Premium Essay

Gender Display in Fashion Magazines Advertisements

In: Social Issues

Submitted By max3101
Words 1780
Pages 8
Sociology of Gender and Sex
Instructor BAS

Gender Display in Fashion Magazines Advertisements
Images in advertising that depict stereotypical gender roles and displays have long been a major concern in the field of gender studies. Before beginning research of gender display in advertisements, it is imperative to understand that advertising is a significant agent of socialization in modern industrialized societies (Kang, 1997), and is often used as a tool to maintain certain social constructions, such as gender. According to Rohlinger, the bodies in advertisements represent an ideal that individuals seek to achieve, and thus create the foundation for a masochistic relationship with one’s own body (Rohlinger, 2002). This statement is confirmed by the increasing rate of body dissatisfaction, greater weight concern, the development of eating disorders and lower self-esteem. Moreover, gender is a routine, methodical, and recurring accomplishment that actually surfaces in everyday human interaction (West and Zimmerman, 1987), and gender relations are learned through these advertisements, which essentially serve as a distorted reflection of the real world. These sexualized and stereotypical gender images are teaching the viewers a vast array of social cues, a certain way to interpret social reality, and are eventually reconstructing the definition of femininity and masculinity.
Various studies have been done regarding the covert ways that magazine advertisements construct masculinity and femininity. Assuming that significant differences in the portrayal of men and women would be found in terms of magazine type and its target readers, a content analysis will be used to examine and compare the selected fashion magazines to determine how contemporary advertisers define or portray masculinity and femininity to different readerships.


Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Stuck In The Model Trap Summary

...Other criticisms of fashion advertising include lack of diversity or misrepresentation, unrealistic expectations of society, celebrity conformity, which links to low self-esteem. In the article “Stuck in the Model Trap: The Effects of Beautiful Models in Ads on Female Pre-adolescents and Adolescents”(1997), Mary Martin and James Gentry argue that the use of beautiful models in ads creates and reinforces a preoccupation with physical attractiveness and influences the perceptions of female college students, adolescents and pre-adolescents resulting in self- comparisons to these images (Martin and Gentry, 19). Researchers have suggested that there is a connection between fashion ads and eating disorders or low-self esteem.(Figure 1.10) For example, in a study conducted by Eric Stice, Diane Spangler and W. Stewart Agras, when adolescents and college females are frequently exposure to a fashion ad, it alters the perception of beauty leading to body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative emotions and bulimic symptoms...

Words: 558 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

" Normalcy" in Advertises

...“Normalcy” in advertisements I have searched a lot of magazines for the essay and I found a suitable magazine named “ Vanity fair”. It is a popular magazine in America and more important, it’s exactly what I’m looking for. It has many advertisements that show women, men, both men and women. I think Vanity Fair’s audience seems to be women in general, ages 18-40 or older although according to an article, a rate of male readers has increased dramatically, which is 1.68 million male readers in the fall of 2011. After finish reading this magazine, I know it would be for women. It covers pop cultures, fashion and current affairs that are women’s interests such as fashion advertisements or story about Elizabeth Taylor. 60 percent of the advertisements portraying only men were consistent with Kilbourne’s argument. As you know, Kilbourne said in “ Killing us softly 4” that Men in advertisements nowadays are stronger, bigger, more powerful and better don’t have feminine sides. In the magazine, I saw a jean advertisement that portrays a sexy man without shirt. He lies on the rock in the beach. Behind him, waves are trying to make him sexier and stronger. Why did I say that? Because the man is trying to show his virile body with drip water on the body as if these water are sweat that will make him sexier. His skin was applied something that makes it tan. He tries to display his muscles, six pack abs that I’m pretty sure he has to work out a lot to get these strong things. The......

Words: 1268 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay


...Outline Product: Multiplx Chanel Perfume Client: Chanel Introduction [ADA] Chanel was founded in 1910. It has a long history in the fashion industry. As a market leader, it shows continuous innovation to defend its market share from market challengers, e.g. Gucci, Dior, etc. COCO believed that product innovation can keep consistency of brand image. Chanel’s perfume contributes nearly 40% of the global perfume industry. Adding new element and advanced technology into perfume are seen as a valuable creation perfume history thus enhances the competitiveness of Chanel. Communication Market Analysis Opportunity analysis In the perfume industry, there is only pure essence of a single scent in a bottle. Using the same scent in different occasions is boring, drab and tedious. Hence, a 3-in-one perfume can be designed and offered to tap the high income level of office ladies whose life is with all the glamour, wealth and splendid. They display a keen interest in everything new. With more flavors, the perfume can improve their mood to feel refreshed and even as a self-confidence improver. Consumer markets Market segmentation by consumer groups: Demographics -Gender: Since the establishment of Chanel’s perfume in 1870, it mainly targeted at women. It is found that Chanel has great potential to further develop such upscale perfume for women. -Age: The main target of Chanel is consumers who aged from 30 to 45. From the emphasis of mature and exquisite design of the...

