Premium Essay

Gender

In: Other Topics

Submitted By masaraure
Words 3353
Pages 14
EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY
How can we increase the likelihood of women benefiting equally from development activities? What strategies have proven to be effective in the field?

This tipsheet summarises strategies which have worked in practice, based on findings from a review of 85 evaluations undertaken by bilateral and multilateral agencies from 1999 to 2002. There was a great deal of consistency in evaluation reports about the most effective strategies for addressing gender equality issues, regardless of the type of assistance, the donor agency, the partner country or sector. Findings from the review also support anecdotal evidence about how to promote gender equality in development programming.

Involve stakeholders from civil society in dialogue on objectives and activities. National machineries for women, local women’s organisations, NGOs and other local advocates for women’s rights can play a key role in setting directions for country strategies and in activity design. They can hold institutions accountable for addressing gaps between commitments and practice.
Make long-term commitments to partners and activities. This is essential for sustainable progress towards gender equality at both macro and micro levels.

Discuss gender equality with partner countries
Dialogue to develop partnerships on gender equality is needed when agencies are developing country assistance strategies, and also at the activity level during design and implementation. This means that development workers need to talk with partners about how women’s needs, benefits and rights are relevant to the development activities being planned and implemented, taking into account the social, economic and political context; and how equal benefits will increase the effectiveness of activities and the sustainability of outcomes. Ideally, this dialogue and negotiation will result...

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender Identity Every sexual thought, attraction,preference, development, feeling, memory, fantasy, and choice stem from complex brain activity. A complex genetic code determines body type; but that type does not always dictate sexual identity. Sexual identity is an even more complex development that encompasses hormone levels, social learning, individual perception, and attraction. Humans are born genetically male or female; but that does not necessarily control which sexual identity the individual will discover. Planned Parenthood (2012) defines gender identity as how a person feels about and expresses his or her gender; despite genetic or natural gender assignment. Some humans are genetically male or female and identify with the traditional gender roles; but others may find that the traditional cultural norms do not match their feelings or thoughts. Sexual identity is the sexual part of human expression that does not include ideas like sexual orientation, sexual preference, physical gender, or body type. If an individual considers his or her gender as female and is at ease with referring to his or her individual sexual characteristics in feminine terms, his or her gender identity is female. Gender identity has nothing to do with the physical characteristics of gender; but focuses on how the individual thinks (either masculine or feminine) and how he or she expresses those feelings. Ghosh (2012) explains gender identity as “self-identified, as a result of a......

Words: 1429 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Gender

...Unit 3: Gender Scavenger Hunt EDP 310: Gender Development 1) 1) Interview 4-5 females and 4-5 males (they can be friends or strangers). Ask each of them to think of adjectives that describe/symbolize men, and adjectives that describe/symbolize women. For each person you interview, list the first 4 words they think of for each gender. Keep a running list of the words (even if words are used multiple times). Bad language can be an issue here. If you feel uncomfortable with certain words, you do not have to list them, although you can count the number of inappropriate words that are used to describe each gender vs. more appropriate words. You can also count the number of positive words said vs. more derogatory words. Answer: When reading over the selections for this assignment I decided to pick option four. I found this assignment interactive and interesting. Seeing what the opposite sex think about each other. I interviewed eight people in total. Men: Andrew: He described women as: seductive, adorable, alluring, beautiful. He described men as: Tough, headstrong, rude, and egocentric. Joey: Joey was very harsh on describing women: Dumb, airheaded, blond, whores, and psychotic. He described men as: Sensitive, players, enticing and fuzzy. Hayden: Hayden likes men so his description on males were different then the two others: Smooth, velvety soft, warm, delicious. Description on girls: Ugly, stupid, mean, hurtful. Michael: Description on......

Words: 664 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender Identity Frank Sagasta August 31, 2014 Psychology 265 Dr. David Mohr Abstract I will discuss the path of gender identity and the reviews of what certain people believe. You will see the three different influences of gender identity. These are the three areas of gender identity: anatomy of the genitals, relationship of child to parent, and biological. In addition to physical abnormalities due to genetic and hormonal influences or environmental influences. Something, interesting is the fact that most people believe that gender identity starts with the development through the time of puberty. Here're the factors that determine gender identity. Our gender identity is our psychological awareness or sense of being male or being female, and it’s one of the most obvious and important aspects of our self-concepts. Sex assignment “also called gender assignment” reflects the child’s anatomic sex and usually occurs at birth. A child’s sex is so important to parents that they usually want to know “Is it a boy or a girl?” before they count fingers and toes (Rathus, 2011). Our text was able to exhibit the gender identity that starts with the Y sex chromosome from the both sex. It also assisted with the understanding of the X chromosome from the mother and either a Y or X chromosome from the father, which will join. If the male transmits an X chromosome during fertilization, then the “zygote” will be female, and if the male transmits a Y chromosome, then......

