Free Essay

Global Positioning Sytem

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By kokonub
Words 2628
Pages 11
Tunku Abdul Rahman College

ATGE 5053 Engineer in Society
Individual Assignment 2013
Advanced Diploma in Technology (Electronic Engineering)

Name : Chong Sai King
ID : 11WTA10497
Group : A

Objectives a. To study on the underlying knowledge used in the development of the GPS and how and why the GPS was developed.

b. To research on the use of the GPS including the profile and type of user, the purpose it is used for and the developments together with new knowledge created through the use of GPS.

Problem statement
In this developed society, it is obvious that mankind has arrived at yet another golden era with rapidly advancing technology. The 21st century has appeared that human are at busiest to compete to gain wealth by exploiting all possible resources. However, busy lifestyle has caused issues such as traffic congestion. Time always appears to be a resource easily hit scarcity. This era where information is the riches has invoked the demand of mankind on a tool to navigate so that time will not be wasted when they are lost in traffic. Therefore a tool to guide direction is developed and introduced to the society.

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is selected as the tool in this assignment. Though GPS appears to be a common tool in the society, not everyone understands the process of development gone through by GPS. Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities to military, civil and commercial users around the world. It is maintained by the United States government and is freely accessible to anyone with a GPS receiver.

Development of GPS

Why the GPS was developed?
In the early 1940s, the design of GPS is based partly on similar ground-based radio-navigation systems developed, and used during World War II.

Its aim was to provide global coverage of services to the US military which includes position, altitude, time and global detection of thermonuclear detonations.

There are two main GPS signals, a low accuracy one that is easy to pick up and a higher accuracy one that requires rough location information and the time in order to pick up.

The high accuracy signal is broadcast on two different frequencies and is encrypted. It can still only be decoded by military GPS systems although some professional civilian systems detect it and make use of it without actually understanding the data being transmitted.

How the GPS was developed?
The first satellite navigation system, Transit, used by the United States Navy, was first successfully tested in 1960. It used a constellation of five satellites and could provide a navigational fix approximately once per hour. In 1967, the U.S. Navy developed the Timation satellite that proved the ability to place accurate clocks in space, a technology required by GPS. In the 1970s, the ground-based Omega Navigation System, based on phase comparison of signal transmission from pairs of stations, became the first worldwide radio navigation system. Limitations of these systems drove the need for a more universal navigation solution with greater accuracy [1].

While there were wide needs for accurate navigation in military and civilian sectors, almost none of those were seen as justification for the billions of dollars it would cost in research, development, deployment, and operation for a constellation of navigation satellites. During the Cold War arms race, the nuclear threat to the existence of the United States was the one need that did justify this cost in the view of the United States Congress. This deterrent effect is why GPS was funded. It is also the reason for the ultra-secrecy at that time. The nuclear triad consisted of the United States Navy's submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) along with United States Air Force (USAF) strategic bombers and intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). Considered vital to the nuclear deterrence posture, accurate determination of the SLBM launch position was a force multiplier.

In 1964, the United States Army orbited its first Sequential Collation of Range (SECOR) satellite used for geodetic surveying. The SECOR system included three ground-based transmitters from known locations that would send signals to the satellite transponder in orbit. A fourth ground-based station at an undetermined position could then use those signals to fix its location precisely. The last SECOR satellite was launched in 1969. GPS can be thought of as an evolution of the SECOR system where the ground-based transmitters have been migrated into orbit [2].

By integrating ideas from predecessors, the GPS project was developed in 1973 to overcome the limitations of previous navigation systems, including a number of classified engineering design studies from the 1960s. GPS was created and realized by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and was originally run with 24 satellites at the cost of twelve billion taxpayer dollars. It became fully operational in 1994. Roger L. Easton is generally credited as its inventor.

Satellites in each of three orbital planes spaced 120º apart, and their ground stations, formed the original GPS. GPS uses these satellites as reference points to calculate geographical positions, accurate to a matter of meters.

