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Grammar

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Collins

W ith CD

English for Exams

Grammar for IELTS
Fiona Aish &
Jo Tomlinson
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; P O W E R E D BY C O B U I L D

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Contents

Unit
1

O
2

Topic

Grammar focus Holidays and travel Free time

Exam

Page number Grammar

practice

Sub-skill

Simple tenses Present sim ple, past sim ple and present perfect

Speaking
Part 1

W riting
Task 2

6

Continuous tenses Past continuous, present continuous, present perfect

W riting
Task 1

Reading

10

continuous
3

Fame

Past

N arrative tenses: past perfect and used to/would

Reading

Listening
Section 2

14

Education

Future 1

Witt and going to

Listening
Section 1

Speaking
Part 3

18

The Internet

Future 2

Present continuous fo r future and future perfect Listening
Section 2

Reading

22

The family

Word order and punctuation Subject + verb
+ object and punctuation W riting
Task 2

Speaking
Part 2

26

7

The environment Subject/verb agreem ent

S ingular + p lu ra l nouns/verbs and determ iners

Reading

W riting
Task 1

30

8

Food

Countable/ uncountable nouns

Countable and uncountable nouns

Speaking
Part 2

Listening
Section 1

34

9

Employment and finance

A rticles

Using a, the or no article W riting
Task 1

Reading

38

10

Youth

Linking words and signposting Giving additional, opposite, contrasting inform ation

Reading

Listening
Section 4

42

o I1
•1
4

O
5

O
6

O

o

*1 1
*

o

Unit
11

Topic

Grammar focus E
Grammar

P

Sub-skill

Page number People and places Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative structures Listening
Section 3

Speaking
Part 1

46

Crime

Modals 1

Present modals can/may/should etc.

Speaking
Part 3

W riting
Task 2

50

The planet

Modals 2

Past m odal verbs

Listening
Section 3

Reading

54

Globalization

Conditionals

Zero, first, second and third conditionals Speaking
Part 3

W riting
Task 2

58

Culture and modern society

Reported speech Tense, tim e and pronoun changes

Reading

Speaking
Part 2

62

Health and fitness Pronoun use

Using reference words to maintain cohesion in w ritin g

W riting
Task 2

Listening
Section 2

66

17

Fashion

Paragraph and text organization Understanding how texts and paragraphs are organized Reading

W riting
Task 1

70

18

Film and entertainm ent

The passive

Simple passive

Speaking
Part 2

Listening
Section 3

74

W ildlife

Relative clauses Relative clauses

Listening
Section 4

Speaking
Part 3

78

Men and women Noun phrases

Construction of noun phrases

W riting
Task 2

Reading

82

O
12

O
13

Q
14

O
15

O
16

O

O
19

O
20

Audio script

86

Answer key

103

Gram mar reference
Unit 1

1U

Unit 2

115

Unit 3

116

Unit U

117

Unit 5

118

Unit 11

119

Unit U

120

Unit 15

122

Unit 18

123

IELTS information

124

Introduction
Who is this book for?
Grammar for IELTS w ill help improve your gram m atical knowledge fo r a ll four papers of the
IELTS exam. As you know, gram m atical accuracy and range are part of the m arking crite ria for the IELTS W riting and Speaking papers. Also, gram m atical accuracy is im portant in the IELTS
Listening and Reading papers. The book can be used fo r self-study or as supplem entary m a te ria l fo r IELTS preparation classes. It is suitable fo r learners at level 5.0-5.5 aim ing fo r band 6.0 or higher. Sum m ary
The Grammar for IELTS book and CD cover gram m ar and skills which are relevant to a ll four exam papers: Listening, Reading, W riting and Speaking. Each unit begins with a gram m ar section presenting the key gram m ar for the unit with example sentences and explanations. This gram m ar section is followed by exercises that help you develop the gram m atical knowledge and skills needed for the exam. At the end of each unit, there is an exam practice section which is modelled on the actual IELTS exam. Tips throughout the book highlight essential gram m ar-related learning strategies and exam techniques.

Content
Units
Each unit is divided into three parts.
The first part introduces key gram m ar using Collins COBUILD gra m m a r explanations and example sentences.
The second part, containing Practice exercises, provides a structured set of exercises which help you develop the s k ills to successfully apply gram m atical knowledge to the exam. The exercises are a combination of traditional gram m ar exercises and exercises based on the IELTS exam.
The third part, containing Exam practice, provides exam practice exercises in a form at that follow s the actual exam giving you the opportunity to fam iliarize yourself w ith the kinds of questions you w ill encounter in the exam. This section focuses on a p a rticula r exam paper and is highlighted in grey fo r easy reference.

Exam tips
There are exam tips and strategies in each unit. These are in boxes fo r easy reference.

Audio script
A ll audio fo r the Listening and Speaking papers has been recorded on the CD using native speakers of English. A fu ll audio script, including m odel answers fo r the Speaking papers, is provided at the back of the book so that you can check the language used in the listening and speaking exercises, if needed.

Answer key
A comprehensive answer key is provided fo r a ll sections of the book including m odel answers fo r more open-ended w ritin g and speaking tasks.

u

Gram m ar reference
There is a detailed gra m m a r reference section at the back of the book where the form s of the gra m m a r points presented in the units are provided fo r your reference. There is a note in the unit te llin g you which page to refer to in the G ram m ar reference section.

How to use this book
The book is divided into 20 units. Each unit is self-contained so that you can study the units in any order. You can choose the unit you want to study e ith er by selecting the g ra m m a r you w ant to study or selecting which exam papers you w ant to practise. A s u b -s k ill is also practised in each unit. As a result, only the units w ith practice on Speaking and Listening papers contain audio.
The contents pages at the beginning of the book provide an overview of w hat is in each unit so you can use this to choose which units you would like to study first. These pages also give you inform ation on which units contain audio.
You w ill probably find it helpful to begin each unit by reading the g ra m m a r section in the firs t part, then w orking through the exercises in preparation fo r the exam practice exercise at the end. Try to do the exam exercises w ithin the tim e lim it to give yourself realistic exam practice.
Getting w e ll-in fo rm e d feedback on your w ritin g and speaking exam practice exercises would also be an advantage. However, if this is not possible, it is s till im portant to do the exercises in fu ll.
Studying model answers can help you develop the ability to assess your own w ork. If possible, record yourself when speaking and listen carefully to your perform ance. Avoid m em orizing m odel answers for the W riting and Speaking papers. Rem em ber that in the actual exam, it is im portant to answer the question and not ju s t speak or w rite about the topic.
As part of your fin a l preparation before the exam, you could re-read the exam tips in the boxes.
This w ill rem ind you of the strategies fo r success in the exam.

1

Holidays and travel

P re se nt sim p le tense I Past s im p le tense I P resent p e rfe c t sim p le tense

Simple tenses
Present simple:
1

The present simple is used to talk about:

Permanent situations
I w ork in the city but I live in the countryside.

2

Things which happen often or repeatedly
I visit my grandparents in Scotland every summer. 3

U

Past simple:

The train to London leaves everv 30 m inutes.

The past simple is used to talk about:

Completed actions or events in the past
I visited the m useum s in New York.

I saw some m onum ents on holiday.

Actions or events that happened at a specific time in the past (when)
Last month I went on holidav fo r 2 weeks.

3

Birds m iqrate in winter.

Timetables

The bus departs at 9.10.

2

People often send postcards from interestina places. Facts of nature o r science
Travelling by plane uses a lot of enerqy.

1

Rome is the capital of Italy.

I travelled to Tokvo last year.

Things which happened often or regularly in the past
We always went on holidav to France when I was a child.

Grammar for IELTS

Everv su m m er I spent the school holidavs w ith my cousins.

Unit 1
Present perfect simple:
1

The present perfect simple is used to talk about:

Actions which started in the past and continue now
I've worked abroad fo r ten years.

2

Actions in the past when the time is not finished.
I've visited many art galleries this year. (This year is not finished)

3

He has lived in Germany since 2002.

He has lived in a lot of different places in his life. (His life is not finished)

Recent events which are related to the present
W here’s my camera? Oh no, someone has stolen it.

Is Sarah having dinner w ith us? No, she has gone back to the cam psite to rest.

past simple: She said that she liked opera.

Past simple: 'We w ent to the theatre.'

-> past perfect: He said that thev had qone to the theatre.

Past perfect: ‘I had read the novel.’
Present modals [can, may, must, will):
‘IJ1 sta rt photography classes soon.’

past perfect: She said that she had read the novel.
-> past modals [could, might, had to, would):
He said that he would sta rt ohotoaraohv classes soon.

See page 122 in the G ram m ar reference fo r more inform ation.
Reporting questions:
Wh- questions use a reporting verb such as ask or enquire + wh- question word (no auxiliary verb).
'When are you going to the gallery?'

She asked when I was going to the gallery

Yes/no questions use a reporting verb such as ask or enquire + if/w hether (no auxiliary verb).
'Do you th in k children should be more creative?’ Grammar for IELTS

He asked me w hether I thouqht children should be more creative.

Unit 15
Pronouns and time words: In reported speech pronouns and tim e words change.
T il qive vou my latest painting to m orrow .’

She said she would give me her latest painting the follow ing dav.

‘ I went to an interesting exhibition yesterday.’

He told me that he had been to an interesting exhibition the previous dav.

Reporting verbs (advice, requests, orders, promises): There are many reporting verbs that express interpretation or judgm ent such as advise, deny, recommend, argue, promise, warn, claim.
These verbs always have a specific stru ctu re that is necessary to learn.
'D on't see that film .’

She warned me not to see the film .

to warn + indirect object + not
+ infinitive

‘We think schools should teach more sociology'

Thev argued that schools should teach more sociology.

to argue + that + clause

Note: In many reporting structures you can om it that.
Gram mar tip: Reporting verbs help you to understand the opinion of the speaker. Make sure you know the difference in meaning of common reporting verbs such as argue, claim, deny, order, promise, recommend, suggest, warn. For example, argue and order are much stronger than claim or suggest.

