Free Essay

Gaming Types

In: Science

Submitted By YANAOYANA
Words 2993
Pages 12
-------------------------------------------------
Araliaceae
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Araliaceae
Temporal range: Eocene–0PreЄЄOSDCPTJKPgN | | Aralia elata | Scientific classification | Kingdom: | Plantae | (unranked): | Angiosperms | (unranked): | Eudicots | (unranked): | Asterids | Order: | Apiales | Family: | Araliaceae
Juss.[1] | Subfamilies and genera | * See text | Synonyms | * Botryodendraceae J.Agardh * Hydrocotylaceae (Drude) Hyl., nom. cons. |
Araliaceae is a family of flowering plants, also known as the Aralia family (after its type genus Aralia) or ivy family. The family includes 254 species of trees, shrubs, lianas and perennial herbaceous plants in two subfamilies. Species usually bear pinnately or palmatelycompound leaves, and usually have small flowers produced in large panicles.
Contents
[hide] * 1 Overview * 2 Subfamilies and genera * 3 See also * 4 References and external links
-------------------------------------------------
Overview[edit]
The family from tropical area origin is present in cooler climates, too. They are found in the Americas, Eurasia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia and Pacific islands. Araliaceae bear essential oils, or without essential oils can be resinous and heterophyllous. It presents many shapes, includes some trees and ivies as the angelica tree (devil's walking-stick, Aralia spinosa), the devil's club (Oplopanax horridus), Hedera spp., including Hedera helix and herbs as ginseng Panax spp., a native of Korea and used as medical herb. Leaves are simple, or compound, sometimes lauroid (resembling Laurus) or peltate, or not peltate; when compound, ternate, or pinnate, or palmate.
The systematics of Araliaceae are currently under study, and taxonomic changes and novelties are to be expected. Endemic Araliaceae are found in the pluvial montane forest, very humid montane, and humid lowland river forest regions. They are present, too, in laurel forest, cloud forest and warm, humid habitats. The family is closely related to Apiaceae andPittosporaceae, and the boundaries between these families and other members of Apialesare still uncertain. Some recent systems included Araliaceae in an expanded Apiaceae, but this has not been widely followed. Molecular phylogenies[2] suggest at least some of the genera traditionally included in Apiaceae as subfamily Hydrocotyloideae appear to be more closely related to Araliaceae, and the inclusion of Hydrocotyle and Trachymene in Araliaceae has been recommended.[3]
The generic level classification of Araliaceae has been unstable; in particular, numerous genera have been synonymized underSchefflera. Recent molecular phylogenies[4] have shown this large pantropical genus is polyphyletic and some believe it should be divided again into several genera, though these would probably not correspond with the previously recognized genera.
-------------------------------------------------
Subfamilies and genera[edit] Subfamily Aralioideae * Anakasia * Apiopetalum * Aralia * Arthrophyllum * Astrotricha * Boninofatsia * Brassaiopsis * Cephalaralia * Cheirodendron * Cromapanax * Cuphocarpus * Cussonia * Dendropanax * Eleutherococcus * Fatshedera * Fatsia * Gamblea * Gastonia * Harmsiopanax * Hedera * Heteropanax * Hunaniopanax * Kalopanax * Mackinlaya * Macropanax * Megalopanax * Merrilliopanax * Meryta | * Metapanax * Motherwellia * Munroidendron * Oplopanax * Oreopanax * Osmoxylon * Panax * †Paleopanax[5] * Polyscias * Pseudopanax * Pseudosciadium * Raukaua * Reynoldsia * Schefflera * Sciadodendron * Seemannaralia * Sinopanax * Stilbocarpa * Tetrapanax * Tetraplasandra * Trevesia * WoodburniaSubfamily Hydrocotyloideae * Azorella * Centella * Hydrocotyle * Xanthosia | *
Schefflera arboricola *
(Oplopanax horridus) *
Eleutherococcus sieboldianus *
Hedera helix *
Aralia spinosa *
Osmoxylon lineare

Araliaceae
The Araliaceae are mostly tropical shrubs and trees comprising about 70 genera and 700 species. The leaves are alternate or rarely opposite, palmately or pinnately compound or more than once compound or rarely simple; stipules are usually present and liguliform or adnate to the petiole and sheathing. The flowers are actinomorphic and most frequently unisexual, often in heads or umbels. The perianth is biseriate but the calyx is reduced to usually 5 minute teeth or a seamlike rim adnate to the ovary. The corolla consists mostly of 5-10 usually more or less distinct, usually valvate petals arising from a nectary disk on the summit of the ovary. The stamens are distinct, usually as many as and alternating with the petals. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2-15 carpels, an equal number of styles or these connate into one style, and an inferior ovary with 2-15 locules, each bearing a single pendulous, axile ovule. An epigynous nectary disk is generally confluent with the enlarged stylar base or stylopodium. The fruit is a berry or drupe that sometimes splits into one-seeded segments.
Each "thumbnail" image below is linked to a larger photograph.

