Free Essay

Gift Giving Research Paper

In: Other Topics

Submitted By megancoburn
Words 1887
Pages 8
Megan Coburn
Professor Tabitha Kenlon
19 March 2013
Giving gifts to get what we want- Gifts with an Ulterior Motive For thousands of years communication has been construed ambiguously. Regardless of whether it’s what we are feeling or what we need, the fact remains that humans have a hard time conveying everything they want to say during conversation (with verbal speech) and, likewise perceiving it. With regard to these factors, I wish to examine the underlying motives behind the process of gift giving, throughout the centuries, in different contexts and across various cultures. Individuals offer gifts, symbolically, for many reasons and in varying circumstances. Gifts may be distributed ritually, or in such a way that they distinguish hierarchies. They may also be used as a sign of affection when wooing a partner and are frequently utilized in business relations. It is important to note that there exists a difference between gifts given to other people and gifts given to oneself. A gift giving behavior is defined as a “process of gift exchange that takes place between a giver and a recipient.” (Keng, Kau Ah, Wang, Quain, and Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, 214) In the opinion of Schall, “culture is a rule-based phenomenon,” in other words, to be considered actively apart of a culture one is required to observe and conform to all of the implied and tacit rules that society deems apropos. Circumstance or situations are an important aspect of these untold rules that aid in governing communication and interpersonal relationships in general. Therefore, in the case of many cultures gift giving is an unspoken obligatory method that facilitates the interpersonal relationships of its proponents. Gift giving was an imperative part of many cultures throughout history. Evidence exists even as far back as the Ancient Egyptian Empire (where lists of guests bringing presents and supplies were kept at weddings and various festivities. Dubbed ostraca these lists were available as indicators or aide-mémoire of the social obligations necessary to sustain interpersonal relationships. (Janssen, Jac. J, 254,256) These were not legal documents but rather records of a string of never ending debts between the giver and the recipient. Specifically, this concept is called reciprocity, or a social or cultural obligation in which the receiver is responsible for bestowing a counter-gift, generally of equal value, either immediately or after a period of time. . (Janssen, Jac. J, 254) The concepts of reciprocity and ostraca also contained economic value, for example in peasant societies guests would all bring food to a party, which alleviated the burden of their humble host. China, also has a longstanding tradition of gift giving. Encased in conceptions of family wellbeing and honor as the basis of their culture, the Chinese retained their cultural norms from the doctrines of Confucius, which comprise the pillars of Chinese life even today. Guanxi, for example, is a major component in Chinese society as well as business transactions. (Keng, Kau Ah, Wang, Quain, and Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, 215) Functioning like a network, gaunxi comprises the “direct particularistic ties between two or more individuals that determine the strength or closeness of interpersonal relationship.” In this way members of Chinese culture maintain a network of “close” bonds that, like reciprocity, link the recipient to the giver in a sort of benevolent dance. Additionally, in Western Civilizations people usually identify strongly as separate or independent entities whereas in China and other Asian cultures there is a strong sense of collaborative or group sentiment as mentioned above. However, though the Chinese stress the concept of “family” and the group, they emphasize mianzi- “face”. Mianzi… is an individual’s public image, gained by performing one or more specific roles that are well recognized by others.” (Keng, Kau Ah, Wang, Quain, and Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, 215,216) Despite the fact that mianzi is dependent upon culture, it is specifically geared towards “hierarchical order in Chinese culture”. Due to their strict humanistic culture, the Chinese are particularly aware of their selves and their counterparts. It is in this way that the Chinese strive to advance themselves through a modicum of civility (not losing their individual faces, yet in so amplifying themselves they attempt to save the face of others as a general rule. The Mongols, as Friar William of Rubruck, discovered in his journey to their capital at Kharakhorum, emphasized the importance of gift-giving as a form of hospitality as well as an imperative part of the Yāsā- ‘great law’ of Genghis Khan. (Watson, A.J, 93) Like the Chinese, the Mongols viewed gift exchange as an extension of themselves or their social status. In this way gift exchange was also used to facilitate communication and foster introductions. For example, when Rubruck first approached the Mongol empire the Tartars found it difficult to discern whether he was a lowly envoy, peculiar priest, or destitute beggar, and