Free Essay

Ghost of Bd

In: English and Literature

Submitted By JALISH
Words 3157
Pages 13
SL NO. | Content | Page No. | * | Abstract | 2 | 1 | Introduction | 3 | 2 | Chapter-1 | 3 | 2.1 | What is Ghost | 3 | 2.2 | Frequently Repetitive Ghost Character in Bengali Literature | 3 | 3 | Chapter-2 | 5 | 3.1 | The Impact of Ghost Story in Bengali Literature | 5 | 3.2 | Some Stories of Ghosts in The Context of Bangladesh | 7 | 3.2.1 | The Ghostly Footsteps | 7 | 3.2.2 | Shahin Er Golpo | 8 | 4 | Chapter-3 | 9 | 4.1 | The Impact of Ghost Story in Bengali Cinema | 9 | 5 | Conclusion | 10 | 6 | References | |


There are many cultures in the world. The most common part of every culture is stories, and we will find Ghost stories which is available in every culture. Our culture is Bengali culture. Ghost stories are the noticable part of our literature. Everyone of all age loves Ghost stories. Bengali Ghost stories are little different from other because of the culture, environment, religion and the way of life. Ghost stories have great effect on our film industry and drama. Ghosts are an important part of folklore in Bengal. Fairy tales, both old and new often use the concept of ghosts. In modern day Bengali literature as well, references to ghosts may be often found.

1. Introduction

Ghost stories belong to the genre called horror literature, whose purpose is to scare the reader with situations that cause horror or fear. The most common technique is suspense, the slow insinuating of a doubt or of a frightening revelation, which keeps the reader interested. Ghosts are an important part of folklore in Bengal. Fairy tales, both old and new often use the concept of ghosts. In modern day Bengali literature as well, references to ghosts may be often found.

2. Chapter: 1
2.1. What is Ghost?
In Bangladesh it is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The common word for ghosts in Bangladesh is bhoot or bhut (Bengali: ভূত). This word has an alternative meaning: 'Past' in Bengali. Also the word Pret (Sanskrit) is used in Bengali to mean ghost. In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances (like murder, suicide or accident). Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death.

2.2. Frequently Repetitive Ghost Character In Bengali Literature:
There are many kinds of ghost believed in Bengali culture. Few are referred here: * Pretni: Pretni are basically female ghosts who have some unsatisfied desires such as dying unmarried. This word originated from the Sanskrit word Pretini (feminine gender of Preta). They can take any appearance even as male. It is a ghost of usually those who committed crimes in life and are cursed to walk the Earth as ghosts. The Petni can be very vicious, and apparently can appear to be almost completely human until they attack. The only distinguishing characteristic of the ghost is the feet – the feet of Petni are backwards. * Shankhchunni: The word "Shankhchunni" comes from the Sanksrit word Shankhachurni. It is a ghost of a married woman who usually wears a special kind of bangles made of Shell (called ‘Shankha’ in Bengali) in their hands which is a sign of married woman in Bengal. Shankhchunni usually haunts the rich married women so that they can enjoy a married life and can satisfy all their desires just like a married woman. People say that they live in mango trees. * Chorachunni: thief ghost, very mischievous and usually the souls of dead thieves. * Penchapechi: An unusual form of ghost. The Penchapechi take the form of owls and hunt in the forests of Bengal. It follows hapless travelers through the woods until they are completely alone, and then it strikes. Unlike other ghosts, the Penchapechi actually consumes its victims, feeding on their body in an almost vampiric way. * Mechho Bhoot: This is a kind of ghost who likes to eat fish. The word Mechho comes from Machh that means fish in Bengali. Mechho Bhoot usually lives near to the village ponds or lakes which are full of fish. Sometimes they steal fish from kitchens in village households or from the boats of fishermen. * Maal: This is a mermaid like creature which dwells in the rivers and lakes of Bangladesh. It drags unsuspecting people into the water, drowning them. * Nishi: One of the most cruel of ghosts, the Nishi lures its victim to a secluded area by calling to the person with the voice of a loved one. The Nishi only strike at night, and their victims are never seen again, so it is unknown what happens to them. They may become Nishi themselves. According to folklore, the Nishi cannot call out more than twice, and so no one should answer a voice at night until it has called three times. * Mamdo bhut: Ghosts of Muslims * Gechho Bhoot: It is a kind of ghosts lives in trees. The word "Gechho" comes from "Gaachh" which means tree in Bengali language. * Bramhadaitya: These are one of the most popular and less harmful categories of ghosts in Bengal. It is the ghost of holy Brahmin. Usually they appear wearing a traditional Dhoti (Bengali dress for men) and the holy thread on their body. They are very kind and helpful to human being as depicted in many Bengali stories and movies. * Aleya: Marsh gas apparitions that confuse fishermen, make them lose their bearings and eventually drown * Begho Bhoot: This is a ghost of those person who are killed or eaten by the tigers in jungle. Mainly in Sundarban area (in West Bengal, India) which is a Royal Bengal TigerSanctuary, the villagers believe in this kind of ghost. These ghosts use to frighten persons who entered the jungle in search of honey or woods and try to put them in front of tigers. Sometimes they do the mimicry of tigers to terrify the villagers. * Skondhokata or Kondhokata: It is a headless ghost. Usually the spirit of those persons who died by cutting their heads in train accident or else. This kind of ghost always searches their missing heads and pleads others to help them to search it. Sometimes they attack the humans and make them slaves to search their lost heads. * Kanabhulo: This is a ghost which hypnotize one person and takes him to some unknown places. The victim instead of going into his house or the destination goes to another place which is silent and eerie. After going to that place the ghost kills the person. The victim in this case loses his sense. Generally these types of ghost strikes in night in villages. The victims were generally single person or separated from group. * Dainee: This is what we called witch in English language. Dainee are not actually soul or spirit rather living beings. Usually in villages of Bengal old suspicious women who know mumbo-jumbo and other witchcrafts or black magic are considered as Dainee. It is believed that the Dainee kidnaps children and kills them and sucks their blood to survive 100 of years. * Betaal: This is a fictional ghostly character found in a series of 25 stories named "Betaal Panchvimshati". The hero of this series is king Vikramaditya, the legendary emperor of Ujjain, India. He tries to capture and hold on to Betaal that tells a puzzling tale and ends it with a question for the king. But the condition is the kind should walk without uttering a word, otherwise Betaal would fly back to its place. The king can be quiet only if he does not know the answer, else his head would burst into pieces. Unfortunately, the king discovers that he knows the answer to every question; therefore the cycle of catching Betaal and letting it escape continues for twenty-four times till the last question puzzles the king

