Premium Essay

Gender Studies

In: Social Issues

Submitted By siphrue
Words 893
Pages 4
The question invites the writer to give a valid discussion towards the view that Gender and Development (GAD) initiatives are more desirable than Women in Development (WID) endeavours. The Gender and Development (GAD) approach was developed as a response to the failure of WID projects to effect qualitative and long-lasting changes in women’s social status. GAD focuses on social, economic, political and cultural forces that determine how men and women participate in, benefit from, and control project resources and activities differently. This approach shifts the focus from women as a group to the socially determined relations between women and men. The GAD approach promotes a development process that transforms gender relations in order to enable women to participate on an equal basis with men in determining their common future. The emphasis has shifted to the more strategic needs of women, leading to a sharpening of the gender focus of preparatory analysis. Although the approach emphasizes the importance of women’s collective organization for self empowerment, the target groups are still primarily women. Unlike the GAD initiatives, WID policies and interventions have, in the main, concentrated on women’s productive work. The failure to make an explicit link to women’s reproductive work has often added to women’s workload. Gradually, it was recognized that an approach that focused on women in isolation was inadequate and not sustainable because it did not take into account the overall project objectives or integrate women fully into their implementation. Moreover, it did not address or change unequal gender relations in various social and economic settings.
According to (00000) Gender and Development initiatives are a theoretical and practical approach to development which emphasizes on benefits of development distributed on an equal basis of gender neutrality and...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Gender Study

...Rachel Luo M/W 9:30am-10:45am 9/29/2011 In Spite of Women – Esquire Magazine and the construction of Male Consumer Rhetorical Analysis One During early thirties and forties which was right after the depression, government and corporate felt the necessity to revive the market. At that time, people thought women were the ones with dominating consumption powers. As Kenon Breazeale quoted in his article, “Women are indeed the shoppers of the world.” (Breazeale, 231). However, some people such as those in journalism fraternity regarded women’s buying power as “gullible vulnerability to consumerism’s trashy faddishness” (Breazeale, 232). Those people spread wide hostility toward women’s taste and argued that men should be the ones with dominating consumption powers. In this article, Breazeale’s purpose is to make people better understand how some people tried to court man as the main audience in the marketplace under a phenomenon which women were regarded with the major consumption powers. To better achieve his purpose, Breazeale specifically focused on a male targeted magazine Esquire to analyze how it was constructed to attract male audiences. Breazeale argued that Esquire was the first comprehensive magazine which attempted to manipulate and reconceptualize its audiences and targeted men as consumers. He first discussed how Esquire manipulated text to get rid of femininity factors associated in the market which it planned to open for male readers, by using “lifestyle”......

Words: 980 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Theories and Concepts-Gender Studies

...I will be explaining the following: radical feminism; marxist feminism; hegemonic masculinity;gender;homophobia;misogyny; rape culture; and Heterosexism. I have focused on these six terms because they highlight how sexuality and gender are categorized culturally and in our Western Capitalist society, causing women to be oppressed. I have focused on the previously mentioned feminist theories because they focus on a male dominated society that encourages unrealistic gender stereotypes. Also, these theories explain how women experience discrimination and unfair disadvantages. Radical Feminism Radical Feminism relates to the idea that women are being dominated in a male driven patriarchal society. Oppression of women has been engrained into the structure of society is reinforced through areas like motherhood,family, the state. Radical feminism indicates that we live in patriarchal society that sexualizes women and never allows them to be an authority figure. It affects women on a global scale and continues to build a prioritized system that continuously gives men dominant power and control. Women cannot seek help through the system because it is biased and controls women’s sexuality. Social dominance allows privileges to be given out according to gender and basically states women should not be in control of their own bodies and men are connected to power. Women are prone to unjust treatment and every aspect of their lives in shaped around male dominance. Women are put in......

Words: 2925 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Porn Women and Gender Studies

...catapulted to the forefront of the American women's movement in the 1980s. Because of this, many feminists viewed it as a key agent of female oppression. However, ‘sex-positive’ feminists viewed pornography as an essential ingredient of sexual liberation, and porn can liberate women from conventional notions that they must be monogamous, romantic and that sex should only be associated with procreation. For pro-sex feminists, the patriarchal nature of our society oppresses the sexuality of ALL people, not just women. The sex-positive feminists generally opposed obscenity laws and other measures that they saw as being restrictive of sexual expression. Gayle Rubin, who is a cultural anthropologist best known as an activist and theorist of sex and gender politics, was one of the sex-positive feminists who supported pornography. She believed that sex liberation is a feminist goal, and she, like all the other sex-positive feminists, disagreed with the idea that...

