Geography Notes

In: Business and Management

Submitted By mwuestho
Words 681
Pages 3
February 25, 2013

Winds Aloft
* Isobaric surfaces slope downward from the low latitudes to the pole
* Atmosphere is warmer near the Equator, pressure gradients force pushes air poleward
* Pressure gradient force increase with altitude, bringing strong winds at high altitudes
* Friction increases from low latitude to high latitude
* Decreases in upper atmosphere where wind speeds are high

The Geostrophic Wind
* At high latitudes, a moving parcel of air is subjected to: Pressure gradient force and Coriolis forces.
* When forces balance, air moves at right angles to the pressure gradient, parallel to the isobars, as the geostrophic wind
* Winds that move bulk of our air mass around the planet
* Heavy lifting of moving heat

Global Circulation at Upper Levels
* General pattern global circulation at upper levels
* Bands of equatorial easterly winds (result of downward air)
* Bring air into the equator
* Found at higher latitudes
* Tropical high-pressure belts
* Zone of westerly winds – come from est and blow to east
* Polar lows
* Lack of land mass and lack of friction fast winds speeds in southern hemisphere

Jet Streams and the Polar Front
* Jet streams are streams of fast-moving air at high altitudes that occur where atmospheric temperature gradients are strong
* Each hemisphere normally exhibits westerly polar and subtropical jet streams.
* An easterly jet occurs in summer over Asia and Africa
* Polar jet located between 35 and 65 latitude in both hemispheres
* Boundary between cold polar air and warm subtropical air
* Altitudes of 10 to 12 km (about 30,000 to 40,000 ft)

Disturbances in the Jet Stream
* Broad wavelike undulations called Jetstream disturbances or Rossby waves
* Occurs from heating and cooling
* The flow of…...

Similar Documents


...Regional integration can be described as the union of a geological area, the main theme running through the efforts is that of cooperation. Hence regional integration is the interaction and cooperation of various countries in a specific region working together in order to foster their own well being, the idea of integration suggests unity and teamwork. On the other hand, regional integration also refers to an outcome, occurring when pre set criteria are met. Regional integration involves some compromise on the part of nation states, but should enhance the general quality of life for the citizens of those states. Regional integration can be described as a dynamic process that entails a country’s willingness to share or unify into a larger whole. The degree to which it shares and what it shares determines the level of integration. Exploration of the factors promoting regional integration within the Caribbean * Common language - The language of the Caribbean people is English, and this facilitates easy communication. * Close Proximity - The Caribbean countries are relatively close to each other, hence, travel by air or sea from one country to another can be done in a relatively short space of time. * Caribbean countries share a common history - Most of the Caribbean people are descendants of people who had been subjected to slavery and indentureship. This makes it possible for the Caribbean people to embrace each other. * Common Cultural Heritage - The...

Words: 2411 - Pages: 10


...GEOGRAPHY S.B.A [pic] Name: Keeshan Ramkissoon Candidate Number: School: St. Mary’s College School Code: Teacher: Ms. Gangaram Year: 2008-2009 Topic: Pollution – Environmental Degradation Title: What are the causes of pollution in the Couva River located in Trinidad W.I.? GEOGRAPHY S.B.A [pic] Name: Keeshan Ramkissoon Candidate Number: School: St. Mary’s College School Code: Teacher: Ms. Gangaram Year: 2008-2009 Topic: Pollution – Environmental Degradation Title: What are the causes of pollution in the Couva River located in Trinidad W.I.? TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page No. 1. Aim of Study 3 2. Location Maps 4 3. Methodology 7 4. Presentation of Data 8 5. Analysis and Discussion 14 6. Conclusion 16 7. Bibliography 17 AIM OF STUDY What are the types and causes of pollution in the Couva River, Trinidad, W.I.? What are some possible solutions to the causes of pollution...

