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Globalisation

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This paper focuses on highlighting how the processes of globalization have changed the experiences of growing up and being educated in for the adolescent children aged 12 to 15 in Australia. Globalization is the process by which organizations and businesses establish international relations through the exchange of world business views and ideas, culture and products with other nations of the world. These businesses and organizations then start to operate and trade on an international scale. Globalization can be attributed to advances in the industrial sector, changes in the transportation and telecommunication systems, infrastructural changes, and the rise in the internet culture and development. The interplay of these forces in politics, religion and economies influence the economic trends of each country. Some of the social effects of globalization to the world economy include: poverty reduction due to increase in the wages and employment rate in the participative developing countries, improved healthcare provision due to the registered decline in the maternal and infant mortality rates, the provision of better educational standards, in line with the global millennium developmental goals. However globalization has also been viewed as a key in increasing the unemployment rates in the third world countries due to massive sacking of workers, high poverty rates and low income generation among the working populace, poor education and health policies that do not support the growth of the economy. The young people are considered as the major parameter of determining a country’s economic and social progress. The state of the youth in a country highlights the country’s economic trends and prowess. In Australia, the effects of globalization are felt far and wide in the country and deeply affect the day to day social affairs of the citizens of Australia. These far-reaching effects have spilled over to the younger generation especially in the ICT sector. Advances in the ICT world have compelled more and more young people to embrace the economic changes in the wave of economic development. Young people are constantly pursuing to develop a sense of identity in an essentially insecure world, which intensifies their insecurities owing to the poor economic instabilities and control (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). Many young people are afraid of being termed local in a constantly globalizing world. Young people term being local as a form of social deprivation and degradation. The paradigm shift from establishing places of social congregation away from the localities, has greatly contributed to the growth of this perception among the youth. Thus globalization is considered as a form of social segregation. This is so since the local scenes are constantly surcharged with providing the young clientele with fresh sense generating entertainment to satisfy their interests. These interests are constantly changing to match with the international economic trends. This has given rise to different social classes among the youth based on the international disparities that do not close the gap between the global elite and the localized youth mainstream (Bendit & Hahn, 2008). Young people actively react to the effects of globalization rather than actively negotiate to the changes brought about by globalization. The prime challenges posed by globalization are to promote solid, diverse and sustainable relations between the communities in the face of economic shifts with regard to meeting the needs of the parties involved. Globalization should happen at a considerable pace in order to engage all the key players without losing the importance of the local scene. Hence it should consider the varying environmental spaces and areas of political authority without losing their basis of propelling economic growth (Black, 2008 and Goodwin, 2007). The youth have different innate perceptions with regard to the different experiences they face and the interpretations they have these experiences make globalization a complex challenging issue to fully decipher. The different social interpretations by the youth to globalization are vital in analyzing the different youth experiences. This makes it hard to clearly give an overall objective assessment on the current impasse the youth face in the rapidly globalizing world. The common myth is that the young people are passive vulnerable victims of circumstances with little say on the day to day changes (Black, 2008). The young people of Australia are faced with the economic challenge of a weak manufacturing industry. The exports supersede the level of imported goods that the growing population demands. A lot of concerted efforts from the major players, the government and the society, have to come into play in order to revive the manufacturing industry and generate enough revenue to cater for these growing demands. The industry holds the keys to the growth