Underlying knowledge used in development of GPS
The GPS consists of three major segments. These are the space segment, a control segment, and a user segment. The U.S. Air Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments. GPS satellites broadcast signals from space, and each GPS receiver uses these signals to calculate its three-dimensional location (latitude, longitude, and altitude) and the current time.
The space segment is composed of 24 to 32 satellites in medium Earth orbit and also includes the payload adapters to the boosters required to launch them into orbit. The control segment is composed of a master control station, an alternate master control station, and a host of dedicated and shared ground antennas and monitor stations. The user segment is composed of hundreds of thousands of U.S. and allied military users of the secure GPS Precise Positioning Service, and tens of millions of civil, commercial, and scientific users of the Standard Positioning Service.
The GPS receiver uses the messages it receives to determine the transit time of each message and computes the distance to each satellite using the speed of light. Each of these distances and satellites' locations define a sphere. The receiver is on the surface of each of these spheres when the distances and the satellites' locations are correct. These distances and satellites' locations are used to compute the location of the receiver using the navigation equations. This location is then displayed with a moving map display or latitude and longitude; elevation information may be included.
In typical GPS operation, four or more satellites must be visible to obtain an accurate result. Four sphere surfaces typically do not intersect. Therefore, it gives us the position of the receiver along with accurate time thereby eliminating the need for a very large, expensive, and power hungry clock. The very accurately computed time is used only for display or not at all in many GPS applications, which use only the location. A number of applications for GPS do make use of this cheap and highly accurate timing. These include time transfer, traffic signal timing, and synchronization of cell phone base stations.
Although four satellites are required for normal operation, fewer apply in special cases. If one variable is already known, a receiver can determine its position using only three satellites. For example, a ship or aircraft may have known elevation. Some GPS receivers may use additional clues or assumptions such as reusing the last known altitude, dead reckoning, inertial navigation, or including information from the vehicle computer, to give a position when fewer than four satellites are visible.
The usage, type of user and contributions of GPS
Car drivers use in-vehicle portable GPS devices to follow a route, find detours around traffic problems and with additional software receive traffic alerts and warnings on safety camera locations.
Pilots and captains use GPS devices to pinpoint their speed and position on air or sea with incredible accuracy.
Hikers and ramblers can use GPS receivers to ensure they are following their chosen route and to mark rendezvous points along the way.
Search and rescue teams at sea can use GPS to find their way to an incident quicker, to pinpoint the location of accidents and allow follow-up staff to find the scene quickly. This is particularly useful for and in extreme weather conditions on land where time can be a matter of life or death.
Scientists and engineers also have applications for GPS receivers, in scientific experiments, and in monitoring geological activity such as earth tremors, earthquakes and volcanic rumblings. They can use strategically positioned GPS devices to assist them in tracking climate change and other phenomena.
GPS is implemented in tracking individuals who are likely to wander and stray to being lost. Children and elders can be equipped with GPS devices. The satellite is able to pick up the signal and acquire the coordinate of their positions from the signal emitted by the device. Parents are able to keep track of the location of their children and prevent elders with Alzheimer’s disease from being lost.