| | | Arthrophyllum sp. Note the palmately compound leaf, 5-merous flowers, umbellate inflorescence and the calyx that forms a rim with minute teeth around the summit of the inferior ovary. | | Cheirodendron platyphyllum, 'olapa. This Hawaiian endemic species has leaves (and leaflets) that quake like aspen (for the same reason, i.e. flattened stalks). | | | | Munroidendron racemosum. This is a rare Hawaiian endemic genus that has the flowers in racemes instead of the usual umbels found in the family. It also has numerous stamens and irregularly connate petals. | | Oplopanax horridum, devil's walking cane, devil's club, Hackleman Old Growth Trail, Cascades, OR, July 2003. | | | | Reynoldsia sandwicensis, 'ohe. In this endemic Hawaiian species the petals are often connate in pairs or threes, giving the appearance of commonly 4 or 5 petals. There are usually about 10 stamens. | | | | Schefflera actinophylla, octopus tree. This ornamental species from Australia has flowers with about a dozen perianth segments and stamens. The petals fall away that is, are caducous as the stamens expand. A conspicuous disk is present and a style is lacking. | | | | | Tetraplasandra oahuensis, 'ohe mauka. Note the pinnate leaves, umbellate inflorescence, and flowers with five and six petals and alternating stamens; the inferior ovary and nectary disk are also evident in this this endemic Hawaiian species. | | Tetraplasandra waimeae, 'ohe kiko'ola, endemic genus. |

-------------------------------------------------
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Family AraliaceaeClick on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles. | | Up to the Kingdom | Kingdom Plantae – Plants | Subkingdom Tracheobionta – Vascular plants | Superdivision Spermatophyta – Seed plants | Division Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants | Class Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons | Subclass Rosidae | Order Apiales | Family Araliaceae – Ginseng family | | Contains 18 Genera and 47 accepted taxa overall | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Down one level | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Aralia L. – spikenard P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Cheirodendron Nutt. ex Seem. – cheirodendron P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Dendropanax Decne. & Planch. – dendropanax P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Eleutherococcus Maxim. – ginseng P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Fatsia Decne. & Planch. – fatsia P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Hedera L. – ivy P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Kalopanax Miq. – castor aralia P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Meryta J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Munroidendron Sherff – munroidendron P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Oplopanax (Torr. & A. Gray) Miq. – oplopanax P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Osmoxylon Miq. P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Panax L. – ginseng P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Polyscias J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. – aralia P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Pseudopanax K. Koch – pseudopanax P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Reynoldsia A. Gray – reynoldsia P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Schefflera J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. – schefflera P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Tetrapanax (K. Koch) K. Koch – tetrapanax P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Genus Tetraplasandra A. Gray – tetraplasandra P | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | |

