Free Essay

Ghost of Bd

In: English and Literature

Submitted By JALISH
Words 3157
Pages 13
SL NO. | Content | Page No. | * | Abstract | 2 | 1 | Introduction | 3 | 2 | Chapter-1 | 3 | 2.1 | What is Ghost | 3 | 2.2 | Frequently Repetitive Ghost Character in Bengali Literature | 3 | 3 | Chapter-2 | 5 | 3.1 | The Impact of Ghost Story in Bengali Literature | 5 | 3.2 | Some Stories of Ghosts in The Context of Bangladesh | 7 | 3.2.1 | The Ghostly Footsteps | 7 | 3.2.2 | Shahin Er Golpo | 8 | 4 | Chapter-3 | 9 | 4.1 | The Impact of Ghost Story in Bengali Cinema | 9 | 5 | Conclusion | 10 | 6 | References | |

Index

Abstract:
There are many cultures in the world. The most common part of every culture is stories, and we will find Ghost stories which is available in every culture. Our culture is Bengali culture. Ghost stories are the noticable part of our literature. Everyone of all age loves Ghost stories. Bengali Ghost stories are little different from other because of the culture, environment, religion and the way of life. Ghost stories have great effect on our film industry and drama. Ghosts are an important part of folklore in Bengal. Fairy tales, both old and new often use the concept of ghosts. In modern day Bengali literature as well, references to ghosts may be often found.

1. Introduction

Ghost stories belong to the genre called horror literature, whose purpose is to scare the reader with situations that cause horror or fear. The most common technique is suspense, the slow insinuating of a doubt or of a frightening revelation, which keeps the reader interested. Ghosts are an important part of folklore in Bengal. Fairy tales, both old and new often use the concept of ghosts. In modern day Bengali literature as well, references to ghosts may be often found.

2. Chapter: 1
2.1. What is Ghost?
In Bangladesh it is believed that the spirits of those who cannot find peace in the afterlife or die unnatural deaths remain on Earth. The common word for ghosts in Bangladesh is bhoot or bhut (Bengali: ভূত). This word has an alternative meaning: 'Past' in Bengali. Also the word Pret (Sanskrit) is used in Bengali to mean ghost. In Bengal, ghosts are believed to be the spirit after death of an unsatisfied human being or a soul of a person who dies in unnatural or abnormal circumstances (like murder, suicide or accident). Even it is believed that other animals and creatures can also be turned into ghost after their death.