Practice exercises
For questions \-U rewrite the sentences using reported speech. For questions 5 -8 complete the sentence with the correct reporting verb structure. There may be more than one correct answer.
I w ent to the opera yesterday and really enjoyed it.' She said th a t_____
The governm ent has to invest more money in the a rts .’ He argued that
This m useum hasn’t had any internationally recognized exhibitions fo r several years.’
The critic announced th a t___________________
What does the theatre d ire ctor intend to do to increase ticket sales?’ The reporter a ske d ___________________
If the cinema does not receive funding, it w ill have to close down.’ The manager
___________________ if the cinema did not receive funding, it would have to close down.
There has been a rapid rise in the num ber of people engaging in c u ltu ra l activities over the last decade.’ The p o litic ia n ___________________ there had been a rapid rise in the num ber of people engaging in c u ltu ra l activities over the previous decade.
'The decline in interest in art is not due to a lack of private investm ent in g a lle rie s.’ The a r tis t___________________ the decline in interest in art was due to a lack of private investm ent in galleries.
8

'I think it would be a good idea to read An Introduction to Sociology to begin w ith .’ The te a c h e r___________________ reading An Introduction to Sociology to begin w ith.

Culture and modern society

63

Answer the questions below using reported speech. Give yourself one minute to prepare, then talk for one or two minutes.
: Describe a piece of advice that someone gave you. You should say: j • Who gave you the advice j • What the advice was
\ • If you followed the advice and what happened
! And say if it was advice you would give to someone else.
Now listen to the model answer on Track 27 of the CD and compare it with your answer.
How many reporting verbs and reported speech structures did you use?
Read the text below and then complete the sentences with the correct verb forms.
The decline of poetry in the modern age
The decline of poetry readings as a form of mass entertainm ent in modern society has been w ell documented by academics and critics alike and there are various theories which may account fo r it. According to Professor Jackson at Barnes State University, the rise of various form s of popular culture such as m usic festivals, comedy and m usical theatre means that it is not surprising that poetry is in decline. However, he also believes that ‘the speed w ith which it has declined overall is su rp risin g ’. Professor Jackson has been criticized by Dr A ru n de ll from Clivedale University who thinks that his research is misleading. 'Professor Jackson has m isrepresented a change as a decline.' Dr Arundell's view is supported by the poet and w rite r, Sam Henderson, who states that ‘people who attend poetry readings also frequent the cinema, m usical theatre and classical concerts nowadays so the decline is not in the num ber of people but in the num ber of tim es these people attend poetry readings.' This subtle difference is the main conclusion of Dr
Arundell's study. She would like poets and spoken word perform ers to use this inform ation as the basis of widening th e ir audience; as she argues, ‘If poetry lovers have a wide range of cu ltu ra l interests, then cinema or theatre goers w ill also have a wide range of interests.'
She concludes that 'there is no reason why these people can't be urged to try poetry readings too.'
1

2

Professor Jackson said that the speed with w hich p o e try ___________ overall
___________ surprising.
Dr A ru n de ll said that Professor J a ckso n ____________ a change as a decline.

3

Sam Henderson stated that the d e c lin e ___________ in the num ber of people but in the num ber of tim es p e ople___________ poetry readings.

U

Dr A ru n de ll argued that if poetry lo v e rs ___________ a wide range of cu ltu ra l interests, then cinema or theatre g o e rs ___________ also have a wide range of interests.

j Exam tip : In the IELTS Reading, speakers' opinions are often introduced with a j reporting verb, fo r example: Mr Stevenson claimed that.... Doctors advised that.... j Make sure you identify these reporting verbs to help you understand the opinions better.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 15

Exam practice: Reading - T ru e /F als e /N o t given
Read the follow ing text and answer the questions below.
P rotecting th e w o rld ’s c u ltu re - th e ro le o f m useum s
For many hundreds of years people have been taking c u ltu ra l a rtifa cts from foreign countries and keeping them in th e ir own national m useum s. These objects, w hich are often item s of great value, have been bought, sold, stolen and found fo r a variety of reasons connected w ith war, exploration and scientific discovery but the question of ownership s till rem ains.
The ownership argum ent has two w e ll defined sides, one of which concerns resources and the other cu ltu ra l heritage. Those who claim m useum s have a role to play state that objects can be better protected and conserved by w ell-funded m useum s in developed countries than in the countries of origin and th a t they should be allowed to keep objects obtained from abroad. As archaeologist Irene Havers argues, 'these m useum s have the finance and the academic expertise to ensure that ancient objects are preserved fo r future generations.’ In addition, the m ajor w orld museum s are generally located in capital cities which attract a vast num ber of tourists. Even if people are not regular museum attendees, tourists w ill often visit famous m useum s as part of a sight-seeing trip. This enables museums to generate income in order to m aintain th e ir collections.
The opposing view argues that it is im portant fo r nations to own th e ir c u ltu ra l heritage and that m useum s should return foreign artifacts to the country of origin so that th e ir citizens can learn from them . As Dr Philips from Caledonian University notes, "having c u ltu ra l artifacts in national m useum s is an excellent way to promote learning about history and national identity.’ He believes that m useum s have a duty to return objects to th e ir country of origin in order to allow research to be contained w ithin a culture. He argues th a t ‘foreign researchers may som etim es miss som ething im portant because they are studying objects from a culture which they are not part of.’ However, Irene Havers asserts that many objects are so old and im portant that they should only be handled by experienced experts. As she states, 'the value of these objects is im m ense and m useum experts have a responsibility to ensure th e ir care.’
In conclusion, this argum ent is likely to continue fo r some tim e as it encompasses a range of complex, interconnected issues including to u rism , academic research, identity and international relations. QUESTIONS 1-5
Do the follow ing statem ents agree w ith the inform ation given in the reading passage?
W rite:
TRUE
FALSE
NOT GIVEN

if the statement agrees with the passage if the statement contradicts the passage if there is no information on this in the passage

1

Museums in developed countries have b e tter financial resources fo r preserving c u ltu ra l objects_______ 2

The m ajority of to u rists visit m useum s in fam ous capital citie s-----------

3

Some academics believe that c u ltu ra l a rtifa cts should be given back to th e ir country of origin fo r educational purposes-----------

U

Dr Philips said that researchers always m isunderstood foreign cu ltu re s ------------

5

According to Irene Havers, only experts are able to categorize ancient, valuable objects-----------

C ultu re and m odern society

65

16 Health and fitness
Pronoun use
When we speak or w rite we often w ant to give more inform ation about som ething that we have already mentioned. It is im portant that the listener or reader always knows what we are speaking or w riting about, so we use reference words such as he, it, them.

Personal pronouns:
We use personal pronouns to refer back to a person or thing which has already been mentioned.
Subject pronouns are: /, you, she, he, it, we, they
Object pronouns are: me, you, her, him, it, us, them
My m other phoned to say she was ill.

have a very good personal tra in e r and I like him.

Note: It is a common pronoun to use in w ritin g and can be used in place of other pronouns such as this or that fo r ideas or sentences (with no noun following).

Possessive pronouns:
We use possessive pronouns to refer back to a possession of a person or thing which has already been mentioned.
Possessive pronouns are: mine, yours, hers, his, ours, theirs
Note: We do not use its as a possessive pronoun.
Your eyesight is much better than m ine. (=my eyesight)

I did a fitness test w ith my friends, Anna and Charlotte.
I passed mine but they failed th e irs . (=fitness test)

This/that and these/those:
This usually refers to som ething close to you in distance or tim e; that is generally thought of as fu rth e r away. Som etim es these words can be used interchangeably.
Regular exercise is essential in burning calories. This/That means people m ust exercise if they want to lose weight.
We use this or that to refer back to singular nouns or objects which have already been mentioned.
We use these or those to refer back to p lural nouns or objects which have already been mentioned. ‘The sports centre has a new clim bing w a ll:' 'That sounds interesting.’

Grammar for IELTS

The body has clear daily rhythm s and these are disrupted by shiftw ork.

Unit 16
We use this and that to refer back to ideas or whole sentences that have already been mentioned. We can also use this/that + noun such as problem, issue, aspect, view, event to give more inform ation.
Healthcare is directlv related to people's ability to w ork. This issue should be discussed more by the government.

A ll children should do sport at school. That would help alleviate obesity levels.

Such (such + noun):
We use such to refer back to som ething s im ila r that has already been m entioned.
The comDanv’s cholesterol-low erinq druq made it the prem ier m a rkete r of such medicines.

Time and place:
We use then and there to refer back to a tim e o r place that has already been m entioned.
I go to the gym on Wednesdays and I meet my friend there.

People used to be healthier 50 years ago because jobs were more physical then.

Practice exercises
Decide on the correct reference word to complete the sentences. There may be more than one correct answer.
1

You should exercise three tim es a week to m a in ta in ________ fitness.

2

Long distance runners focus on building u p ________ stam ina so they can run m arathons.

3

Heart disease is one of the most serious diseases in the w o rld ________ can be prevented by adopting a h e althier lifestyle.

U

Muscle injuries are very common in a th lete s_________ som etim es end an athlete's career. 5

Vitam in C is essential fo r optim al health. We can fin d ________ in fru it and vegetables.

6

The governm ent spends a considerable am ount of money on sm oking related diseases. money should be spent on preventing smoking.

7

My boss has asked the employees to create a company football te a m _________ thinks th a t_____ w ill help build team w ork.

8

Many sports people turned professional at the tu rn of the tw entieth century. However, fitness was not a focus of early professional sports p e op le ________

j Listening tip: It can be d ifficu lt to hear reference words because they are short, but they
I are often im portant to understand how inform ation about a topic is connected.

H ealth and fitn e ss

67

Complete the spaces in the text below with the correct referencing words. Then listen and check your answers.
Jeanette: Good m orning everyone and welcome to my weekly show about fitness. Today I want to talk about ways you can improve (1)________ fitness w ithout having to join a gym or sports centre. Now firs t of all, it is im portant to decide what you want to achieve. Many people want to improve (2)________ health in general, but other people want to focus on losing weight. I use a combination of both strength building and weight loss exercise to maintain
(3 ) _______ fitness level but I know a couple who go walking twice a week to maintain
(4 ) _______ The most im portant thing is to do something you like, for example, m artial arts, hiking, tennis or watersports. (5)________ are a ll good as cardiovascular exercise and strength training. One excellent way is to join a local club because you w ill meet other people with the same interests as (6)_________It is also im portant to keep up motivation levels and exercising w ith other people can be a good way to do (7)_________And don't forget about the local park. (8)________ is a great place to exercise for free. Sometimes parks provide a running track or other com m unal facilities, a ll of which are free to use.

