on velocity measurements of a whirlpool of hot gas orbiting the black hole. In 1994, Hubble Space Telescope data produced an unprecedented measurement of the mass of an unseen object at the center of M87. Based on the kinetic energy of the material whirling about the center (as in Wheeler's dance, see Question 4 above), the object is about 3 billion times the mass of our Sun and appears to be concentrated into a space smaller than our solar system. A supermassive black hole is the largest type of black hole in a galaxy, in the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses. Most, and possibly all galaxies, including the Milky Way, are believed to contain supermassive black holes at their centers. Supermassive black holes have properties which distinguish them from lower-mass classifications: The average density of a supermassive black...

Words: 2334 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

How the Universe Works Video Critique

...Video Critique - How The Universe Works In this video, we were treated to a visionary description of how the solar system and planets were formed. The producer and director of this feature did an excellent job in explaining and depicting the theory of how our solar system was formed billions of years ago. As an amateur astronomer, I truly appreciated the detailed facts because they were easy to follow; there was not a lot of scientific mumbo-jumbo that only astronomy professionals could understand. My favorite element about this documentary was that there was such detail and color in the graphics that I felt like I was actually in space, close enough to the stars and planets. The images of the Eagle nebula and the Horse head nebula were remarkable; the image from the Hubble telescope of the Orion nebula with the spinning disk of dust and debris spinning around a young star was so extraordinary. It blew my mind how that tiny image was indicating that a solar system was being born. The only thing that left me a little perturbed was the narrative about how eventually Earth will collide with another planet and it will be the end of humankind as we know it. I understand that it is a cycle and obviously our solar system was created by the resulting violent chaos from billions of year ago, so it is likely that in the future, Earth will be destroyed in the same way. It was just a little scary and depressing to hear that in the film and then see a powerful simulation of......

Words: 803 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Hist

...Access to the SkyWalker website at: http://www.aip.de/groups/galaxies/sw/udf/swudfV1.0.html c) Note: There is no expectation that students have studied galaxies prior to completing this research project. Phase I: Exploration 1) Access the online Hubble Space Telescope Image at http:// www.spacetelescope.org/images/heic0406a/ You might be able to make it larger and smaller by “left clicking” on the image with your mouse. Most of these objects are galaxies far, far from Earth. However, a few objects are nearby stars, as indicated by “four points” on the image, like shown at left. How many stars can you find? Seven 2) 2. Again, most of these objects are not individual stars, but actually distant galaxies—isolated collections of millions or billions of stars that look like a tiny dot or cloud. Determine how many galaxies are found in the image. One strategy to count the number of galaxies in the image is to just count the number of objects in ¼ of the image (the bottom left corner for example) and then multiply the number of galaxies times four to get the total number. Total number of galaxies in this image? Ten Thousand 3)Some of the galaxies are orange-red in color, while others are white, and others are blue. What is the most common color of galaxy in the image? The most common color I noticed was Blue, the color of galaxies are determined by the types of stars found within the Galaxy. These...

Words: 2003 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Study Guide

...objects that orbit it * A typical galaxy is a _________. * collection of a few hundred million to a trillion or more stars, bound together by gravity * Which of the following best describes what we mean by the universe? * The sum total of all matter and energy * What do astronomers mean by the Big Bang? * The event that marked the beginning of the expansion of the universe * What do we mean when we say that the universe is expanding? * Average distances between galaxies are increasing with time. * Based on observations of the universal expansion, the age of the universe is about _________. * 14 billion years * A television advertisement claiming that a product is light-years ahead of its time does not make sense because _________. * it uses "light-years" to talk about time, but a light-year is a unit of distance * The term observable universe refers to _________. * that portion of the universe that we can see in principle, given the current age of the universe * On a scale in which the distance from Earth to the Sun is about 15 meters, the distance from Earth to the Moon is _________. * small enough to fit within your hand * On a scale where the Sun is about the size of a grapefruit and the Earth is about 15 meters away, how far away are the nearest stars besides the Sun? * About the distance across the United States * The number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately _________. ......

Words: 15299 - Pages: 62

Free Essay

What Dreams May Come

...to spend the rest of his life in hell, just to be able to hang with his wife for eternity. The movie begins with the encounter of the two soul mates, both who were spending their time on their sailboats, one of which had a red sail symbolizing seduction, love, sexuality, but also sacrifice and danger, the boat was owned by Annabella Sciorra who is played by Annie Nielsen , who happens to be Chris’ wife later on the movie. They strongly fall in love with each other and they had 2 children, Ian and Marie , played by Josh Paddock and Jessica Brooks Grant, both who died after being involved in a collision and the tragic event destroys Annabella and Chris’ life by leaving an empty space in their heart. The quietness of their house and the uncertainty of their future made Anabella have a mental breakdown and after going through a rough path, his husband (who is a doctor), dies in an car collision accident; while he was trying to save someone who was trapped inside their car after being flipped over by impact of his car and the other vehicles colliding. After this other tragedy she sees suicide as her only escape from that nightmare and without knowing the “rules” of heaven she kills herself condemning her soul to an eternity in hell and without any chance of seeing paradise and her family. Chris Nielsen is a perseverant and secure...

Words: 701 - Pages: 3