Words: 874 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Gender

...ABSTRACT Self-concept is a person’s understanding of who he or she is in terms of personality ,appearance, personal traits e.g. gender and size. Self-esteem refers to person’s evaluation of his or her own worth ,either in specifics such as intelligence ,attractiveness etc. Unrealistic high levels of esteem may decline or lower achievement and at times lead to aggression at various levels of development. At school extracurricular activities has been seen to promote realistic self-esteem while friendship improves self-concept. Self-esteem as a social construction is considered a positive trait in various parts of the world including US while some nations tend to discourage it. Self-concept as a factor of self-esteem changes with time. Many researches have been done trying to identify relationship and effects of self-esteem/self-concept on various components. Some of the researches include; evaluating association between shyness, self-esteem and relationship satisfaction. Effects of self-esteem & self-concept on academic and aggression., influence of esteem on emotional health. The research has also been trying to identify whether gender has significant influence on various components of which the difference appears to be minimal. Darja, K., & Ronalta, G. (2011). Gender difference in self-concept and self-esteem component. New York: ACARDEMIC SEARCH COMPLETE. In the article the author (Darja and Ronalta ) use ......

Words: 870 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Gender

...Elizabeth Hayes October 8, 2011 PSY/265 Jeanette Gallus What does it really mean when a person uses the term “gender identity”? The first couple of thoughts that come to mind are; a person’s anatomic sex, how a person may perceive themselves, (or a male feeling like a female in a male’s body). The term “gender identity” is “[our psychological awareness or sense of being male or being female and one of the most obvious and important aspects of our self-concepts.]” (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L. 2005). In this paper we are going to discuss the factors that determine gender identity, discuss how a person’s masculine or feminine traits can be describing using the continuum of masculinity-femininity, and talk about three factors in my own life have helped determine my own gender identity. The last thing we will discuss will be the masculine and feminine traits that I attribute to myself using the continuum of masculinity-femininity. There are a few different factors that are included that determine gender identity; like genetic factors, environmental situations, psychosocial factors, and even sexual hormones. “Gender identity is almost always consistent with chromosomal sex.” (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L. 2005). From the moment sperm fertilized an ovum, our destiny to be a girl or a boy is chosen. Usually at this point; 23 chromosomes from the male donor and 23 from the female come together and combine to make a “zygote”.......

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gender

...Leslie Flores English 101 4/14/12 Seeing and Writing: Gender Pg 322 #1 I think that assumptions made based on gender are often stereotypes. In the picture to the right he is accentuating his jawline and eyes, it seems like he is wearing lipstick. His face is flawless, and you can tell he is wearing powder. The picture to the left is very masculine while the one to the right is more feminine. The powerful gaze in Mapplethorpes eyes show dominance and attitude, pride. While the one on the right shows vulnerability, and you have to look at the chest to tell weather the person in the picture is male or female. He is sending the clear message of gender stereotypes, which is that men have to be strong and powerful, while women fragile and pretty. Pg.331 #1 The speaker is someone giving a girl instructions on what she needs to know and how she should act now that she is becoming a woman. I think the speaker cares for the girl and wishes to help the girl develop into a respectable woman, but feels that she must display authority in order to get the girl to listen. The speaker attempts to teach the girl by repeating details such as how to "set a table" in five different circumstances. Pg. 366 #2 In Bursons photography she purposely has the backdrop black so that the models faces can stand out. The hair of the models used fades into the backround, so you cant really tell if the person is male or female. I think that’s what she was striving for, one should not judge based on...

Words: 575 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...subject of gender is discussed in terms of masculinity and femininity rather than in the context of males and females. Matters of being male and female are discussed within the term “sex”, which bears some distinctive characteristics of gender (UN, n.d.). From a personal perspective, gender is an important aspect of humanity as it can, when approached in a healthy and inclusive way, provide a balanced prevalence of both masculine and feminine characteristics in the human societies. In a situation where gender is not in existence or does not bear the importance it has today, human life would be altered to take another form. Of particular interest, in this case, is the interaction of human beings without considering their masculine or feminine characteristics. Ultimately, there would be certain imbalances, competition and effects at a personal level if gender did not exist or bear any importance in the human societies. In the actual arrangement of human interactions and the prevailing social order, masculinity is supposed to combine with femininity in order to create a balance that is mutually beneficial for both genders since the two genders are characterized by distinctive qualities that are naturally meant to substantiate each other (Jackson and Scott, 2002). For instance, the masculine gender is characterized by physical strength and general resilience in accommodating hard and difficult tasks, such as lifting heavy load. On the other hand, the feminine gender is......

