Submitted By katzyhoney
Gollabhama is an intricate and laborious form of artwork done on saris. It is one of the Prides of Telanga state. Gollabhama is a old art of 50 years.It is well known for the weaver’s most favorite motif “The Milk Maid” a lady carrying the milk pot. Each motif is much thought fully placed according to the design layout of the sari. A typical cotton sari is in white color with various bright colored motives. Later gollabhama started to weave a beauty and profit trough silk saris. Silk gollabhama came in vivid eye-catching colors though the motives were still the same.
Process of making gollabhama saris
Preparation of Koramaal or the yarn
This is the process of mixing same or different categories of fibers to get desired properties and cost effectiveness.
Mixing is done after the study of essential properties of fiber like staple length, tensile strength, fitness, uniformity etc.
Blow room: In this process the cleaning and opening of the cotton is done by beaters and openers. The foreign materials like dust particles, seeds of cotton and other impurities are particularly removed in this process. The cotton tufts are opened and cleaned in this process and the cotton is made out.
Carding is the heart of spinning in this process the minute impurities like small seed particles, immature fibers etc are removed.
The straightening and aligning of fibers are done in this process.
In carding the blow room lap is attenuated to the card silver.
Through drafting fibers get paralleled. Up to eight carded silvers are fed into the Draw-Frame and they are stretched/ straightened and made into single silver. Also fiber blending can be done at this stage.
Further drafting is done here to get the fibers more aligned/paralleled.
The silver from Draw-Frame is thicker and will be difficult to be fed into the Ring-Frame as in, hence here the silvers are stretched and were made thinner by drafting and mild twisting [so as to strengthen the roving].
The end- product from the simplex is called as Roving.
The roving is fed into the ring-frame and is made into yarn by further Drafting and twisting.
Basic Functions of Ring-Frame
To draft the roving until the required fineness is achieved
To impart strength to the fibers, by inserting twist.
Depending upon the yarn count required the drafting and twisting can be adjusted.
Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material in loose fiber, yarn, cloth or garment form by treatment with a dye. Dyeing is also the process of coloring textile materials by immersing them in an aqueous solution of dye, called liquid liquor. Normally the dye liquor consists of dye, water and an auxiliary. To improve the effectiveness of dyeing, heat is usually applied to the dye liquor.
By definition Dyes can be said to be colored, ionizing and aromatic organic compounds which shows an affinity towards the substrate to which it is being applied. It is generally applied in a solution that is aqueous. Dyes may also require a mordant to better the fastness of the dye n the material o which it is applied. The dyes were obtained from animal, vegetable or mineral origin with no or very little processing. By far the greatest source of dyes has been from the plant kingdom, notably roots, berries, bark, leaves and wood, but only a few have ever been used on a commercial scale.
Pigment is the substance of powder that makes up the color of paint. Pigments are either organic [derived from plant or animal sources, e.g. ivory black, indigo] or inorganic [derived from salts or metallic oxides e.g. ocher, cobalt blue}
Pigment is a substance that can absorb light and reflect some lights to show color but it is water insolubances. Normally it is used for printing [with the presence of binder] or mass-coloration of the synthetic fibers.
Theory of Dyeing
The general theory of dyeing explains the interaction between dye, fiber, water and dye auxiliary. More specifically, it explains:
Force of repulsion which are developed between the dye molecules and water and
Force of attraction which are developed between the dye molecules and fibers. These forces are responsible for the dye molecules leaving the aqueous dye liquor entering and attaching themselves to polymers of the fibers.
Dye molecules are organic molecules. Which can be classifies as
Anionic: in which the color is caused by anionic part of the dye molecule;
Cationic: in which the color is caused by the whole molecule.
Disperse-in which the color is caused by the whole molecule. The first two dye molecule types are applied from an aqueous solutions. The third applied form an aqueous dispersion.
Dye Stuff A dye stuff is a substance which is capable of coloring a textile material in such a manner that it associate closely with the fiber, that it is not removable by simple physical means. It must be soluble in water, are capable of going into solution by chemical means, whereby a highly dispersed condition may be regarded as a form of solution.
The Dyeing Process
The dyeing process can thus be considered as taking place in three phases.
Attachment of the dye molecule to the surface of the fiber
Penetration into the intermolecular spaces as well as diffusion through the fiber
Orientation along the long chain molecules. Dyeing is governed by three factors, the dye, the fiber and the dye liquor. All the three lead an independent assistance which influences the technique of dyeing. A dye must be water soluble in order to dye textile materials. The may be soluble by nature of its chemical interference. The solution of the dye from which it is applied is called the dye bath. A dye may have direct ‘affinity’ for a fiber i.e. it is held by the fiber either physically or chemically as soon as the fiber is immersed in the dye bath.