3. Chapter: 2
3.1. The Impact of Ghost story in Bengali literature:
Ghost is one of the most popular genres in Bengali literature. In early days ghosts were only the ingredients of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales. "Thakurmar Jhuli" was one of the most famous collections of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales compiled by "Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder" in 1907. There we can find almost all the above categories of ghost in different stories. Some other comparable books for children in Bengali Literature by the same author are "Thakur Dadar Jhuli" (Grandpa's Sack of Folktales), "Dadamoshayer Tholay" (Maternal-Grandpa's Sack of Folktales) and "Thandidir Tholay" (Maternal-Grandpa's Sack of Folktales).
There are many great writers who have practiced the genre of Ghost Stories. A few of them are Parashuram (Rajshekhar Basu), Sharadindu Bandopadhyay (Baroda Series), Syed Mustafa Siraz (MurariBabu Series), Satyajit Ray, Sunil Gangopadhyay, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Gouri De and many more. In past and present many other prominent Bengali writers have tried this genre successfully in their stories and Bengal has a rich collection of ghost stories. Few examples are noted below: * Rabindranath Tagore: The famous poet and writer Rabindranath also authored some short stories featuring ghosts like “Konkal”, “Monihara” etc. which are considered classics of this genre. * Upendra Kishore Roychowdhury: One of the most talented author of children's literatue of his time and also noted for his ghost stories where the ghosts are harmless, fun-loving, and benevolent entities. “Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne” is his most famous ghost story which was later adopted into a National Film Award winning Bengali film with the same name by his grandson Satyajit Ray. Later Satyajit wrote and directed two more sequels of this film with original concept and made it into a trilogy. * Hemendra Kumar Roy: Famous for his Jayanta-Manik detective stories, he was also well known as a writer of horror and ghost stories. Among his story collections in this genre are Jader Naame Sabai Bhoy Paay ('Names Feared By All'), Manusher Gondho Paaun ('I Can Smell Human Flesh') and Sandhyar Pore Sabdhan ('Beware After Nightfall') * Parashuram (Rajshekhar Basu):' Writer of the famous ghost story, “Bhushundir Mathe” which is a comedy in the mould of horror. Parashuram wrote many other ghost stories like “Mahesher Mahajatra” which also impart an undertone of humor. * Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay: Known for his social novels set in rural Bengal, such as "Pather Panchali". "Adarsha Hindu Hotel". "Aranyak", Bibhutibhusan wrote some excellent supernatural stories, such as "Medal", "Rankini Devir Khorgo", the stories of Taranath Tantrik and many others. * Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay: Another noted writer of Bengal predominantly famous for his detective series “Byomkesh Bakshi” and historical stories also authored a less famous series called “Baroda Series”. Baroda is a Bengali guy who is very much interested in the paranormal and likes to share his adventures and experiences of supernatural incidents with his friends. * Satyajit Ray: Satyajit Ray, the famous Indian film maker was quite popular in Bengal for his short stories. His favorite genres were fantasy and supernatural stories. His ghost stories are the milestones of Bengali Literature. * Syed Mustafa Siraj: Basically known for his famous detective series “Colonel Niladri” an ex-army man, Siraj is also the creator of another ghost series, “Murari Babu series”. Murari Babu (Mr. Murari) is an innocent and nervous person living in Kolkata city. His hobby is to collect old furniture from antique shops, but his hobby always finds a way to get him into troubles (related to the paranormal). * Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay: Very famous writer for children and quite popular in Bengal for his humorous ghost stories. The specialty of his ghost stories is that his ghosts are innocent, kind and funny characters who always help the poor and needy and punish the wicked person. * Adrish Bardhan: He is a famous ghost and supernatural story writer of present day. His stories have a macabre and chilling ambiance and the appearances of the ghosts he conjures up are often malevolent and appalling. * Anish Deb: He is one of the foremost authors of the modern Bengali horror. Alongside ghosts, His works focus on other supernatural entities like vampires, werewolves etc. alongside ghosts which were previously uncommon in Bengali horror stories. He has written numerous short stories of the ghost and horror genre.
3.2. Some Stories of Ghosts in the Context of Bangladesh:
3.2.1: The Ghostly Footsteps