thus his advance was interpreted as offensive, and he was granted a low status. Over time, as his priestly status augmented his position, his level of respect or “face” increased and bestowing physical gifts was hardly required of him. Furthermore, generosity and the joint- partaking of food were anticipated in Mongolian culture. It was considered crucial to a clan-like society that thrived in such a harsh environment. Similarly, Western Societies like the English and Danish utilized gifts in their hierarchical interactions. Food was especially important in medieval England as it was believed that “small gifts can have a significance that outweighs their value through the opportunities which they create, and that almost anyone might have the ability to make gifts, as even nugatory items, such as commonly available foodstuffs might form the currency of donation”. (Woolgar, C.M, 6) Peasants frequently contributed fare to their masters including hens, apples and fruits, etc. as a sign of respect and loyalty. Sustenance was also used to convey status. Wine, animals that could be trapped and hunted, birds or animals raised in captivity, and even fresh fish were all symbols of power on behalf of the benefactor. “The intention of donors was that their gifts should be both noticed and noticeable.” (Woolgar, C.M, 10). In Scandinavia (present day Denmark) bequests at rites of passage were understood and expected. For instance, the noble couple Hans Skovgaard and Anne Parsberg gave their godson (the eldest son of the Danish King Frederik II) an enormous gilt cup dubbed the “Rose Flower”. (Woolgar, C.M, 116)
Holidays are notorious for the distribution of presents. Christmas and birthdays are the most significant gift-giving occasions for Americans. (Keng, Kau Ah, Wang, Quain, and Mohammed Abdur Razzaque, 214) Valentine’s Day follows closely behind as more than one billion cards are sent along with countless roses, jewels and chocolates, too. (Hetrick, Bruce, 50) Thanksgiving, Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, wedding anniversaries and graduations are also important American celebrations. Whether or not a specific occasion warrants gift-exchange is dependent upon the culture of the society in question. As an illustration, the three major ethnic groups in Singapore (the Chinese, the Malays, and the Indians) place strict emphasis on imparting presents at weddings, during birthday celebrations and even when visiting newborn babies for the first time. Moreover, Chinese New Year is traditionally celebrated with the exchange of gifts, annually, on the second new- moon day after the winter solstice.
Gifts are not new to business relations, however they are ever increasing within them. American businesses increasingly integrate gift giving into their corporate marketing stratagems. It is estimated that in the United States “the volume of business gift giving spent by American businesses has risen steadily from $200 million annually in the 1950s to about $1.8 billion in 1992, accounting for about 21 per cent of total consumer premiums and business gifts combined.” (Wiboon Arunthanes, Patriya Tansuhaj, and David J. Lemak, 44) While there exist many reasons for gifting while conducting business, three main classifications seem to account for most cases. Gifts are usually bestowed to show appreciation to loyal longstanding clients, to establish a positive opinion of one’s enterprise in the mind of the consumer, or in the case of quid pro quo where the business might then expect some favor in return (similar to reciprocity). Playing on the concept of reciprocity, when a business bestows a gift it encourages the consumers (its clients) to respond in kind. This confers a small push to the consumer who then feels the need to articulate his/ her appreciation. As examined previously in various time periods, the most grave obstructions to successful business gift-exchange, internationally, are the individual traditions and rituals of the various respective cultures.
It seems that ethnic groups that see corporate gift- giving as an essential element tends to have a communication style that is “more implicit, non- verbal, and is more relaint on hidden cues and the context of personal relationships,” whereas people that do not view it to be a useful practice “seldom borrow or lend among each other…emphasize promptness, rely on explicit contracts, and usually form only short term personal relationships.” Furthermore, their communication is more deferential and overt, and their parleys are founded on a stricter legal standpoint. (Wiboon Arunthanes, Patriya Tansuhaj, and David J. Lemak, 47)
Verbal communications has been misconstrued for millennia. If it were not so than there would never be any misunderstandings or miscommunications between business partners, spouses, family relations, etc. Across various time periods, circumstances, cultures and entire civilizations gift- exchange has been a generational tradition handed down from family to family, and especially today in a global context. Through exploring concepts of “face”, aide-memoire, and gaunxi it can be illustrated that unbeknownst to the receiver, gift giving is encased in layers of motives that are just waiting to be unwrapped.