3

Read the following extracts from student essays for Writing Task 2 and correct the mistakes in the use of reference words.
1

2

Dieticians suggest vitamins are necessary to combat allergies. It view has been criticized by scientists who say that this nutrients do not always help to reduce allergies. Therefore, because them don't agree, people don’t know what advice to follow.

3

4

In my opinion politicians should listen to the people that vote fo r they. People want to buy healthy food but it is expensive so them buy fast food instead which is not good fo r his health. Politicians should change it situation.

Organic food is not a solution to the health problem s of the w orld. Its is less efficient than other methods of food production. In addition, that problem s are more often related to less w ealthy fam ilies in developing countries. Families who live then cannot afford to buy organic produce so they is not useful fo r us.

Read the paragraphs from an IELTS Writing Task 2 and write the noun, sentence or idea that the underlined reference word matches. The first one has been done for you.
What are the causes and effects of obesity and how does it affect society?
One of the largest causes of obesity is the rising cost of food over the years. Although nowadays many superm arkets claim that (1) they provide low cost food, fru it and vegetables have increased considerably in price. (2) This means that it is more d ifficu lt fo r low income fam ilies to feed th e ir children fresh, healthy food. As a result, we have seen a rise in obesity and other health related problems. (3) These issues have negative effects on healthcare and education. For example, my m other w orries that (4) she w ill not be able to cook healthy meals fo r her fam ily if food costs continue to increase.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 16
A nother cause is the fact that many young people do not know how to cook. Their parents have not taught (5) them the basic cooking skills. Learning (6) these would help improve young people's knowledge of nutrition. Cooking is not d ifficu lt, in fact (7) it can be fun!
At the m om ent, often when young people leave home a ll [8] they do is eat processed meals. (9) These do not contain enough n u trition and have too much fat and sugar.
U nfortunately many people in m odern society have become addicted to (10) th e m .
6

these

2 This

7

it

3 These issues =

8

they

U she

9

These =

1 they

5 them

= superm arkets

=

10

them

=

=

Exam practice: W riting Task 2

Exam tip: In the IELTS W riting Task 2, referencing words are im portant to make your w ritin g clear for the reader. Make sure you check that your reference words refer to the correct nouns or ideas in your w ritin g so th a t the reader can understand your meaning.

You should spend about 40 m inutes on this task.
W rite about the follow ing topic.
People who cause their own illnesses through unhealthy lifestyles and poor diets should have to pay more for health care.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Give reasons fo r your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. W rite at least 250 words.
There is a m odel answ er in the answ er key.

Health and fitness

69

17 Fashion
P aragraph and te x t o rg an iza tion
A text contains paragraphs and a paragraph contains sentences. In English a text is divided into paragraphs and each paragraph focuses on one main idea. A ll the sentences in a paragraph relate to this main idea. Information in a text and a paragraph is organized as follows: g e n e r a ls - specific

Types of text organization
Text is organized according to its purpose. For example, if you are describing a process, you w ill sta rt at the beginning of the process and explain it step by step. If the text is describing problem s and solutions it is usual to explain the problem s firs t then provide the solutions. There are a range of text organization types used in IELTS, fo r example:
For and against discussion:

a presentation of both sides of a common argum ent or situation

Cause and effect:

an explanation of the causes and effects of a problem or situation

Advantages and disadvantage:

a discussion of the good and bad points of an issue or situation

Giving an opinion:

a presentation of your opinions on a problem or situation

Paragraph organization
A topic sentence explains the main idea of a paragraph, it usually comes at the beginning of a paragraph so that reader knows what the paragraph is about. The topic sentence gives general inform ation on the main idea. The topic sentence does NOT contain details.
The other sentences in a paragraph add extra information to the main idea presented in the topic sentence. These sentences can be: explanations, details, reasons, contradictions, problems, solutions, opposite views etc. These sentences contain details and extend the main idea in the topic sentence.

The function of sentences
Each sentence in a paragraph has a function. It must be connected to the sentence before and the sentence after and add inform ation about the main idea in the topic sentence. Linking words
(Unit 10) and reference words (Unit 16) help to connect sentences together and highlight th e ir role.
1 Celebrities have had a large im pact on the fashion industry. 2 This is due to the fact that they make successful advertising campaigns. 3 Sports stars, pop stars and actors, fo r exam ple, are often connected w ith a p a rticu la r product. 4 Consequently, fans of the celebrity buy the product and company profits increase. 5 However, using celebrities makes people want products they do not w ant or need.
1 Topic sentence
2 Reason/explanation

Grammar for IELTS

3 Example
U Result

5 Problem

Unit 17

Practice Exercises
Match fo llo w ing paragraph sentences to th e ir functions.
1

During the 1960s fashion in the West went through an extensive transform ation.

2

Most of the changes were due to the influence of popular m usic and the ideas of young people. 3

The new less tra d itio n a l views of lifestyle were seen in item s of clothing such as the m in is k irt and the choice of bright colours, which became popular w ith young people.

U

In contrast, people from the older generation saw this new fashion as underm ining tra d itio n a l values.

5

This conflict over fashion between the younger and older generations has continued since then.
A

C

B

2

Result

Opposite view

Reason

E

Example

D Topic sentence

The text below is from an IELTS W ritin g Task 1. Look at the graph, divide the te xt into three paragraphs and then lab e l the function of each paragraph. per cent
50
40
30
20
10

0
USA
Japan
B razil
Russia
Percentage of yearly income spent on the clothes by age group and nationality.
The bar chart shows the percentage of th e ir income that different age groups spend on clothing in a year. The age groups are children and teenagers, young adults and m iddle aged people, and the data is from four countries. Overall, we can see that the 20-39 age group spends the largest part of th e ir income, between 35 and 40 per cent on clothes. In contrast, the group which spends the least on clothes is the oldest group who are between
40 and 60 years old except fo r in B razil where this age group spends the most on clothing.
Regarding nationality, in the USA it can be seen that the expenditure on clothes decreases w ith age, whereas in Brazil this trend is reversed. In Japan and Russia the distribution of spending across the age groups is proportionally s im ila r but for a ll age groups the
Japanese spend more than the Russians.

Functions
A

Gives an overall trend and additional details on age groups.

B

Provides an introduction to w hat inform ation is in the graph.

C

Gives the overall trends fo r different nationalities.
Fashion

71

Grammar tip: Always make sure that any paragraph you w rite has one main idea or function. 3

Decide w hich heading A, B o r C co rrectly describes the main idea in each paragraph.
Exam tip: When you are m atching headings to paragraphs in the IELTS Reading exam, make sure that the heading matches the main idea of the paragraph not the details.
1

Fashion is often described as a statem ent of individuality. Despite the fact that many people believe that they have a neutral approach to fashion, the selection of brands and specific item s of clothing can reveal a lot about a person's image. An example of this is people who do not buy designer clothes but purchase designer glasses. As a functional accessory it seems unnecessary to purchase designer glasses. Fashion experts claim that this occurs p rim a rily because these people have to w ear glasses so they want to make them selves stand out through th e ir glasses choice although they do not apply this to th e ir clothing choices.
A Why designer glasses are more im portant than designer clothes.
B
C

2

Expert advice fo r choosing designer glasses.
How exclusive item s can be used as a personal fashion statem ent.

There are many benefits to the w earing of uniform s at school. Firstly, it reduces the likelihood of children being able to guess the social and financial standing of th e ir classm ates. This can help manage bullying in schools, which is often directed at children from low er income fam ilies. By w earing uniform s children are less able to display th e ir wealth or ability to purchase fashionable clothing. As a result, there is more chance of children receiving more equal treatm ent from th e ir peers and staff.
A

School uniform s make differences in fam ily income less noticeable

B The wearing of uniform s reduces some common problem s in school.
C Wearing uniform s stops children buying fashionable clothes.
3

Nowadays very few of the clothes available in shops are handmade. This is p rim a rily because of the increased labour costs associated w ith m anual w ork compared to the efficient processing and production of modern machinery. The average factory machine can produce fifty tim es more garm ents than a human in the same length of tim e. That is why the quantity of handmade clothes has decreased considerably. However, making clothes by hand can be profitable since the expertise of designers, dressm akers and pattern cutters is reflected in the price of the goods.
A

The survival of handmade goods in the face of technology.

B

How the efficiency of m odern factories has harmed handmade production.

C The rising production costs of handmade and factory goods.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 17

Exam practice: Reading - matching headings

Choose the correct heading for sections A -E from the lis t of numbered headings below the follow ing Reading passage.
W rite the correct num ber i - viii next to Sections A-E.

Section A _____________
Fashion is said to have a language that can be read like a text. It serves as an explanation of people's character, personality, lifestyle and values. It w orks by using signs and codes which are recognisable to others and tra n s m it messages. These signs, codes and messages are called sem iotics and influence a ll aspects of our daily lives. Sem iotics in fashion w orks to convey our identity and in this way messages can be projected to the outside w orld.

Section B _____________
The earliest types of clothing were body painting and adornments. According to experts it is generally believed that the aim of these alterations was to modify the body in some way in order to communicate a specific message. In modern tim es the aim is largely the same, although the messages are more varied, complex and wide ranging. Nowadays it is common for people to use clothing, colour, fabric, jewellery, hairstyles and even tattoos. Dr W alker from The Centre for Fashion
Studies asserts that how we style our bodies is one of the most im portant factors in defining the self.

Section C _____________
Fashion is not only used to define the self but also is a pow erful tool fo r group identity. This can be most clearly seen in youth fashion w hich is often given a name to help convey the messages of its m em bers. Fashion styles such as goth, mod and emo have sem iotic signs and sym bols which can represent values, beliefs and p olitical ideologies. Often these values and ideas bring young people together who use clothing as a way to identify others who share th e ir philosophy of life.
Section D ________________
On the other hand the semiotics of fashion can be seen as a product of a consumer-based society where appearance, especially through clothing, is valued and judged. This leads to people making conclusions about others on the basis of what they wear. These conclusions are often incorrect and damaging as they attach values and characteristics to people which they may not actually believe in or possess.