2.2. Frequently Repetitive Ghost Character In Bengali Literature:
There are many kinds of ghost believed in Bengali culture. Few are referred here: * Pretni: Pretni are basically female ghosts who have some unsatisfied desires such as dying unmarried. This word originated from the Sanskrit word Pretini (feminine gender of Preta). They can take any appearance even as male. It is a ghost of usually those who committed crimes in life and are cursed to walk the Earth as ghosts. The Petni can be very vicious, and apparently can appear to be almost completely human until they attack. The only distinguishing characteristic of the ghost is the feet – the feet of Petni are backwards. * Shankhchunni: The word "Shankhchunni" comes from the Sanksrit word Shankhachurni. It is a ghost of a married woman who usually wears a special kind of bangles made of Shell (called ‘Shankha’ in Bengali) in their hands which is a sign of married woman in Bengal. Shankhchunni usually haunts the rich married women so that they can enjoy a married life and can satisfy all their desires just like a married woman. People say that they live in mango trees. * Chorachunni: thief ghost, very mischievous and usually the souls of dead thieves. * Penchapechi: An unusual form of ghost. The Penchapechi take the form of owls and hunt in the forests of Bengal. It follows hapless travelers through the woods until they are completely alone, and then it strikes. Unlike other ghosts, the Penchapechi actually consumes its victims, feeding on their body in an almost vampiric way. * Mechho Bhoot: This is a kind of ghost who likes to eat fish. The word Mechho comes from Machh that means fish in Bengali. Mechho Bhoot usually lives near to the village ponds or lakes which are full of fish. Sometimes they steal fish from kitchens in village households or from the boats of fishermen. * Maal: This is a mermaid like creature which dwells in the rivers and lakes of Bangladesh. It drags unsuspecting people into the water, drowning them. * Nishi: One of the most cruel of ghosts, the Nishi lures its victim to a secluded area by calling to the person with the voice of a loved one. The Nishi only strike at night, and their victims are never seen again, so it is unknown what happens to them. They may become Nishi themselves. According to folklore, the Nishi cannot call out more than twice, and so no one should answer a voice at night until it has called three times. * Mamdo bhut: Ghosts of Muslims * Gechho Bhoot: It is a kind of ghosts lives in trees. The word "Gechho" comes from "Gaachh" which means tree in Bengali language. * Bramhadaitya: These are one of the most popular and less harmful categories of ghosts in Bengal. It is the ghost of holy Brahmin. Usually they appear wearing a traditional Dhoti (Bengali dress for men) and the holy thread on their body. They are very kind and helpful to human being as depicted in many Bengali stories and movies. * Aleya: Marsh gas apparitions that confuse fishermen, make them lose their bearings and eventually drown * Begho Bhoot: This is a ghost of those person who are killed or eaten by the tigers in jungle. Mainly in Sundarban area (in West Bengal, India) which is a Royal Bengal TigerSanctuary, the villagers believe in this kind of ghost. These ghosts use to frighten persons who entered the jungle in search of honey or woods and try to put them in front of tigers. Sometimes they do the mimicry of tigers to terrify the villagers. * Skondhokata or Kondhokata: It is a headless ghost. Usually the spirit of those persons who died by cutting their heads in train accident or else. This kind of ghost always searches their missing heads and pleads others to help them to search it. Sometimes they attack the humans and make them slaves to search their lost heads. * Kanabhulo: This is a ghost which hypnotize one person and takes him to some unknown places. The victim instead of going into his house or the destination goes to another place which is silent and eerie. After going to that place the ghost kills the person. The victim in this case loses his sense. Generally these types of ghost strikes in night in villages. The victims were generally single person or separated from group. * Dainee: This is what we called witch in English language. Dainee are not actually soul or spirit rather living beings. Usually in villages of Bengal old suspicious women who know mumbo-jumbo and other witchcrafts or black magic are considered as Dainee. It is believed that the Dainee kidnaps children and kills them and sucks their blood to survive 100 of years. * Betaal: This is a fictional ghostly character found in a series of 25 stories named "Betaal Panchvimshati". The hero of this series is king Vikramaditya, the legendary emperor of Ujjain, India. He tries to capture and hold on to Betaal that tells a puzzling tale and ends it with a question for the king. But the condition is the kind should walk without uttering a word, otherwise Betaal would fly back to its place. The king can be quiet only if he does not know the answer, else his head would burst into pieces. Unfortunately, the king discovers that he knows the answer to every question; therefore the cycle of catching Betaal and letting it escape continues for twenty-four times till the last question puzzles the king

