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Geography Final Project : Liberia

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Liberia is the sole country in Africa that was colonized by the United States this is the same country that in the past 20 years has been devastated by war and disease. Can this country come back from a civil war and the devastation of the Ebola virus disease over the past year? Liberia has been subjected to an outbreak of Ebola virus which has sent the country's health care system reeling. The country has made some strides, it has become the first country in Africa to elect a woman as president but with all the strides that have been made can Liberia rebuild their government? Can essential services such as power and electricity be implemented all over the country? Can Liberia survive and rebuild the country? This paper will look at those issues to see if they can.
Liberia is a nation in West Africa that lies on the coast close to the Atlantic Ocean. The name Liberia originates from the Latin word "liber" and it implies freedom and alludes to the country's starting point as a settlement of free blacks repatriated to Africa from the United States in the mid nineteenth century (Sherman, 2011). It was built up in 1833 by a gathering of North American liberated slaves supported by the Maryland Colonization Society. The undertaking had a specific enthusiasm for Maryland as the American state with the biggest number of free African Americans. With budgetary help from nearby parts, places of worship, and the assemblies of Border States, the general public paid for the transportation of liberated slaves and free-conceived African Americans to an assigned site in West Africa, and helped with supporting them there. Liberia announced autonomy from the America Colonization Society in 1847 (Sherman, 2011). as the first African Republic, the nation is a unique individual from the United Nations. Harper, the principal town or settlement, is located near the point of the cape (Cape Palmas, a bold projecting promontory, which is one of the most prominent points or landmarks on the western coast of Africa. In 1857 issues with the indigenous Grebo individuals drove the province to demand addition with Liberia (Encyclopedia Britannica, 1997) Named for Robert Goodloe Harper of the American Colonization Society, the town is the site of Maryland College of Our Lady of Fatima Roman Catholic, set up in 1953, the William V.S. Tubman College of Technology set up in 1978, and the J.J. Dossen Memorial Hospital set up in 1958. The administration and church optional schools, an open library, and a few places of worship. Its port (Harper Port) for the most part ships out timber cut by the Maryland Logging Company and rubber that came from the Cavalla Plantation 15 miles inland. A sugar refinery opened entryways in 1978. Harper join via air with Monrovia and by street with Ganta (Proposal for the Revitalization of the Port of Harper Maryland County Lineria, 2009) Liberia is the oldest republic in Africa. Liberia has been independent since 1847 and it has played a significant role in other colonies seeking its independence (Harper, 2015). Liberia faced many challenges as a new nation it had to endure tribal wars, low exports, their lands being claimed by other countries. However, thru all of this Liberia was able to maintain its fronts on the independence. Liberia for years has been ravaged by war and disease.
Liberia is on the shoreline of the Atlantic Ocean for somewhere in the range of 350 mi (560km) toward the southwest and is verged on the northwest by Sierra Leone, on the north by Guinea, and on the east by Côte d'Ivoire. Monrovia is the capital, biggest city, fundamental port, and business focus. There are three sorts of territory, mangrove swamps and shorelines along the coast, lush slopes and semi deciduous bush grounds along the prompt inside, and thick tropical woodlands and levels in the inside. Liberia has 40% of West Africa's tropical rain forest. Liberia's ethnic gatherings incorporate the Americo-Liberians these are relatives of the black freedmen who relocated from the U.S. back to Africa and there are likewise 16 indigenous people groups of the Mande, Kwa, and Mel phonetic gatherings. Dialects: English (official), indigenous dialects. Religions: customary convictions, Christianity, Islam. Cash: Liberian dollar. Liberia has seaside swamps amplifying 350 mi (560km) along the Atlantic; more distant inland are slopes and low mountains. Approximately one-fifth of Liberia comprise of tropical rainforest. Agribusiness is the center part of the economy, yet just a segment of the arable area of land is developed. The nation additionally has rich iron metal stores, which are a vital wellspring of fares. The chief money harvests are elastic, espresso, and cacao; the staple products are rice and cassava (Liberia, 2014)
Liberia is one of the poorest nations in Africa with a populace of 4 million, per-capita pay of US$410, and around 60 percent of the populace beneath the destitution line. More than a large portion of the populace is urban, including heavily populated territories around the capital city of Monrovia. Around seventy five percent of the work power are occupied with casual exercises, essentially farming, nomad mining, and trade (Liberian Economy, 2015). Prior to the Ebola outbreak Liberian economy had been growing steadily. Liberia demonstrated as of late that it has found sizable stores of raw petroleum along its Atlantic Coast. Horticulture: Products–coffee, cocoa, sugarcane, rice, cassava, palm oil, bananas, plantains, citrus, pineapple, sweet potatoes, corn, and vegetables. Industry: Types–agriculture, iron metal, elastic, ranger service, precious stones, gold, drinks, development. Exchange (2004): Exports–$103.8 million: elastic 93%; cocoa 3.5%. Major markets–Germany, Poland, U.S., Greece. Imports–$268.1 million: mineral fills and oils; nourishment and live creatures; apparatus and transport hardware; produced products; pharmaceuticals; and tobacco(Gale, 2006).