Section E _____________
In conclusion fashion can be a useful way to analyse an individual, group, society o r tim e period.
Clothing and body adornm ent can highlight status, mood, ideas and values. Although sem iotics has som etim es been criticized as a tool of judgm ent fo r appearance, it has generally offered a valuable insight into human thought and behaviour throughout history. i Connecting fashion and character

ii

Fashion as a tool fo r unifying people

iii

Fashion is a like a language

iv

The effect of consum erism on fashion

v

Using fashion to develop c u ltu ra l knowledge

vi

Explaining fashion w ith signs

vii The difference between individual and group identity in fashion viii Fashioning the body fo r com m unication

Fashion

73

18 Film and entertainment
The passive

Academic language often uses the passive voice. The passive is used fo r the follow ing reasons:
To focus on who/what receives the action
ACTIVE SENTENCE:

Elton John partlv wrote The Lion Kinq soundtrack.

PASSIVE SENTENCE:

The Lion Kino soundtrack was oartlv w ritte n bv Elton John.

In the passive sentence the im portant focus is on The Lion King. Here, the text around this sentence is more likely to be about The Lion King. In the firs t sentence, the text is more likely about Elton John.
When who/what does the action is unimportant or irrelevant
ACTIVE SENTENCE:

The film comoanv released Star Wars in 1977.

PASSIVE SENTENCE:

Star Wars was released in 1977.

Who released the film is unim portant and irrelevant to the message.
To avoid saying who is doing the action
ACTIVE SENTENCE:

In The Bank Robber. H arrv Flint stole $2bn dollars from a bank.

PASSIVE SENTENCE:

In The Bank Robber. $2bn dollars are stolen from a bank.

Here, if the active subject is used [Harry Flint), we w ill reveal the plot of the film .

Forming the passive
Only verbs w ith an object can be turned into the passive.
An active sentence:
The film producers invested $20 million in the promotion of the film.
= a subject [The film producers)

+

a verb [invested)

+

an object [$20million)

The subject does the action and the object receives the action.
A passive sentence:
If we w ant to focus on the am ount of money, the passive sentence is as follows:
$20million was invested in the promotion of the film (by the film producers).
Here the object becomes the subject and we add a form of the verb to be + past participle (for the continuous form : to be + being + past participle). See the g ra m m a r reference fo r a ll form s.
Often the active subject becomes unnecessary.
Here you can see the changes:

The film producers invested $20 million in the promotion of the film.

IT was Grammar for IELTS

Other Passive C onstructions (avoiding using the subject)
When we don't w ant to say it is our opinion, which is a common technique in academic w riting, we often use the passive. Additionally, to avoid using they or people the passive can be used with reporting verbs.
ACTIVE SENTENCE:

People say that film m akin g is a lucrative industry.

PASSIVE SENTENCE:

Film m aking is said to be a lucrative industry.

Note: It is said that film m aking is a lucrative industry, is also possible.
See page 123 in the G ram m ar reference fo r more inform ation.

Practice Exercises
Change the fo llo w ing active sentences into passive sentences. Leave out the active subject if possible.
1

To a certain extent, the entertainm ent industry is dictating popular culture.

2

People should avoid the new Broadway play Star Memories.

3

In the USA, people have voted cinem a-going as the most popular weekend hobby.

4

People know that the entertainm ent industry is very competitive.

5

People regard Hollywood as the most influ e n tia l town fo r film m aking.

6

7

In relation to the plot of the book, someone had changed the ending of the film .

8

2

At the beginning of the 20th century, large film companies contractually restricted fam ous actors and actresses.

Someone told us to sit in seats 4a and 4b.

Listen to the lecture on the A u stra lia n Film In stitu te. Com plete the sentences m ore than three w ords a n d /o r a nu m be r fro m the recording.

1-5 w ith

no

1

The Australian Film In s titu te ________________ in 1958.

2

The AFI i s ________________ fo r its prestigious awards ceremony.

3

The awards have been ra is in g ________________ of the film Industry in Australia since the 1960s.

4

In 1986,________________ included in the AFI awards.

5

T h e ________________ was held at M elbourne's Princess Theatre.

; Gram mar tip: When talking about the plot of a story or film , use the present tense.

Film and entertainm ent

3

In th is Speaking Part 2 long tu rn answer, the student is speaking about her favourite book. She has made some m istakes in her gram m ar. Read the s c rip t and correct the m istakes. Then listen to Track 30 on the CD and check your answers.
‘My favourite book is called the Hunger Games. It was w rote by Suzanne Collins I think and it is a really good book. The story is set in N orth Am erica, but at a tim e when things are very bad. It’s a story of a te rrib le society, which separated into districts. A boy and g irl from each d is tric t send to take part in the Hunger Games. These games are televised fo r everyone to see. The games are basically a fight to the death fo r the children taking part.
The story follow s a g irl called Katniss, who forced to take part in the games when she offers herself up instead of her sister. I like the story so much because it is very exciting.
At first, I found it really horrifying, but the more I read it, the more I couldn't put the book down. I really came to like the main character too. She is so strong. I was recommend this book by some friends and it didn't disappoint m e.’

4

Below is the prom pt fo r the Part 2 Speaking above. Which part of the prom pt did the student not a n s w e r? ____________________________________________
Think about yo u r own answ ers to the p ro m p t and note down som e ideas.
Describe a book that you’ve particularly enjoyed. You should say:
- What the book is about
- The main themes in the book
- What the characters are like and explain why you liked the book.
W hat is yo u r favourite book?

W hat is the book about?

What are the main them es in the book?

What are the characters like?

Why did you like the book?

Exam tip : Make sure you answer aU parts of the Part 2 prom pt that you receive.
This means you w ill complete the task properly and make better use of the time.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 18

Exam Practice: Speaking Part 2
Read the follow ing prom pt fo r an IELTS Speaking exam Part 2. Give yourself one m inute to prepare and make notes. Then speak fo r two m inutes on the topic.
Describe a film that you particularly liked. You should say:
- What it is called
- What it is about
- Why you like it and explain what types of people would like the film.

O
31

Now listen to Track 31 on the CD fo r the m odel answer.
Make some notes on how you could improve your answ er based on the m odel answer.

Film and entertainm ent

77

19 Wildlife
R elative clauses

The ze b ras w hich are next to the lake are a new addition to o u r safari park.

The zebras, w hich are next to the lake, are a new addition to o u r safari park.

Defining relative clauses
A defining relative clause is used to give essential inform ation about the person, place or thing.
W ithout the defining relative clause the sentence does not have enough meaning, fo r example:
Animals are called wild animals.
This sentence does not have enough inform ation because not a ll anim als are called w ild anim als.
Anim als which live in a non-dom esticated environm ent are called w ild anim als.
The relative clause here gives the sentence meaning. We now know which anim als.
Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions (for example the clause above defines w ild animals). Relative pronouns for defining relative clauses: who (person, subject), whom (person, object) which
(thing), whose (possessive). Also when (time), where (place), why (after the word reason) can be used.
That can be used in place of the above relative pronouns (except whose} in defining relative clauses.

Non-defining relative clauses
A non-defining relative clause is used to give extra inform ation about a person, place or thing.
The sentence would have enough meaning w ithout the clause and the clause is not necessary.
A non-defining relative clause is enclosed by commas.
Penguins, which have tig h tly packed feathers to keep them w arm , live in cold clim ates.
The clause does not qualify which penguins; it ju s t gives more inform ation about penguins. The sentence Penguins live in cold climates, is acceptable alone.
Relative pronouns for non-defining relative clauses: who (person, subject), whom (person, object) which (thing), whose (possessive). Also when (time), where (place) can be used.
Note: That cannot be used as a relative pronoun fo r non-defining relative clauses.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 19
Subject and object relative pronouns
Relative clauses usually begin w ith a relative pronoun. The relative pronoun acts as the subject or object of the clause.
Subject relative clauses do not need a new subject as the pronoun acts as the subject:
Jacob is the only person who can feed the lions.
Who is the subject of the relative clause. (Jacob can feed the lions)
Object relative clauses need a new subject as the pronoun re Dresents the object:
The penguins were the best anim als that I saw at the zoo.
That refers to penguins, so we m ust add a subject (/) fo r the relative clause (I saw the penguins at the zoo).

Shortening relative clauses
The follow ing are ways in which a relative clause can be reduced:
1

A relative pronoun + verb can be replaced w ith a participle:
The cat spits at anyone who approaches it. = The cat spits at anyone approaching it.

2

For passive constructions, the relative pronoun + verb to be can be removed to leave the past participle: The man who w as injured in the tig e r attack w ent to hospital.

3

With defining relative clauses, the relative pronoun can be removed if it is an object pronoun:
Some biologists begin to love the anim als

they study.

Practice Exercises
Look at the fo llo w ing sentences and add relative pronouns and punctuation if needed.
1

The anim al liberation lea g u e ______ opinion was criticized by senior politicians failed to get th e ir views acted upon.

2

W ildlife in M exico__________ has flourished fo r many years is now under attack by the industrialization of natural habitats.

3

Flightless birds are b ird s ______ cannot fly.

4

Dian Fossey______ died in 1985 helped save the m ountain g o rilla from extinction.

5

London______ a third of the city is actually open space is home to a wide variety of wildlife.

6 An a n im a l______ sleeps during the day is called 'n o ctu rn a l’.
7

The w ildlife photos_______ my sister took in Borneo were the best photos I had ever seen.

8

E vo lutio n______ is the generally accepted theory of how life on earth developed is s till disputed by some.

Which one of the above sentences could have the relative pronoun o m itte d ? ____________

W ildlife

79

2

Look at the following questions which may be asked in an IELTS Part 3 Speaking exam.
Complete the spaces with the clauses below. that have no laws to protect their animals which don’t have shops to buy food that keep animals in small cages which have been destroyed by industries

that give the animals space to move and look after them w ell
, which are one of the most endangered rainforest species,
, when the main purpose is enjoyment,

Are zoos cruel to animals?
I don't know. I th in k some zoos are cruel, fo r example zoos (1 )_______________________
But there are also zoos (2 )_______________________ This I th in k is good. Zoos can also help protect endangered species, and this is a really great thing. There are some countries
(3 )________________________ - th a t’s a real problem . So overall I don’t th in k zoos are as bad as people think.
Do you think we could do more to protect our wildlife?
Yes, we could do a little more. I th in k many areas of rainforest (4 )_______________________ really need to be rejuvenated. Lots of w ild life live there and if they don’t have these forests, they w on't be able to survive. G orillas (5 )_______________________ are dying out rapidly.
Do you think hunting is justified?
Ith in k hunting som etim es is a necessary thing. But I th in k hunting as a sport
(6 )______________________________ is a little cruel. We a ll need to eat, and societies (7 )_
_______________________need to be able to hunt fo r food. This is necessary for them to be able to live.
Listen and check your answers. Can you think of any additional points to add to these answers? | Grammar tip: It is im portant to know which type of relative clause to use (defining or i non-defining). This te lls you w hether you need to punctuate the clause, what pronouns j you can use, and if the clause can be shortened. Remember, speakers w ill pause at
| commas in non-defining relative clauses. This means that you can identify a defining
I and non-defining relative clause by the way it is said.