Words: 790 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Gender Women Studies Paper

...Hannah Pelfresne Christine Garlough GWS-102 Section 306 17 December 2014 Final Exam Women face problems while working in terms of harassment, hostile reputations, and unequal pay. According to lecture, harassment is defined as the verbal and physical misconduct because of race, gender, etc. to intimidate and create hostile environments. Harassment in white male dominated work occurs most often with women especially women of minority (Berdahl and Moore). This discourages women from feeling comfortable and taking initiative in the workforce out of fear. It can also have long-lasting emotional and physical effects on women. Also, women who hold high positions often face hostility from their counterparts. For example, if a man holds a high position at a company he is seen as a strong, commanding leader. Women are often seen as bossy or unapproachable. Although women make up 46.7% of the workforce, they still aren’t receiving equal pay compared to their male coworkers (Patten and Parker). According to lecture, the Gender Wage Gap reports women currently earning 78 cents to a man’s dollar. So one can infer that about half of the workforce is earning twenty-two cents less the other half just because of their biological makeup. This leads to thousands of dollars in lost wages, or lost income that would help drive the economy (Garlough). There are negative effects to women’s role in work because of how society is socially constructed. For example, being a......

Words: 1183 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies

...50 Key Concepts in Gender Studies Jane Pilcher & Imelda Whelehan Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies i Recent volumes include: Key Concepts in Social Research Geoff Payne and Judy Payne Key Concepts in Medical Sociology Jonathan Gabe, Mike Bury and Mary Ann Elston Forthcoming titles include: Key Concepts in Leisure Studies David Harris Key Concepts in Critical Social Theory Nick Crossley Key Concepts in Urban Studies Mark Gottdiener The SAGE Key Concepts series provide students with accessible and authoritative knowledge of the essential topics in a variety of disciplines. Cross-referenced throughout, the format encourages critical evaluation through understanding. Written by experienced and respected academics, the books are indispensable study aids and guides to comprehension. JANE PILCHER AND IMELDA WHELEHAN Fifty Key Concepts in Gender Studies SAGE Publications London • Thousand Oaks • New Delhi iii © Jane Pilcher and Imelda Whelehan 2004 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers. SAGE Publications Ltd 1 Oliver’s Yard 55 City Road London EC1Y 1SP SAGE Publications Inc 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, California 91320 SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd B-42 Panchsheel Enclave Post Box 4109 New Delhi 100 017 British......

Words: 86432 - Pages: 346

Premium Essay

Gender Studies, Maasai Men and Masculinity

...In recent year’s women’s fashion choices in Nigeria has become a hot topic on what women should and should not wear. Women are being told not to wear clothes that make them feel good about themselves. This essay will show how the moral standing of the society has been affected by the way people dress in Nigeria, which there is also a strict policy on what women are allowed to wear. Young women’s fashion is seen as a provocation to male students and a distraction to male students. There has been sexual has been sexual harassment and violation and the only way to retain sexual harassment and violation is to impose very strict dress code among female students and women in the society. There has been a call to criminalize and ban women’s fashion, the banning and legalization received legislative support in January 2008 when chairperson Ufot Ekaette presented bill against public nudity which has not yet been passed to law (Nigeria 2007). Ufot Ekaette says that there is a relationship between sexuality and nudity, she also says that the way women dress has always been directed to men. And is an invitation to an erotic encounter with ramifications involved. She also says that women need to be disciplined on how to treat their bodies with respect and that the women need to be protected at all times ( Little 1973; Wilson 1985; Ivaska 2004). In the Public nudity bill Ufot Ekaette defined ‘indecent dressing’ as when women are dressed in a way which exposes their breasts,......

Words: 773 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

A Study on Gender-Based Violence

...still a universal problem. This paper will explore the phenomenon gender-based violence in Hong Kong as compared to the global situation. An extensive literature review was conducted to explore the existing theories and risk factors associated with domestic violence. A qualitative study of women victims was then undertaken to gain further insight on the current gender-based violence situation in Hong Kong. In the discussion, the limitations of the study were examined and the results were compared of with literature findings. A STUDY ON GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE IN HONG KONG INTRODUCTION Worldwide Phenomenon of Gender-based Violence Domestic Violence has endangered the lives and well-being of millions of women worldwide. This is no longer a private matter between individual family members but should be recognized “as an obstacle to equality, and as an intolerable offence to human dignity”. (United Nations, 1996). In a statement to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing in September 1995, the United Nations Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, said that violence against women is a universal problem that must be universally condemned. Studies in 10 countries have found that between 17 per cent and 38 per cent of women have suffered physical assaults by a partner (United Nations, 1995). The United Nation (1995) defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in,......