of the Australian economy. The imposition of a mix of trade tariff quotas and currency control has marred the protected manufacturing industrial sector in Australia. The posterity of the future for the Australian children lies in the revival of the export base of the Australian government (Bendit & Hahn, 2008). The Australian manufacturing industry has never been internationally competitive except in rare cases. Less than 10% of the goods found on the Australian shelves are imports of goods manufactured from other countries. This is a clear indication that the Australian manufacturing industry is in dire need of a revamp as the citizens prefer and perceive that the imports are of better quality than those manufactured in their own country. The strong protection of the manufacturing industry was meant to popularize the locally manufactured products (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). However the seclution from diplomatic trade relations with other countries like the European Union has served to the development of lower quality products in Australia which do not fully meet the needs of the masses effectively. The citizens have thus resulted to relying on imports to supplement for this discrepancy in the industry, leading to the collapse of the once vibrant Australian manufacturing industry (Dolby and Rizvi, 2008). Products from other countries seem to be of superior quality as compared to those manufactured in Australia. The government laws and tariff charges on the businesses run in Australia has suppressed economic growth in the country. Rational economists argue that the protection of the manufacturing industry is less beneficial to the masses since it introduces fallacy in part to the governance which constitutes of public officials. These officials are poorly trained yet are surcharged with making sensitive economic decisions. This may as well encourage corruption and inefficiency in the manufacturing industry ( Bendit & Hahn, 2008). On the other hand, reasonable protection of the manufacturing industry allows the restoration of a sound industrial base which will serve to help in the manufacture of goods and services favorable to the home market. Reasonable protection of the manufacturing industry will allow for the growth and eventual opening of the markets to international trade and competition. This will in turn give rise to young and vibrant individuals who will be able to propel their views on international trade while establishing new technologies as they exchange ideas with their peers from other nations (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). The restriction of entry of the foreign goods shall also help to streamline the manufacturing industry in Australia. This shall also encourage the young citizens to consume more of what is manufactured within their country and gradually move away from the over reliance on imported goods. The young people are visionaries of change and are in a position to use the social networks offered through the use of the internet to market Australia (Todaro, 2007). Social network sites such as Facebook and Twitter offer a good international platform for engaging in the exchange of marketing and business ideas (Black, 2008). The Australian government could also offer subsidies to the manufacturing industry players to aid in reviving the industry. The youth should also be encouraged to formulate business plans that target to the needs of the masses. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has been advising the Australian government to adopt economic changes such as the obliteration of the protection of the manufacturing industry via tariff quotas, considerably escalating the work tests for the laid off workers, reducing the top tax rate and the award system to a straightforward protection grid. IMF also proposes that the Australian government to give the pensionable workers them their pension dues annually in order to increase their accountability and responsibility through the workers active participation (Bendit & Hahn, 2008). Human security is a vital component to the growth of any nation and is regarded as a gauge and determinant of worldwide and state precautions. It seeks to protect the substantial safety and uprightness of the citizens and their communities, apart from the defense applied in the state border patrols in a bid to prevent external threats from the neighboring nations. The security offered by the Australian forces has been relatively good in ensuring that the safety of the Australian people is maintained and that the country enjoys relative calm and peace. The country has also been considered a to offer good training grounds for other security forces from other nations due to its renown strong military base. The posterity of the Australian children is therefore intact as their security is assured. The security means employed are pro-active in that they emphasize on peace-building and conflict deterrence rather than conflict resolution (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008).

