Gender Andt Rade
Business and Management
Submitted By siddhubadboy69
Gender and trade: A fresh look at the evidence
The relationship between trade and gender has been hotly debated. Some say that globalization has excluded or impoverished women, causing disproportionate job losses due to the influx of foreign goods into domestic markets. Others argue that increased trade leads to greater gender equality by creating new jobs and economic growth.In fact, neither side in the debate is totally right, and a nuanced view is needed. Trade integration has translated into more jobs and stronger connections to markets for many women. Indeed, as shown by the World Bank's 2012 World Development Report (WDR 2012), increases in international trade have tended to increase women's employment, not a feature that typifies many development processes. And access to these jobs can empower women in important ways.
While it is difficult to establish a precise number, surveys estimate that women constitute a large share of informal cross-border trade in southern Africa. More than 70% of cross-border traders betweenMozambiqueandsouthAfricaarewomen.
A recent survey in four key border crossings in the Great Lakes region between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda found that the majority of traders are young women and experienced traders. These traders face serious risks and losses with each border crossing, including threats and sexual harassment, bribes, fines, confiscation of goods, verbal abuse and insult. Additionally the study finds that 95% of traders want to invest in their business but are constrained by the current border environment and lack of access to finance. Several public actions could improve the lives of these cross-border traders, including increasing professionalism and gender awareness of officials, and improving facilities at border crossings to minimize the risks to...