When were on holiday in Bangladesh... I and my cousin were in the room chatting about our lives. Suddenly I forgot that I left my medicine downstairs, so I told my cousin about it and she said let's go downstairs and get it.
We were on our way downstairs and there was a big window in front of us, my cousin looked out from it to see what's outside, but she couldn't see a thing because it was pitch black! Then we started to walk downstairs, suddenly we heard footsteps outside and everything went quiet, it was so quiet we could hear a pin drop! The footsteps started again and I got freaked out. My cousin was freaked out because she never had an experience like it before!
After a while the footsteps stopped and we thought whoever was out there was gone, then we knocked on the door to see if my sister was there so she can give me my medicine. We knocked for a long time but she wouldn't open it! I was scared and so was my cousin, she froze because the footsteps started again although we did ask who it was but no one answered... We got even more terrified and then we ran upstairs!
We opened the bedroom door and locked it after we got in! We told our other cousin the full story and she didn't believe us. She thought it was all a joke! After a while we heard a knock on the door and all of us got scared, me and my cousins thought it was the thing we heard outside! My elder cousin went near the door and asked who it was. The first few seconds were silent and then she asked again and it was my brother!
We opened the door and asked him did he hear the footsteps outside he said "no!" I still hadn't got my medicine yet so I asked my elder cousin to go and get it! She said "fine I will go, unless someone comes with me!" so my brother said "ill go with you". When they went, I and my cousin locked the door and then someone knocked so we opened it and it was my brother and he said" I got scared so I ran back up the stairs!"
After a while my elder cousin came with my medicine and said "I never heard any footsteps outside". We were shocked because we were sure that we heard footsteps! After that happened I was never sure if it was a ghostly encounter or if it was our imaginations!
3.2.2: Sahin Er Golpo
Shahin was 8 years old at that time. He had some eye infection in his right eye. Shahin was always in bed and his mom used to put medicine in his eye every night. One night, Shahin didn't want to have the medicine put in as it was very painful. He turned on his television and pretended to go to sleep; his mother didn't like him watching television. He locked the door and kept the key with him. He kept all the lights on and pretended to go to sleep until his mother went to sleep.
He had his back to the door when he heard the creaking of the door. He thought his mother had come to give him medicine. He heard the footsteps coming nearer and when they reached the bed, Shahin said that he didn't want to have the medicine put in his eye. The "thing" sat down on his bed. He knew this because he felt the side of his bed going down. Then, all of a sudden, he realized that he had locked the door and the key was with him so how could anyone open the door?
He slowly lifted his covers and he saw that everything was dark. (He had put all the lights on before sleeping). When he looked up, he saw a very dark, black shadow looking down at him. The shape was not describable. He was so scared! Shahin tried to scream but no voice was coming from his mouth. After about 5 minutes, the shadow left and all the lights came on as well as the television.
He got up as fast as he could and ran to his mom, who was in the kitchen. He asked her whether the lights had gone out but she said no. He then told his mother the full story but, as most parents, his mother didn't believe him.
There are some site given below for reading ghost stories * * * * *
4. Chapter: 3
4.1 The Impact of Ghost story in Bengali cinema:
As like Bengali literature, in Bengali cinema also ghosts are a popular item. Films likes Hanabari (Haunted House), Kuheli, Monihara (part of the movie 'Teen Kanya') were quite popular in the era of Bengali black and white movies.
Beside the horror movies the ghosts have appeared in Bengali films in a lightly comical mood, sometimes acting in a friendly way. One of the great examples is Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne as mentioned earlier is adopted from the story of Upendra Kishore Roychowdhury and directed by Satyajit Ray. In this film we can see the king of ghost (a Bramhadaitya) gives three boons to 'Goopy' and 'Bagha', the two poor village boys who aspired to become a singer and drummer respectively. And with the help of those boons they did many adventures. Later Satyajit Ray wrote two more stories as the sequels of the first one and made films (last one was directed by Sandip Ray, son of Satyajit Ray).