Words: 1653 - Pages: 7


...Chapter 1 Introduction A roundabout is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic is slowed and flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island to several exits onto the various intersecting roads. The Oakes field Roundabout got its name from Sir Harry Oakes who was a Canadian; one of the rich guys that owned the whole area. The Oakes field Roundabout was chosen because it is the busiest roundabout in Nassau, and it leads into a lot of business areas and has 7 schools in that area, commercial banks and also restaurants. The geography coursework was about the study of traffic movement at the Oakesfield roundabout, in Nassau, New Providence which is located near to the College of the Bahamas. The study was done to fulfil coursework requirement for the BGCSE examination in geography. This study was carried out on Friday 20th 2011. Advantages of a roundabout * Reduces frequency and severity of crashes * Can slow excessive traffic speeds while still improving traffic flow * Reduces Traffic Delays * It is a lot easier to make a U-turn Disadvantages of a roundabout * Accidents may temporarily increase due to improper driver education. * During emergencies, signalized intersections can pre-empt control. * As lines develop, drivers accept smaller gaps which may increase crashes. * Possible higher construction cost. The nature of the traffic using the Oakesfield roundabout varies in intensity from......

Words: 259 - Pages: 2


...Qian.Zhang 4/17/13 MUS 192 Prof Sherri Pilon Personal Vocal Growth Paper When I was a young boy, I really liked singing for myself, but I was afraid of singing in front of people. When I was 6 years old, I began to play the piano. My mom said that playing the piano can enhance your music skill and also can improve your voice. Six years later, I stopped learning piano from teacher, because I became a middle school student and didn’t have enough time to practice. Piano became to my interest and I only played it when I was really tired after study. But I still really loved singing. I often went to the karaoke with my friends and began to singing in front of people. And I really think my voice skill was enhanced But I really had a problem when I was singing, that I can’t put my chin down when I sing in a very high voice. However I didn’t realize this problem. Last summer, I went to the karaoke with my mom, she said:” Take a voice class next semester; I think you didn’t know how to sing when the note is really high. And the teacher will help you about this, and your chin always up when you sing but you never realized that.” So at the very beginning of this semester I changed a class to this class, and want to improve my singing skill. And just like my mother said that I can’t put my chin down when I was singing. And professor also pointed out this problem. And my facial expression was not very rich when I was singing, that seems like that I didn’t put myself in to that...

Words: 540 - Pages: 3


...FIVE NOTETAKING METHODS Notetaking Great note-taking takes practice. You have to find a method that works for you, and that may change depending on the class that you’re in (for example, a science class versus a humanities class). Here are 5 methods that are proven to be successful. Read over each one and decide if there’s one that might work for you. These styles are described in the format you would use to take notes in class. You might find that a comfortable method is a combination of 2 or more of the ones listed here, and that’s fine. Figure out what works for you and stick with it! Page # Layout of the page and where to write THE CORNELL METHOD Today’s Date You physically draw a line vertically down your paper, leaving 2.5 inches on the left and 6 inches on the right. This allows you to take notes on the right-hand side of the page leaving space on the left to summarize the main point with a cue word or phase. When the instructor moves to a new topic, skip a line. It is also a great idea to use some organizational structure to your whole page. Use bullets!  Use an indented system – kind of like outlining You can underline important words. If you aren’t able to completely write down an idea before the instructor moves on to a new topic, fill it in after class. After class, test your knowledge of course material by covering up the right side of the page, reading the cue words, and trying to remember as much information as possible. Then check to see if you...