| The families of flowering plants | |
L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz
Araliaceae Juss.
Including Botryodendraceae J.G. Agardh, Myodocarpaceae Doweld; excluding currently Umbelliferae-Hydrocotyloideae.
Habit and leaf form. Trees (mostly, usually of moderate size but sometimes very large, with Peekeliopanax reaching 40 m high), or ‘arborescent’, or shrubs (including some woody epiphytes), or lianas, or herbs (Panax, Stilbocarpa, some species of Aralia, etc.); non-laticiferous and without coloured juice; bearing essential oils, or without essential oils; resinous. ‘Normal’ plants (nearly always), or switch-plants (e.g., with the linear leaves of Lilaeopsis and Oxypolis interpretable as highly modified pinnately compound leaves, with nodal appendages representing pinnae transformed into hydathodes). Plants autotrophic. Perennial; without conspicuous aggregations of leaves. Self supporting, or epiphytic, or climbing; when climbing stem twiners, or root climbers. Pachycaul (nearly always, mostly large-leaved and thick-stemmed), or leptocaul (e.g., in Pseudopanax, in which long- and short-shoots are distinguishable). Heterophyllous (sometimes, e.g. Hedera helix, where progression from lobed to entire leaves reflects irreversible shoot maturation), or not heterophyllous. Leaves medium-sized to very large (to over 3 m inAralia), or small (rarely, but only 1–2 cm in Pseudopanax anomalum); alternate (nearly always), or opposite (Cheirodendron, Eremopanax), or whorled (Panax); spiral (mostly), or distichous (rarely), or four-ranked (rarely); commonly leathery; petiolate (usually), or subsessile; more or less sheathing (usually), or non-sheathing. Leaf sheaths with free margins. Leaves gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; aromatic, or without marked odour; simple (mostly), or compound; not peltate (usually), or peltate (some Harmsiopanax spp.); when compound, ternate, or pinnate, or palmate, or multiply compound. Lamina when simple, dissected (usually), or entire; pinnatifid, or palmatifid; pinnately veined, or palmately veined. Leaves stipulate, or exstipulate. Stipules when present, intrapetiolar (often adnate to and scarcely distinguishable from the base of the petiole). Vegetative buds scaly. Leaf development not ‘graminaceous’; leaves becoming compound from primordial lobes.
Leaf anatomy. The leaf lamina dorsiventral (usually), or bifacial to centric. Stomata present; usually mainly confined to one surface (mostly abaxial); paracytic (usually), or anomocytic. Hairs present (not always numerous, but of diverse types, with shaggy, 2-armed, tufted, stellate, and peltate forms recorded). Complex hairs present (usually), or absent; commonly stellate. Adaxial hypodermis present (very commonly), or absent. Lamina or more often canals with secretory cavities. Secretory cavities presumably containing resin, or containing oil, containing mucilage, containing resin, and containing latex (? - cf. those of the stems); schizogenous. The mesophyll not containing mucilage cells (seemingly lacking secretory cells of any sort). Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells (Aralia, Hedera).
Axial (stem, wood) anatomy. Secretory cavities or more often canals universally present; with resin (presumably), or with oil, with resin, with mucilage, and with latex (i.e., with imprecise references to oily, resinous, gummy and occasionally milky contents). Cork cambium present; initially superficial. Nodes penta-lacunar to multilacunar (mostly), or tri-lacunar (rarely). Primary vascular tissue generally comprising a ring of bundles (at first, separated by wide rays), or in a cylinder, without separate bundles (subsequently), or comprising two or more rings of bundles, or consisting of scattered bundles (the conventional ring often accompanied by additional cortical and/or medullary circles of bundles, and occasionally by scattered medullary bundles); collateral. Internal phloem absent. Cortical bundles present (commonly), or absent. Medullary bundles present (often), or absent. Secondary thickening usually developing from a conventional cambial ring (? - no reference to anomalous secondary thickening having been found).
The wood ring porous to diffuse porous. The vessels small to medium; variously radially paired, in radial multiples, clustered, and in tangential arcs. The vessel end-walls simple (usually), or scalariform (often with few bars), or scalariform and simple. The vessels without vestured pits; with spiral thickening, or without spiral thickening. The axial xylem without tracheids; without fibre tracheids; with libriform fibres; usually including septate fibres (especially around the vessels). The fibres without spiral thickening. The parenchyma usually paratracheal (only, often very sparse). ‘Included’ phloem absent. The wood not storied. Tyloses present, or absent.
Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite, or monoecious, or andromonoecious, or gynomonoecious, or dioecious, or polygamomonoecious.
Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in spikes, in heads, and in umbels (with umbels less prevalent than in the Umbelliferae). The ultimate inflorescence units cymose (mostly), or racemose (represented in probably no more than 10 genera). Inflorescencesterminal, or axillary, or leaf-opposed (though appearing lateral, rarely - e.g. in Mackinlaya, and sometimes genuinely lateral in Aralia, Schefflera and Stilbocarpa), or epiphyllous (rarely); a few genera exhibiting racemes, most with umbels or heads, often massed into compound inflorescences. Flowers calyptrate (rarely), or not calyptrate; usually more or less 5 merous; cyclic.
Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla, or petaline; (6–)10(–24); 1 whorled (only in Meryta, where the calyx is entirely lacking), or 2 whorled; when two-whorled, isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx when present, 3–5(–12); 1 whorled; when present, polysepalous, or gamosepalous; entire, or lobulate, or blunt-lobed, or toothed (sometimes reduced to small teeth or a mere rim); often open in bud. Corolla (3–)5(–13) (the interpretation sometimes complicated by partially divided or lobed segments); 1 whorled; commonly alternating with the calyx (most genera having five calyx components alternating with five petals, but numerous exceptions occur); polypetalous, or partially gamopetalous, or gamopetalous (and sometimes connate at the base); calyptrate (rarely), or not calyptrate; imbricate (in the Aralieae), or valvate; regular; typically rather fleshy, or not fleshy. Petals clawed (Mackinleyeae), or sessile (usually with broad bases inserted around the whole circumference of the upper part of the ovary).