Words: 2488 - Pages: 10

Free Essay

Fashion Exploitation: the Female Form

...Fashion exploitation: The Female Form Why is it in recent years the naked female body has been exploited to sell clothing and products, and ultimately being the face of a brand? Is it becoming too close to pornography or is it acceptable in this modern day? In this dissertation I am going to explore the use of the naked female body and how it can be perceived as being ‘exploited’ in a pornographic way within the fashion world. Although the perception towards erotic and pornographic imagery in the media has changed drastically in the last 50 years since the sexual revolution, there are still different views on the use of it to sell and promote a product or brand. I will look into how Christianity sexualised the naked body, fetish influences to the fashion scene and how designers and fashion photographers have used the naked form. To begin with I will look into the definitions and meanings of some of the key terms in this dissertation such as pornography, erotica, nude and naked so I can relate the correct meanings to points in my argument. ‘Pornography is printed or visual material containing the explicit description or display of sexual organs or activity, intended to stimulate sexual excitement’ (Oxford Dictionary) we could compare this to modern advertisements for certain brands. Some people may say fashion advertisement and clothing is getting close to pornography as an overstatement, but in fact when you compare it to the definition of pornography it may not even......

Words: 1876 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay


...[pic] 1. INTRODUCTION Consumer market for designer apparel has become more varied today by surge of designer brands, brand stores, store brands, customization, promotions, fashion events, etc. The purpose of this study is to understand the Indian buying behavior with respect to designer apparel like clothing, jackets, ties and many others. It was found that with rise in the disposable income people were shifting towards buying designer labels. Presently 1/6th of world population uses desiner apparels. The apparels were brought for varied purposes such as party wear, casual wear, and special occasion wear. There was awareness of both national and international brands like Prada, Gucci, Armani, Ritu Kumar, Tarun Tehalani, Manish Malhotra and others. Consumers across both sexes, both young and old were buying designer wear though only in urban areas amongst educated and middle to high income groups. The apparel industry is greatly influenced by the ever changing consumer demand and preferences. National and international trends keep changing every season, every year. Indian consumers are increasingly becoming aware about the designer labels. Higher disposable income, credit facilities, e commerce, mobile wallets are all helping in making spur of moment decisions and facilitate buying. This is a study of the circumstances leading to, influencing factors, steps involved, time taken, marketing implications and other factors involved in the purchase of designer......

Words: 1987 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Analysis of an Advertisement

...ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT TITLE: ANALYSIS OF LONGINES ADVERTISEMENT The Following analysis is about a watch that appears in an ad for Diamonds International St. Lucia. A watch is being advertised of which Diamonds International is the exclusive agent in Saint Lucia. The brand of watch is Longines. The ad appeared in Visions of St. Lucia page 19, Volume 2, 2011 edition. The ad also appeared in the Visions of St. Lucia as this publication is the premier advertising magazine, St. Lucian businesses use to market the products and services they sell. Visions of St. Lucia is the local publication created for St. Lucians and visitors alike so that they can find out what products and services are available across the island. It must also be noted that Diamonds International market their products exclusively to visitors especially high-end visitors who require pricey items. The ad suggests that the Longines watch appears to be a high-end product because the former Ms. Universe Aishwarya Rai is wearing it. Normally Ms. Universe winners are synonymous with high-end products and fashion. Miss Universe also appears in strictly expensive product commercials. (New York Times 2008) The environment that she is in modelling the watch as well as the dress she is wearing indicates that the product is an extremely pricey product. It is these features likewise the distributor Diamonds International that suggest that the item is a luxury item; made for the wealthy and well fortuned market...

Words: 1672 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Advertising & Children

... financial reports, etc. We have put our trust on the media as an authority to give us news, entertainment and education. Advertising has three purposes: one, to create product awarness, two, to inform consumers about a pruduct or service, and three to motive customer demand for the product, thereby creating brand loyalty. Advertisements appear on television, in magazines, on the Internet, on billboards, store displays, buses, taxi, school bulletin boards, and even people’s clothing (Boss, 2010). However, the influence of mass media on our kids, teenagers and society is so big that we should know how it really works. The media makes a lot of money with the advertising they sell and that we are exposed to. We buy what we are told to be good, after seeing thousands of advertisings we make our buying decisions based on what we saw on TV, newspapers or magazines to be a product we can trust and also based on what everyone else that we know is buying and their decision are also based on the media. These are the effects of mass media in teenagers, they buy what they see on TV, what their favorite celebrity advertise and what is acceptable by society based on the fashion that the media has imposed them. People in today’s society cannot live without the media. The help of technology has improved the way to send messages, and even the way we...