Words: 887 - Pages: 4


...Figure 1 focuses on energy use for electricity consumption, not total energy use. Note that oil makes up a very small proportion of the total. Answers should focus on environmental consequences. The future (from Shell oil) has mixed consequences, some good some bad: • Overall energy consumption in terms of electricity production rises by 2050. The rise is dramatic, almost trebling the 2010 figure. This might suggest a very power hungry world; using lots of resources with consequences for the environment e.g. increased global warming and related environmental issues. • While coal, oil and gas appear steady they have increased on the 2000 figure, almost doubling greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (unless new technology e.g. ‘clean coal’ or Carbon Capture and Storage is used). • There are possible issues with resource extraction to meet demand, especially non-conventional oil, and exploitation in sensitive regions such as the Arctic. • The proportion of coal of total fossil fuels rises by 2050 to equal all power generation in 2000. As coal is the dirtiest and least energy efficient of the fossil fuels this could be a major negative for the environment and atmosphere – global warming, acid rain. • Nuclear’s contribution rises – less CO2 but issues of waste disposal and public fears over leaks etc. – these may be largely unfounded but are real concerns • On the positive side is a large rise in renewable energy with less pollution, but still requiring significant...

Words: 261 - Pages: 2


... the calculus and his universal laws of gravity and motion. The Distance a Thing Falls Galileo was interested in understanding how things moved and fell. What laws of motion governed them? Determining physical laws from experiment was completely new in early Seventeenth Century Italy, but Galileo was intellectually adventurous enough to try. One of Galileo’s most famous experiments, in 1604, was his inclined plane experiment, where he measured the distance a ball rolled down a ramp in each unit of time. Since forces in different directions act independently, D.W. MacDougal, Newton’s Gravity: An Introductory Guide to the Mechanics of the Universe, Undergraduate Lecture Notes in Physics, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-5444-1_2, # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 17 18 2 Galileo’s Great Discovery: How Things Fall he could time the descent of the ball and learn how forces act on the ball as if it were only moving in the down direction. From that he could deduce how a freely falling object would move. Why did he use a ramp to measure fall? It is because with the limited technical means then available to Galileo, he could not possibly have timed, with any reasonable accuracy, the rapid descent of a vertically dropped ball. Using an inclined plane allowed him to dilute the force of gravity and slow the ball down so he could time it with a water clock, where he could then compare the weight of water that poured out before and after each event. This told him the...

Words: 8115 - Pages: 33


...The Diversityof Life Lab Manual Stephen W. Ziser Department of Biology Pinnacle Campus for BIOL 1409 General Biology: The Diversity of Life Lab Activities, Homework & Lab Assignments 2013.8 Biol 1409: Diversity of Life – Lab Manual, Ziser, 2013.8 1 Biol 1409: Diversity of Life Ziser - Lab Manual Table of Contents 1. Overview of Semester Lab Activities Laboratory Activities . . . . . . . . . 2. Introduction to the Lab & Safety Information . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 15 30 39 46 54 68 81 104 147 3. Laboratory Exercises Microscopy . . . . . . Taxonomy and Classification . Cells – The Basic Units of Life . Asexual & Sexual Reproduction Development & Life Cycles . . Ecosystems of Texas . . . . The Bacterial Kingdoms . . . The Protists . . . . . . The Fungi . . . . . . . The Plant Kingdom . . . . The Animal Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 13 17 22 26 29 . 32 . 42 . 50 . 59 . 89 4. Lab Reports (to be turned in - deadline dates as announced...

Words: 21204 - Pages: 85


...GEOGRAPHY SBA CONTENT OUTLINE Content of Geography SBA  The Aim (or Aims) of the study ?  Methodology  Analysis and discussion  Location maps  Conclusion  Bibliography  Appendix There is a particular order in which the report must be done for presentation. This is as follows: 1. Title page 2. Strategy sheet 3. Table of contents 4. Location maps 5. Aim of the study 6. Method of data collection 7. Presentation of data 8. Conclusion 9. Bibliography 10. Appendix CHOOSING A TOPIC /Title of Study This is a essential part of doing the SBA. The topic of the SBA is the general topic taken from the syllabus. It must be taken from one of the three section of the syllabus. The TITLE OF STUDY says specifically what you intend to study. Talk to your teacher for further assistance and to check that the topic is in the syllabus. Three examples of topics are given below. 1. What factors have contributed to the growth of population in Brown's Town, Jamaica over the past 20 years? 2. What processes contribute to the weathering of rocks on the facing the Queens Highway, St. Ann, Jamaica? 3. Does deforestation contribute to soil erosion in a section of Egypt, Browns Town, St. Ann, Jamaica.  Aim of Study The Title of Study and the Aim of Study go together. This is the question that your study will be based on. The Aim of the SBA is a statement that says what it is that you will achieve in answering the topic of the SBA. The Aim of the study should have no less than two...