Works Cited
Coyne, Christopher J. and Rachel L. Mathers. “Rituals: An Economic Interpretation”. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 78.1-2 (2011): 74-84. Science Direct. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Grinder-Hansen, Poul. “Aspects of gift giving in Denmark in the sixteenth century and the case of the Rose Flower Cup.” Journal of Medieval History 37.1 (2011): 114-124. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Hetrick, Bruce. “A Short History and New Meaning of Valentine’s Day”. Indianapolis Business Journal 27.50 (2007): 50. General One File Infotrac. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Janssen, Jac. J. “Gift-Giving in Ancient Egypt as an Economic Feature.” The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 68 (1982): 253-258. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Keng, Kau Ah, Wang, Quain, and Mohammed Abdur Razzaque. “Chinese Cultural Values and Gift- giving Behavior”. Journal of Consumer Marketing 24.4 : 214- 228. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Roth, Klaus. “Material Culture and Intercultural Communiction.” International Journal of Intercultural Relations 25.5 (2001): 563-580. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Watson, A.J. “Mongol inhospitality, or how to do more with less? Gift giving in William of Rubruck’s Itinerarium” Journey of Medieval History 37.1 (2011): 90-101. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Wiboon Arunthanes, Patriya Tansuhaj, and David J. Lemak. "Cross-cultural Business Gift Giving: A New Conceptualization and Theoretical Framework", International Marketing Review 11.4 (1994): 44-55. Emerald. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.
Woolgar, C.M. “Gifts of Food in Late Medieval England.” Journal of Medieval History 37.1 (2011): 6-18. Taylor & Francis Online. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Ethical Decision Making

...PSYCH 545 May 7, 2012 Abstract This paper analyzes the therapist’s ethical dilemma of accepting or not a gift from a client from a non-Western culture. The essay describes the selected ethical dilemma, the cultural factors involved, and the first 14 steps that therapist takes to resolve this dilemma, and to arrive to an ethical decision. The 14 steps taken to obtain the ethical decision identify key aspects of this situation, analyzes the benefits and weaknesses of the options that therapist has. These ethical steps are helping the psychologist to identify the best approach for the ethical dilemma. The decision making process described in this paper applies to the patient’s best interest, influencing the client and therapist. Also the paper explains the importance of the ethical decision in professional psychology. Ethical Decision Making Ethical decision making process refers to the ability to take a decision after an evaluation of a complex and ambiguous ethical situation, and to the capacity to implement that ethical decision effectively. The ethical decision in this paper refers to the ethical dilemma of accepting of not the gift from the patient. In this case the client comes from a non-Western culture, so the ethical dilemma involves cultural considerations. The gift giving aspect must take into account the cultural context. The patient is a Navajo Native American male, and he has offered a dream catcher as a gift to his therapist, after ending the......

Words: 1915 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Spiritual Gifts

...Sherri L Hull CHMN 201-D05 04/07/2014 Spiritual Gifts Paper Part One: What are my top 2 spiritual gift? Do I agree with the results? Why or Why not? The top two spiritual gifts from my assessment were Administration and Teaching, with Pastor/Shepherd receiving the same assessment score. Based on my background in Purchasing and Job Costing, I would have to agree with the Administration score; however, Teaching and Pastor/Shepherd has me somewhat confused. The descriptions of each of these, and how they appear to go hand-in-hand does; however, make sense. According to the assessment descriptions, if a person scores high in Teaching but not in Pastor/Shepherding they probably would not make a good Sunday school teacher; therefore, receiving the same score arouses my curiosity what does God see something in me, that I do not. My position as a job costing supervisor has taught me to account for each material being used in the manufacturing industry. Along with my former purchasing responsibilities, both positions back up the assessment score in Administration. The assessment further defines my score in Teaching/Shepherding, as a person who enjoys research. At times this person can be technical. This would represent the details of any given work or research being done, everything needs an explanation. It also defines the person as one who needs to be accommodating when deadlines near and pressure increases. This skillset may become beneficial to the calling I......