Androecium (3–)5(–12), or 10–100 (the same number as the corolla members, twice the number, or ‘many’). Androecial members free of the perianth; all equal; free of one another. Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens variously (3–)5(–12), or 10–100; isomerous with the perianth (usually), or diplostemonous, or polystemonous; alternating with the corolla members (usually, when equalling them in number), or opposite the corolla members;inflexed in bud; filantherous (the filaments usually fleshy and short). Anthers dorsifixed; not becoming inverted during development; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate (nearly always, but occasionally appearing bisporangiate by early fusion dring development), or multisporangiate (8 inOctotheca and Dizygotheca). Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral. Anther wall initially with one middle layer, or initially with more than one middle layer. Tapetum glandular. Pollen grains aperturate; 3 aperturate (mostly), or 2 aperturate, or 4 aperturate, or 6 aperturate; colporate (mostly), or colpate, or rugate; 3-celled.
Gynoecium (1–)2–5(–100) carpelled (about 20 in species of Gastonia, Plerandra and Reynoldsia, up to 100 in Tupidanthus). Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth to increased in number relative to the perianth. The pistil (1–)2–5(–100) celled. Gynoecium syncarpous (nearly always), or monomerous (rarely, at least ostensibly so); of one carpel (in Diplopanax, and ostensibly so in Arthrophyllum and Eremopanax), or synovarious to eu-syncarpous (nearly always, the styles often constituting a solid or sometimes hollow stylopodium); partly inferior to inferior, or superior (recorded only in two species of Tetraplasandra). Carpel when monomeric, i.e. rarely, ostensibly 1 ovuled (but with a second abortive one). Ovary 1–100 locular. Locules without ‘false septa’. Epigynous disk present (with a nectariferous disk between the stylopodium and the stamens). Gynoecium more or less stylate. Styles variously 1–100; when two or more, free, or partially joined; apical. Stigmas usually present, as a frequently double stigmatic crest capping the stylopodium; wet type, or dry type; papillate; Group II type and Group III type. Placentation when unilocular, i.e. rarely, parietal to apical; when bi- or plurilocular, i.e. nearly always, axile to apical. Ovules in the single cavity 1–2 (with one abortive); 1 per locule, or 1–2 per locule (usually with a second abortive one); pendulous; epitropous; with ventral raphe; anatropous;unitegmic; crassinucellate (mostly), or tenuinucellate. Endothelium differentiated. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed, or not formed (then the three nuclei degenerating early); when formed, 3; not proliferating. Synergids pear-shaped. Hypostase present, or absent. Endosperm formation nuclear.
Fruit fleshy, or non-fleshy; indehiscent, or a schizocarp (then cf. Umbelliferae). Mericarps when schizocarpic, 2–5(–100) (?). Fruit when non-schizocarpic, a berry, or a drupe. The drupes with separable pyrenes, or with one stone (as many pyrenes as the locules). Gynoecia of adjoining flowers combining to form a multiple fruit, or not forming a multiple fruit. Seeds endospermic. Endosperm ruminate (e.g. Hedera), or not ruminate; oily. Cotyledons 2. Embryo achlorophyllous (2/3).
Seedling. Germination phanerocotylar.
Physiology, phytochemistry. C3. C3 physiology recorded directly in Hedera. Sugars transported as sucrose (Brassaia, Silibertia). Inulin not found (umbelliferose recorded). Not cyanogenic. Polyacetylenes recorded (falcarinone). Alkaloids present, or absent. Arbutin absent. Iridoids not detected (in any of the members screened, discounting a spurious record for Hedera and with Aralidium and Diplopanax excluded). Saponins/sapogenins present. Proanthocyanidins absent. Flavonols present, or absent; quercetin, or kaempferol and quercetin. Ellagic acid absent (5 species, 5 genera). Aluminium accumulation not found. Sieve-tube plastids S-type.
Geography, cytology. Temperate (a few), or sub-tropical to tropical (mainly). Widespread, but especially Indomalaya and tropical America. X = 11, 12(+).
Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Tenuinucelli (or borderline, but uncertainties may reflect a few misplaced genera). Dahlgren’s Superorder Araliiflorae; Araliales. Cronquist’s Subclass Rosidae; Apiales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Asteranae; campanulid; Order Apiales.
Species 700. Genera 49; Anakasia, Apiopetalum, Aralia, Arthrophyllum, Astrotricha, Boninofatsia, Brassaiopsis, Cephalaralia, Cheirodendron,Cromapanax, Cuphocarpus, Cussonia, Delarbrea, Dendropanax, Eleutherococcus, Fatsia, Gamblea, Gastonia, Harmsiopanax, Hedera, Heteropanax,Hunaniopanax, Kalopanax, Mackinlaya, Macropanax, Megalopanax, Merrilliopanax, Meryta, Motherwellia, Munroiodendron, Myodocarpus, Oplopanax,Oreopanax, Osmoxylon, Panax, Pentapanax, Polyscias, Pseudopanax, Pseudosciadium, Reynoldsia, Schefflera, Sciadodendrom, Seemannaralia,Sinopanax, Stilbocarpa, Tetrapanax, Tetraplasandra, Trevesia, Woodburnia. Diplopanax has been transferred to the cornaceous alliance.
General remarks. This family exemplifies the well known difficulties in distributing certain Dicot families not only between Dahlgren’s Araliiflorae and Corniflorae, but also between the higher level groupings Crassinucelli and Tenuinucelli; this despite the fact that the latter evidently represent a major divergence in the Dicot line of descent (cf.Young and Watson 1970, Chase et al. 1993). In terms of the data compiled for this package, other than two ‘esoteric characters’ reflecting limited sampling (wet/dry stigmas, occurrence of septate wood fibres), there are no absolute differences between Araliaceae and Umbelliferae: they are distinguishable only in having the states of overlapping characters expressed in different proportions. This does not mean of course that the families should be merged, because the names permit useful predictive generalization. On the other hand, it does support S.M. Walters’s (1960) entertaining contention regarding the historical origins of useful family circumscriptions; viz., that that if formal taxonomy had originated in the southern hemisphere, the Umbelliferae would now be a subfamily of the Araliaceae.
Economic uses, etc. Some cultivated ornamentals, including notable houseplants, e.g. Hedera, Aralia, Polyscias, Schefflera, Fatsia. Ginseng roots from Panax quinquefolius, Chinese rice paper from the pith of Tetrapanax papyriferus.
Illustrations. • Technical details, from Thonner (Cussonia). • Technical details (Hedera, Reynoldsia). • Technical details (Hedera helix: Lindley). • Technical details (Aralia edulis, Gastonia). • Hedera helix (B. Ent.). • Trevesia palmata: Bot. Reg. 894, 1825. • Leaf hairs (Solereder, 1908).
Quotations
Sleep thou, and I will wind thee in my arms,
. . . . the female ivy so
Enrings the barky fingers of the elm
(‘Midsummer Night’s Dream’, iv., 1)
Oh, falsely they accuse me,
Who say I seek to check
The growing sapling’s flourishing; —
I better love to deck
The dead or dying branches
With all my living leaves.
’Tis for the old and wither’d tree,
The Ivy garlands weaves.
Calder Campbell, quoted by Ann Pratt 1857)