Words: 1209 - Pages: 5


...Geography The environmentalist topic INTRODUCTION I have decided to take the position of an environmentalist for this topic for several reasons. There is a lot of research that shows that global warming is becoming a big problem and I feel that as South Africans, we need to look at developing more sustainable and renewable energy sources and move away from using fossil fuels. After doing all the research for this project, I was really shocked at how much damage we are doing to the water systems in our country through the process of open cast coal mining. I understand that mining does create jobs and it is necessary at this present moment in time, but the sooner renewable energy sources are developed, the better for the world. In the following report, I will discuss different types of open cast coal mining, the effects of open cast coal mining on the environment as well as the financial implications of associated with environmental management. OPEN CAST COAL MINING What is open cast coal mining? A simple answer to this question is that when a coal seam is found less that 50m - 80m from the surface of the earth, then the coal is mined from the surface of the earth. There are several different methods of doing this. These are open pit mining and strip mining. The types of mining mentioned above begin on the earth's surface and keep exposure to the surface until the mine is closed. These types of mines can reach depths of 600m or more and because of this, the sides...

Words: 538 - Pages: 3


...Sarah Teniente 20879 September 17, 2015 Creative Writing Assignment The picture I have chosen is in the series by Paula Nelson in the Autumn 2012: Celebration of the Season and the picture itself is by Amber Waterman/Sun Journal. The picture is of two Adirondack chairs on a dock along the Androscoggin River in Turner, Maine on October 3, 2012. The Androscoggin River is Maine's third largest river. The picture shows the autumn leaves and their vibrant colors. From the picture it looks like fog, but once researching the Androscoggin River, I found out that it was once one of the most polluted rivers in America according to the Maine Rivers’ website. That would mean the fog could also be pollution in the atmosphere because there are mills that discharged an extraordinary amount of toxic pollution. The leaves on the ground look wet, some probably washed up from the river, or the river flowed onto the land to make it dewy. One thing that is not in the picture is any birds, animals in the water, or any animals on the ground. I also read on Maine Rivers’ website that Androscoggin’s water quality, odor, and clarity become noticeably poor in certain areas throughout the river. The picture relates to what we have learned so far regarding Physical Geography by the seasons changing. The energy from the sun causes the leaves to change colors. An impact on the environment would be the pollution because of the mills. The pollution is not just getting in the air but the water. The...

Words: 583 - Pages: 3


... referred to as “Junk Bonds.” Hi Grade bonds are called “Investment Grade,” and High Yield are “Non-Investment grade.” This is important because many professional investing entities (mutual funds, trust funds, pension funds, university endowments…) are only allowed (by their charter) to invest in Investment Grade bonds. The rating scales for Moody’s and Standard & Poor’s follow. It is very interesting to read the detailed analysis of Moody’s and Standard and Poor’s from which they arrive at a bond rating for a company. Certainly some of the reasons are whether or not the bond is secured or unsecured; is callable or non-callable; and the basic volatility of the corporation’s past and expected cash flows (to ensure the company has the ability to make interest payments and face value upon maturity). Of course, the bonds that are rated the highest have the lowest investor required rates of return (less risky); and the lower the rating, the higher the investor’s required rates of return. (Pull up Moody’s summary of Msft Bond Rating Aaa.) Corporate Bonds: Why Issue? Bonds, like stock, are sold to investors because the company has identified internal investment projects (needs Capex); or they have the opportunity to acquire another company; or they need money to support their on-going operations; or they want to “rebalance” their capital structure, issuing less expense long-term bonds to retire more expensive short-term debt (bank debts and notes)—or to support dividend...