5. Conclusion:
Conclusion: Ghost stories have a great impact on our culture. Every people of all ages of Bangladesh accept Ghost stories as a part of entertainment and refreshment. Ghost stories are attractive stories and our culture has a lot of it. It’s quit impossible to think Bengali literature without Ghost stories. If we cut of Ghost stories from Bengali literature, Bengali literature will lose a huge recourses and the valuable interest of people. So we can say that Ghost stories are the golden part of our Bengali culture.

6. References: * * * *

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

The New Norma

...l in Zimbabwe Understanding the “new normal” in Zimbabwe The term ‘new normal’ is a term coined by Mohamed El-Erian, co-chief investment officer of Pimco, a California investment firm to refer to the situation the world found itself in after the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) of 2008-2010. From a global perspective, this phenomenon has led to mixed fortunes on the economies of different countries. Characteristic of the ‘new normal’ is the remarkable gaining of economic influence of the East due to the growing shift in global economic activity from West to East. Emerging Markets (Ems) proved to be a force to reckon with due to the increased flow of capital between the (Ems) themselves and to industrial countries as well as due to the increase in their stake or share in the global output from 40% in 1990 to 50% and expected to grow to 60% by 2035. The Global recession resulted in a deliberate greater government intervention in most countries to save respective banking systems from collapsing. As a result, there is a significant role to be played by governments in the economies of most countries which might have a negative impact of financial protectionism in some instances or lead to greater global financial coordination and transparency. In the ‘new normal’, the West has lost its ability to set the global agenda as seen in the transition from a G-7 to a Group of 20 which includes players in the Emerging Markets like Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Korea, Saudi......

Words: 2512 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Somery of the Fall

...CompTIA A+ Certification Exam Objectives EXAM NUMBER: 220-901 About the Exam Candidates are encouraged to use this document to help prepare for CompTIA A+ 220-901. In order to receive the CompTIA A+ certification, you must pass two exams: 220-901 and 220-902. CompTIA A+ 220-901 measures the necessary skills for an entry-level IT professional. Successful candidates will have the knowledge required to: • Assemble components based on customer requirements • Install, configure and maintain devices, PCs and software for end users • Understand the basics of networking and security/forensics • Properly and safely diagnose, resolve and document common hardware and software issues • Apply troubleshooting skills • Provide appropriate customer support • Understand the basics of virtualization, desktop imaging and deployment These content examples are meant to clarify the test objectives and should not be construed as a comprehensive listing of all the content of this examination. EXAM ACCREDITATION CompTIA A+ is accredited by ANSI to show compliance with the ISO 17024 Standard and, as such, undergoes regular reviews and updates to the exam objectives. EXAM DEVELOPMENT CompTIA exams result from subject matter expert workshops and industry-wide survey results regarding the skills and knowledge required of an entry-level IT professional. CompTIA AUTHORIZED MATERIALS USE POLICY CompTIA Certifications, LLC is not affiliated with and does not authorize, endorse or......