The Liberian economy depended vigorously on the mining of iron mineral and on the fare of normal rubber before the civil war. Farming is the main economic activity in Maryland County, it is responsible for 60% of the employment. The second-biggest sea license r in the world–with more than 1,800 vessels recorded under its banner, including 35% of the world's tanker fleet–Liberia acquires some $14 million every year from the banner registry. There is expanding enthusiasm for the likelihood of industrially exploitable seaward raw petroleum stores along Liberia's Atlantic Coast. The Port of Harper is one of five ports claimed and worked by the NPA of Liberia an administration own and operated enterprise (About Liberia, 2015).
Liberia’s business sector is largely dominated by foreigners, mainly by people of Lebanese and Indian descent. There also are limited numbers of Chinese involved in agriculture. West Africans took part in cross-border trade also. The following is a geographical representation of the terrain of Liberia. The four physiographic locales of Liberia parallel the coast. The waterfront fields speak the truth 350 miles long and stretch out up to 25 miles (40 km) inland. They are low and sandy, with miles of shorelines sprinkled with bar-encased tidal ponds, mangrove bogs, and a couple of rough projections (Britannica, 2015).

(Liberia , 2015)
The location and the very fertile soil is probably the reason for initial choosing of Liberia as a location of colonization also the fact that Liberia is on the coast of Africa was an reason for the population of the area . Liberia, together with Sierra Leone and Côte d'Ivoire, has the ultimate evergreen forest in Africa. A New England, American ship owner paid for the passage of thirty-eight other free African Americans to the British colony of Sierra Leone on the African Coast this began the migration of free blacks and slaves to Liberia. It was founded by former slaves and black freeman. Since the colonization of Liberia was financed by American Colonization Society (ACS) this society was formed by Reverend Robert Finley, a Presbyterian minister from Basking Ridge, New Jersey, travelled to Washington, D.C. to gather support for colonization which he saw as the solution to the growing racial tension in the United States. President James Monroe approved maritime ships to convey colonization emissaries who might arrange for a free locale he also procured more U.S. Government money for the project. When the free blacks and the freed Black slaves came to Liberia they began to duplicate what they saw in America hence the name of its main settlement was named Monrovia after President James Monroe (US Department of State: Office of the Historian, 2015). The coast was an ideal spot to populate. It is easy access for the Navy ships that brought them over the disadvantage to the coastal area next to the ocean if there is inclement weather results in flooding.