New knowledge created through the use of GPS
The invention of GPS has created the new knowledge regarding to the issue of radio wave signal degradation. Realizing the knowledge, developers start to pay attention on improving the accuracy and reliability of GPS. There are various factors contributing to radio signal deterioration and developers are currently utilizing all possible existing knowledge for counterfeiting.
Atmospheric effect which is caused by the change in atmospheric condition can affect GPS radio signals as signals travel through the thick layer of the atmosphere. Both ionosphere and troposphere can leave little or more impact on the speed of the radio signals. Dual frequency measurement by comparing the two frequencies can reduce the error and also define a precise location of the receiver.
Multipath effect occurs when signals are get reflected or bounced by coming in contact with surrounding hills, buildings or any kind of hard core object before it reaches the receiver. Thus, increase in travel time of signals cause error. However, with the help of the technique named narrow collector spacing the receiver recognizes the long delay signals and does not take into account while calculating the precise time and location. Also there are some specialized antennas are used to measure the exact data from the signals that are slightly deviated or delayed. But it’s a bit difficult as the fluctuation is very little in atmospheric delay.
At times, the receiver enabled with a clock that is not as accurate as the atomic clock in satellite and so produces a little timing error.
Orbital error occurs when the satellite’s orbital location is calculated wrongly. As the right location of the satellites position in the orbit is essential, even a small error can leave a large difference as far as accuracy is concerned.
Satellite geometry is the exact position of the satellite at a given period of time. Ideally when satellites are located in wide angles from each other, it becomes easy to measure distance. However, poor satellite geometry occurs when they are in a line or in a tight grouping.
Artificial degradation of the satellite signal occurs when there is a limitation on the propagation of radio signal. The Department of Defense of US recently restricted certain highly accurate GPS signals (military related) from public use as these can be misused and so intentionally degraded. This is called Selective Availability (SA) in which kinds of intentional errors like creating noise in the satellite clock or transmitting some false orbital data to the satellite that can come back to the receiver at the ground. However, receivers of Defense Department have the capability of rectifying those errors [3].
Moreover, the developers realized an important issue from the invention of the GPS. GPS is developed into handheld device, mobile phones, integrated in automobiles and everywhere except underground and indoors. As GPS signals cannot penetrate into the ground it cannot be used in caves or mines. It is found that metals and concretes reduce or even block the propagation of radio waves which is used to transmit the GPS signal from the satellite. This new knowledge on the flaw of satellite has become a motivating factor for developers to create new technology. A Swiss company found a smart solution to this problem and presents now the first Underground GPS. It's now even possible to follow a caver in real time.
The newly developed system consists of a mobile emitter located underground, and four receivers at fixed positions on the surface determined by GPS, a radio link between the receivers and a computer with custom software to analyze and visualize the signals. The receivers are placed on the surface, roughly on top of the underground passage to be measured. They are automatically self-located using GPS. The underground transmitter sends a signal that is detected by the receivers located at the surface. The computer then calculates the exact position and visualises it, making it possible to follow the moving object in real time covering a surface of 300 m x 300 m without the need to move the surface receivers. This design enables the positioning system to be used underground.

The technology of the Global Positioning System is allowing for huge changes in society. The applications using GPS are constantly growing. The cost of the receivers is dropping while at the same time the accuracy of the system is improving. Even though the system was originally developed for military purposes, civil sales now exceed military sales. The GPS is gradually becoming popular in the society for its benefits to mankind.

In order to perfect the applications of GPS in the society, it is now undergoing development to become more reliable and accurate measurements, less costly to corporations. The error removing equipment will no longer be needed with more affordable and accessible to consumers. This would be a greater incentive for the development of new uses.

GPS is a fantastic tool of the 21st century offering many functions. The future of GPS appears to be virtually unlimited; technological fantasies abound. The system provides a novel, unique, and instantly available address for every square yard on the surface of the planet–a new international standard for locations and distances. To the computers of the world, at least, our locations may be defined not by a street address, a city, and a state, but by a longitude and latitude. With the GPS location of services stored with phone numbers in computerized indices, the search for a local restaurant or the nearest gas station in any city, town, or suburb will be completed in an instant. With GPS, the world has been given a technology of unbounded promise, born in the laboratories of scientists who were motivated by their own curiosity to probe the nature of the universe and our world, and built on the fruits of publicly supported basic research.


[1]. Bright Hub (2010) Who Invented the GPS? The Minds Behind the Invention of GPS. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 21 Feb 2013].

[2]. Bellis, M. (1912) History of the Global Positioning System - GPS. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 21 Feb 2013].

[3]. (2008) Factors responsible for GPS signal errors. [online] Available at: [Accessed: 21 Feb 2013].