Words: 1253 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

An Evaluative Study of Cross-Cultutal Communication

...TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Executive Summary 1 2. Introduction 2 3. Cultural aspect to Communication 3 3.1. Cultural Contexts 3 3.2. Assessing Cultures through Hofstede’s Framework 4 4. Codes of Communication 6 4.1. Verbal Communication 6 4.1.1. Welcome topics of conversation 7 4.1.2. Topics to avoid 8 4.2. Non-Verbal Communication 9 5. Gift Giving 10 6. Causes of Cross-Cultural Communication Conflicts 12 7. Conclusion 13 8. Recommendations 14 9. References 15 Executive Summary Today’s world has gone global. This globalization has led to the collaboration among manufacturers of products, suppliers of materials and service providers situated across the globe. The markets are no more restricted to a specific region or a country. The boundaries and distances between the markets have vanished. Saturation in developed markets has led to exploration and exploitation of emerging markets. The expansion of geographic footprint is not happening only to meet business needs, but this is happening also to promote social causes (Education, Health Awareness) and to mitigate global risks (Global Warming). Therefore, for the purpose of effective functioning, there is a strong need to learn about Cross-Cultural Communication. It is true that any usage of an inappropriate word, an impression or a gesture can lead to serious business or social implications. These cross-cultural......

Words: 5311 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

The Gift of the Magi Argument Paper

...The Gift of the Magi Argumentative Research Paper: Did Jim and Della perform an act of Selfless Love? Abstract The story was written by O’Henry in 1906. The story was centered around a seemingly poor couple who did not have enough money to buy each other the gifts that their significant other deserved. The story took place during Christmas. The Gift of the Magi is like a classic wisdom story in the bible. O’Henrys choice of title depicts symbolism between the three magi that brought gold, frankincense, and mur, to the baby Jesus and the gifts that Jim and Della had given to each other which mainly consisted of selfless love, Della’s hair and Jims pocket watch. This itself ties into the theme of his story. These gifts all entail the act of giving from the heart. The purpose of this research paper is to outline the key factors that support the claim that Jim and Della performed an act of selfless love. Now, after looking at that it is evident that Jim and Della performed the most beautiful act of love for each other. What makes it the most beautiful? The fact that they were selfless in giving up their most valuable possessions in order to get something for the other. There is a famous and well known saying, “Love means putting the other before oneself”. This is the epitome of Selfless love, and clearly of Jim and Della’s love. Towards the end of the text O.Henry said, “Of all who give gifts these two were the wisest.” This paper will serve to back this statement up. ...

Words: 1350 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Nuances in the Bulgarian Business Culture Compared to British

...Nuances in Bulgarian business culture in comparison with the United Kingdom’s Course work in Cross-cultural issues in the European Human Resource Management Prepare by: Dimitar Arnaudov, Faculty number: 1523078 Course: European business and Finances Sofia, 2015 1. Differences between national cultures. Authors, studies, etc. 2.1. Culture (def.); Culture differences. 1.1.1 Culture – def.; 1.1.2 Culture differences. 1.1 Authors and studies related to business culture. 1.2.1 Geert Hofstede; 1.2.2 Famous studies around the World. 2. Similarities and differences between the business cultures of Bulgaria and the United Kingdom. 2.1. Bulgarian business culture; 2.2. British business culture in comparison to Bulgaria’s . 3. References. Differences between national cultures. Authors, studies, etc. Culture (definition) and culture differences Culture illustrates the accepted norms and values and traditional behaviour of a group. One definition of culture by Deal and Kennedy is “the way a we do things around here”. However, culture also evolves over time. The culture of each country has its own beliefs, values and activities. In other words culture can be defined as an evolving set of collective beliefs, values and attitudes. Culture is a key component in business and has an impact on the strategic direction of business. Culture influences......