Words: 4474 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Labor Unrest in the Rmg Sector

...Labor unrest in the RMG sector–reasons and remedies October 7, 2010 The prevailing worsening situation in readymade garment (RMG) sector is not good for country’s feeble economy. RMG sector accounts for 76% of our total annual foreign exchange earnings. Once, Jute was the only foreign exchange earning item. But the golden age of Jute is now over. At present, the RMG is our only dependable export item. The textile sector has emerged as a backward sector to this RMG sector. Spinning, weaving, Knitting; dying, finishing etc have emerged as a backward linkage industry. These areas of the of the textile sector are contributing to the economy of the country. So, if the RMG sector suffers any crisis, the repercussion will be felt everywhere in the rickety economy. Now, there are 350 spinning mills operating in the country, which is catering to the demand of the RMG sector and thus saving huge amount of foreign exchange. At present, the capacity of the spinning mills is 1.6 billion meters. There are 180 dying-finishing mills in the country with a capacity of 120 million meters per year. The production capacity of the knitting mills is 41 billion meters. What is important here is that they are capable of meeting local demand. The total workforce engaged in this sector is about 2.5 million, of which 60 percent is women. The total production is being exported to foreign countries. The reasons and the remedies of the present crisis: All of a sudden, labor unrest has increased in our......

Words: 18631 - Pages: 75

Premium Essay

Population Ecology of Some Warblers of Northeastern Coniferous Forests.

...Marine Litter Distribution and Density in European Seas, from the Shelves to Deep Basins Christopher K. Pham1,2*, Eva Ramirez-Llodra3,4, Claudia H. S. Alt5, Teresa Amaro6, Melanie Bergmann7, ¸ Miquel Canals8, Joan B. Company3, Jaime Davies9, Gerard Duineveld10, Francois Galgani11, 9 12 1,2 Kerry L. Howell , Veerle A. I. Huvenne , Eduardo Isidro , Daniel O. B. Jones12, Galderic Lastras8, ´ ˆ Telmo Morato1,2, Jose Nuno Gomes-Pereira1,2, Autun Purser13, Heather Stewart14, Ines Tojeira15, 8 16 5 Xavier Tubau , David Van Rooij , Paul A. Tyler 1 Center of the Institute of Marine Research (IMAR) and Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Horta, Portugal, 2 Laboratory of Robotics `ncies del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain, 4 Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Systems in Engineering and Science (LARSyS), Lisbon, Portugal, 3 Institut de Cie (NIVA), Marine Biology section, Oslo, Norway, 5 Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom, ¨ 6 Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Bergen, Norway, 7 Alfred-Wegener-Institut, Helmholtz-Zentrum fur Polar- und Meeresforschung, Bremerhaven, Germany, 8 GRC `ncies Marines, Departament d9Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geocie `ncies Marines, Facultat de Geologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Campus de Pedralbes, Barcelona, Geocie Spain, 9 Marine Biology & Ecology Research Centre, Marine Institute, Plymouth University, Plymouth, United Kingdom, 10......

Words: 10668 - Pages: 43

Free Essay


...THE STUDENT'S PRACTICAL DICTIONARY ; fNdkoq ; CONTAINING English words with English and Hindi Meanings and Pronunciation in Deva Nagri Character with an Appendix containing Familiar Foreign Words and Phrases and Abbreviations in Common use. FIFTEENTH EDITION Thoroughly Revised,Improved,Enlarged and Illustrated PRICE 3 RUPESS ALLAHABAD RAM NARAIN LAL PUBLISHER AND BOOKSELLER 1936 ISCII text of dictionary taken from from TDIL's ftp: pub dict site I N 1.m I Pron 1.m a Det 1.ek, abatement N abbey N 1.kmF, GVtF, GVAv, mdApn, b A, 2.yAg, smAE ag jF vZmAlA kA Tm a"r tTA -vr, mphlA kESpt pzq vA -tAv  , aback Adv 1.acAnk, ekAek, 2.pFC  abandon VT 1.CoX  nA, yAg  nA, yAgnA, tjnA, d d 2.EbnA aAj^ nA nOkrF CoXnA, apn kodrAcAr aAEd mCoX  nA,   d ,   nA d d abandoned A 1.CoXA h,aA, Enjn-TAn, 2.EbgXA h,aA, iEdy lolp, lMpV, drAcArF, aAvArA , , abandonment N 1.pZ yAg, sMpZ aAmosg,   EbSkl CoX  nA d , abate VI honA, GVnA, DFmA honA abate VT krnA, GVAnA, DFmA krnA, m@ym krnA, rok  nA, smA krnA d 1 1.IsAiyo kA mW, gz\ArA, kVF, mW, , , 2.mht  aADFn sADao kF mXlF k , abbot N 1.mht, mWDArF, mWAEDkArF abbreviate VT krnA, s" krnA, CoVA krnA, p sAr EnkAlnA abbreviation N 1.s" , GVAv, sAr, lG,!p, skt, p  2.sE" pd yAf, fNd yA pd kA lG!p ^ , abdicate VTI 1.-vQCA s CoXnA, yAg krnA, tjnA,   pd yAg krnA abdication N 1.pd yAg abdomen N 1.X, V, k"F, udr p p , abdominal A 1.udr sMbDF, V kA p abduct VI 1.BgA l jAnA, EnkAl l...