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Spectrum Management and the Global Positioning System; a Case Study in Interagency Coordination

...Global Positioning Sytem Objectives   a. To study on the underlying knowledge used in the development of the GPS and how and why the GPS was developed. b. To research on the use of the GPS including the profile and type of user, the purpose it is used for and the developments together with new knowledge created through the use of GPS. Problem statement In this developed society, it is obvious that mankind has arrived at yet another golden era with rapidly advancing technology. The 21st century has appeared that human are at busiest to compete to gain wealth by exploiting all possible resources. However, busy lifestyle has caused issues such as traffic congestion. Time always appears to be a resource easily hit scarcity. This era where information is the riches has invoked the demand of mankind on a tool to navigate so that time will not be wasted when they are lost in traffic. Therefore a tool to guide direction is developed and introduced to the society. Introduction The Global Positioning System (GPS) is selected as the tool in this assignment. Though GPS appears to be a common tool in the society, not everyone understands the process of development gone through by GPS. Global Positioning System is a space-based satellite navigation system that provides location and time information in all weather conditions, anywhere on or near the Earth where there is an unobstructed line of sight to four or more GPS satellites. The system provides critical capabilities......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Our Dependence on Computers Is Detrimental

...Modern Computer Systems are Detrimental to our Human Instincts Lenny Miller Post University Dependence on Modern Computer Systems is Detrimental to our Human Instincts With every year that passes, we are becoming increasingly dependent on computers. From the first punch card readers to the iphone 5, computers have had a profound and sustaining effect on humanity. Since computers were first used in the medical field in the early 1960’s, specifically in bio-engineering, the lifespan of the average American has gone up 9.6 years. Computers have essentially shrunk the size of the earth as we know it by aiding us in travel, navigation, communication, and networking. Long gone are the days of months-long voyages and correspondence by pen and paper, taken by ship or horseback. The amount of information made available by computers is vast and practically unending. For these reasons and more, it’s hard to discount the positive impact computers have had on society. However, over-looked in all the praise of computers is the fact that they have eroded our ability to function independently. From math abilities to social skills and the ability to navigate from point A to point B, the negative aspects of computers are starting to outweigh the benefits. Our dependence on modern computer systems is detrimental to our human instincts. How many times in your adult life have you been faced with a fairly simple mathematical equation, such as figuring out a 20% tip on a $50......

Words: 959 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Autonation: Now Offering Navigational Service Plans and Agreements

...AutoNation: Now Offering Navigational Service Plans and Agreements Cornelius L Davis (D01407581) Keller Graduate School of Business University Marketing Management MM522 Professor Lynn Szostek 09/11/2011 AutoNation: Now Offering Navigational Service Plans and Agreements Executive Summary AutoNation hired our firm, Cornel’s Strategic Marketing Incorporation to develop a marketing plan to sell global positioning systems (GPS) and offer an additional service program to service GPS systems. Cornel’s Strategic Marketing Incorporation has been in business since 1956 and has provided marketing plans to all types of businesses with great success. The following market plan sets the foundation to a successful project deployment. AutoNation is the top automotive retail industry with a strong brand name. Applying a new service for GPS systems will enhance the operation and provide an extra service to its customers. The additional service is in-line with AutoNations mission objectives. The GPS system is a hot commodity that gives customers an additional feature and benefit. Establishing a partnership with the top GPS manufacturers (TomTom, Garmin, and Magellan) increases the success rate of the marketing plan. Then the additional servicing programs of extended warranty, replacement program, upgrade program, installation, and set-up gives an added incentive with competitive pricing. Strategic development of the plan identified strengths and weaknesses. The strengths are......

Words: 6006 - Pages: 25

Free Essay

Comprehensive Detection Train

...power supply, communication, signal and surrounding environment. It’s a EMU with positioning synchronization, high-capacity data transmission and analytical processing functions. The basic duty of the comprehensive detection train is tour moving fault detection on tracks. Combination positioning methods of train is an important way to improve the reliability of train positioning and accuracy of the point of failure. The multi-sensor information synchronization is an important reason affecting the positioning accuracy. In order to ensure its correction and effectiveness of combination-location information fusion algorithm,as well as to compare and evaluate different fusion algorithms, research on the pretreatment method of the multi-sensor information is necessary. This paper takes the example of resonant voltage measurement with high reliability as the test program of compensation capacitor. To improve the extent of the precise location in point of failure as well as to improve the continuity and real-time of data feedback, finally this paper selects the GPS / DR / MM combination- orientation program to provide positioning information for the dynamic detection system, by comparing a variety of positioning systems. In order to get the most accurate output data, the paper use the adaptive federated Kalman filter algorithm to do the multi-sensor data fusion. Then the paper exchanges the positioning subsystem data and test subsystem data through Ethernet. Using the method of......