After freedom urban populaces became rose quickly as individuals, anticipating that political flexibility should enhance their living standards, flocked to the vast urban areas, searching for employment. (Dladla, 2013)
For a long time, Liberia experienced relative balance, however in the previous two decades, Liberia has seen colossal issues and hindrances in its way. A common war that started in the mid 1980's and last from 1980's-1996 devastated quite a bit of Liberia's economy and after that there was the episode of Ebola. Liberia was an expansive exporter of iron mineral on the world business sector and Liberia depended intensely on the mining of iron metal preceding the common war. In the 1970s and 1980s, iron mining made up more than a large portion of Liberia's fare profit. After the rebellion of 1980, the nation's economy eased off and on account of a decrease in the interest for iron metal on the world business sector and political changes along with civil war in Liberia. Liberia's foreign debt lies in the amount of more than $3 billion (About Liberia, 2015). Liberia’s economy could face tougher economic times ahead, the country is still attempting to recover from a civil war and they are underpinned by pervasive structural constraints such as the lack of electricity, water supply, poor road network. Along with this there has been numerous confirmed cases of the Ebola virus which has overwhelmed the health system. According to the John Snow Research and Training Institute Foundation Cumulative Ebola cases and deaths among the total population of in Africa, October 2014. (JSI, 2014) Cumulative Ebola cases and deaths among the total population of Liberia as of October 7, 2014
According to the CDC this is the Outbreak of Ebola in Africa (JSI, 2014)

(2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map, 2014) (2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map, 2014)

How will Liberia rebuild their economy and their health system and be prepared when and if there is another outbreak? The 2014 Ebola plague is the biggest ever, influencing various nations in West Africa. Two foreign cases, including one passing, and two by regional standards obtained cases in social insurance laborers have been accounted for in the United States. CDC and accomplices are taking precautionary measures to avert extra instances of Ebola in the United States. CDC is working with different U.S. government offices, the World Health Organization, and other household and worldwide accomplices and has actuated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to help coordinate specialized help and control exercises with accomplices. CDC has conveyed groups of general wellbeing specialists to West Africa and will keep on sending specialists to the influenced nations. (2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map, 2014). There has been a far reaching and serious transmission of the infection in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. There have been 24 reported cases and 15 reported passing’s for each 100 000 populace in Guinea, 199 cases and 85 passing’s for every 100 000 populace in Liberia, and 157 cases and 45 passing’s for every 100 000 populace in Sierra Leone. The region of Montserrado, which incorporates the capital Monrovia, keeps on encountering the most elevated EVD action in the nation, with 7 affirmed and 16 plausible cases reported in the previous week. In the nation's east, along the Côted’Ivoire fringe, Nimba reported 3 affirmed cases, its first cases in 9 weeks. (Organization, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola Disease Outbreaks Ebolavirus, 2014). There are now 26 treatment centers in Liberia (Organization, Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola Disease Outbreaks Ebolavirus, 2014)

On the 9th of May of this year the WHO organization declared Liberia clear of the Ebola virus (Organization, World Health Organization, 2015). However the New York Times reported three new instances of Ebola have developed in Liberia since the nation was proclaimed free of the infection on May 9, highlighting the proceeding with dangers of the viral infection in West Africa (MacDOUGALL, 2015), The Deputy minister of Health Tolbert Nyenswah, said at a news gathering here Thursday that the new flare-up was "restricted" and "contained in the group of Needowein. The second and third new Ebola patients, and six other conceivable cases, were separation in an administration run Ebola treatment focus that was already worked by Doctors Without Borders, a worldwide therapeutic philanthropy. "The rebound of Ebola in Liberia was not unforeseen, with the infection still dynamic in the district," Peter Graaff, the leader of the United Nations crisis reaction group for Ebola, wrote in an announcement. With the onset of the stormy season, when sicknesses with comparable starting side effects to Ebola are basic, Mr. Graaff said, "the genuine test of how well the framework still functions will be in the following couple of weeks." Experts said consistent cautiousness would be required. "Growing proof Ebola is and will be endemic in West Africa, and that the framework is helpless against different fiascos," said Aitor Sanchez-Lacomba, the International Rescue Committee nation chief for Liberia. We have to guarantee that all wellbeing offices and groups in West Africa have long haul counteractive action and fast reaction capacity for an extensive variety of risks." (MacDOUGALL, 2015). Ebola has had a devastating effect on the health care system. The government order in August 2014 that health care facilities were to be closed nationwide due to the fact the nurses and health care workers were getting infected with the virus. It is estimated that approximately 65% of the health care facilities were closed. Liberia has reported that three doctor and 32 healthcare workers have died since the outbreak. It is believed that since the outbreak the people of Liberia and West Africa are dying from preventable diseases, Contrasted in 