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Sexism in Online Gaming

...Online gaming has been increase so quick and much that almost all people have some experience with it. The freedom of playing and the gamers can do whatever they want within the game to not only entertain but release some pressure from the real life as well. However, the majority of the gamers is still male-based and they used to express their feelings by saying women-offended words even with the fast increasing female gamer nowadays. No matter it's by foul-mouthed, or purpose, being called "cunt," "bitch," "slut" and other common misogynist epithets does not make people feel comfortable even for male. Some game developers want to, from their perspective, make things right which is to ban the user whoever make sexual-offended comments either in verbally or literally in order to make the online gaming community clean. Or in gamers' point of view, it's only a game. Game developers such as Bonnie Ross and Kiki Wolfkill are trying to find a way to eliminate online gaming sexual harassment. They offer permanent banning for the user that violates the regulation. Nevertheless, they sometimes do not realize the fact that people tend to do things that regulators do not allow; moreover, they can create more accounts if their accounts had been banned. The method of banning accounts while users made harassed comments is not a proper way to eliminate this type of action since people would still find ways such as symbolized words, icons, images etc.to express what they......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Gaming Does Help You at Time

...GAMING DOES HELP YOU AT TIMES To develop a skill in something which you are interested in also helps you use those skills in your daily life. One such sport is gaming. Though it may seem that it has no fundamental use in our day to day life, it shapes our concentration to an extent where we can utilise it for other things. It is said that non gamers can see 3 to 4 objects at a time and react, gamers can see about 6 to 7 objects at a time and the reaction time is quicker than that of a non gamer. It is seen that those who are socially awkward tend to open up while they play games online. They tend to communicate their whereabouts in the game itself which results in making new friends when there is a team game. The coordination between your eyes and your hands tend to sync according to your brain’s command which results in quick movement and fast reflexes when in the real world and not in the world of simulation and first person shooting. There are many merits in gaming but there are two sides to every coin. As much as how gaming can be useful for body control, increase in concentration, there are also a few demerits to it too. You can differentiaite gaming as team games and a single player games. Most of this generation games are of team games but there are also a few single player games which many people do play. They tend to be isolated from the social world and are confined to their “gaming chambers” as some people call them. They do not want to make many......