Words: 466 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Cemex: a Digital Firm in the Making

...Solution: Window on Organizations: Cemex: A Digital Firm in the Making Cemex, a world-leading global cement and construction materials firm, has achieved impressive results through ruthless focus on operational excellence.  Management took an enterprise-wide view of its business processes and developed a series of information systems to turn the company into a lean, efficient, agile machine that could instantly respond to changes in customer orders, weather, and other last-minute events. How did digital technology transform the way Cemex ran its business? Digital technology transformed the way Cemex ran its business in a variety of ways. Prior to all of this new technology, Cemex was much more manual and was run reactively by responding to phone calls, resulting in inefficiencies and slow service.  The new systems now enables the company to run proactively.  For example, they have  developed a series of systems that assist them in managing unforecastable demand better than its competitors.  The new system links Cemex delivery trucks to a Global Positioning System satellite to help dispatchers monitor the location, direction, and speed of every vehicle.  This information helps Cemex to send the right truck to deliver a specific grade of cement or redirect deliveries when prompted by last-minute changes.  The company has reduced average delivery time from three hours to 20 minutes, realizing huge savings in fuel, maintenance, and personnel costs. Cemex uses 35 percent fewer......

Words: 620 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay


...segments each brand is appealing to. 2. Why are the following segmentation approaches not successful? a). Segmenting a market on the basis of personality should be based on behaviour b). Advertising Ski boards in Time Magazine. Should be advertised in a travelling magazine c). Developing an insurance plan for all quadruplets born in Hong Kong. Should be developing for all new borns – not just quad 3. Under what circumstances and for what types of products should a marketer segment the market on the basis of: (a) awareness status? (b) brand loyalty? (c) user-situation? (d) a hybrid form? 4. Specify the innate and /or acquired needs that would be useful bases for developing promotional strategies for (a) Global Positioning Systems in Cars (b) Sunglasses that can be customised online (c) A new version of iPhone (d) recruiting university students to...

Words: 304 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Week 5 Mkt 431 - Final Team Paper

...Marketing the GPS Business MKT/431 January 14, 2013 Marketing the GPS Business In marketing a business of any kind first a company or individual business owner selects a service or product they will endorse. With choosing the product, such as the GPS as Team D has chosen a pricing strategy is chosen such as competitive with others already in the market. Developing a relationship with marketing, advertising, and promotions is necessary for a successful business also the technology in marketing the GPS. Distribution Channel An appropriate distribution channel for the GPS unit would be to sell the units wholesale to one or more retail outlets, such as Best Buy (Best Buy, 2013) or Frys ( Selling the units directly to the national retailers on a mass scale will enable the company to keep the product pricing steady from one region or location to the next. The company will likely still have to handle the logistics of delivering the units to each individual store location across the nation, or internationally, if possible, unless the retail businesses that will be selling the units to the consumers have central warehouses for his or her own distribution. Pricing An effective pricing strategy for the GPS unit would be to sell them wholesale to the retailers for an amount slightly lower than the suggested retail price, which should be between $99 and $129. So the idea is to sell the units to......

Words: 1310 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Consumer Behavior

...factor is needed here because soups are a family thing. For example: the Knor soups have targeted the families for this with the Motto of “Taste bhi health bhi” Cell phones: Psychographic factor required here for people who have technology interests, those people who want to be up to date in their social network. For example: the new nokia lumia series have targeted the people who want to be up to date with their social networks. Designer sunglasses: Personality traits factor, for example Ray ban introduced their Way farers and targeted the high lifestyle people, actors, film makers, and singers. Specify both innate and acquired needs that would be useful bases for developing Promotional strategies for: 1. Global positioning systems (GPS) 2. Sunglasses that can be customized online 3. A new version of the iPhone Let’s take the (GPS) first: For never getting lost, best technology for travelers who often visit new places, social needs, this can classified in both innate and acquired need. Sunglasses that...