Words: 13498 - Pages: 54


...| Geography | The Theme of Place – Sacred Places | | | Greece is a country of beautiful and historical architecture and landscape. Some of the historic buildings date back from 2800 BC. The Acropolis in Greece is one of the world’s most significant monuments. The Parthenon, one of the structures within the Acropolis, has become a meaningful sacred place for the people of Greece. The temple is dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, who is the virgin patron of Athens [ (Gray) ]. Athena represents the gifts of intellect and understanding and is the symbol of the universal human aspiration for wisdom. The Parthenon has served as a Greek temple, a treasury, a fortress, a church and a mosque [ (Rhodes) ]. It also functioned to protect the statue of Athena, made of gold and ivory. The physical features of the monument allowed it to become a place of worship for many. The Acropolis is part of a limestone ridge that cuts through the Attica plateau in the northeast to the southwest and includes the hills of Likavitos, Philopappos, Nymphs and the Pnyx [ (Sakoulas) ]. It is located 156 meters above the valley of Ilissos and is essentially a flat-topped rock that measures 300 meters long by 150 meters wide. The construction of the Parthenon began in 447 BC and was only completed in 432 BC. Due to the numerous landfills that have been created to accommodate construction of the temples since the Mycenaean era, the top of the rock is flat [ (Sakoulas) ]. The Acropolis...

Words: 491 - Pages: 2


... various food containers, food products and drinks. IKEA services offered are Picking and delivery, Home delivery, Kitchen services for installing IKEA kitchens, Assembling IKEA products, Online planning services for planning easy-to-use Kitchen, Office planning services, Home furnishing advise and IKEA Gift cards and provide food services. THE ROLE OF GEOGRAPHY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE FIRM: 1. Swedish origins: The emergence of the brand IKEA has its origin from a Swedish citizen and a Swedish village. It's no accident that the IKEA logo is blue and yellow. These colors are the sign of a Swedish brand. These are the colors of the Swedish flag. IKEA Logo: Swedish Flag: Effects of Sweden Nature and Climate: The Swedish lifestyle brings together a love of nature, good housing, environmental thinking and lots of culture. In Sweden, nature and the home both play a big part in people's lives. In fact, one of the best ways to describe the Swedish home furnishing style is to describe nature - full of light and fresh air, yet restrained and unpretentious. Many people associate Sweden with a fresh, healthy way of life. This Swedish lifestyle is reflected in the IKEA product range. The freshness of the open air is reflected in the colors and materials used and the sense of......

Words: 2452 - Pages: 10


... rainfall. • Air masses, their source regions, classification; fronts, their formation, development of depression (extra tropical cyclones), weather associated with cold and warm frontal passages; tropical cyclones, structure and formation; Land and sea breeze; mountain and valley winds; heat island Lab outline: Meteorological instruments and their use Books Recommended |Frederick K. Lutgens & Edward J. Tarbuck, (2004) The Atmosphere, Prentice Hall, ninth edition, | |Berbert Riehl, (1978) Introduction to the Atmosphere, McGraw-Hall, Kogakusha, Ltd, Tokyo, third edition, | |Harace Robert Byers, Sc.D. (1959) General Meteorology, Mc-Graw-Hall Book Company. Inc, Tokyo, third edition, | |Sverre Petterssen, (1969) Introduction to Meteorology. Mc-Graw-Hall Book Company Ltd, Tokyo, Third edition, | |B.J.Retallac (1984) WMO No291-Compendium of Lecture Notes for training Class-IV Meteorological personnel, Volume-II - | |Meteorology, prepared by, Pub: World Meteorological Organization, second edition, | |Pakistan Geographical Review (Lahore) | |Pakistan Journal of Geography (Peshawar) | |Journal Geography (Karachi...

Words: 17448 - Pages: 70