3

Using the tip above, listen to the sentences below and decide whether they contain defining or non-defining relative clauses. Punctuate the non-defining relative clauses.
1

Owls are divided into two groups which are classified ‘typical owls’ and ‘barn owls'.

2

Barn owls which are nocturnal fly silently________________________

3

Owls which are nomadic rear a great num ber of young_______________________

U

Long-eared owls which live in the north m igrate to Europe fo r winter.

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 19
I Exam tip : When you hear a relative clause in listening fo r notes or labels (e.g. a i dia g ra m -la b e lling question), you w ill norm ally need to com plete it in note form . This j w ill usually mean that the pronoun and any auxiliary verbs are om itted.

34

Now listen to Track 34 on the CD and complete the diagram with no more than three words and/or a number. Notice how the information is given in varied forms of relative clause.

Exam practice: Listening - labelling a diagram

35

Complete the diagram below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER for each answer. W ildlife

81

20 Men and women
Noun phrases
A noun phrase gives extra inform ation about the subject or object of a sentence. The extra inform ation in a noun phrase can come before and/or a fte r the main noun as follows:
D e te rm in e r/q u an tifie r + adjective(s) + NOUN + prepositional phrase + relative clause
The recent increase of fem ale graduates who have studied technical subjects...
The = d e te rm in e r / recent = adjective / increase = noun / in female graduates = prepositional phrase / who have studied technical subjects = relative clause
Noun phrases can contain one, some or a ll of these parts.
It is im portant to notice where the noun phrase begins and ends in a sentence to help you understand what the sentence means. The way to do this is to find the verb in the sentence; everything before the verb is the subject noun phrase and everything that comes a fte r the verb is the object noun phrase.
The recent increase in female graduates who have studied technical subjects has changed the modern job m arket.
(noun phrase & subject) + (verb in the sing u lar form because it agrees w ith increase) + (noun phrase & object]

The/an + general noun + specific noun
The general noun describes the category and the specific noun te lls us more about the category. the development of scientific analysis

the pattern of m arriage statistics

an approach of prim ary school teachers

the num ber of male arts students

Relative clauses
The relative clause provides details which focuses the subject/noun. In the phrase the men who make the operational decisions we know exactly which group of men. the experts who advised the governm ent

figures that support the doctors’ claim s

Multiple nouns
Some noun phrases are composed of a series of two or more nouns. In the noun phrase female business owners a ll the words are nouns which together form one specific meaning. com m unity support w orkers

Grammar for IELTS

women governm ent officials

Unit 20

Practice exercises
Underline the noun phrase in the following sentences and name the elements
(determ iner/quantifier, adjective, noun, prepositional phrase, relative clause) in it.
Example: The / latest / statistics / on gender equality / in the workplace show that in general women receive lower pay than men. = d e te rm in e r + adjective + noun + prepositional phrase + prepositional phrase
1
2

The politician who had proposed new laws on paternity rights won the election.

3

The developm ent of language s k ills in boys and g irls interests psychologists.

I*

The latest figures from the Driving Standards Agency state that women cause few er accidents. 5

Gender intelligence stereotypes have changed in recent decades.

6

2

A large audience of dedicated fans went to the w orld cham pionships.

Men who decide to give up w ork to bring up th e ir children are in the m inority.

Put the noun phrases from the brackets into the correct order to fit the following text.
Throughout history there have been many fam ous male inventors but less is known about female inventors. Interestingly, women have played an increasingly im portant role in invention as they have had w ider access to education and em ploym ent. In fact, (1) [of household products / that we use in our daily live s /a large quantity) has been invented by women. Some examples include disposable diapers, (2) [a / computers / for programming / language] and w indscreen wipers. In the past (3) [of women/ scientific/ the/education/ and technical} was lim ited compared to men but (4) [who are studying and working in science and technology / in the number of wom en/a dramatic rise} has occurred in recent years.
Therefore it can be argued that (5) [the importance of/which allows people to develop their s k ills /a focused education) should not be underestim ated in the field of invention. j Gram mar tip: M ultiple nouns such as female business owners can be d ifficu lt to order.
| When trying to order these types of nouns rem em ber that the firs t noun w ill describe or i categorize the nouns that follow. In this case business owners is a noun phrase and we
I use female business owners to state what type of business owners.

3

In the following paragraph, rewrite the underlined sections as noun phrases. Use the structure the + general noun + specific noun. You may need to think of a suitable general noun. The first one has been done for you.
Parents can have different views about (1) how th e ir children are educated at prim ary school depending on w hether the child is a boy or g irl. Men often th in k about aspects such as (2) w hat different activities the boys and g irls w ill do. or (3) what space is available fo r doing physical exercise in the school grounds, whereas women can be more concerned about (4) how many children w ill be in the same class as th e ir child and (5) w hat kind of person the teacher is. However, there are many points which concern both parents irrespective of gender, for example, (6) how much money a school spends on fa cilitie s and the quality of care which is provided by the staff.

Men and women

83

1 the education of th e ir children
2 _________________________
3

U

_________________________________________________________________________________

5

______________________________________________________________________________

6 _______________________________________________________________________
4

Choose some of the following noun phrases and use them to write a short one-paragraph answer for the essay title below. You can adapt the noun phrases to fit your ideas.
Men are more suited to working in fields such as engineering and business whereas women are more suited to the caring professions, for example, nursing or teaching.
How far do you agree with this statement?

Noun phrases the types of job which are more suited to men women who w ork in the caring professions the amount of women working in engineering men who chooses to become a teacher the range of employment opportunities for women women who hold senior positions in business the increase in female engineers professions which require a caring personality the s kills needed fo rw o rk in g in business the type of person

Compare your paragraph with the model answer in the answer key.
Exam tip: Noun phrases are widely used in w ritte n texts so you need to be able to recognize them in the reading texts and you should try to w rite them in Tasks 1 and 2 of the W riting exam.

Grammar for IELTS

Exam practice: W riting Task 2
You have 40 minutes to answer the following essay question.
Write about the following topic:
\ Women are better at childcare than men therefore they should focus more on raising
I children and less on their working life.

j

| To what extent do you agree o r disagree with this statement?

j

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. W rite at least 250 words.

Compare your essay with the model answer in the answer key.

Men and women

Audio script
Unit 1

Holidays and travel

Track 01
Examiner:
Nikolas:
Examiner:
Nikolas:
Examiner:
Nikolas:

Examiner:
Nikolas:

Where do you live?
I come from Moscow. I have lived there fo r 6 years. My fam ily moved from the countryside when I was 12 years old.
Do you s till live w ith your family?
Yes, I do. I live w ith my parents and share a room w ith my brother.My brother s till goes to school. He is only 8 years old.
Do you like Moscow?
Yes, I love Moscow. When I firs t arrived, I didn't like it much because it was so different, but I have grown accustomed to it. Now, I know my way around and have lots of friends.
How has Moscow changed recently?
It has become more international, and more exciting. In the last few years, about ten new international restaurants have opened in my area alone and I often eat in them now w ith my friends. I have lots of international friends who have come to study at the University in Moscow, and we often meet in the evenings.

Track 02
1

What kinds of holidays do you like?

2

What was the last place you visited on holiday?

3

What kinds of tra n sp ort do you use regularly?

U

How long have you lived in your home town?

5

Have you travelled to many different places in your country?

Track 03
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

What kinds of holidays do you like?
I like beach holidays because w ell, I enjoy relaxing and I love the sun. I don't really like city breaks or activity holidays. They're too tiring fo r me. I w ork so hard that I like to just do nothing when I'm away. I usually go to Italy on holiday, which is really nice but quite expensive!
What was the last place you visited on holiday?
I w ent to one of the Greek islands last year. I was there fo r two weeks. I flew there but took the boat back, which was a real treat. I love travelling by boat! When I was there I saw a few sights and ate some of the local food, but m ainly I just stayed by the pool and sunbathed.
What kinds of tra n sp ort do you use regularly?
I live in a big city, Shanghai, and so I often use public transport. I go to w ork by bus which usually takes about th irty m inutes. Lots of people in Shanghai travel by bike,

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 01-05

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Unit 3

but I've never ridden a bicycle because I'm too scared! It sounds ridiculous but it ’s true! I often visit my parents by train, but last week there was an accident so I took the bus.
How long have you lived in your home town?
I’ve lived here a ll my life. Although I’ve w orked in lots of different cities, I've never stayed there fo r more than a few m onths. I was born in Shanghai and have lived here now fo r tw enty one years. I lived w ith my parents when I was younger but now
I’ve got a fla t on my own in the city centre! It's not very big but it suits me.
Have you travelled to many different places in your country?
Yes, I've travelled to lots of different cities in China. I've been to Beijing, Guangzhou,
Nanjing, Harbin and Kunming. My favourite one was Beijing. I w ent there a couple of years ago and it was really fantastic. I didn't realize how cold it was in Beijing. I was amazed. Apparently, it is really hot in the su m m er but really cold in the w in te r tim e. Unfortunately, I went in the w in te r!