Words: 443 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Movility in Vivo

...Title : Mobility in vivo Introduction & Background of Study The seminar “mobility in vivo” was represented by Barry Brown. Brown described the meaning of vivo as “life” and related this to the use of mobile devices in everyday life. He also defined “mobility” as settings where people are mobile. This seminar discussed studies which were carried out in order to collect video data to gain new insight into the use of mobile computing devices. 1 There are several ways of collecting data such as software that monitors what other applications are being used, as well as experience sampling where application asks the user about their current activity. However these techniques result in a broad measurement and do not provide data in depth. Brown decided to take another approach by installing cameras to monitor users interaction with device. There were two studies in different settings. The first study consisted of 13 trips where the drivers interaction with GPS devices was monitored. Second study looks at how people use their smart phones to navigate and perform search as well as the role that mobile devices play in conversations. Summary In the first video, the driver follows the instructions issued by GPS, however during a turn, a passenger is crossing the street so she stops but GPS updates the current instruction with the next instruction. This doesn’t cause any problem because the driver knows when to stop and therefore don’t follow the GPS blindly. In this......

Words: 805 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Gps Business Opportunity Memo

...treats in their perspective marketplace. Team D will describe the result of a competitive analysis for our GPS system, the NAVSTAR. We will explain the characteristics of the market niche to which the product will be targeted. Provide recommendation of our brands characteristics to support the GPS’s value. Specify the overall value proposition and recommend unique product characteristics that will appeal to our targeted market niche. Competitive Analysis With technology increasing everyday many people are using some type of GPS tracking system whether they know it or not. Global Positioning System was created originally for the military to use during maneuvers. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System is the preferred usage with the military because of the reliability of the PNT (positioning, navigation, and timing). Military use Precise Positioning Service signal for more accuracy of the Standard Positioning Service (Dana J. Johnson, 2006 p. 3) since 1950’s until present.   Civilians currently have access to GPS navigation systems such as OnStar through their automobiles. Also “aviations, highway construction, public transportation, railroads, communications, surveying teams use GPS’s, even law enforcement, firefighters, and other emergency personnel” (Monograph Reports-GPS p. 97). People even use the GPS for tracking their progress with weight loss or their teenagers locations or elderly.            Market Niche With some people they would rather remain...

Words: 1145 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Technology Latest

...------------------------------------------------- 1. Using any object of your choice, identify and analyse the following: a. Function(s) b. Components c. Incremental innovations Outline what you consider to be the rationale behind ONE recent incremental innovation. Object: Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation device: a) Function: A GPS navigation device extracts information using signals from global positioning system to determine its position on earth. These devices provide information on altitude, longitude and latitude of a location. GPS navigation systems are used in military, aircrafts, ships and various transport means such as buses and cars. b) Components of a GPS device: - Antenna - Oscillators - Micro-processors - Power supply - Display and user interface - Data storage c) Incremental innovations GPS devices for cars GPS devices for cars GPS devices for military GPS devices for military GPS devices in Aircraft navigation GPS devices in Aircraft navigation Mobile phones with GPS technology Mobile phones with GPS technology GPS devices for ships navigation GPS devices for ships navigation Watches / straps with GPS navigation Watches / straps with GPS navigation Recent incremental innovation: Wrist straps / watches with GPS technology * Rationale: Basic idea behind this innovation is to create a new market of GPS devices for sports personnel / sports industry. Using these......

Words: 647 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Pestel Analysis Royal Enfield

.... PESTLE analysis of the motor bikes industry in UK PESTLE analysis{Palmer Clive }of motorbike industry sector investigates the important factors that are affecting the industry and influencing the companies operating in that sector. It is also perfect tools for mangers and policy makers of motorbike industry,helping them to analyzing the factors which are affecting while driving their industry to different countries of the world. Throughout the last few year,the acronym PESTLE has been suffering a numbers of changes,but it seem to be the most important factor which is helpful for decision-makers of royal-Enfield to analysis the current situation of the that country where industry expands.There are six factors which are influencing PESTLE analysis. Political factors include areas such as taxation policy, law labor of law,transportation problems and stable political environment. Furthermore, governments have great influence proposal that limit number of motorcycles being sold in the country because Indian currency changes everyday with the comparison of UK pounds.The changes of currency means the changes of price of products and demand of product like royal Enfield are also changes which means recession are enter into the market so UK government take some steps to solved the this problem.Royal Enfield sales would affect by this issue.Furthermore UK consumers pay higher pre-tax prices for Motorbikes than anyone else in the Europe.Government is keen to attract foreign......