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Free Essay


...influence of these individuals, specifically celebrities, can be seen most often in younger generations.  As young adults mature, they begin to develop a strong sense of independence.  With this new found self-identity, many adolescents look to media outlets for guidance in establishing social norms and behaviors.              It is extremely evident that media outlets have the power to create meaning. Image advertisements in particular have the power to create a set of frames that perpetuate ideological hegemony. Ideology is a culmination of social beliefs and values that are upheld by members of society.  Hegemony is the power or dominance that one social group holds over others (Lull, 1995).   Ideological hegemony is a concept that describes an intertwined system of everyday realities that are created by dominant individuals.  As a result, ideological hegemony can often go undetected by common members of society.             For example, ideological hegemony can be detected in image advertisements. Gender stereotypes and dominant norms are often perpetuated in daily advertisements. Clothing advertisers often feature young women and men and exaggerate potential sexual relationships. This could indicate the importance of heterosexuality, and the importance of beauty in our society.  Due to the amount of messages an individual sees on a daily basis, these common stereotypes are not as obvious to the American consumer.   As active consumers, it is our responsibility to......

Words: 1510 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Cat and Dog

...Summary: I form my own business, which I name Vegaltair Company in remembrance of the China’s stars in the fairy tale – Vega Star and Altair Star. My company is a Wearable Sensor Technology Company, we are initiating selling technology wearable products. Our product called Sheen I – the newest wearable product with the highest and the most stylish level of technology. It performs the outstanding functionality that sensor technology is efficiency delivered: ultimate material, light weight, waterproof and long battery life. The capability of our watch can be listed are long battery life (so we do not need to charge it everyday as we use some smart devices), light weight (it is the same as today’s trendy wristband, it could be lighter or more fashion), ultimate material (it is craved out of a block of solid metal and Anodized aircraft-grade aluminum so transmitting wirelessly is almost impossible), waterproof (we can also use it under water down to 50 meters); and the broad range of completely united sensors. A price for this product is set at $99.99 to $299.99. II. Situation Analysis A. Market Current Situation In the competitive technology market, Vegaltair is one of the newest companies. We have several products including activity tracker, sport band, sport...

Words: 1555 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Marketing - Chanel, Nike, Hot Topic

...California, an individual's appearance is crucial because it is used to make a first impression. A person is judged by what they wear and how they look. For example, it is probable that many people would perceive a person wearing ratty clothes as uneducated and irresponsible while a person looking pristine in a designer ensemble is assumed to be intelligent and successful. In every city, there are multiple fashion brands with different styles and ranges of apparel and accessories. Every season, new styles and designs are created which influence society. It appears as if more types of clothing exist than the actual number of people. With so many different alternatives of fashion, the fashion industry is trying to please too many customers with variety. There are currently various styles to choose from, and the clothes people wear categorize or label them long before they realize it. The three fashion brands that will be analyzed extensively are Chanel, Nike, and Hot Topic. These brands have apparel but are completely different in their target audience. Chanel is a prestigious high-fashion brand; Nike is a popular athletic line; Hot Topic is musically and artistically edgier with a smaller target audience between the three. With these apparel brands, a person wearing each would be labeled or even stereotyped. One wearing a Chanel’s 2012 Spring/Summer ready-to-wear designer outfit with a white jacket, lambskin dress with pearls, and a glass pearl belt would be labeled as rich,......

Words: 10625 - Pages: 43

Premium Essay

Achieving Society’s Prescribed Definitions of Femininity and Masculinity: Is One Harder to Accomplish Than the Other?

...can act on, both Piercy and Olds make the point that there are pressures that come with fitting into the right character. Furthermore, both poems’ messages extend into today’s society as many young adolescents struggle with achieving the fixed notions of femininity and masculinity. Both women and girls are socialized into society’s definition of feminine behavior. The innumerable social pressures that are put onto women to be conventional to certain ways of looking and behaving are consequentially destructive. In Durham’s research, she examined and observed a group of girls’ conversations in a middle school in the southwest region of the United States. She noted that many of these young girls are influenced by what they see on magazines such as YM or Seventeen. Mariana: I saw in YM that if you put white eye shadow on like that, it makes your eyes look bigger. Mercedes (Opening Her Eyes Wide): Does it work? Mariana: I don't know. Yeah. A little bit, maybe. Nydia: Her hair is pretty. My hair is so ugly. Laura: Your hair is pretty. Nydia: Naw, it's all dry and damaged....