Words: 4611 - Pages: 19

Free Essay

The Gift of Tongues Displayed in the Book of Acts

...LIBERTY UNIVERSITY THE GIFT OF TONGUES DISPLAYED IN THE BOOK OF ACTS A RESEARCH PAPER SUBMITTED TO PROFESSOR DOUGLAS PETERSON IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR BIBL364 LIBERTY UNIVERSITY ONLINE BY SEAN HIGGINS LYNCHBURG, VIRGINIA DECEMBER 5, 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS INTRODUCTION 2 PENTECOST 2 THE CONVERSION OF CORNELIUS 5 TONGUES AT EPHESIAN BAPTISM 7 CONCLUSION 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10 Introduction The gift of Tongues has been becoming more and more popular over the past 10 years. Christians appear to have differing views on the matter. Some think it is a sign of the HOLY SPIRIT, other think it is a manifestation of demonic forces. There are Bible verses to support both of these opinions, so the issues can become rather confusing. This paper is meant to show exactly everything that the Book of Acts mentions on the subject of tongues. This paper doesn’t refer to any other parts in the Bible regarding tongues. There are three different incidences in the Book of Acts that refers to speaking in tongues. First in Acts 2:4, 6-11 at the day of Pentecost, then in Acts 10:46 at the conversion of Cornelius, and finally in Acts 19:6 at the baptism of the 12 men in Ephesus. I am going to look solely at these events in order to study exactly what the Book of Acts says about tongues. Pentecost The experience of the Spirit on Pentecost is a fulfillment of the prophecy of John the Baptist concerning the one who......

Words: 2440 - Pages: 10

Free Essay


...University CARDSWAP 2 CardSwap Value Proposition Gift cards provide value to both merchants and consumers. However, the nature of the value derived by each is different. For the consumer, the value is convenience. For the merchant, there are many financial incentives to offer gift cards. Some have argued that the financial value to consumers is weak and consumer advocacy groups have been vocally opposed to the use of gift cards. Business Value Increased immediate cash flow is one obvious benefit to merchants that results from gift card sales. The merchants receive an influx of cash without giving up any inventory. Some governments have produced regulations regarding the issuance and servicing of gift cards (System, 2010) (Government, 2012). These rules define the type, frequency and magnitude of fees merchants can charge against outstanding balances available on gift cards. Regulations also dictate whether expiration dates can be applied. In most cases this regulation is free of any requirements on the merchant regarding the management of the cash in the time between the purchase of the gift card and its redemption. As such, merchants are free to choose a business policy that fits with their business objectives. In some cases gift cards are partially redeemed by a consumer. The industry refers to this as breakage (Horne, 2007) and some estimates put it at around 10 percent. This data suggests that for every $100 gift card, the merchant gets to keep $10 of that money without......

Words: 2706 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Dating Differences Amongst Race and Gender

...always been perceived in a linear path one pursues with the end goal being marriage or at least an intimate long-term relationship. The concept of dating has so many various practices and protocols that this research paper will focus mainly on dating rituals within the United States. In the United States dating is generally the foundation that will ultimately lead to engagement, which will eventually become marriage. Typically two people will test or try out a relationship by going out together to various places and doing different things together depending upon interests and preferences. The time spent together determines whether the pair will continue to see each other and further establish their relationship or end things and date someone else with whom they might feel a stronger connection. This research intends to question the differences in the practices of dating between gender, race and socioeconomic status and why these differences persist. Is it just the societal norms that further reinforce these practices or is it because of other factors, which tie in to gender roles, cultural values, or social class status. Throughout the research there were similar ideas of social norms that are accepted when one is dating. The most common ones appeared to be gift giving, meeting each other’s family, dressing up and going out, and labeling the relationship when asked. These are all considered important moments that signify to society that two people are in a relationship.......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Gift Giving Norway