Words: 5204 - Pages: 21

Premium Essay

A Study of Pay Inequity Between Genders

...A Study of pay Inequity between Genders   Abstract As long as an American woman is putting in the same amount of hours with the same qualifications and experience in the same occupation as an American male, and yet taking home a wage that is any lower, she is not being treated fairly as an equal. Contrary to many arguments, it is unquestionable that a wage gap exists, and while there are various ideas as to the most probable cause, there is no reason why this gap should continue to go uncorrected or unchanged. Our government should take concrete steps to close the gender wage gap because it violates women’s rights and equality. The story begins at a local Radio Shack, it is Friday, payday. As employees open their paychecks, they are awaiting their annual raise. As one employee, Neha opens up her paycheck she finds she has not yet received a raise; she has waited all year for this raise. She is very sad to find she did not receive one. She begins to think maybe she did something wrong. She starts to think back through the year, and cannot seem to come up with any solutions as to why she did not receive one. She worked especially hard that year in hopes to receive a good raise and felt she deserved to be recognized for it. In the break room she overheard her co-worker John bragging to their colleagues about his second raise. Now John is making a dollar twenty five more per hour than her even though they both have been working at Radio Shack......

Words: 2595 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Case Study: Gender and Age Discrimination

...Journal Article 2 – A CASE OF AGE AND GENDER DISCRIMINATION   Forklifts and Drills LLC is a major supplier of equipment for the oil field industry headquartered in Dallas, Texas, and doing business in Oklahoma, Texas, Alaska, the Middle East and Russia.  Following a decline in sales and market share, the company hired a new CEO, a 42-year-old male.  He planned to turn the company around in 16 months.  He immediately hired a VP for Marketing (male and age 41) to investigate the reason for the decline in sales.  The CEO suggested to him that he might want to look at the gender and age mix of the sales force of the company because he suspected that might be the problem.  After all, everybody knows that women don’t belong anywhere near an oil field, especially in the Middle East, and younger employees work harder because they have more energy and are more motivated.  The results of the investigation revealed that the decrease in sales was due to other reasons not directly related to the team. The average age of the sales force was 52 and 20% were female.  The new CEO instructed the VP for marketing to replace the older members of the sales force with younger hires, and to get rid of those women while he was at it. Over the next 12 months, 75 employees lost their jobs. Most of these individuals were over age 40 and had received excellent performance reviews in the past.  All of the women were replaced.  The “official” reason given for the terminations was “inability to adapt......

Words: 462 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Women and Gender Studies: Process Paper on Collaboration Project

...Women and Gender Studies: Process Paper on Collaboration Project Daquille Barzey-Ferguson Mary Ellen Schmider Introduction to Women's Studies: Process Paper on Collaboration Project 12/01/2014 I want to start off by saying that WMST 200 was a very great course and I enjoyed every minute of it. It was a very beneficial learning experience and I have taken away so much from it. Our professor Mary Ellen Schmider was extremely helpful and her assignments were always knowledgeable and rewarding. They really opened my mind to seeing the world through a woman’s perspective. This course educated me on the aspects of the modern day woman and some of the struggles they still face. I would highly recommend this to course to people that I know. One thing in particular that challenged and was kind of new to me was the Collaboration project. It promoted classmate interaction and teamwork, which are great factors to have. This assignment was a great way to interact with our fellow classmates. Reflecting back on this courses collaborative project it was quite rewarding. At first I was a little worried about working with people I do not really know through the computer. How we are supposed come together and complete this assignment, but it turned out for the better. At first there was a little confusion as to what were our particular roles of the assignment but through outstanding teamwork we prevailed. It was a good learning experience. Our group consisted of five outstanding......

Words: 1138 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Biblical Studies and the Gender Question in the Church

...Bradley Isbell Doctor James Strange Life and Letters of Paul 5.6.2010 Biblical Studies and the Gender Question in the Church The role of gender in the church is one of the toughest issues facing the church-body today. In fact, the role of women in all parts of society has come under scrutiny over the years. Concern and sharp disagreements across the globe are shedding light on the role women should play, do play, and are restricted from playing in the church. Many answers have emerged but no definitive conclusions have come to the surface. This is in part due to the apparent conflicting evidence that we see in biblical texts. It seems that everyone has an opinion on what it actually says. While some churches whose traditions and practices are less rigidly tied to Biblical doctrines have begun placing women in leadership positions such as pastor or teachers, others that interpret the Bible more literally have been slow to adopt changes. The opposing egalitarian and complementarian views on gender illustrated by the following interpretations can be attributed to differing approaches to exegetical techniques, hermeneutical principles, outside authorities, and contrasting ideas on authenticity both literal and situation-specific in scripture. These ideas will be explored a bit later. To begin our discussion we need a general explanation of what is meant by an egalitarian or complementarian view. Egalitarianism is a moral code that holds that everyone should......