Words: 164153 - Pages: 657

Premium Essay

Training and Development System

...Chapter-one Introduction Introduction 1.1 Back Ground of the Study Training and Development of employees is superseding importance to the continued success of any organization. Training is a learning process, which seeks relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve the ability to perform on the job. Training involves the change of knowledge, skills, and attitude or behavior. By Training, it is meant the process of learning potential knowledge for job and making them to apply for actual or anticipated organizational success. On the other hand development is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and behaviors that improve and employee's ability to meet changes in job requirements and in client and customer demands. In contrast, by T&D procedure it is meant the methodological steps through which human resources are skilled for doing job smoothly. The Padma Islami Life Insurance Co. Ltd. has established a Training and research Academy for their employees Training and Development. The components of the Training System are discussed below. 1.2 Objective of the Study Main Objective: The main objective of the study is to know the Training and Development Systems of Padma Islami Life Insurance Company Ltd. Specific Objective Specific Objectives are as follows: 1. To know about the training mechanism of Padma Islami Life Insurance Company Ltd. 2. To know about the Training and Development materials of Padma Islami Life......

Words: 11405 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay


...TIME ALLOWED : 2 Hours No. of Sections : 3 , 55 questions in each section. No. of Questions: 165 CAT-1999 SECTION I Number of questions: 55 DIRECTIONS for questions I to 5: Sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentence from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph. 1. A. In rejecting the functionalism in positivist organization theory, either wholly or partially, there is often a move towards a political model of organization theory. B. Thus the analysis would shift to the power resources possessed by different groups in the organization and the way they use these resources in actual power plays to shape the organizational structure. C. At the extreme, in one set of writings, the growth of administrators in the organization is held to be completely unrelated to the work to be done and to be caused totally by the political pursuit of self- interest. D. The political model holds that individual interests are pursued in organizational life through the exercise of power and influence. 1. ADBC 2. CBAD 3. DBCA 4. ABDC 2. A. Group decision making, however, does not necessarily fully guard against arbitrariness and anarchy, for individual capriciousness can get substituted by collusion of group members. B. Nature itself is an intricate system of checks and balances, meant to preserve the delicate......

Words: 17948 - Pages: 72

Free Essay

Marital Divorce

...Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000. 32:445–476 Copyright ᭧ 2000 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved SONOLUMINESCENCE: How Bubbles Turn Sound into Light S. J. Putterman and K. R. Weninger Physics Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095; e-mail: Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2000.32:445-476. Downloaded from by NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIVERSITY on 08/14/09. For personal use only. Key Words energy focusing, nonlinear dynamics, complexity, hydrodynamics gas bubble, continuum mechanics, shock shape instabilities, chemical hydrodynamics Abstract Sonoluminescence, the transduction of sound into light, is a phenomenon that pushes fluid mechanics beyond its limit. An initial state with long wavelength and low Mach number, such as is realized for a gas bubble driven by an audible sound field, spontaneously focuses the energy density so as to generate supersonic motion and a different phase of matter, from which are then emitted picosecond flashes of broad-band UV light. Although the most rational picture of sonoluminescence involves the creation of a ‘‘cold’’ dense plasma by an imploding shock wave, neither the imploding shock nor the plasma has been directly observed. Attempts to attack sonoluminescence from the perspective of continuum mechanics have led to interesting issues related to bubble shape oscillations, shock shape instabilities, and shock propagation through nonideal media, and chemical hydrodynamics.......

Words: 12887 - Pages: 52

Free Essay

Apple Case Study

...CSS GENERAL KNOWLEDGE MCQS General Knowledge Q/A Q/A 1. The river Danube rises in which country? Germany. 2. Which US state has the sugar maple as its state tree and is the leading US producer of maple sugar? Vermont. 3. Which country is nicknamed ‘The Cockpit of Europe’ because of the number of battles throughout history fought on its soil? Belgium. 4. What is the capital of Libya? Tripoli. 5. Apart from French, German and Romansch, what is the fourth official language of the Switzerland? Italian. 6. Which country is the world’s largest producer of coffee? Brazil. 7. In which city was the world’s first underground train was service opened in 1863? London. 8. How many pairs of ribs are there in the human body? 12. 9. Which country is separated form Ethiopia by the Red Sea? Yemen. 10. What is the main port of Italy? Genoa. 11. Mount Logan is the highest peak in which country? Canada. 12. In which state is Harvard University? New Jersey. 13. Which is larger: Norway or Finland? Finland. 14. Which city was the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy until 1865? Turin. 15. What is measured by an ammeter? Electric current. 16. What is a rhinoceros horn made of? Hair. 17. Which three countries, apart from the former Yugoslavia, share borders with Greece? Albania, Bulgaria, Turkey. 18. The Palk Strait separates which two countries? India and Sri Lanka. 19. Ga is the symbol for which element? Gallium. 20....