...Interpretation of Gift-giving Behavior in Modern Norwegian Society Iver Mysterud, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway. Email: Thomas Drevon, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway (Current address: USIT, Web gruppa, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1086 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo, Norway) Tore Slagsvold, Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway Abstract: We have studied gift giving at Christmas among 50 graduate students in Norway. The students invested more the closer the coefficient of relatedness. However, partners ranked highest, which is natural for people at the start of their reproductive career. All students gave to their parents, siblings, and children, most gave to their grandparents, and only a third gave to some, but not all, of their genetic aunts/uncles. Twenty percent gave to first cousins, and none to second or third cousins. Similar patterns for gifts received were found. There were also sex differences (e.g. women had larger exchange networks than men), and birth order effects. Firstborns spent more on relatives than laterborns. However, middleborns gave more to their male friends than both firstborns and lastborns. We conclude that the results are consistent with theories of kin selection, reciprocity, sex differences and birth order effects. Keywords: gift giving, kin selection,......

Words: 10449 - Pages: 42

Free Essay

Ma Dissertation

...Selena Anguiano The Benefits of U.S. Individual Giving for England’s Arts (Case Study) August 2008 Presented to City University (as required) for the diploma: MA-Culture, Policy and Management The Benefits of U.S. Individual Giving for England's Arts (Case Study) Anguiano, S. Table of Contents.………………………………………………………….….. 1 Tables ………………...……………………………………………………….... 2 Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………... 3 Acknowledgements……………………………………………………………... 4 Declaration……………………………………………………………………… 5 Disclaimer………………………………………………………………………. 6 Abstract…………………………………………………………………………. 7 Chapter 1- Introduction…………………………………………………………. 8 1.1 Literature Review………………………………………………….. 11 1.2 Fundraising/Philanthropy Experts…………………………………. 12 1.3 Additional Material………………………………………………… 13 Chapter 2- Methodology……………………………………………………….. 14 2.1 Books and Reports 2.1.a Research Questions 2.2 Interviews…………………………………………………………... 15 2.3 Desk Research……………………………………………………… 19 Chapter 3- Research……………………………………………………………. 20 3.1 Philanthropy-A Very Brief Start 3.1.a-U.S.-Avoiding Triviality and Inadequacies of the Federal Government 3.1.b- England-Strategic Beginnings Give Birth to a State of Reticence………………………………………………… 22 3.2 Current Motivations for Individual Giving in the U.S. and England...24 3.2.a Non-profit Individual Giving Percentages…………………. 27 3.3 Deterrents to Individual Giving in England………………………….. 28 3.4 Case Study Interviews:………………………………………………. 30 3.4.a-„Suck......

Words: 17672 - Pages: 71

Premium Essay

Business Research

...Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 1 RES/351 Business Research August 13, 2014 Understanding Business Research Terms and Concepts: Part 1 It is important to understand business research terms and concepts when conducting research. Having an unclear understanding of the terms and concepts could lead to ineffective research results. Having good measurement tools in place can be used as an indicator for measuring accuracy. Tools that are put in place to measure accuracy are evaluated using three key criteria, validity, reliability, and practicality. Validity is the main concern of the research. Reliability deals with the quality of measurement. Practicality is concerned with factors of economy, interpretability and convenience. In this paper, I have chosen two articles and will identify, compare, and contrast the two approaches, qualitative and quantitative, used by the researcher. In the first article titled, “Research in the News: Practicality trumps desirability in gift giving”, the researchers use a qualitative approach. The strength of this approach was that the studies were conducted face to face in a classroom which allowed the study capture the actual emotions, feelings, and opinions of the individuals being surveyed. Using a combined approach in this study would enhance the results by adding in statistical measures, which will be obtained through the quantitative design. The appropriate method for this research study was the......

Words: 468 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Sales Promotion

...promotional mix. The methods used have become more sophisticated and an increasing number of companies are realizing the importance of a well structured promotion strategy. The purpose of this thesis is to provide a better understanding on how sales promotion is used in B2B setting. In order to reach this purpose, research questions focusing on the objectives of sales promotion, as well as which sales promotion tools that were used were stated. Based on these research questions, a review of the relevant literature was conducted, resulting in a conceptual framework, which was used to guide this study's data collection. A qualitative, case study approach was used, using interviewing at an industrial company in Sweden as the primary data collection tool. The findings indicate that, although the individual objectives of the tools can be different they can still be used overall to lead to the same overall goal. It was also found that the focus is not always on using sales promotion tools to generate sales, but to improve relationships. As for the tools used, it was found that there are commonly used sales promotional tools in B2B settings. More specifically, gift giving can be deemed inappropriate in certain contexts and should be used carefully. Table of Contents TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 1 1.1......