Words: 608 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Sdds Doid Dff

...(ACC 100) GAMING NETWORK Saif Mohammed Ali ID: 151210008 Professor : Mr. Nauman Munir Submission Date: 14-12-2015 Table of contents:- 1. Executive summary 2. Objectives 3. Sales objective 4. Mission 5. Keys to success 6. Company summary 7. Company ownership 8. Start-up summary 9. Company locations and facilities 10. Services 11. Competitive comparison 12. Sales literature 13. Market analysis summary 14. Target market segment strategy 15. Marketing programs 16. Pricing and profitability Executive Summary:- Zion gaming network unlike any other gaming network provides more than just gaming computers and consoles, but it also provides a theatre where gamers can lay back and watch a movie with comfort at its finest and a set of excellent food for the best prices out there. Zion Gaming Network is the dream of any gamer. In this era and time it is hard to be unique between competitors in the gaming network world and it is hard to differentiate between their positives and negatives. However Zion gaming network is the first and so far only gaming network that provides such excellent treatment and services for the gamer at such a low prices. Normally for every gaming network you need the following equipments such as ‘gaming tables, computers, gaming consoles, pool tables, fussball tables, beverages bars’ however for zion gaming network we...

Words: 2375 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Gaming in the Modern World

...None of us are at all unfamiliar with the term "gaming". Gaming is an extremely popular hobby in the modern world. All of us are familiar with big titles like Grand Theft Auto,Need For Speed,Assassin's Creed and others. Earlier,it was thought that gaming was only meant for teenagers,however,it not so any longer. There are no restrictions on who can become a gamer - and,trust me,all one needs to be a gamer is a passion for gaming. The gaming industry had started to thrive at the end of the Cold War years,when old timers like Mario and Contra made our day. (I still remember myself sitting in front of my TV with my Atari,killing a boss on Contra and wishing for an S gun). Since then, there has been a gradual development of the industry,promoting the creation of better games with more features than was imagined only a few years before. Big companies like Take-Two Interactive,Ubisoft,Electronic Arts,etc. have really promoted the gaming industry through their games,which mop up millions of dollars in revenue in games sales as well as sales of downloadable content offered on their games to enhance the gaming experience. Now,we have games of every generation in our hands. Be it action,adventure,RPG,racing,shooter,open world,etc. we have all it takes to enjoy atleast an hour or two before our gaming instruments (a PC or a console). The gaming industry has not only directly provided employment to many tech geniuses who would otherwise have been left unemployed or working in some......

Words: 703 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Eat Alll of My Shit

...the identification of a specific culture group/speech community/community of practice you will be researching and the reason why you selected that group (2 pts); After watching the Anthropology of YouTube video, the online community sparked my interests. If I had to choose, I would decide to study the online gaming community; for example Xbox live or computer games. I would consider myself to be a part of this community and would love to dive deeper into the communication during gaming and how the language can be brought into every day social interaction. 2. the specific language practices or linguistic structures you are interested in studying and why (3 pts); First and foremost, I want to look at the pragmatics of the gaming speech. I think it would be a great way to understand how new words are formed and I want to know why they are formed. Then, I would like to look at morphology and syntax. I know of some terms that I have seen created while interacting in the game “League of Legends.” I just think it is cool to see these new words and how they are used to be funny or communicate in a different way. Also, the semantics of a language. Each online gaming community could have the same word used in a variety of ways in different...

Words: 770 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hm 322 Course Success Begins / Tutorialrank.Com

...HM 322 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com HM 322 Week 1 Individual Assignment United States Gaming Industry Worksheet HM 322 Week 1 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 1 DQ 2 HM 322 Week 2 Individual Assignment Effects of Gaming on Society Paper HM 322 Week 2 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 3 Individual Assignment Staffing a Casino HM 322 Week 3 Individual Assignment Economic Impact of Gaming Enterprises Presentation HM 322 Week 3 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 4 Individual Assignment Regulation and Ethical Issues in the Gaming Industry Paper HM 322 Week 4 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 5 Individual Assignment Baderman Island Casino Development Paper HM 322 Week 5 DQ 1 --------------------------------------------------------------- HM 322 Week 1 DQ 1 For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Class, In the article, "Two Studies show disparate triggers for gambling" argue that the closer you are to living by a casino the more likely you are to become a problem gambler. My first thought was that the article does not address the inner motivations and relying on a geographic location seems like an obvious answer. What are your thoughts? Do you think in general that proximity to things makes you do those activities. Could we make the same argument for someone who lives near the ocean would become a compulsive surfer? Is there a better way to identify triggers? How might one recognize a problem......