Fame

Track 04
Presenter:

Unit U

In today’s program m e I’ll continue examining the im pact of fame on lifestyle using the style icon Gloria Van Broncken as an example. Before becoming fam ous in the m odelling industry, Gloria had lived in a sm a ll village and had never travelled outside her own country. She used to w ork in a clothes store and she enjoyed a ll the usual activities of a teenager in her free tim e. She’d been w orking in the clothes store fo r two years when a custom er who represented a m odel agency spotted her and signed her up. By the tim e she was 21 Gloria had travelled round the w orld several tim es and had appeared on the cover of many international fashion magazines. Now the im pact of such drastic lifestyle changes can be very s ig n ific a n t... [fade]

Education

Track 05
Librarian:
John:
Librarian:
John:
Librarian:
John:
Librarian:

Hello there. How can I help you?
I’m going to do a presentation on Mary Shelley, and I’d like to get some books on her. Okay. The biographies are on the third floor. I’ll w rite the aisle num ber down for you. Thanks. I m ight use the Internet too and look fo r resources on there.
That’s a good idea. If you’re going to use the Internet, have a look on the Great
B ritish Authors website.
Thanks, I w ill. I haven't heard of that site before. Thanks very much fo r the inform ation.
That's quite a ll right. Feel free to come and ask me any questions and I w ill do my best to help.

Audio script

Track 06
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:

Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:
Andy:

Carol:

Andy:
Carol:
Andy:
Carol:

Andy:
Carol:
Andy:

Hi, is this the Student Affairs Office?
Yes, it is. I'm Carol. How can I help you?
Hi, I’m Andy. Well, I’m new at the University and I was told I needed to come here to com plete my registration?
You’re in the righ t place yes.
Great!
Firstly, do you know your way around the campus?
No, it’s my firs t day. I’m going to explore later.
Well, hold on, I’ll give you a map of the University. Errm m ... they’re just...
There are some over there on the w all. I’ll grab one.
Thanks, s o rry about th a t. Have you organized your to u r around the main lib ra ry?
No, not yet. I’m going to go to the lib ra ry la te r to do it.
I’ll do it fo r you here. There is a to u r at 4.30 today. Shall I put you on that?
Yes, please th a t’d be great! I’m going to com plete the New Student Form la te r on today. Do I bring that to you?
You can’t complete it yourself. You’ll need to go to the main adm inistration office as one of the staff m em bers there needs to fill the form out fo r you. It’s ju st by the main hall, you can't miss it. You can get a visa form from them too, but you’ll need to send the confirm ation yourself once you’ve completed the form .
I don’t need a visa, so I should be okay w ith that, but thanks.
Okay, can I help you w ith anything else?
Yes, please. There’s just so much to do, and I don’t know where to go fo r some things. Could you help me?
Yes, of course. It’s a bit daunting when it’s a ll new.
Well, at the m om ent I’m staying in a bed and breakfast. I left it a bit late to get some accom modation! But I’d like a place of my own. Do you know where I can find inform ation about places I could rent?
Good job you asked! Lots of people go to the A d m in is tra tiv e D epartm ent and then get sent back here to S tudent A ffa irs ! H ere’s the late st lis t of accom m odation!
Wow that was easy. And where can I get inform ation on my rental agreement?
W ell you need to find a place firs t before you get it checked, but I’ll do it when you’ve found somewhere.
Great. I’m going to register w ith the doctor la te r on at the Admin Departm ent. Do they also have inform ation on the area?
You’ll need to go to Student Support to get a doctor, not Admin. They also have everything you need to know about the town. They're really helpful. The Admin
D epartm ent is really only there fo r o fficial things such as visa regulations, loans and paying fo r your course.
Okay. Great. There’s so much to rem em ber!
There c e rta in ly is, but once you’ re se ttle d in it w ill a ll be m uch easier. Good luck! Thanks fo r your help.

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 0 6 -0 8

Unit 5

The Internet

Track 07
Interviewer: Welcome to the program m e, Bob Lamont. Now you're going to ta lk to us about the online gaming industry. We’ve had many listeners, especially parents of young children, em ail questions about the future of the gaming industry and how it’s going to develop.
Bob Lamont: Well, hopefully I'll be able to answ er some of th e ir questions. Firstly, it’s im portant to rem em ber that this is an industry that develops incredibly rapidly and so it’s d iffic u lt to make definite predictions. So, in te rm s of significant developm ents that people w orking in the industry are preparing for, the most interesting is the fact that the age group of gam ers (people who play online and video games) w ill change dram atically. We predict that by 2020 the average age range w ill have shifted from teenagers to the over 50s. This is because in the future young people w ill be using new form s of entertainm ent but those who are young now are more likely to continue using the form s of entertainm ent they are already used to in la te r life.
By 2020 this age group w ill have been playing the same type of game fo r half th e ir lives and are unlikely to change.
The types of games w ill progress too from the platform -based games we have now, w hich we expect people to be using u n til 2015, to 3D games towards the end of the decade. However, before everyone is using 3D games there w ill be a period when networked games w ill become the dom inant form at. This is m ostly to do w ith the technology available and the fact that gaming companies w on’t have invested enough money to make 3D cheap enough fo r the mass m arket u n til at least 2018. Now, as you would expect, the gaming m arket w ill spread so that by
2020 companies w ill have created a w orldw ide m arketing strategy fo r every game, therefore reducing the need to create new games fo r different regional m arkets.
This is different from today where we see that the online gaming industry is much more focused on the region of Asia and this is likely to continue fo r a few more years. One final point to mention here is the com petition from other form s of entertainm ent. Over the next decade very few form s of entertainm ent w ill be able to compete with the gaming industry. However, there is talk of movies becoming interactive in the future. This is a real threat. Tech companies w ill have developed the necessary technology for interactive movies by 2015 and this may attract gamers who like character-based games in large numbers.
Interviewer: Fascinating, Bob. I didn’t realize it was such a complex business. Thank you very much fo r your in s ig h t... [fade]

Track 08
Curator:

Good m orning ladies and gentlem en and welcom e to the Museum of Technology.
We’ll be taking a to u r around the three floors, which w ill last approxim ately one hour and then a fter that you’ll be able to explore the museum on your own.
Now, le t’s begin w ith The In te rn e t: Past, Present and Future on the firs t floor.
By th is Friday the exhibition w ill have been open fo r two weeks, it started on

Audio script

July 10th, and it 'll continue fo r three m ore weeks so make sure you see it today otherw ise it’ll probably have finished by the tim e you th in k about coming back!
The fin a l day of the exhibition is 31st July. The m ost interesting part of this section of the m useum is about the Internet of the future. As you w alk around you’ll see som e large 3D touch screens which show how w e 'll probably be using com puters in about five years. These screens are definitely the best part of the display and som ething you m ust see.
Moving on to the third floor, the exhibition here is a ll about com m unicating via the Internet and it's called Social N etworking. This exhibition is open throughout
August from 1st to 30th. There is a fascinating part of the exhibition which is really w orth seeing as it compares m obile phone and Internet usage and shows how w e 'll be using social netw orking in the future. According to some scientists, by the m iddle of this century we w ill have been participating in com m unication through social netw orking so much that mobile phones w ill have become obsolete! Make sure you take a look at the w orld digital map which shows this visually, as it's quite amazing. The fin a l exhibition is opening on the fourth flo o r and is dedicated to sm a ll hand­ held devices that companies w ill have introduced into our shops by the end of next year. In fact you may have already seen some of them being advertised on TV.
The name of this section is 'Portable Devices of the 21st Century' and it’s starting tom orrow on July 22n and w ill be open u n til August 20th. This part of the museum d is about sixth sense technology. This technology w ill have been included in a ll portable devices like m obile phones and m usic players w ithin three years or so.
It also shows us examples of satellite tracking systems which we w ill be using to help us plan our daily lives. These two sections are fascinating and I recommend you spend some tim e viewing both.
So, let's start the tour. If you could a ll follow me... [fade]

Unit 6

The family

Track 09
I’m going to ta lk about my g ra n d m o th e r on my fa th e r’s side. She is quite little and has w hite h a ir and glasses. I have glasses too. We’re the only people in the fa m ily th a t w e a r glasses!
She is very old now and I don’t get to see her very often... I th in k I see h er maybe two or three tim e s a year. She lives quite fa r away in the countryside. It takes us about three hours to tra ve l there. W henever we visit, she always gives sw eets to me. She's im p o rta n t to me because sh e ’s so kind and so nice, and I re a lly love her. She's d e fin ite ly my favourite fa m ily m e m be r! I th in k I take a fte r her in som e ways. We laugh at the sam e th in g s and we both like reading. When we go and visit, we always go out w a lkin g in the fie ld s and have a re a lly lovely tim e. My dad always says th a t w e're very sim ila r. I’d like to be as w ise as her when I am older. I’d also like to have a s im ila r life. She had a very successful career. She was a d o cto r and w orked fo r c h a ritie s . She was very m uch in love w ith my g ra nd fa the r, w hich I th in k is lovely. Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 09-12

Unit 8

Food

Track 10
Simon:

Jim:
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim:
Simon:
Jim:

Simon:
Jim:

Simon:
Jim:

Simon:
Jim:

Excuse me, my nam e’s Simon and I'm a dietician w orking here at the University.
Would you mind if I asked you some questions? I’m doing a survey fo r the Students’
Union on student eating habits.
Oh really.
Yes, w e’re trying to find out how we can improve the meals served in the university canteens and cafes based on w hat students like to cook fo r themselves.
Right. Well, I’ve a few m inutes before class so yes, I can answer some questions.
Thanks a lot. Firstly, w hat's your name and w hat course are you studying?
I’m Jim and I'm doing Biology.
Okay. Now can you te ll me how often you eat meat?
About once a week. The cost is really high these days so I can’t afford to eat much meat. Right. And what about fish and vegetables?
I don’t like fish so that hardly features in my diet at all, but I often eat vegetables.
In fact both at lunchtim e and fo r my evening m eal I usually make meals from vegetables as they’re quick and easy.
Mmm, th a t’s a good idea. Do you th in k we should have more vegetable dishes in the
Students’ Union canteens?
I th in k so because price is a big fa cto r fo r students deciding to be vegetarian. If the university served good quality vegetarian food they could make it cheaper and this m ight a ttra ct more students.
Yes, I see your point. Now, how would you evaluate your diet?
That’s a good question! I know my diet contains far too much sugar. The problem is that I love fizzy drinks like coke and lemonade. I’m pretty sure that th a t’s where most of the sugar comes from . What I really have to do is to try to find a way to stop this and drink some kind of juice or w ater instead.
Yes, you’re right, th a t’s what a dietician, n u tritio n is t or doctor would recommend.
I know, I know. At the m om ent I don’t d rin k enough w ate r - on an average day I only have a couple of glasses.