Words: 1905 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Marketing C212

...professional population aged mid twenties to mid thirties both men and women. It provides mid-scale work-to-play casual and business apparel, accessories, and shoes through about 500 stores including factory stores in the United States. It is also gaining market share in Asia, South America, and Europe as well. In this marketing proposal, I would like to discuss three service options to retain and acquire customers. Styling Consultation People have tendency of buying “sets.” When you go to furniture stores, they already have matching sets that are already combined for you so that you do not have to work hard to make them look nice together. Clothing stores have the same strategy through window displays. A lot of people purchase clothes as the display mannequins dressed. It is harder to mix and match the items or find something else to go with a specific item. Also every person has different skin tone, which makes the color combination of clothing a bit of a challenge. Hence, providing styling consult service at a store will be beneficial to acquire new customers. Alteration Service I grew up in Korea. As you can imagine, most of population in Korea have smaller physique than most of people here in the United States. I am not as petite as general population, so I had to get my clothes altered every time I shopped. The most impressive service the stores in Korea offer is alteration service. It is one way to have factory made clothing to be......

Words: 3968 - Pages: 16

Premium Essay

Blackface Chic: High Fashion, Racechange and Cultural Tourism

...Blackface Chic: High Fashion, Racechange and Cultural Tourism Race, Identity, and Public Culture Popular cultural representations, in particular those in the fashion industry, have recently reinvented a historically loaded image in their performances: blackface.1 In the past several years, blackface and other images of physical transformations of race have appeared in a number of high and popular fashion contexts including a “yellowface” fashion show in Shanghai sponsored by Karl Lagerfeld, supermodel Heidi Klum photographed wearing only chocolate syrup, an issue of French Vogue featuring a white model in black body paint and elaborate “African-inspired” costuming, a photograph in V Magazine of two models, one in blackface and one white, wrestling, two episodes of America’s Next Top Model involving racial and biracial transformation, and an editorial naming American Apparel and showing a woman in blackface. Blackface, though in a contemporary form more accurately described by the term “racechange,” or the performance of one race by another (Gubar 2000), far from being taboo have become an aesthetic in the fashion industry. Though popular magazines and newspapers such as Essence and a number of fashion blogs have responded to particular instances of racial transformation, there is relatively little scholarly work on the rise of racechange in contemporary fashion. This essay attempts to fill that gap in scholarship by examining racial transformation......

Words: 4793 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay


...p551(22) Advertising's effects on men's gender role attitudes. Jennifer Garst; Galen V. Bodenhausen. Author's Abstract: COPYRIGHT 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation We posited that media images of men influence the gender role attitudes that men express soon after exposure to the images. A total of 212 men (87% European American, 7% Asian or Asian American, 3% African American, and 3% other) viewed magazine advertisements containing images of men that varied in terms of how traditionally masculine vs. androgynous they were and whether the models were the same age or much older than the viewers. Men who had initially been less traditional espoused more traditional attitudes than any other group after exposure to traditionally masculine models, although they continued to endorse relatively nontraditional views after exposure to androgynous models. These findings suggest that nontraditional men's gender role attitudes may be rather unstable and susceptible to momentary influences such as those found in advertising. Full Text: COPYRIGHT 1997 Plenum Publishing Corporation In the average American household, the television is turned "on" for almost seven hours each day, and the typical adult or child watches two to three hours of television per day. It is estimated that the average child sees 360,000 advertisements by the age of eighteen (Harris, 1989). Due to this extensive exposure to mass media depictions, the media's influence on gender role attitudes has become an area of......

Words: 7988 - Pages: 32

Premium Essay

Sexism in the Media

...the viewer into buying certain products. The main purposes of commercials are to stand out from competitors, and to sell an idea or way of life for those who allow themselves to become influenced by the appeal. Women and young girls are often subjected and greatly influenced by these advertisements, and many from an adolescent age will alter and pattern their lives to partially adhere to this televised fantasy. Often, some young girls use these forms of advertisements to psychologically change their views about themselves, and thus, may have an unhealthy attitude towards their body type or status in society. I would hope to analyze the effect that commercials have upon society, and how it can create a prejudice frame of mind through subtitle symbols. Television commercials are an agent of socialization and have been used to persuade the viewer into voting for a certain president, stereotyping a certain ethnic group or race because of comical value, using sex to make a product look appealing, or learning what qualities in a beer is important. Yet, although such trivial information exists in commercials and would permeate the consciousness of Americans, certain girls and boys may see an advertisement that may cause harm and damage subconsciously. Television commercials can mold individuals and “show and value diverse images as a way to enrich the imaginations, hopes, and dreams of girls and women raised in a culture in which advertising’s images are ubiquitous” (Yoder,......

Words: 1476 - Pages: 6