Words: 849 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hm 322 Course Success Begins / Tutorialrank.Com

...HM 322 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com HM 322 Week 1 Individual Assignment United States Gaming Industry Worksheet HM 322 Week 1 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 1 DQ 2 HM 322 Week 2 Individual Assignment Effects of Gaming on Society Paper HM 322 Week 2 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 3 Individual Assignment Staffing a Casino HM 322 Week 3 Individual Assignment Economic Impact of Gaming Enterprises Presentation HM 322 Week 3 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 4 Individual Assignment Regulation and Ethical Issues in the Gaming Industry Paper HM 322 Week 4 DQ 1 HM 322 Week 5 Individual Assignment Baderman Island Casino Development Paper HM 322 Week 5 DQ 1 ----------------------------------------------------------- HM 322 Week 1 DQ 1 For more course tutorials visit www.tutorialrank.com Class, In the article, "Two Studies show disparate triggers for gambling" argue that the closer you are to living by a casino the more likely you are to become a problem gambler. My first thought was that the article does not address the inner motivations and relying on a geographic location seems like an obvious answer. What are your thoughts? Do you think in general that proximity to things makes you do those activities. Could we make the same argument for someone who lives near the ocean would become a compulsive surfer? Is there a better way to identify triggers? How might one recognize a problem gambling......

Words: 781 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gambling in Adlosecents

...learns to drive, engaging in sex or smoking, or using illegal substances or medications not prescribed to them, teenagers think of themselves as invincible and able to handle anything. Some activities start as innocuous behaviors and only later are found to be harmful, such as using tanning booths to look healthy. New to this list of activities in which adolescents engage is gambling. It occurs with such great prevalence that it is not always recognized as gambling; yet, this behavior, as with any risky behavior, can be detrimental to an adolescent’s health. Gambling, sometimes referred to as “gaming,” is defined as the practice of playing games of chance or betting in the hope of winning money or something of value; it involves risk and uncertainty (Verbeke & Kittrick-Nathan, 2007). While the term gambling often is associated with a criminal activity, the word “gaming” often refers to these same activities or others that have become legalized (Humphrey, 2007). In this article, the terms will be used...

Words: 3192 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Reserch Project - Gambling & Alcohol

...Abstract (Summary) The topic that this paper has chosen to study is Gambling. It will look at the relationship between gambling and alcohol. The Research Question of this study is “How does the use of alcohol influence gambling, among young adults in Montreal?” The Research Hypothesis is “If a young adult in Montreal consumes alcohol while gambling, then they are more likely to be negatively effected.” The research method I used to gather my information was Surveys. The sample consisted of 93 young adults that live in Montreal. It was found that there was not a strong relationship that alcohol effects gambling behaviour negatively. The research hypothesis was not proven due to fact that there was no correlation between the two variables. Introduction Gambling and Alcohol are two big problems that society faces. For several years, these two agents, independent of each other, have separated families and ruined lives. Many young adults combine these the two agents, which has seen even more disastrous effects. In the study by David Giacopassi, B. Grant Stitt, and Margaret Vandiver, it was found that 54% of college students drank alcohol either “Occasionally”, “Frequently” or “Always”, when they were gambling. This study will look at Gambling and its relationship with alcohol. It will be looking to see what effect alcohol causes on those who are gambling. It will also compare this result with those who do not drink and......

Words: 1725 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Ethics and Gambling

...Ethics & Gambling Matthew J. Nagle Sociology 120 Kathleen Marker 5/14/2013 The extent of gambling in our state has just exploded with all the casinos that are erected and functional across Pennsylvania. I can go to about six casinos with the closest being approx. three miles to an estimated sixty miles and that is just in the eastern part of the state. “Gambling has been a part of human culture since history was first recorded. It involves three elements: consideration, chance, and reward” (McAuliffe, 2006). I speak of this because after years of experience gambling legally and illegally, I still find myself in moral and ethical situation from time to time. Furthermore, I often wonder where the social and ethical responsibility lye, on the patron only or do we place some of the burden on the casinos and bookmakers. “Compulsive gambling is a serious disorder, as exhibited by extraordinarily high rates of suicide, severe depression, alcohol abuse, and crime” (Unknown). Understanding, that a casino has tracked, recorded your every move in and out, and, every monetary transaction you have attempted and completed in said casino. There must be an equal footing for each to accept responsibility for acting irresponsible. In my findings, I intend to reveal ethical issues related to problem gamblers, casino promotions, and enticements, overall ethical concerns involving both state and church, and finally, some examples to tie it all together. For now, let us look at......

Words: 3204 - Pages: 13

Premium Essay

Basic Beliefs

...learns to drive, engaging in sex or smoking, or using illegal substances or medications not prescribed to them, teenagers think of themselves as invincible and able to handle anything. Some activities start as innocuous behaviors and only later are found to be harmful, such as using tanning booths to look healthy. New to this list of activities in which adolescents engage is gambling. It occurs with such great prevalence that it is not always recognized as gambling; yet, this behavior, as with any risky behavior, can be detrimental to an adolescent’s health. Gambling, sometimes referred to as “gaming,” is defined as the practice of playing games of chance or betting in the hope of winning money or something of value; it involves risk and uncertainty (Verbeke & Kittrick-Nathan, 2007). While the term gambling often is associated with a criminal activity, the word “gaming” often refers to these same activities or others that have become legalized (Humphrey, 2007). In this article, the terms will be used...