Track 11
Last year I w ent to a w onderful restaurant overlooking the river in my city, M arseille, w ith a group of friends. The special occasion was my friend's 21st birthday and we decided to go out fo r dinner. We wanted to eat beef because this restaurant is fam ous fo r meat, but as we arrived late they didn't have any beef left. Instead we ate bouillabaisse which is a kind of seafood stew containing fish and shellfish. I had a couple of glasses of orange juice. For dessert we each had a slice of birthday cake which the restaurant had made especially fo r my friend. The cake had 21 candles and my friend blew them a ll out in one go so she made many wishes fo r the future. We had so much fun that night.

Track 12
I’m going to ta lk about an English dessert called trifle . This is a dish that people usually eat in su m m e r and it ’s been very popular since the 1950s. It’s made from fru it, cake, custard

Audio script

and je lly and we often eat it w ith some cream. Trifle is really easy to make because it doesn't actually need cooking. Um firs t of all, you cut up some cake into slices and then you put the slices of cake into a bowl. Some people like to cover the cake in sh e rry otherw ise it can go a bit hard. Next you need to chop up some fru it but you can’t use ju s t any fru it; it m ust be berries such as stra w b errie s, raspberries or blackberries. A fte r covering the cake w ith berries, you need to make some je lly and pour th is over the fru it. When the je lly has cooled it ’s tim e to add custard. You can use a tin of custard but it’s b e tte r to make your own - people can always te ll the difference. Finally, add the cream. It's best to only use a little cream because trifle is quite rich. And then put a few raspberries on the top fo r decoration. I love it because of the mix of fru it and sweet custard.

Unit 10

Youth

Track 13
As part of this module on youth, today we are going to look at current youth initiatives in the UK.
Some of which are more successful than others, I m ust say. The last governm ent spent a lot of money on setting up initiatives that sadly have been left in desperate need of funding since the new governm ent has come into power.
Firstly, volunteering schemes are incredibly successful in the UK. These schemes are cheap to run, which is a huge benefit. In addition to this, the schemes are com m unity based. This means that the benefits are spread widely throughout each local community. The uptake has doubled in the last ten years and I believe this is an area where more focus should be placed.
Secondly, sports clubs are a huge youth initiative, w ith more than 20,000 emerging in the last ten years in England alone. Although the num bers are very positive, these schemes are expensive to staff. If these are to continue to flourish, this area w ill need a significant cash injection. Lastly, there are a certain num ber of drama clubs th a t have emerged in the last ten years.
Although it was thought that these would be hugely popular, they have actually attracted only sm a ll num bers of students. Moreover, they are costly, and finding a venue fo r such clubs has proved d iffic u lt as many local halls are running at capacity. As a result of these factors, these clubs are not likely to continue in the long term .
To conclude, as we can see, some of the schemes are flourishing, yet many are short of money and other essential resources. In order to enhance the youth experience, the government m ust identify new schemes which are cost effective, yet enjoyable to teens.

Track K
So, what other initiatives could the governm ent focus on? Well, due to the success of the sports clubs, new ‘open spaces’ initiatives are being discussed, fo r example football tournam ents in local playing fields or athletics days in local parks. This could regenerate local areas and renew interest in activities fo r young people. Staffing would s till be necessary, although young people could take an active role in organizing and managing com petitions. This could cut down staff costs significantly.
In addition to the open spaces scheme, there has been discussion of reinvigorating the 'taste of w o rk' scheme, which gives young people a chance to get w ork experience in a variety of jobs in th e ir school holidays. However, this scheme has met w ith harsh criticism from some politicians

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 13-16 who th in k that it’s a way of providing a free w orkforce by stealth. In fact, I th in k it is fa ir to say that this scheme w ill not see any renewed interest because of these criticism s.
Lastly, the scheme that there has been a lot of talk about is the outward bound activities courses, or OBAC fo r short. This has been successful in many other countries, such as Canada, Mexico and Brazil. The activity courses give young people a chance to get out into the countryside and enjoy nature. As a result of this, they also give teens a chance to learn life skills and experience adventure on a broader scale.

Unit 11

People and places

Track 15
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

How has the place you live in changed recently?
Well, in my city there is a lot more tra ffic than there used to be. This is because of the new business centre, which has brought a lot more people to the city fo r w ork. This has made the city rich e r than it was. In fact th a t’s the most significant difference - the city is not as poor as it was 10 years ago.
So, you're studying here in Sydney. How is your town or city different from Sydney?
Mm, there are quite a few differences such as the shop opening hours - the shops in Tokyo stay open much la te r than those here in Sydney. Then there's the tra n sp ort system w hich is more efficient and convenient. But the w eather is the same as here in Australia.
Is it a good place to live?
Yes, it's really nice. I th in k it ’s considerably better than other cities in my country because it’s more modern. It’s also got a lot of parks which I really like and this means that it ’s not nearly as crowded as some places.

Track 16
James:
Suzanne:

Helen:

James:
Helen:
Suzanne:
James:

I th in k our presentation should focus on why living in the countryside has become more attractive to fam ilies nowadays than in the past.
I’m not so sure. Although the statistics Professor Davies showed us in the lecture gave the impression that there are more fam ilies moving to the country now than at any tim e during the last 20 years, he also mentioned that there aren’t as many available houses in suburban areas so many fam ilies don't have as much choice as before. Yes, Suzanne, you're right. Perhaps that's actually more im portant. People th in k that the same housing stock exists as in the past, but that's not true. How about we focus our presentation on the fact that the choice of location fo r fam ilies is not as wide as during the 1980s and this is w hat is affecting the trend of moving to the countryside. Okay. I th in k you’ve thought about the presentation a lot more clearly than me.
Thanks.
I th in k Helen’s right. We want Professor Davies to th in k that we have done as much research fo r the presentation as we could and not only used the reading list.
Yes, you’re right. Otherwise our fin a l grade w on’t be nearly as good as our last presentation - so we need to read as w idely as possible.

Audio script

Track 17
Alison:
Greg:
Kirsty:

Greg:
Kirsty:

Alison:

Greg:

Kirsty:

Alison:
Greg:

Alison:

Kirsty:
Greg:

So, Greg, Kirsty, have you done much research fo r our project yet?
I haven't done as much reading as I’d planned to but I've got quite a lot of books and jo u rn a l articles that m ight be relevant.
Good w ork Greg! I th in k I m ight have worked out how we can approach the project and give it a more specific focus than the title that Dr Jones suggested, which is too vague. Oh really - how’s that?
Well, we know that the New Seven Wonders of the World were chosen a few years ago but I th in k that how they were chosen and what this says about people’s relationships to th e ir a rch itectura l and natural national heritage is fa r more interesting than ju s t doing a project that describes w hat they are and why they were chosen. What do you th in k Alison?
You know I th in k you could be right there. Didn’t Dr Jones mention som ething in our last lecture about how many more people voted fo r some of the wonders than the total num ber of people in the country?
Mmm, that did happen. In a sense it w asn’t really a voting system at a ll - more like a TV talent show. It w asn’t nearly as scientific as political voting systems because people could vote as many tim es as they wanted and it was a ll done via the Internet so it only applied to people w ith access to a computer. And most of the votes fo r the wonders came from the country’s own citizens.
Mmm, th a t’s interesting. I th in k therefore that we can show how the modern choices were different from the original Seven Wonders of the Ancient World because the original w onders were chosen by travellers w hile the latest list was chosen by people from the same country as the w onder itself. From this we can analyse the choices and how having a building or site on this list could be more advantageous to some countries than others. For example, countries which rely less heavily than others on tourism may not have been nearly as interested in the whole com petition as those who wanted to boost visitor num bers. Then we could compare this w ith how travellers chose the previous wonders.
Okay, now I understand and yes I think it’s a great idea. Let’s do it!
Yes, I th in k th a t'll really give us an edge com pared to the o th e r students. It’ll make the fin a l project considerably m ore o rig in a l. R em em ber, Dr Jones isn ’t expecting m uch fro m us given the re s u lt fo r our last project! But I’m ju s t s lig h tly w o rrie d th a t we m igh t not have as m uch tim e as w e ’d like to do the reading. Mmm.... I see w hat you mean. Well, why don’t we do as much reading of these books and jo u rn a ls as we can and then m eet again on Friday to make a final decision on content?
That’s a good idea Alison.
Absolutely, then we can make sure we w on ’t read too much and w ill s till have enough tim e fo r the actual project w riting.

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 17-20

Unit 12

Crime

Track 18
Examiner:
Student:

How can crim e be prevented?
Crim e prevention m ust sta rt from education. If people are not raised w ell, then they m ight com m it crim es in the future. It's the responsibility of both parents and schools to educate children in the difference between right and wrong. This could be done in special ethics classes in schools, and perhaps parenting classes m ight be a good idea fo r parents who are unsure of how to raise children w ith more m oral values. These classes shouldn't be com pulsory though as this m ight be too expensive and unnecessary. However, although a ll parents m ight not go, it could be useful fo r those who are struggling. More inform ation could help these parents.

Track 19
1

Why do you th in k people become crim inals?

2What do you th in k the role of prisons should be: punishm ent o r rehabilitation?
3What do you th in k is the best way to deal w ith juvenile crim e?

U

Do you th in k people com m it crim es because of violence on TV or in video games?

5

Is crim e always linked to poverty?

Track 20
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Why do you th in k people become crim inals?
Errr... because life can be d iffic u lt fo r some people. Crim e can present an easy way to get things they want in life. Even though people know they shouldn’t do it, the tem ptation could be very strong, especially if they are in a desperate situation.
Although they ought to w ork hard o r get help, som etim es they ju st can’t.
What do you th in k the role of prisons should be: punishm ent o r rehabilitation?
I th in k prisons should focus on rehabilitation more. This is because those prisoners w ill one day be back on the streets, and so education m ight make them better in society. Prisons ought to help solve the problem of crim e. I th in k being in prison is punishm ent enough and so w hile people are in prisons, there should be some kind of constructive effort to change th e ir behaviour.
What do you th in k is the best way to deal w ith juvenile crim e?
Young people m ust have role models. This m ight prevent some young people getting involved in crim e in the firs t place. Parents have to take responsibility for th e ir children too. In fact, I th in k parents should be fined if th e ir children com m it a crim e. I th in k this m ight be quite a good answer, as children can’t always know right o r wrong w ithout th e ir parents te llin g them .
Do you think people com m it crim es because of violence on TV or in video games?
No, I don’t. People don’t have to do what they see on a screen. People have th e ir own minds and can te ll the difference between reality or fiction. People can see violence on the news. It doesn’t make everyone who watches the news a potential crim in a l. People who are influenced by games and TV in this way probably have an underlying problem.

