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Geography

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Geography

• Study of the relationship between man and environment in course of time and space

• The study of the earth and its features and of the distribution of life on the earth, including human life and the effects of human activity.

Latitude: is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface. Latitude ranges from 0° at the Equator to 90° (North or South) at the poles. Latitude is used together with longitude to specify the precise location of features on the surface of the Earth.

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Some important Latitudes are: • Equator (0( latitude); • Tropic of Cancer (23.5(north latitude); • Tropic of Capricorn (23.5( south latitude); • Arctic Circle (66.5( north latitude); and • Antarctic Circle (66.5( south latitude).

The Equator refers to the Earth's equator and is an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The latitude of the Equator is 0° (zero degrees). The length of Earth's equator is about 40,030.2 kilometres (24,873.6 mi).

Tropic of Cancer: also referred to as the Northern tropic, is the circle of latitude on the Earth that marks the most northerly position at which the Sun may appear directly overhead at its zenith. This event occurs once per year, at the time of the June solstice, when the Northern Hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun to its maximum extent.

Tropic of Capricorn or Southern tropic marks the most southerly latitude on the Earth at which the Sun can be directly overhead. This event occurs at the December solstice, when the southern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun to its maximum extent.

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Geographical regions of the world
1. Equatorial regions
2. Tropical regions
3. Temperate regions
4. Polar regions

Longitude: is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds.
Prime Meridian: The Prime Meridian is the meridian (line of longitude) at which the longitude is defined to be 0°. The Prime Meridian and its opposite the 180th meridian (at 180° longitude), which the International Date Line generally follows, form a great circle that divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

The International Date Line (IDL) is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth, running between the north and south poles, that demarcates one calendar day from the next. It passes through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly along the 180° longitude, opposite the Prime Meridian, but it is drawn with diversions to pass around some territories and island groups.

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Earth Surface

Hydrosphere
The hydrosphere describes the waters of the Earth. Water of the hydrosphere exists in three states: liquid, solid and gaseous (water vapor). Water occurs in two general chemical conditions, fresh and salty. Water exists on the Earth in various stores, including the: atmosphere, oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, snowfields and groundwater. Water moves from one store to another by way of: evaporation, condensation, precipitation, deposition, runoff, infiltration, sublimation, transpiration, and groundwater flow.

Hydrological cycle: is the transfer of water from the oceans to the atmosphere to the land and back to the oceans. The processes involved evaporation of water from the oceans; precipitation on land; evaporation from land ; runoff from streams, river and subsurface groundwater. The hydrological cycle is driven by solar energy, which evaporates water from oceans, fresh water bodies, soils and vegetation.

■ Evaporation: It take place due to heat. Water from oceans, seas and water surfaces on land such as lakes, is changed from water droplets to water vapour in the atmosphere, which is known as evaporation. ■ Transpiration: water lost from trees and plants, mainly from their leaves. This is known as transpiration. ■ Evapo-transpiration: Evapo-transpiration (ET) is a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land surface to atmosphere. ■ Condensation: Air temperature decrease with height. As water vapour carried upwards by air it is cooled, leading to condensation. This is the process by which water vapour (gas) is turned to liquid or solid. ■ Precipitation: is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. Rain is the most common type but snow and hail are included as well. ■ Interception: when precipitation occurred, some is prevented from falling directly on the ground by trees and plants which is known as interception. ■ Run-off: water flows over the ground surface, finding its way into rivers and streams, known as run-off. ■ Infiltration: water that seep into the ground. Depend on soil characteristics, land cover type, slope of the ground. ■ Groundwater flow: storage of water at underground. After precipitation a certain portion of it seep into the ground. [pic]

Lapse rate • The rate at which air temperature decreases with height. • The standard (average) lapse rate in the lower atmosphere is about 6.5°C per 1 km or 3.6°F per 1000 ft.

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