The relationship between the adolescents and the connection to others is a vital component in the survival and the healthy development of a child. Globalization offers this platform of connecting internationally with other children from other nations. Children growing into adolescence have a need to connect in a sense of future through learning or occupational opportunities, a vital component in the advancement and the welfare of the adolescents (Black, 2008 and Neinstein, 2004 and Arrow, 2010). Security is a vital component for children as childhood is a stage in the growth in which there is great reliance on their guardians and parents and poignant nurturance. This is important for child advancement and continued existence. The interdependence of the security needs of the children in the face of globalization is based on the following determinants: the children’s access to livelihood and personal development; the children having a sense of belonging and relationship with the community; the maintenance of the children’s safety and physical integrity; and the meeting of the children’s health and physiological needs (Black, 2008). Negligence of catering to the children’s health needs may compromise a child’s school attendance rate due to illnesses while hindering the child’s potential to attain personal achievements and career success. Young adolescents lacking proper parental guidance and security from their guardians may seek to protect themselves by joining armed street gangs, which foster a sense of belonging and security. These gangs solidly work together to provide the other basic needs of survival for their members usually via violent means. The violence meted out by these gangs can pose a major security threat to the whole-scale security concerns of the community. The beliefs of these gangs are shaped by the common interests of the members which may be based on ethnicity and hatred towards a niche’ of the society (Dolby and Rizvi, 2008). Violence is a leading cause of injury and death among the young people in the world today. Children are exposed to violence directly or indirectly. Children are exposed to direct violence when they get physical injuries and abuse owing to violent acts or from exposure to weapons. The rising ingenuousness of the global markets, the rise in corruption and the porosity of the borders have led to a rise in the illegal weapon trade in the world, with Australia not being spared from this fallacy (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). The adolescents in Australia are exposed to acts of physical violence and sexual abuse in the country owing to the liberalization of the weapon trade which has intensified the access to these weapons on a larger scale to the youth. Laws that govern the ownership of guns have been put in place. However these do not hinder the criminals who patronize street gangs to illegally acquire the weapons to advance their illegal campaigns (Bendit and Hahn, 2008). Globalization has been associated with the rise in demand for child labor in response to economic restructuring in the E.U and the industrial growth in the USA. This has indirectly affected the teens in Australia as they succumb to the pressures of engaging in activities that foster child labor to meet the international demands of the society. Subsequently this affects the learning process of the teens and exposes them to acts of human trafficking and sexual abuse at a tender age. This in the long run exposes them to the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/ AIDS. Child labor threatens the peace, security, physical and mental health of the children as well as the benefits they stand to gain through acquiring proper educational and vocational training (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). The rights of children are enshrined in the constitutions of many countries in the world. This is one benefit of globalization as children are granted a say on what needs they may want to be addressed in their favor. Child exploitation may occur in instances where parental guidance and control is not fully exercised. Many Australian teens are exposed to the drug abuse trade. The use of ecstasy, marijuana and alcohol abuse at the tender age in the entertainment scenes has gravely affected the lives and posterity of the Australian population. Globalization has played a key role in the rise of the narcotic trade with Sydney being a major hub city in which international narcotic drug trade thrives. This adversely affects the lives of the adolescents in this city and in the surrounding cities giving rise to drug abuse (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). The major globalization trend that has affected Australia is the Americanization of the Australian culture. Americanization involves the influx of the American culture in the day to day social life of the citizens of any country in the world. The American culture has a major influence on the lives of growing teenagers worldwide. In Australia the influence of the American culture on the Australian teens is very prominent. The growth of the American industry has influenced the lifestyles of the Australian teenagers. The shopping malls are filled with American manufactured goods and services. These goods and services range from American designer clothes to the opening up American franchise companies such as McDonalds in the major markets. The fast food industry has thus expanded in Australia leading to the rise in disorders associated with the intake of junk food such as obesity and diabetes type 2 among the teens (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). The music industry in Australia has not been spared either from the wave of Americanization. Most of the artists in the Australian music and entertainment industry have adopted and incorporated the American music culture in most of their musical genres. The rapping hip-hop culture associated with the African-Americans is now a prevalent feature in the music scene which is also associated with a certain dress code common with rappers worldwide. Other American genres that have gained root in Australia include the rock-pop star culture which