Words: 1184 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Gender

...subordinate and subhuman life . Women in poor countries are in the most vulnerable position for several reasons. In such a situation the ‘missing women’ is the burning issue of the time and it need to be viewed from holistic perspective. There is a relationship between gender inequality, disempowerment of women, and backwardness of any society. Nowadays there connects another dimension of ‘missing women’. On this study different issues related to gender inequality and neglect have been discussed with a view to having a conceptual realization of women excess mortality and being “missing” in the context of South Asia. Definitions of special words used in this assignment In this portion we will discuss about those special words which frequently we used in the assignment and in the title. This discussion will help us to get the accurate meaning of these words in the context of our study. ♀ Gender Inequality and neglect: Gender inequality means that different behaviour, aspiration desire and needs of women and men are not consider valued and favour equally. No society can develop morally, socially, culturally, and economically without the participation of women. Gender discrimination and neglect in the family, household, state policy and in working environment are the major problems that every women directly- indirectly; much or less face in Bangladesh.  Russ...

Words: 537 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...Elizabeth Hayes October 8, 2011 PSY/265 Jeanette Gallus What does it really mean when a person uses the term “gender identity”? The first couple of thoughts that come to mind are; a person’s anatomic sex, how a person may perceive themselves, (or a male feeling like a female in a male’s body). The term “gender identity” is “[our psychological awareness or sense of being male or being female and one of the most obvious and important aspects of our self-concepts.]” (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L. 2005). In this paper we are going to discuss the factors that determine gender identity, discuss how a person’s masculine or feminine traits can be describing using the continuum of masculinity-femininity, and talk about three factors in my own life have helped determine my own gender identity. The last thing we will discuss will be the masculine and feminine traits that I attribute to myself using the continuum of masculinity-femininity. There are a few different factors that are included that determine gender identity; like genetic factors, environmental situations, psychosocial factors, and even sexual hormones. “Gender identity is almost always consistent with chromosomal sex.” (Rathus, S. A., Nevid, J.S., and Fichner-Rathus, L. 2005). From the moment sperm fertilized an ovum, our destiny to be a girl or a boy is chosen. Usually at this point; 23 chromosomes from the male donor and 23 from the female come together and combine to make a “zygote”.......

Words: 1130 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Gender

...When one thinks about the terms sex and gender, we are sometimes inclined to use the two words similarly, suggesting that they are in fact synonymous with one another. However, a careful examination of the two terms clearly shows that the two terms are very distinct from one another. What we’ll see is that one word is descriptive, while the other is definitive. It is the reproductive organs that determine an individual’s sex, as you’re either born male or female. However, gender determines something different. Gender defines if you are a man or woman, giving specific attributes and behaviors each sex should have, which will ultimately define whether or not you’re considered a man or a woman. For example, men are supposed to be strong, void of emotion and dominant, whereas women are supposed to be fragile, emotional and submissive. However, gender formation leads us to ask one very important question. How could complex organisms, such as human beings be broken down into two categories as it relates to gender? Furthermore, we have world comprised of countless societies and cultures, so how can one truly define gender? What it takes to me a man or woman in one place may differ somewhere else. In Her essay “Night to His Day” Judith Lober states, “Individuals are born sexed but not gendered, and they have to be taught to be masculine or feminine.” (624) Therefore in order to understand the term gender, we must first understand how gender is promoted, how it varies and the......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Gender

...“Most people in Western cultures grow up learning that there are two and only two sexes, male and female, and two and only two genders, feminine and masculine” (Spade and Valentine – 3). For most cultures all around the world, this is their case. People have grown up learning strictly about these distinctions; people are labeled as male or female according to the sexual organs they were born with and must identify as feminine or masculine with their looks, without there being an in between or even a slight glimpse of a change occurring in society. It could be that they choose to turn their backs on these issues because of their culture, religions, and/ or personal beliefs or people are just not well informed of what these titles carry. For someone that does not struggle to conform with society’s ‘acceptable way’ of gender it is no issue to fit in when it comes to that part of their lives. However, to a transgendered person, for example, fitting into a certain gender/ sex is an everyday struggle. Sex and gender have become the main distinction all over the world; it would be very hard to get rid of this. Personally, I do not believe that there will ever come a day where the existing gender binary completely disappears but I do believe that changes may be done to it over time. In an issue like gender binary, nurture ironically beats nature. People are not born hating homosexuals, transgender people, bisexuals, etc., that sort of hatred is acquired throughout the years and......