Words: 619 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Communicationand Networks

...Communication and Networks Part 1 - Communication - what it is and its uses Revision 2: Feb 2016 From the video “How the Internet works” 1. What the Internet is 2. How data is sent over the Internet 3. How every device on the Internet has a unique identifier And if all the above seems foreign to you… Please watch the video “How the Internet works” In this video…. 1. We will define what computer communication is 2. We will look at some of the uses of communication a) b) c) d) Wireless messaging services Collaboration Global Positioning Systems Wireless Internet Access Computer Communications A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information. Computer Communications A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information. Sending Device Communication Channel Receiving Device Computer Communications A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information. Device that connects the sending device Sending Device to the communication channel Communication Channel Device that connects the Receiving receiving device Device to the communication channel Computer Communications A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions and information. Sending AND Receiving Sending Receiving Device Device Device that connects the sending......

Words: 460 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Gps Shoes

...BIN ZULKIFLI (IS 093068) NOR HANIS AMANINA BTE ABDULLAH (IS 093405) FELA MEXLIYANTI BT ALIMOHTAR (IS 093401) ITHA IZATI BTE HASHIM (IS 091399) 1. DESCRIPTION OF GPS SHOES Figure 1: designer GPS shoes, Dominic Wilcox British designer Dominic Wilcox has created a pair of prototype shoes which offer to guide the wearer home with built-in GPS navigation. The inspiration for the clever footwear derives from The Wizard of Oz character Dorothy’s red shoes, which famously transported her home with a click of her heels. Naturally, the GPS system within Wilcox’s shoes is also activated by clicking the heels together. Figure 2: GPS shoes designed by dominicwilcox The shoes, named No Place Like Home, were commissioned by the Global Footprint project in Northamptonshire, which seeks to highlight the county's rich history of shoe making. In order to construct his design, Wilcox teamed up with interactive arts and technology expert Becky Stewart and Northamptonshire shoe maker Stamp Shoes. A GPS unit contained within the heel of the left shoe communicates wirelessly with the right shoe and provides data to the integrated LED lights, which display both the correct direction home, and how much of the journey still remains. A new home destination can be added via USB connection to a computer running purpose-made mapping software, while a magnet in the right shoe and a sensor in the left detect when the heels are clicked together. The internal hardware is controlled by......

Words: 1256 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Darpa Challenge

...Unit 1 Assignment1: DARPA Challenge 1. How would you define this problem? What are the major problem components, and what obstacles do you foresee? -Finding a way to operate through an unknown course with no interaction by the builders. Weather, equipment failure and unknown terrain changes could all become obstacles that will hinder the ability to finish the race on time. 2. How fast do you need to go to complete the course in the allotted time? -An average speed of 17.5 MPH would be acceptable. Top speed should be somewhere around 50 MPH if conditions are good enough to do so. 3. What is the fallacy of considering the above average speed – what do you need to consider? -Exceeding above a nice steady speed of 17.5 MPH places more risks with unknown weather and road conditions. You would need to consider the forecast for the day and road conditions to match. 4. What strategies can you use to avoid obstacles -Radar, GPS, cameras to detect obstacles around the vehicle and Ladar. 5. What are some disadvantages of the route information you receive, in terms of the vehicle driving the route? -Not knowing the distance between 1 GPS location and the other, and not knowing if the coordinates given are going in a straight path or curving off to one side or the other. 6. What strategies can you use to prepare your vehicle for the route once you receive the information? -If possible the best thing to do would be to try and pre-determine what path the vehicle is......

Words: 322 - Pages: 2