2013, the time of May to August 2014 saw a sharp drop in the rate of newborn children conveyed by a talented conception orderly (52 percent to 38 percent); the rate of ladies who got pre-birth care inside of six weeks of affirming their pregnancies (41 percent to 25 percent) and ladies who get treatment for jungle fever (47.8 percent to 29.4 percent), among different measure (Bernstein, 2014). There has to be a restructuring of the system. According to Amara M. Konneh, the Minister of Planning & Economic Affairs, Republic of Liberia, at this time most of the services for roads, bridges, power supplies, water, schools, and clinics have been centered on the capital Monrovia and a few other cities. This leads to there being gaps in the distribution of wealth for the country (Konneh, 2015). Konneh believes that there cannot only be a simple restructure in the political and economic arena but there also needs to be social change. Liberia's essential monetary test has three measurements. It should (1) rapidly restore quick development. (2) Achieve a vastly improved appropriation of the advantages from development to conquer the variations of the past, and (3) make evenhanded development reasonable after some time. It has composed its methodology to perform these objectives around a structure of four essential columns (Konneh, 2015). The Minister of Planning & Economic Affairs. Republic of Liberia believes that the four basic pillars that will put Liberia on the right track are the following: 1. Expanding peace and security. This provides stability in 2003 the UN sent 15,000 peace keepers to the area this provided peace stability and it helped in establishing a foundation for Liberia’s recovery. To keep that recovery going Liberia now has to implement their own peace keeping and security force 2. Revitalizing economic activity. Liberia government needs to put its finances in order. It has balanced its budget and also they are now doing business on a cash basis. 3. Reinforcing administration and the guideline of law the Liberian government is currently assembling a more expert and better paid common administration. They have officially actualized a mixed bag of frameworks to make preparations for debasement to guarantee straightforwardness and responsibility 4. Reconstructing base and giving fundamental services.. With the war basic services such as power supply. Water, schools, clinics and government buildings were ruined (Konneh, 2015). The government knows that rebuilding these services and making sure that they are available to the country as a whole is an important and central building block in Liberia’s recovery. There have a few signs of recovery in Liberia economy but with the return of virus Ebola to Liberia there has been a slow down to the recovery and some people believe that this can be another conflict that with this break out it could spark a war. Lewis Brown, Liberia's Information Minister, stated "The effect of Ebola is being seen not just as a public health situation but it is also a political situation. Liberia is just ten years out of our conflict. We are just in the 11th year since we started rebuilding our capacity to live together. This Ebola is threatening that capacity." (Liberia fears Ebola crisis will spark war, 2014).
Ebola is one of the deadliest viruses known to man. There is no cure and there is no antibody to counteract contamination of the virus with the outbreak of Ebola and its massive devastation this conflict has to be resolved by the government. Basic services such has basic services such as power supplies, water, schools, and clinics need to be on the Liberian government’s priority list. The people of Liberia need to feel that the government is worried about them and not just themselves. It will probably take the government receiving support from distant countries to make this happen. There are countless people who are willing to invest their time and money into eradicating this disease. There has to be a plan in place it inoculates the country even the remote locations. Bill Gates is one of those who is helping to alleviate disease and also help finance finding a proactive solution and not just a reactive solution. Health care will give priority to this country. If healthcare is not a priority of the Liberia will find itself back in the same situation? The country will need to become educated on the importance of health care. There will need to be a massive overhaul to the healthcare system, it was crippled before the outbreak but now it has been devastated. Revamping the workforce is crucial in order to provide quality health care. Clinics will have to be set up all over the country and or transportation may need to be provided. Inoculations and free screenings will have to be provided along with education. When people feel and know that the government can help them and they can trust them then the people will want to know that the government cares I believe then that this can be a start in minimizing the civil unrest that the country has to endure. I also believe that there will be more participation in the health care system if the country feels that they are being taken care of. Along with this the government will need to make great strides in re-education the people of Liberia and of West Africa. Education is important when change is needed. If there is no education then everyone will go back to their old habits. However when you educate or teach better habits then you empower the people to learn how to take care of themselves and others. If the citizens are not educated with what the symptoms of this virus is like or how they can slow down the spread of the virus then this will become a vicious cycle in this country and they may never recover. I believe that Liberia has the ability fortitude and resilience to recover from this if Liberia is ready for and will embrace change they can and will overcome this time in history for them. It is not an easy task and it will take perseverance and help however they can recover.