Words: 3394 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay

Gender

...Gender gender is a range of physical, mental, and behavioral characteristics distinguishing between masculinity and femininity.[1][2][3] Depending on the context, the term may refer to sex (i.e. the state of being male or female), social roles (as in gender roles), or gender identity.[1][2][3][4] Gender studies is a branch of the social sciences. Sexologist John Money introduced the terminological distinction between biological sex and gender as a role in 1955. Before his work, it was uncommon to use the word "gender" to refer to anything but grammatical categories.[1][2] However, Money's meaning of the word did not become widespread until the 1970s, when feminist theory embraced the distinction between biological sex and the social construct of gender. Today, the distinction is strictly followed in some contexts, especially the social sciences[5][6] and documents written by the World Health Organization (WHO).[4] In contrast, for many contexts, including some areas of social sciences, the meaning of gender has expanded to include "sex" or even to replace the latter word.[1][2] Although this gradual change in the meaning of gender can be traced to the 1980s, a small acceleration of the process in the scientific literature was observed when the Food and Drug Administration started to use "gender" instead of "sex" in 1993.[7] "Gender" is now commonly used even to refer to the physiology of non-human animals, without any implication of social gender roles.[2] In the English...

Words: 348 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gender

...suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl." DressMaker magazine agreed. "The preferred colour to dress young boys in is pink. Blue is reserved for girls as it is considered paler, and the more dainty of the two colours, and pink is thought to be stronger (akin to red)." Rkgnifnviovn hree years ago, while she was on maternity leave, Ros Ball and her partner, James, began a diary of their children's lives. Their daughter Josie was three and their son Clem three months old. They wanted to record the moments when their children were made aware of gender stereotypes; when they were directed towards a view of the world in which girls and boys inhabit separate, rigid spheres of pink and blue – the first sphere passive, pretty and gentle, the second aggressive, active and strong. The results were tweeted under the title Baby Gender Diary, and Ball, a broadcast journalist who lives in London, couldn't believe how much there was to write about. On the first day, they went to a pantomime with a toy stall, where Josie's older male cousins directed her straight towards the sort of item supposedly beloved of small girls: a fluffy pink tiara. One of these boys then chose a flashing torch, in pink, for himself, to which the stallholder responded: "Shall I get you that in blue?" The boy, aged about...

Words: 2850 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Gender

...* The word Gender, as a grammatical term has been around since the 14th century, according to Oxford dictionary as “referring to classes of noun designated as masculine, feminine, or neuter.” Gender is more commonly used now in the 21st century to describe a person’s identity. Sex is another word that is commonly used when describing gender, it is ‘the state of being male or female’. Sex is the biological difference, where as gender is to cultural or social differences. Sex could also be defined as evolution, our genetics. Where as gender, which is our nurture, our life experiences, which help us shape who we are as an individual. Sociologists argue that the relationship between sex and gender is absolutely arbitrary – there is no causative connection between sex and gender – sex doesn’t determine the type of roles you can engage in society. We announce our identities by the way that we dress, walk, talk, act etc. We convince other people that we’re the gendered person that we’re presenting ourselves to be, a product of interactions. With ones sex being defined as male or female, there are bodies that can’t be categorized under these two sexes. Hermaphrodites, now more commonly known as intersex, are becoming a commonly known and used term in society with 17 in every 1000 babies having some kind of intersex condition. Gender is only one of the fundamental principles in organisation of social life, in particular in structural organisations of; childhood, sports, media and......

Words: 2128 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Gender

...There are many historical events that have set the stage to analyze gender differences between men and women in the workplace. Whether these gender differences exist in the way in which they communicate, influence, or lead, men and women have always been viewed as different and unique sets of people. These differences have, to a certain extent, put women in the workplace at a disadvantage because of their perceived inferiority to men, mainly due to historical gender inequalities. Foremost among these historical events is the women’s liberation movement, an extensive feminist movement that has been in existence since the late eighteenth century and has gone through three distinct waves. Each section has focused on different reforms ranging from women’s suffrage to equal pay to reproductive rights. The first wave of feminism focused on women’s suffrage and political equality for women. The wave’s biggest success was the ratification of the 19th amendment which gave women the right to vote. The second wave shifted the focus from political equality to gender equality in laws and eliminating cultural discrimination in society. And finally, the third wave focused on equality across not only gender, but race as well. The third wave also included extensive campaigning for greater women’s influence in politics. Each of these waves have, in some way, contributed to overcoming gender discrimination in different sectors of a woman’s life, ranging from legal equality to social equality to...

Words: 269 - Pages: 2