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Gender

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Submitted By mwangizze
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ABSTRACT
Self-concept is a person’s understanding of who he or she is in terms of personality ,appearance, personal traits e.g. gender and size. Self-esteem refers to person’s evaluation of his or her own worth ,either in specifics such as intelligence ,attractiveness etc.
Unrealistic high levels of esteem may decline or lower achievement and at times lead to aggression at various levels of development. At school extracurricular activities has been seen to promote realistic self-esteem while friendship improves self-concept.
Self-esteem as a social construction is considered a positive trait in various parts of the world including US while some nations tend to discourage it.
Self-concept as a factor of self-esteem changes with time. Many researches have been done trying to identify relationship and effects of self-esteem/self-concept on various components. Some of the researches include; evaluating association between shyness, self-esteem and relationship satisfaction. Effects of self-esteem & self-concept on academic and aggression., influence of esteem on emotional health. The research has also been trying to identify whether gender has significant influence on various components of which the difference appears to be minimal.

Darja, K., & Ronalta, G. (2011). Gender difference in self-concept and self-esteem component. New York: ACARDEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE.
In the article the author (Darja and Ronalta ) use independent and interdependent theory of self-concept. Based on previous analysis that had showed males have higher esteem than females ,the author assumes men have higher independent self-concept while female would have a higher independent self-concept. From the research involving 339 participants a conclusion is made that male and female do not differ in independent self-concept and self-esteem. The only significant difference was noted in the interdependent self-concept due to bio-psychological influence. After the research the author dismisses the previous analysis and affirms that male &female are equally satisfied with themselves in areas of individuality appearance and intelligence. Absence of significant difference could be due to equal opportunity given to women which has been beneficial.
Laramie , D., Pamela, K., & Oksana, M. (2007). Self -esteem, arcademic,self-concept and aggression at school. (Vol. 33, pp. 130-136). California: ACARDEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE.
In the study the author explores the relationship between acardemic,self-concept, self-esteem and aggression at school. Data collected from a racially diverse sample of middle school students were analyzed to explore how acardemic,self –concept influenced likelihood of aggression at school ;and whether high self-concept exerted different patterns on influence when threatened. The result showed that in general students with low self-concept in achievement domain are more likely to aggress at school than those with high self-concept. However global self-esteem was not found to be predictive of aggression in either gender.
Moksnes, U., & Espnes, G. (2012). Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents. (Vol. 53, pp. 483-489). Scandinavian: ACARDEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE.
From the article the author ( Moksnes and Espnes) investigate possible gender and age difference on emotional state ,self-esteem as well as association between self-esteem and emotional state. A research done on adolescents 13-18yrs , of primary and secondary schools in Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on emotions while boys scored higher on self-esteem. Self-esteem was found to be inversely proportional to emotional state. An interaction effect of gender self-esteem was on state of depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for girls than boys. The association gives support for the positive roles of self-esteem in relation to adolescent emotional health and wellbeing.
Tackett, S., Larry, N., & Busby , D. (2013). Shyness and relationship satisfaction. Utah, USA: ACARDEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE.
The article explores the relationship between personality characteristics and relationship satisfaction. The author is evaluating the association between shyness, self-esteem and relationship satisfaction. The research sampled couples in couples and the model assessed shyness, self-esteem and relationship satisfaction for both partners in a relationship. The results indicated that higher levels of shyness were associated with lower esteem as well lower relationship satisfaction. Individuals who were perceived as shy by their partners had a lower self-esteem as well as lower satisfaction in their relationship. The variable of female shyness had more effects on males satisfaction than male shyness had on female satisfaction suggesting gender difference between indications of relational outcome. Ulrich, O., Yasmin, R., & Yasmin, R. (2011). Self-esteem development. University of Basel: DOI: www.APA.org/2011/youth self-esteem ASPX
Self-esteem increase during adolescence then slows in young adulthood (Eroth, Orth). The author also verifies that there’s no significant difference between men and women self-esteem during either of those life phases. From the research they suggest that emotional stability, conscientiousness and sense of mastery are better predictors of self esteem
Franklin. (1994). Importance of self-concept. Retrieved from http//.edpsycinteractive.org/self htlm Self-concept is the basis for all motivated behavior (Frankler 1994). Self-concept is related to self-esteem in that people who have a good self-esteem have clearly differentiated self-concept. Self-concept is not inborn but is constructed and developed by individual through interaction with environment and reflecting on that interaction (Brigham 1986).

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