3. Chapter: 2
3.1. The Impact of Ghost story in Bengali literature:
Ghost is one of the most popular genres in Bengali literature. In early days ghosts were only the ingredients of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales. "Thakurmar Jhuli" was one of the most famous collections of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales compiled by "Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder" in 1907. There we can find almost all the above categories of ghost in different stories. Some other comparable books for children in Bengali Literature by the same author are "Thakur Dadar Jhuli" (Grandpa's Sack of Folktales), "Dadamoshayer Tholay" (Maternal-Grandpa's Sack of Folktales) and "Thandidir Tholay" (Maternal-Grandpa's Sack of Folktales).
There are many great writers who have practiced the genre of Ghost Stories. A few of them are Parashuram (Rajshekhar Basu), Sharadindu Bandopadhyay (Baroda Series), Syed Mustafa Siraz (MurariBabu Series), Satyajit Ray, Sunil Gangopadhyay, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Gouri De and many more. In past and present many other prominent Bengali writers have tried this genre successfully in their stories and Bengal has a rich collection of ghost stories. Few examples are noted below: * Rabindranath Tagore: The famous poet and writer Rabindranath also authored some short stories featuring ghosts like “Konkal”, “Monihara” etc. which are considered classics of this genre. * Upendra Kishore Roychowdhury: One of the most talented author of children's literatue of his time and also noted for his ghost stories where the ghosts are harmless, fun-loving, and benevolent entities. “Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne” is his most famous ghost story which was later adopted into a National Film Award winning Bengali film with the same name by his grandson Satyajit Ray. Later Satyajit wrote and directed two more sequels of this film with original concept and made it into a trilogy. * Hemendra Kumar Roy: Famous for his Jayanta-Manik detective stories, he was also well known as a writer of horror and ghost stories. Among his story collections in this genre are Jader Naame Sabai Bhoy Paay ('Names Feared By All'), Manusher Gondho Paaun ('I Can Smell Human Flesh') and Sandhyar Pore Sabdhan ('Beware After Nightfall') * Parashuram (Rajshekhar Basu):' Writer of the famous ghost story, “Bhushundir Mathe” which is a comedy in the mould of horror. Parashuram wrote many other ghost stories like “Mahesher Mahajatra” which also impart an undertone of humor. * Bibhutibhushan Bandopadhyay: Known for his social novels set in rural Bengal, such as "Pather Panchali". "Adarsha Hindu Hotel". "Aranyak", Bibhutibhusan wrote some excellent supernatural stories, such as "Medal", "Rankini Devir Khorgo", the stories of Taranath Tantrik and many others. * Sharadindu Bandyopadhyay: Another noted writer of Bengal predominantly famous for his detective series “Byomkesh Bakshi” and historical stories also authored a less famous series called “Baroda Series”. Baroda is a Bengali guy who is very much interested in the paranormal and likes to share his adventures and experiences of supernatural incidents with his friends. * Satyajit Ray: Satyajit Ray, the famous Indian film maker was quite popular in Bengal for his short stories. His favorite genres were fantasy and supernatural stories. His ghost stories are the milestones of Bengali Literature. * Syed Mustafa Siraj: Basically known for his famous detective series “Colonel Niladri” an ex-army man, Siraj is also the creator of another ghost series, “Murari Babu series”. Murari Babu (Mr. Murari) is an innocent and nervous person living in Kolkata city. His hobby is to collect old furniture from antique shops, but his hobby always finds a way to get him into troubles (related to the paranormal). * Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay: Very famous writer for children and quite popular in Bengal for his humorous ghost stories. The specialty of his ghost stories is that his ghosts are innocent, kind and funny characters who always help the poor and needy and punish the wicked person. * Adrish Bardhan: He is a famous ghost and supernatural story writer of present day. His stories have a macabre and chilling ambiance and the appearances of the ghosts he conjures up are often malevolent and appalling. * Anish Deb: He is one of the foremost authors of the modern Bengali horror. Alongside ghosts, His works focus on other supernatural entities like vampires, werewolves etc. alongside ghosts which were previously uncommon in Bengali horror stories. He has written numerous short stories of the ghost and horror genre.
3.2. Some Stories of Ghosts in the Context of Bangladesh:
3.2.1: The Ghostly Footsteps
When were on holiday in Bangladesh... I and my cousin were in the room chatting about our lives. Suddenly I forgot that I left my medicine downstairs, so I told my cousin about it and she said let's go downstairs and get it.
We were on our way downstairs and there was a big window in front of us, my cousin looked out from it to see what's outside, but she couldn't see a thing because it was pitch black! Then we started to walk downstairs, suddenly we heard footsteps outside and everything went quiet, it was so quiet we could hear a pin drop! The footsteps started again and I got freaked out. My cousin was freaked out because she never had an experience like it before!