Words: 4115 - Pages: 17

Free Essay

An Observational Study to Investigate Gender Differences in Touching Behaviour in a Social Situation

...An Observational study to investigate gender differences in touching behaviour in a social situation Name: Institution: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract The aim of this study was to conduct an investigative observational study into gender differences in touch behavior in a social situation. A study by Henley (1973) concluded existence of gender asymmetry – a tendency for men to be significantly more likely to touch women than vice versa. The investigation was conducted within a shopping precinct in Washington Metropolis, following a naturalistic observational methodology. It uses independent design and random sampling of 10 young couples of opposite sex aged between 13 and 19 years. The study excludes same sex couples so as to enable testing of the hypothesis: tendency of adolescent males to touch adolescent girls in public is greater than the reverse. Findings reveal greater overall touch tendency for adolescent males to touch females than vice versa; a tendency for adolescent males to initiate touch than females. It also shows a tendency for greater adolescent female same-gender compared to adolescent male same-gender touch. The study results also show greater tendency for adolescent fema.les to react more positively to touch relative to their male counterparts. The findings support the hypothesis and Henley’s (1973) touching behavior model. Thus, the alternative hypothesis is accepted while the null hypothesis is rejected. Introduction ‘Touch’ is a basic......

Words: 2687 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Gender Equality in Indian Hotel Industry: a Study of Perception of Male and Female Employees

...government through legislation and policy measures. The vertically typical “Gender Pyramid “is prevalent in this too- lower level occupation with few career development opportunities dominated by women and key managerial positions dominated by men. Earlier studies found the deeply entrenched beliefs and stereotyped attitudes towards women in the workplace to be the main barrier in gender equality. Though India seems poised for superpower status because of its booming economy. However, beneath the spectacular “India Shining” story lurks an area of darkness – the unequal status of its women, who constitute more than half its demographic. This study on Gender Equality in Indian Hotel Industry- A study of Perception of male and female employees aims to examine whether female employees of hotel industry perceive gender equality issues differently than male employees. It collects information from 13 hotels and 110 respondents in NCR on 5-point likert scale on 27 items. For analysis Independent samples T test is used, and results of study demonstrate that there is difference in the perception of male and female only for one issue “women do not get same fringe benefits as men”, For rest of the issues of gender equality T value is not significant meaning that both men and women have similar opinion regarding gender equality issues. This study found biases in management practices in deference to official policy on gender equality. The...

Words: 321 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Using Material from Item a and Elsewhere, Assess the Strengths and Limitations of Participant Observation for the Study of Gender Relations in Schools.

...Item A How male and female pupils and teachers act towards each other has a major effect on pupils experiences of education. Sociologists are interested in the reason why gender relations take the form they do and their relationship to classroom interaction, subject choice, achievement and identity. Gender relations affect many areas of school life, such as parents evenings governors meetings, senior management decision making, appointments and promotions, as well interactions in the classroom and staff room schools have gender equality policies. As a result, pupils and teachers may disguise their real attitudes towards gender and this may make it difficult for the researcher to get at the truth. Sociologists are interested in the reasons for gender differences in subject choice. These include primary socialisation in the home peer group pressure, subject images and gender career opportunities. Question: Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the strengths and limitations of participant observation for the study of gender relations in schools. There are two types of observation, covert and overt. The difference between them is that covert observation is when the people being observed do not know they’re being watched or studied, and overt observation is when they have been told and given consent to be observed by the researcher. Observation can also be done in two ways. This is called participant and non-participant observation. In......

Words: 488 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Why Women Should Not Have Combat Roles in the Military

...Why Women Should Not Have Combat Roles in the Military In January of 2013, the ban preventing female soldiers from having combat roles in the military was lifted (Harris). As of today, women are fighting on the front lines of war alongside men during a time when war is more brutal now than ever. As a soldier in the Army, it is my plan to one day go overseas and fight against the enemies of the United States. However, it frightens me to know I will be fighting alongside mothers, sisters and daughters, who are all sacrificing their lives to do a job that men have been doing since the beginning of time. There are many important jobs done by women in our military, and I know that is what makes our country special, but I do not think women should be allowed combat roles. The main reasons behind my argument are women are not physically or mentally suited for combat, the amount of tension and sexual abuse that results from women in combat, and the amount of other jobs that women can have in our military besides combat jobs. Women are simply not as physically equipped as men are for combat. A contributor to said, "Men are over 30% stronger than women, especially in the upper body. Although many feminists cannot face this fact, females simply do not have the strength or endurance necessary to be, for example, effective combat soldiers." A combat soldier is required on average to wear between 88 to 102 pounds of gear, depending on the weather, on almost every...

Words: 1541 - Pages: 7