Works Cited
2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa - Outbreak Distribution Map. (2014). Retrieved August 29, 2015, from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/distribution-map.html
About Liberia. (2015). Retrieved from Embassy of the Republic of Liberia to the United States: http://www.liberianembassyus.org/index.php?page=about-liberia
Anderson, T. A. (2010). Liberia. In C. Bankston, Encyclopedia of American Immigration. Salem: Hackensack. Retrieved 8 29, 2015, from http://online.salempress.com
Bernstein, L. (2014, September 20). Africa With Ebola crippling the health system, Liberians die of routine medical problems. (M. d. Fallah, Editor) Retrieved August 30, 2015, from The Washington Post: https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/africa/with-ebola-crippling-the-health-system-liberians-die-of-routine-medical-problems/2014/09/20/727dcfbe-400b-11e4-b03f-de718edeb92f_story.html
Boslaugh, S. (2013). Health Care Systems Around the World : A Comparative Guide. Thousand Oaks, Calif : SAGE Publications, Inc.
Britannica, E. (2015). Harper. Retrieved from In Encyclopædia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/place/Harper-Liberia
Dladla, N. M. (2013). Continental and Country Profiles. In Africa A to Z : (p. 18). In UPCC Book Collections on Project MUSE.South Africa : Africa Institute of South Africa. 2013.
Encyclopaedia Britannica, inc. (1997). The new encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1997.
Gale, T. (2006). Liberia. Retrieved from Countries of the World and Their Leaders Yearbook Liberia: http://www.encyclopedia.com/article-1G2-2589900117/liberia.html
JSI. (2014, October 7). John Snow, Inc. Retrieved August 30, 2015, from Ebola Update: JSI at the frontlines in Liberia: http://www.jsi.com/JSIInternet/Newsroom/newsitem/display.cfm?a=1&id=1351
Konneh, A. M. (2015). Finding Solutions. Together. Proposal - Liberia: Rebuilding for Growth and Development. Retrieved from global-economic-symposium: http://www.global-economic-symposium.org/knowledgebase/the-global-polity/repairing-failed-states/proposals/liberia-rebuilding-for-growth-and-development
Liberia . (2015, August 29). Retrieved from World Atlas : http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/liberia/lrfacts.htm
Liberia fears Ebola crisis will spark war. (2014, September 24). Retrieved from Aljazeera: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2014/09/ebola-liberia-war-201492485447852773.html
Liberian Economy. (2015). Retrieved from Global security.org: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/liberia/economy.htm
MacDOUGALL, C. (2015, July 2). Liberia Reports New Cases of Ebola. Retrieved August 29, 2015, from The New York TImes: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/03/world/africa/liberia-reports-new-cases-of-ebola.html?_r=0
Organization, W. H. (2014, December 24). WHO: Ebola response roadmap situation report 24 December 2014. World Health Organization. World Health Organization. Retrieved August 29, 2015, from http://www.who.int/iris/handle/10665/146311
Organization, W. H. (Ed.). (2015, May 9). World Health Organization. Retrieved August 29, 2015, from The Ebola outbreak in Liberia is over: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2015/liberia-ends-ebola/en/
Proposal for the Revitalization of the Port of Harper Maryland County Lineria. (2009). Retrieved from Marylanders for progress (Liberia) Inc.: http://mfp-liberia.tripod.com/harper_port.pdf
Sherman, F. (2011). Liberia: The Land, Its People, History and Culture . New Africa Press (10 January 2011).
The Consulate General of the Republic of Liberia . (n.d.). The Consulate General of the Republic of Liberia . Retrieved from The Consulate General of the Republic of Liberia in New York: http://liberianconsulate-ny.com/liberia/about-liberia/
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