After a while the footsteps stopped and we thought whoever was out there was gone, then we knocked on the door to see if my sister was there so she can give me my medicine. We knocked for a long time but she wouldn't open it! I was scared and so was my cousin, she froze because the footsteps started again although we did ask who it was but no one answered... We got even more terrified and then we ran upstairs!
We opened the bedroom door and locked it after we got in! We told our other cousin the full story and she didn't believe us. She thought it was all a joke! After a while we heard a knock on the door and all of us got scared, me and my cousins thought it was the thing we heard outside! My elder cousin went near the door and asked who it was. The first few seconds were silent and then she asked again and it was my brother!
We opened the door and asked him did he hear the footsteps outside he said "no!" I still hadn't got my medicine yet so I asked my elder cousin to go and get it! She said "fine I will go, unless someone comes with me!" so my brother said "ill go with you". When they went, I and my cousin locked the door and then someone knocked so we opened it and it was my brother and he said" I got scared so I ran back up the stairs!"
After a while my elder cousin came with my medicine and said "I never heard any footsteps outside". We were shocked because we were sure that we heard footsteps! After that happened I was never sure if it was a ghostly encounter or if it was our imaginations!
3.2.2: Sahin Er Golpo
Shahin was 8 years old at that time. He had some eye infection in his right eye. Shahin was always in bed and his mom used to put medicine in his eye every night. One night, Shahin didn't want to have the medicine put in as it was very painful. He turned on his television and pretended to go to sleep; his mother didn't like him watching television. He locked the door and kept the key with him. He kept all the lights on and pretended to go to sleep until his mother went to sleep.
He had his back to the door when he heard the creaking of the door. He thought his mother had come to give him medicine. He heard the footsteps coming nearer and when they reached the bed, Shahin said that he didn't want to have the medicine put in his eye. The "thing" sat down on his bed. He knew this because he felt the side of his bed going down. Then, all of a sudden, he realized that he had locked the door and the key was with him so how could anyone open the door?
He slowly lifted his covers and he saw that everything was dark. (He had put all the lights on before sleeping). When he looked up, he saw a very dark, black shadow looking down at him. The shape was not describable. He was so scared! Shahin tried to scream but no voice was coming from his mouth. After about 5 minutes, the shadow left and all the lights came on as well as the television.
He got up as fast as he could and ran to his mom, who was in the kitchen. He asked her whether the lights had gone out but she said no. He then told his mother the full story but, as most parents, his mother didn't believe him.
There are some site given below for reading ghost stories * http://www.yourghoststories.com/real-ghost-story.php?story=11422 * http://www.bhootergolpo.com/ * http://vootergolpo.blogspot.com/search?updated-min=2012-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&updated-max=2013-01-01T00:00:00-08:00&max-results=1 * http://pa-club.blogspot.com/p/bhoot-stories.html * http://bhoutist.weebly.com/2/category/true%20bhoot%20story/2.html
4. Chapter: 3
4.1 The Impact of Ghost story in Bengali cinema:
As like Bengali literature, in Bengali cinema also ghosts are a popular item. Films likes Hanabari (Haunted House), Kuheli, Monihara (part of the movie 'Teen Kanya') were quite popular in the era of Bengali black and white movies.
Beside the horror movies the ghosts have appeared in Bengali films in a lightly comical mood, sometimes acting in a friendly way. One of the great examples is Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne as mentioned earlier is adopted from the story of Upendra Kishore Roychowdhury and directed by Satyajit Ray. In this film we can see the king of ghost (a Bramhadaitya) gives three boons to 'Goopy' and 'Bagha', the two poor village boys who aspired to become a singer and drummer respectively. And with the help of those boons they did many adventures. Later Satyajit Ray wrote two more stories as the sequels of the first one and made films (last one was directed by Sandip Ray, son of Satyajit Ray).

5. Conclusion:
Conclusion: Ghost stories have a great impact on our culture. Every people of all ages of Bangladesh accept Ghost stories as a part of entertainment and refreshment. Ghost stories are attractive stories and our culture has a lot of it. It’s quit impossible to think Bengali literature without Ghost stories. If we cut of Ghost stories from Bengali literature, Bengali literature will lose a huge recourses and the valuable interest of people. So we can say that Ghost stories are the golden part of our Bengali culture.

6. References: * en.wikipedia.org * www.bhootergolpo.com * www.slideshare.net * www.studymode.com

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