also has a particular dress code culture and also has a deep influence on the religious beliefs of the young people who have embraced this genre (Dandelion & Mayo, 2010). The common hip hop dress code features include the sagging of the pants or shorts a feature which is not common in the Australian country music culture. It is alleged that the hip hop dress code is associated with the artists who had once served time in the American penitentiaries and had been subjected to obscene acts of sodomy while in the confines of the prisons. This knowledge of the origin of the ‘sagging’ culture in hip hop is little known to the teens in Australia and they have openly adapted the ‘sagging’ culture (Dandelion and Mayo, 2010). The Australian teens have also adapted to adorning designer made clothes from American designers. This indirectly hurts the local manufacturing industry as less of the local products manufactured in the country are purchased in preference to the foreign goods. The Australian manufacturing industry is unable to meet the changing and distinct tastes and preferences of the masses. The home-made market faces stiff competition mainly due to the trade protection policies present in the Australian manufacturing industry (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). Obesity and diabetes are lifestyle disorders and diseases associated with unhealthy eating lifestyles among the youth in Australia. The introduction of the American fast food franchises such as McDonald’s in Australia target the young market bracket aged between 12-15 years. Teens are the most frequent and popular patrons of these fast food restaurants as they are served with easy to prepare cheap take away foods. However the junk food served these food joints contains high levels of unhealthy cholesterol, refined sugars, too much salt and pepper unregulated for consumption. These components are the precursors to the development of these disorders such as obesity, marked increase of high blood pressure cases among the teens and diabetes (Black, 2008). The prevalence of these disorders among the teens can be regulated and reduced through: the introduction of public health education campaigns in schools and institutions; through advertisements that emphasize on the need for consumption of a balanced diet. The children should also be encouraged to engage in active sports and exercises that help burn the fat excess and utilize the stored up energy. The fortification of foods to increase their nutritional value should also be incorporated in the manufacturing process of the locally manufactured foods. This shall help improve the market of the locally manufactured foods in order to raise a healthy generation of young people (Dolby & Rizvi, 2008). A ban should be imposed on the excessive Americanization of the Australian film industry. The Australian films board should emphasize on the need to popularize the Australian culture through films that show the young on the core values held in high regard by the citizens of Australia. The young people should also be regarded as an active and participative group in the decision making process with regard to matters that concern their day to day experiences (Dandelion & Mayo, 2010). The voice of the young as well as their ideas can be well expressed through engaging in the production of films that highlight their needs and also their talent. This can be nurtured from the school level through the incorporation of the arts in the education curriculum and the opening up of talent spotting academies. Through these institutions the talent in each individual youngster can be spotted and developed to a competitive level with the Hollywood characters in the American films. More of the Australian films need to be given more airplay in the Australian media houses as compared to the airplay given to the American films (Dandelion & Mayo, 2010). The trends in globalization are influenced by the economic events that happen in the USA and the E.U. These states are regarded as the ‘super’ powers of the world and any paradigm shift in the economic world is directly influenced by the events that happen within their borders. For example the Facebook and Twitter era gained ground and went viral all over the world. Each and every teen in the world today is aware of these two social networking sites which have intensified the globalization campaign. The sites add a sense of style and class to the members and if one is not a member of any of these sites is regarded as being backward and reserved to embrace growth (Black, 2008). The internet plays host to these sites among other social networks (Jarboe, 2011 and Rappaport, 2011). However these sites do have their pros and cons that directly or indirectly affect the members. Child exploitation and abuse may happen through the internet as children may be exposed to uncensored pornographic sites and engage in cyber space relationships with people of questionable character. This compromises the safety and security of the teens who socially considered making rash judgments’ of character and trust people easily without conducting a thorough investigation of their true identities (Dandelion and Mayo, 2010). Globalization has also influenced the political regimes that govern the different states of the world. Politics directly affects the religious organizations present in a country. The Australian liberal democratic government has a significant impact on the lives of the Australian children. The majority of the Australian populace consists of Christians. The economic trends in the country are greatly influenced by the religious beliefs of the populace. However due to the radical changes happening in the world today, different religions are coming up that represent different beliefs of the factions of the society. The Christians have embraced certain holidays that are held in the American society such as Halloween, where children dress up in costumes to represent dead scary characters. These festivities are not featured in the Christian calendar and are made an acceptable violation in a bid to keep up with the Westernizing culture. This is a sign of moral decadence due to globalization.