Words: 18242 - Pages: 73

Premium Essay

Disaster Management

...Bhopal disaster Co o r din at es: 2 3 °1 6 ′ 5 1 ″ N 7 7 °2 4 ′ 3 8 ″ E From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Bhopal dis as te r (commonly referred to as Bhopal gas trage dy) was a gas leak incident in India, considered one of the world's worst industrial catastrophes.[1] It occurred on the night of December 2–3, 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. A leak of methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals from the plant resulted in the exposure of hundreds of thousands of people. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shantytowns located near the plant.[2] Estimates vary on the death toll. The official immediate death toll was 2,259 and the government of Madhya Pradesh has confirmed a total of 3,787 deaths related to the gas release.[3] Others estimate 3,000 died within weeks and another 8,000 have since died from gas- related diseases.[4][5] A government affidavit in 2006 stated the leak caused 558,125 injuries including 38,478 temporary partial and approximately 3,900 severely and permanently disabling injuries.[6] UCIL was the Indian subsidiary of Union Carbide Corporation (UCC), with Indian Government controlled banks and the Indian public holding a 49.1 percent stake. In 1994, the Supreme Court of India allowed UCC to sell its 50.9 percent share. Union Carbide sold UCIL, the Bhopal plant operator, to Eveready Industries India Limited in 1994. The Bhopal plant was later sold......

Words: 14829 - Pages: 60

Free Essay

Bloodlines of the Illuminati

...Bloodlines of Illuminati by: Fritz Springmeier, 1995 Introduction: I am pleased & honored to present this book to those in the world who love the truth. This is a book for lovers of the Truth. This is a book for those who are already familiar with my past writings. An Illuminati Grand Master once said that the world is a stage and we are all actors. Of course this was not an original thought, but it certainly is a way of describing the Illuminati view of how the world works. The people of the world are an audience to which the Illuminati entertain with propaganda. Just one of the thousands of recent examples of this type of acting done for the public was President Bill Clinton’s 1995 State of the Union address. The speech was designed to push all of the warm fuzzy buttons of his listening audience that he could. All the green lights for acceptance were systematically pushed by the President’s speech with the help of a controlled congressional audience. The truth on the other hand doesn’t always tickle the ear and warm the ego of its listeners. The light of truth in this book will be too bright for some people who will want to return to the safe comfort of their darkness. I am not a conspiracy theorist. I deal with real facts, not theory. Some of the people I write about, I have met. Some of the people I expose are alive and very dangerous. The darkness has never liked the light. Yet, many of the secrets of the Illuminati are locked up tightly simply because secrecy is a......

Words: 206477 - Pages: 826

Premium Essay

Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, and Hospitality

...Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality By the same author Britain – Workshop or Service Centre to the World? The British Hotel and Catering Industry The Business of Hotels (with H. Ingram) Europeans on Holiday Higher Education and Research in Tourism in Western Europe Historical Development of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart) Holiday Surveys Examined The Management of Tourism (with A.J. Burkart eds) Managing Tourism (ed.) A Manual of Hotel Reception (with J.R.S. Beavis) Paying Guests Profile of the Hotel and Catering Industry (with D.W. Airey) Tourism and Hospitality in the 21st Century (with A. Lockwood eds) Tourism and Productivity Tourism Council of the South Pacific Corporate Plan Tourism Employment in Wales Tourism: Past, Present and Future (with A.J. Burkart) Trends in Tourism: World Experience and England’s Prospects Trends in World Tourism Understanding Tourism Your Manpower (with J. Denton) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism and Hospitality S. Medlik Third edition OXFORD AMSTERDAM BOSTON LONDON NEW YORK PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Butterworth-Heinemann An imprint of Elsevier Science Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP 200 Wheeler Road, Burlington MA 01803 First published 1993 Reprinted (with amendments) 1994 Second edition 1996 Third edition 2003 Copyright © 1993, 1996, 2003, S. Medlik. All rights reserved The right of S. Medlik to be identified as the author of this work has been......