Words: 15132 - Pages: 61

Free Essay

Mayo Clinic 1910. He took the view that it would be foolish for a single practitioner to assume he or she had sufficient knowledge of medicine. He maintained that it is in the best interest of the patient to have practitioners join forces and coordinate care (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research [MFMER], n.d.-a.) Patients realized the benefits of a team of medical experts, so patients travelled long distances for diagnosis and treatment. The Mayo Clinic website states that the "group practice concept that the Mayo family originated has influenced the structure and function of medical practice throughout the world" (MFMER, n.d.-b). According to the website, the Mayo Clinic has grown from three physicians (father and two sons) to over 55,000 staff at locations in the Midwest, Arizona, and Florida. The Mayo Clinic is most famous for its implementation of an "integrated, multi-specialty, group practice" (MFMER, n.d.-c). Mayo Clinic Community Service Reflects Mission and Values According to the Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (n.d.), Mayo Clinic's mission is to "provide the best care to every patient through integrated clinical practice, education and research." The Mayo Clinic's values involve positive and forward looking statements regarding respect, compassion, integrity, healing, teamwork, excellence, innovation, and stewardship (MFMER, n.d.-d). The Mayo brothers set the precedent for their future staff in visiting other hospitals around the......

Words: 1959 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

The Reasons for and Solutions to the Bribery Issues Among Chinese Companies

... In September 2013, a former Politburo member, Xilai Bo, was sentenced to life imprisonment for embezzlement, bribery and abuse of power. With millions of dollars of bribery money, this Chinese communist leader got the punishment of spending the rest of his life in prison, and also brought influential stress and trust problem in China (The Economist, 2013). This incidence also have drawn international’s attention, with such negative reputation a question mark has been put on China’s trust worship, consequently is also weakening of China’s international position and power. Corruption has always been a worldwide focus, with bribery one of the leading problems existing in the contemporary world. Bribery is legally defined as “The offering, giving, receiving of something of value for the purpose of influencing the action of an official in the discharge of his or her public or legal duties” (U.S Office Of Government Ethics). Bribery in deed has helped tons of people achieve their goals in almost every aspect of people’s life: Kids can be permitted to good schools; companies can get privileges in trades; unqualified candidates can be selected for competitive positions. Bribery has brought the society unfairness, and cause disorder in socials reflecting in wealth gap and power distances. The uprising country China, specifically, is one of the world’s leading highly corrupted country. Not only within nation boarders, bribery also happens in the international trade. Many major......

Words: 4256 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

What Is Spiritual Formation .. .

...Life Coaching Spiritual Formation: What Does It Mean? Liberty University Abstract This research paper will give a brief examination of the history and development of life coaching in general, and then it will look towards the niche coaching specialty of spiritual formation. This writer will endeavor to answer the question, “Spiritual formation: what does it mean?” There will be discussion around this topic as it is examined from several perspectives and worldviews. It will include an brief overview of secular, non-religious, and non-Christian religious worldviews. Judeo-Christian worldviews will be discussed highlighting biblical aspects with regard to spiritual formation and how it may fit with a life coach who is familiar and skilled with this specialty niche. From this vein of information the reader should be well able to extrapolate a clear view of not only what spiritual formation is or can be and how its development is a personal journey. Additionally, the reader should have gained a good understanding of how the journey can be assisted with the help of a like-minded life coach. Introduction Historical Overview of Life Coaching This overview looks at events that began in the 1980’s. Thomas Leonard was a professional financial planner, whose many clients asked for his help with other life issues they were experiencing. After dealing with these client matters for a time, Leonard chose to close his financial planning business and become a full-time......

Words: 2509 - Pages: 11