Words: 3192 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Csr Uk Online Gambling

...Are the current corporate social responsibility policies employed by online gambling companies proportional to the psychological impact the industry has on its consumers? A critical review of the UK online gambling industry. Andrew Macdonald March 2013 MA (Soc) Business and Management University of Glasgow 1 CONTENTS 1 Introduction.....................................................................................................3 2 Literature Review............................................................................................5 Introduction and Definitions.................................................................................5 Justification of Research.....................................................................................8 CSR within Online Gambling.............................................................................10 Psychological Aspects of Online Gambling........................................................13 3 Methods.........................................................................................................19 4 Findings.........................................................................................................25 Survey Results...................................................................................................25 CSR Policies......................................................................................................30 Socially Irresponsible Practices............

Words: 13155 - Pages: 53

Free Essay

Literature Review

...Literature Reviews: Adolescent Addiction Gambling Shortens This Life Span by Valdora L Avery Mrs. Linda Vesey-Gutierrez MA FST 613 Spring Arbor University-Detroit February 15-2013 Categories of Studies 1. Conceptualization of Adolescent Gambling Types A. Research on Adolescent Population 13-22 years old B. Cross-Cultural Studies 2. Level specific Gambling/Adolescent Prevention Strategies A. Gambling regulation enforcement B. Gambling Adolescence behavior 3. Spectrum gambling impact on the Adolescent Life Span Category 1: Edinete R. M., & Fudge. J., Urie Bronfenbrenner’s theory of human development: Its evolution from ecology to bioecology. Journal of Family Theory & Review, 5, 243-250. (2013) Glass Q.V. & Few-Demo L.A. (2013). Complexities of informal social support arrangements for black lesbian couples. Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies 62(5).714-724. (2013) Mamta, S., & Kari A., (2013). Siblings of individuals with disabilities: Reframing the literature through a bioecological lens. Journal of Family theory & Review, 5, 300-312. (2013) Swenson. S & Lakin.C. A wicked problem: Can government be fair to families living with disabilities. Family Relations Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies 63(1), 185-198. (2014) Wehmeyer. L.M. (2014). Self-determination: A family affair. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of......

Words: 2038 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Accounting

...2014 a) Phil N. Tropic should recognize this as the asset. In the Conceptual Framework (CF) of IASB, it states that an item can be recognized as the asset if it meets the definition of the asset and meets the recognition criteria at the same time (IASB, 2014). And the definition of the asset in CF is “a resource controlled by the entity as a result of past events and from which future economic benefits are expected to flow to the entity” (IASB, 2014). In other words, if the item is an asset, it must have three characteristics: it can generate inflows of future economic benefits; it is controlled by the entity as a resource; and the transaction or event giving rise to the control must already have occurred. For the recognition criteria, CF states that “ an entity recognises an item that meets the definition of an element if it is probable that any future economic benefit associated with the item will flow to or from the entity and the item has a cost or value that can be measured with reliability” (IASB, 2014). In this situation, the lottery ticket meets the definition of the asset. Because it can be traded in the secondary market and generate the inflows of the future economic benefit which is €90 in cash. And the event for controlling it also has occurred. It meets the recognition criteria as well. The future economic benefit associated with the lottery ticket is €90 which is the price in the secondary market. Gaining €90 can occur with a high probability compared to......

Words: 696 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Sitxglc501

...3. Write a short note on food safety act 1995? List some of the risks, penalties and consequences of not complying with food safety legislation. Answer: The purpose of the Act is to ensure the purity of food sold. Local councils and the Department of Health & Human Services administer the Act. Under the Act, food business owners are legally responsible to ensure that food sold to customers is safe and suitable to eat. 5. Which are different areas covered under intellectual property? Describe one business activity that breaches copyright legislation. Answer: Intellectual property is a property that is owned by an individual or an organization which can then choose to share it freely or to control its use in certain ways. It can be an invention, a trade mark, a design or the practical application of your idea, literary and artistic creation, invention, brand name, design, logo, name, image and copyright. If you or your employees engage in any of the information-sharing activities without permission then you may be in breach of copyright legislation. For example: using the other business logo without permission in your business. 6. Write a short note on liquor law (Liquor Reform Act) Name some practices prohibited under RSA. Answer: Liquor law of Australia regulate the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. The Liquor Reform Act is the primary piece of legislation regulating the supply and consumption of liquor. Practices prohibited under RSA are: not to......

Words: 873 - Pages: 4