Words: 133754 - Pages: 536

Premium Essay

Sanitation in Ghana

...Securing the Bright Medium Term Prospects of the Economy ’’ THE 2015 BUDGET STATEMENT AND ECONOMIC POLICY ~ ii ~ Theme: “Transformational Agenda: Securing the Bright Medium Term Prospects of the Economy ’’ For copies of the Statement, please contact the Public Relations Office of the Ministry: Ministry of Finance Public Relations Office New Building, Ground Floor, Room 001/003 P. O. Box MB 40 Accra – Ghana The 2015 Budget Statement and Economic Policy of the Government of Ghana is also available on the internet at: ~ iii ~ Theme: “Transformational Agenda: Securing the Bright Medium Term Prospects of the Economy ’’ ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ABFA ACLP ADR AFCON AfDB AIDS AML AMSECs APR ATMA AVIC BACs BDS BIEPC BoG BOP bopd bps BR BRICS BSPs BVDs Annual Budget Funding Amount Ascertainment and Codification of Customary Law Project Alternative Dispute Resolution African Cup of Nations African Development Bank Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Anti-Money laundering Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centres Annual Progress Report Accra-Tema Metropolitan Area Accra Visitor Information Centre Business Advisory Centres Business Development Services Bawku Inter Ethnic Peace Committee Bank of Ghana Balance of Payments barrels of oil per day basis points Benchmark Revenue Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa Bulk Supply Points Biometric Verification Devices ~ iv ~ Theme: “Transformational Agenda: Securing the......

Words: 63016 - Pages: 253

Free Essay


...Edited by Kristen Walker Painemilla, Anthony B. Rylands, Alisa Woofter and Cassie Hughes Edited by Kristen Walker Painemilla, Anthony B. Rylands, Alisa Woofter and Cassie Hughes Conservation International 2011 Crystal Drive, Suite 500 Arlington, VA 22202 USA Tel: +1 703-341-2400 Editors : Kristen Walker Painemilla, Anthony B. Rylands, Alisa Woofter and Cassie Hughes Cover design  Paula K. Rylands, Conservation International : Layout: Kim Meek, Washington, DC Maps [except where noted otherwise]  Kellee Koenig, Conservation International : Conservation International is a private, non-profit organization exempt from federal income tax under section 501 c (3) of the Internal Revenue Code. ISBN 978-1-934151-39-6 © 2010 by Conservation International All rights reserved. The designations of geographical entities in this publication, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of Conservation International or its supporting organizations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Any opinions expressed in this publication are those of the writers, and do not necessarily reflect those of Conservation International (CI). Suggested citation: Walker Painemilla, K., Rylands, A. B., Woofter, A. and Hughes, C. (eds.). 2010. Indigenous Peoples and Conservation: From  Rights to Resource Management.......

Words: 170022 - Pages: 681

Free Essay

500 Extraordinary Islands

...500 extraordinary islands G R E E N L A N D Beaufort Sea Baffin Bay vi Da i tra sS t a nm De it Stra rk Hudson Bay Gulf of Alaska Vancouver Portland C A N A D A Calgary Winnipeg Newfoundland Quebec Minneapolis UNITED STATES San Francisco Los Angeles San Diego Phoenix Dallas Ottawa Montreal ChicagoDetroitToronto Boston New York OF AMERICA Philadelphia Washington DC St. Louis Atlanta New Orleans Houston Monterrey NORTH AT L A N T I C OCEAN MEXICO Guadalajara Mexico City Gulf of Mexico Miami Havana CUBA GUATEMALA HONDURAS b e a n Sea EL SALVADOR NICARAGUA Managua BAHAMAS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC JAMAICA San Juan HAITI BELIZE C a r PUERTO RICO ib TRINIDAD & Caracas N TOBAGO A COSTA RICA IA M PANAMA VENEZUELA UYANRINA H GU C U G Medellín A PAC I F I C OCEAN Galapagos Islands COLOMBIA ECUADOR Bogotá Cali S FR EN Belém Recife Lima BR A Z I L PERU La Paz Brasélia Salvador Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro ~ Sao Paulo BOLIVIA PARAGUAY CHILE Cordoba Santiago Pôrto Alegre URUGUAY Montevideo Buenos Aires ARGENTINA FALKLAND/MALVINAS ISLANDS South Georgia extraordinary islands 1st Edition 500 By Julie Duchaine, Holly Hughes, Alexis Lipsitz Flippin, and Sylvie Murphy Contents Chapter 1 Beachcomber Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Aquatic Playgrounds 2 Island Hopping the Turks & Caicos: Barefoot Luxury 12 Life’s a Beach 14 Unvarnished & Unspoiled 21......

Words: 249855 - Pages: 1000