References
Arrow, M. (2010). Friday on our minds: Popular culture in Australia since 1945. Sydney:

UNSW Press.

Bendit R. Hahn M. (2008). Youth transitions: Processes of social inclusion and patterns of vulnerability in a globalized world. London: Barbara Bundich.
Black R. (2008). Beyond the classroom: Building new school networks. New York: Aust Council for Ed Research.
Dandelion P. & Mayo S. C. (2010). Religion and youth (EBk). New York: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.
Dolby N. & Rizvi F. (2008). Youth moves: Identities and education in global perspective critical youth studies. New York: Routledge.
Goodwin, A. (2007). Guidance for implementation of the AASHTO strategic highway safety

plan: A guide for reducing collisions involving young drivers, Issue 500, Volume 19.

Washington, DC: Transport Research Board.

Jarboe, G. (2011). Youttube and Video Marketing: An Hour a Day. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Neinstein S. (2004). Adolescent health care: A practical guide, Issue 414. Philadelphia:

Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Rappaport, S. D. (2011). Listen first!: Turning social media conversation into business advantage. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Todaro, M. (2007). Internet marketing methods revealed: The complete guide to becoming an

internet marketing expert. Ocala: Atlantic Publishing Company.

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...Using material form Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that the growth of religious fundamentalism is a reaction to globalisation The view that the growth of religious fundamentalism is a reaction can be seen as true. The issue of religious fundamentalism has emerged as a major area of media and political concern in recent decades. Fundamentalism is religion based on an unquestioning belief in the literal truth of a scared text. Giddens, argues that fundamentalists are traditionalists who seek to return to the basics or fundamentals of their faith. They believe in the literal truth of scripture and that it provides answers to all life’s important questions, from politics to family life. Fundamentalists believe theirs is the only true view of the world. They refuse to engage in dialogue with others, they justify their views by reference to dogma and scare texts rather than rational arguments. Giddens notes that the term ‘fundamentalism’ is a relatively new one and he its growth as a product of and reaction to globalisation. However, Cosmopolitanism contrasts with fundamentalism. Cosmopolitanism is tolerant of the views of others and open to new ideas. Moreover, Giddens sees fundamentalism as the enemy of cosmopolitanism religion and spirituality. Religion, however, as argued by Bruce is used as cultural defence. This is where religion serves to unite a community against an external threat. Religion has special significance for its followers because it symbolises......

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Globalisation

...It is argued that globalisation does not necessarily result in the domination and erasure of local cultures but rather engenders a resistance which can take the best of the global and reinforce and revitalise the potency of local cultures. Discuss with reference to the readings and concepts encountered in the subject. Globalisation does not necessarily result in the domination and erasure of local cultures, is a positive statement one can make from the reading Understanding Globalisation: History and Representation in the Emergence of the World as a Single Place, (Holton 1998). We will be looking at where globalisation comes from, or as far back as we can trace it in history. Globalisation engenders a resistance which can take the best of the global and reinforce and revitalise the potency of local cultures. Also, with looking at the reading mentioned previously and defining the term globalisation one can see that it would be quite the best of the global cultures which are taken and reinforced and revitalised into the local cultures, that is that my understanding of the term ‘global’ in the question is to mean ‘global cultures’. As we all know, it is a simple fact of history which is able to show that global cultures are where the best come from in order to revitalise local cultures. Globalisation is historical, and was present in the vast past of the world. It is through the history that we can see globalisation did exist and took several forms, history,......

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Globalisation

...Using material from Item B and elsewhere, assess the view that the process of globalisation has led to changes in both the amount of crime and the types of crime committed Globalisation refers to the increasing interconnectedness of societies so that what happens in one locality is shaped by distant events in another and vice versa. For example, the availability of illegal drugs in any UK city and the amount of crime which occurs in order to sustain people’s drug habits depends on how effectively farmers in Columbia and Bolivia can grow illegal crops such as the coca plant and also how effectively global drugs trade gangs can traffic illegal drugs into UK towns and cities. Globalisation has many causes, such as by the spread of new information and media technologies especially the internet and satellite television, mass migration, mass tourism, cheap international air travel, cheaper transportation of goods across borders, containerisation and the increase in transnational organisations that produce and market their goods and brands in a global marketplace. The expansion of free trade (meaning that companies can manufacture and sell their goods in increasing numbers of countries without trade barriers) has led to the establishment of transnational corporations. Marxists such as Taylor (1999) argue that globalisation has led to an increase in crime rates in some UK towns and cities because transnational corporations (huge companies that do business in several countries)...

Words: 2208 - Pages: 9