Dyeing Process Dyeing is the process of imparting colors to a textile material through a dye. Dyes are obtained from flowers, nuts, berries and other forms of vegetables and plants s well as from animal and mineral sources. These are known as natural dyes. The other classes of dyes are known as synthetic dyes. These are based on a particular type of chemical composition. Some of these dyes are avid dyes, Basic dyes, Neutral- Premetalized dyes, sulfur dyes, vat dyes, reactive dyes, pigment dyes etc.
Color is applied to fabric by different methods of dyeing for different types of fiber and at different stages of the textile production process. Dyeing can be done during any stage in the textile manufacturing process. Textiles may be dyed as fiber, as yarn, as fabric, as garments, as depending upon the type of the fabric or garment being produced.
These methods include direct dyeing; stock dyeing; top dyeing; yarn dyeing; piece dyeing; solution pigmenting or dope dyeing; garment dyeing etc. Of these direct dyeing and yarn dyeing methods are the most popular ones. Yarn Dyeing
In gollabhama the weavers follow the yarn dyed process. Yarn dyeing is the dyeing of the yarns before they have woven or knitted into fabrics. Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks, stripes and plaids with different- colored yarns in the weaving process. In yarn dyeing, dye-stuff penetrates the fibers in the core of the yarn. There are many forms of yarn dyeing-Skein Dyeing, Package dyeing, Warp-beam dyeing and space dyeing
Skein dyeing consists of immersing large, loosely wound hanks of yarn into dye vats that are especially designed for this purpose. Soft , lofty yarns, such as hand knitted yarns are usually skein dyed. Skein dyeing is the most costly yarn-dyed method.
In package dyeing the yarn is wound on a small perforated spool or tube called a package. Many spools fit into the dyeing machine in which the flow of the dye bath alternates from the center to the outside, and then from the outside to the center of the package. Package dyed yarns do not retain the softness and loftiness that skein-dyed that are found in knitted and woven fabrics.
Warp beam Dyeing
Beam dyeing is the much larger version of package dyeing. An entire warp beam is wound on to a perforated cylinder, which is then placed in the beam dyeing machine, where the flow of the dye bath alternate as in the package dyeing. Beam dyeing is more economical than skein or package dyeing, but it is only used in the manufacture of woven fabrics where an entire warp beam is dyed. Knitted fabrics, which are mostly produced from the cones of the yarn, are not adaptable to beam dyeing.
The dyeing of cloth after it is being woven or knitted is known as piece dyeing. It is most common method of dyeing used. The various method used for this type include jet dyeing. Jig dyeing, pad dyeing and beam dyeing.
Types of dyes
These dyes are soluble in water and can be directly applied to cotton and other cellulosic fibers. These dyes have good affinity towards cotton. These are manufactured as sulphonic acids and converted into their sodium salts. When a direct dye is dissolved in water in ionizes giving dye anion and sodium cation.
These dyes are so called because the dyeing is carried out in the acidic condition. These are used for dyeing of wool and silk. Generally these are represented as RSO3Na+. here the coloring compound is RSO3 and these are also called as anionic dyes.
These are used for dyeing wool and silk. Cotton can be dyed with the help of mordents. These are chemically represented as RSO3Na+. here the coloring compound is cat ion. His dye is called as a Cat ion Dye.
These are mainly used for the dyeing cotton fabrics.These dyes react with the fibres substance and form “covalent Bond”. These dyes mainly have phenyl sulphone system or triacine system as reactive group.
These dye stuffs are not soluble in water. It can be converted into soluble leuco compounds by the action of reducing agent such sodium hydrosulphite. Cellulose has affinity for the leuco compound. After the leuco compound is absorbed by the fibre, they are oxidized to the original insoluble form.
The disperse dyes are finely divided insoluble organic color pigments. They are more soluble at higher temperature. These dyes are mainly applied to Hydrophobic fibers such as polyester, nylon etc. These dyes are capable of giving faster and deeper shades.
Weaving is a textile craft in which two distinctive sets of yarns or threads, called the warp and the filling or weft are interlaced to form a fabric or cloth. The warp threads run lengthways on the piece of cloth, and the weft runs across from side to side, across the bolt of cloth. Cloth is woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. Weft is an old English word meaning" that which is woven”
Woven fabric is produced on a loom. The warp beam, located at the back of the loom is a large roller on which all the warp yarns to be used for the fabric is wound parallel to each other.
The warp yarns pass through the harness, which look like picture frames holding many thin vertical wires called heddles, each with the hole in the middle. Each warp yarn is threaded through the hole of a heddle and thus is combined by that harness.
When a harness or group of harnesses is raised with others left in down position, a V-like opening is formed. This is called Shed.
A filling yarn is inserted in the shed and travels across the width of the loom, passing over some warp yarns and under other warp yarns.
The reed is a comb like device that pushes the filling yarn in the shed in to the body of the cloth.
The sequence in which harness are raised or lowered determines the weave of the fabric.
The woven fabric is produced by the repetition of the above steps in slowly wound on the cloth roll, located in the front of the loom.
Shedding is the raising of the warp yarns to form a shed through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted.
The shed is the vertical space between the raised and un raised warp yarns. On the modern looms, simple and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame, also known as a harness. This is a rectangular frame to which series of wires, called heddles or heddles, which hang vertically from the harnesses
The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp, and the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. Two common methods of controlling the heddles are dobbies and a jacquard head.
As the harnesses raise the heddles, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle.
The shuttle is normally pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed. In traditional shuttle loom. The filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle.
The filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle as it moves across the loom. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick.
As the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling
As the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, it also passes through openings in another frame called a reed [which resembles a comb]. With each picking operation, the reed presses or battens each filling yarn against the portion of the fabric that has already been formed. The point where the fabric is formed is called the fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speed 150 to 160 picks per minute.
The plain weave is variously known as “calico” or “tabby” weaves. It is the simplest of all weaves having a repeat size of 2. The range of application of this weave is wide.
The plain weave has the following characteristics:
It has the maximum number of binding points
The threads interlace on alternate order of 1 up and 1 down.
The thread density is limited
Cloth thickness and mass per unit area are limited.
It produces a relativity stronger fabric that is obtained by any other simple combination of threads, expecting that of “gauze” or cross weaving.
Principle involved in plain weaving
The principle involved in the construction of plain cloth is the interlacement of any continous threads either warps or weft in an exactly contrary manner to each other, with every thread in each series passing alternately under and over consecutive threads of other series interlaces uniformly throughout the fabric.
By this plan of interlacement, every thread in each series interlaces with every thread in the other series to the maximum extent , thereby producing a comparatively firm and strong texture of cloth. A complete unit of the plain weave occupies only two warp threads and two picks of weft, which is the design for that weave.
Construction of the Motif
The oldest motif out of which this prominent art has evolved since 50 years is the motif of Milk Maid carrying a milk pot. This motif was inspired by the rural women of those times. Later this as this art was evolving the weavers adopted many more natural forms like lotus, swan, elephants, deer, parrot, leaves, peacock etc. This intricate weaving flourished and the weavers of siddipet were requested by the then Prime minister Indira Gandhi to design a motif of her father Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s face. This particular motif was designed by 5 weavers for 5 days and the sari took 5 days to be made. This sari was gifted to Indira Gandhi by the weavers of siddipet.
The yarn that is used is cotton and silk respectively in both cotton and silk saris. Each motif is hand woven horizontally on the warp with a contrast colors like pink, red, yellow, blue, violet and green.
Placement of the motif is very important aspect in the gollabhama sari, the motif placement on the sari is divided into pallu, border, sari and the sari body. The most intricate and density of the motives and the variety of different motives are highest in the pallu part of the sari. The borders of the saree is generally simple with horizontal lines, the body of the sari generally consists of simple butis or small gollabhama motives which drapes around the body.
Initially a motif is designed. This particular motif is later converted into a graph pattern. Reffering to this graph sheet the weaver sets the “saancha”. Saancha is mainly made of nylon yarn which hold up specific warp yarns. According to the design of the motif, the saancha is set. Each motif has a different set of saancha. To set the loom with a particular motif and a saancha the weaver takes minimum of two days. Once the loom is set the weaver starts to weave the sari and and when it comes to the motif the weaver lifts the saancha , which lifts the essential warp yarns in order to place the motives. The weaver uses a spool of contrast color and interlaces it with the warp yarn to interlock. After two three horizontal lines of the motif is done, a weft is done. For each line of the motif different strands of the warp are lifted up and the interlacing is done. This is alternatively repeated with weaving one warp and one weft, and the motif is acquired on the sari.