Audio script

Examiner:
Student:

Unit 13

Is crim e always linked to poverty?
Not always. Although I th in k that some crim e is because of poverty, there are other factors which we ought to consider. For example, plain greed, laziness, m ental illness and personal problem s could also contribute to some crim es. We can look at things like crim es of passion or fraud which are not always com m itted due to poverty as examples.

The planet

Track 21
Kelly:
Mark:

Louise:
Mark:
Kelly:
Mark:
Kelly:
Louise:

Hi everyone. So, let’s get started on our essay. Mark, have you done the research from last week?
Well, yes and no. I was trying to follow up on the suggestions from the lecture and I searched the lib ra ry fo r books and journals. But I couldn’t find anything relevant to o ur topic.
Well, maybe you were too late. We got the essay title two weeks ago so other students m ight have taken out a ll the books already.
Yes, I guess so.
It doesn’t sound likely to me. A ll the books couldn’t have been taken out - there's lots of books about astronom y in the main library.
Well, there was one book but I couldn’t borrow it because it’s a reference only book.
Mm. We should have started this project earlier. What are we going to do now?
The other students m ust have been very keen to start! Well, don’t worry. Why don’t we ju st reserve the books we want? I’ve found some articles we can sta rt reading now and then w e 'll be more focused fo r when the other students return the books we need.

Track 22
Dave:
Abi:
Helen:
Abi:
Helen:

Dave:

Abi:
Dave:

So Abi, can Helen and I show you our presentation to see if you th in k it's okay?
Of course, no problem.
Thanks a lot. Okay firs t of all, w e're going to show the explorers’ route on the map here and explain w hat happened on the expedition by highlighting some key events.
Right.
And we th in k it's im portant to m ention that the expedition started quite badly. You see the original base camp had to be moved. The original plan was to sta rt from the tree line at the bottom of the m ountain but the explorers couldn’t set up camp there because of the rain so they moved higher up.
The idea is to highlight the im portance of planning in exploratory expeditions. The
Robertson team should have known that they couldn’t have started from the tree line in the rainy season.
Yes, they really should have checked that!
In the end the camp was set up on the edge of the snow line. Okay, so moving on,
Joan Robertson and her team found several new plant species on the low er slopes of the peak and when they were halfway up the mountain they came across some fossils which they worked out were from dinosaurs.

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 2 1 -2 3
Abi:
Helen:

Abi:
Dave:
Abi:
Dave:

How did they know the fossils were from dinosaurs? Surely they couldn't have identified them so easily w h ilst on the expedition?
But that's the im portant point. This team were not ju s t explorers but also scientists.
In order to make the trip more useful, they took scientific equipm ent to analyse anything they found so they were able to identify the dinosaur fossils correctly.
It's good to make this clear if your project is supposed to be about the im portance of scientific expeditions ra ther than exploratory ones.
Absolutely.
So am I righ t to think that the Robertson expedition took longer as a result of the research? Well, they should have taken longer because they were conducting a lot of experim ents but modern technology enabled them to do the experim ents and reach the su m m it in under four weeks. In fact they arrived at the top on day 26 of the trip .

Track 23
Andrew:

Penny:
Terry:
Penny:
Andrew:
Penny:
Andrew:
Penny:
Terry:

Penny:
Andrew:
Terry:
Andrew:
Penny:

Terry:
Andrew:
Terry:

Hi Penny. Hi Terry. [Hellos] How are you both getting on w ith your natural disaster essays? I can’t believe we a ll chose the same subject of earthquakes! I've found it really interesting.
Yes, it is interesting Andrew, but I could have made the topic narrower. There is so much to cover. It's really hard to organize the inform ation I’ve found.
Ah, but that ju st gives you more to w rite about. I’d ra th e r have too much m aterial than not enough! I think Andrew is right. I’ve found the topic fascinating too!
Maybe. I'm not so sure Terry. Andrew, how have you done on the statistics research? That’s what you were researching when I last saw you.
It’s been interesting, but I had to look really hard fo r relevant inform ation.
But you found some in the end?
Yes, I’ve got lots of statistics on past earthquakes and where the plates are more unstable. That’s great! I've been w orking on plate movement. I th in k by adding this to my essay I’ll have a really good foundation of how earthquakes come about.
I was looking at future earthquake predictions, but I didn’t find much inform ation actually. I should have focused more on how earthquakes are scientifically identified and measured. I th in k that would have been more relevant.
That's a shame. Well, why don't we compare some of the inform ation we've found?
It m ight a ll give us some ideas of w hat to read next!
Well, it tu rn s out that many earthquakes could have been predicted according to the frequency of past earthquakes in the area.
Really, th a t’s not what I found out at all. I th in k you should go back and check that.
I don’t know - maybe I should.
Well, my research looks p a rticula rly at how convergence and divergence of the plates causes movement of the Earth. We som etim es forget that the planet is not a s till object but actually it is constantly moving. This causes things like new seas, m ountains, and earthquakes. The whole w orld is moving! Terry, didn’t your research find anything?
U nfortunately not. I th in k I need to research another area as I couldn’t see any evidence of earthquakes being predictable.
Well, I can also show you w hat I’ve got and maybe that w ill help.
Thanks

Audio script

Unit 14

Globalization

Track 2U
3

Does globalization represent a change in the way people view the w orld?

U

Should globalization be controlled by governments?

5

Most global companies are from the West - is this a good or a bad thing?

6

Do you th in k that globalization helps us to understand different people and cultures?

Track 25
Examiner:
Student:
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

How do you th in k globalization m ight change the w orld in the future?
I th in k that if globalization continues to develop, young people of the future w ill have a different understanding of things like nationality and culture.
Has globalization caused young people to care less about th e ir countries?
I don't th in k so. If globalization had caused young people to care less about th e ir countries, we w ou ld n't see so much national pride in sporting com petitions like the Olympics or the World Cup.
What would you say to someone who thinks that globalization is ruining the w orld?
I would say that they should be more positive. If globalization didn't exist, we w ou ld n't have so many opportunities fo r w ork or travel and we w ouldn’t be able to buy so many different products.
Can globalization make the w orld a more equal place?
I th in k this depends on w hat you mean by equal. If people in a country have the same opportunities in life, then globalization is good and can help the w orld but th is is not always what happens.

Track 26
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

What are the main disadvantages of globalization?
In my opinion the main disadvantages are fo r cultures which aren't p a rticula rly strong. I th in k globalization could in fact destroy some sm all, local cultures. When my parents were young, the local dialect in our town was spoken a ll the tim e, but now more and more people in the town are from other countries and our dialect isn't spoken so much. If globalization hadn't transform ed the way people move around the w orld, our town w ou ld n't have changed so much, and we m ight s till be using our local dialect!
Do you th in k globalization has made the w orld a better place?
Well, in many ways yes. I think in general people have more knowledge about the w orld due to globalization. For example, if I hadn’t studied in Australia, I w ou ld n ’t speak English as w e ll as I do and I w ou ld n ’t have lots of friends from around the w orld.
How has globalization changed the way we travel and communicate?
I th in k it has changed things greatly. The w orld is a much sm a lle r place than it was, say, 50 years ago. If I wanted to go to the other side of the w orld, I could get there in a day! That’s incredible!... And not only is it easier to travel, we can now com m unicate w ith people on the other side of the w orld instantly through things like virtu a l messaging and webcams. If we didn’t have this kind of progress in travel

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 2 4 -28

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Unit 15

and com m unication, we would know a lot less about other cultures, and I th in k that w ould be a pity.
How has globalization benefited people in your country?
It's made a really big difference to how people in my country see them selves in relation to other countries. And I th in k that people w ill see more benefits in the future if they continue to be open-m inded about it.
What are the consequences of allowing large companies to se ll th e ir products a ll over the w orld?
I th in k it's great. I know some people th in k th a t it's negative but I don’t. I th in k th a t everyone should have the o p po rtu n ity to grow th e ir company. A ll com panies started s m a ll but if you make good products, people w ill buy them . If th e re ’d been s tric t laws against in te rn a tio n a l trade, the w orld economy w o u ld n ’t have grown as much and everyone w o u ld ’ve suffered.

Culture and modern society

Track 27
Well, my best friend once gave me some really good advice when I was younger. I used to w orry a lot about my appearance when I was a teenager and it made me feel unconfident. I often thought people were staring at me and thinking that I looked bad. Once, one of my classm ates asked me where I had bought my clothes and I thought it was a criticism . My friend told me not to w orry about the way I looked. She said that a ll teenagers fe lt that way and recommended concentrating on having fun instead. It was quite d iffic u lt but I tried to focus more on studying and my hobbies.
A fte r a w hile I fe lt better and my parents said that I had changed and become more outgoing. I was really pleased w ith this and as a result my confidence increased even more. So, I th in k yes
I would give this advice to other teenagers. Although it’s d ifficu lt advice to follow, I th in k it can really help young people who are going through a hard tim e. It’s really im portant to be positive and understand that this period of your life involves lots of changes in your personality but that in the end you w ill feel fine.

Unit 16

Health and fitness

Track 28
Jeanette:

Good m orning everyone and welcom e to my w eekly show about fitness. Today I w ant to ta lk about ways you can improve your fitness w ithout having to join a gym or sports centre. Now firs t of all, it is im portant to decide what you w ant to achieve.
Many people want to improve th e ir health in general, but other people w ant to focus on losing weight. I use a com bination of both strength building and w eight loss exercise to m aintain my fitness level but I know a couple who go w alking twice a week to m aintain theirs. The most im portant thing is to do som ething you like, fo r example, m a rtia l arts, hiking, tennis or w atersports. These are a ll good as cardiovascular exercise and strength training. One excellent way is to join a local club because you w ill meet other people w ith the same interests as you. It is also

Audio script

im portant to keep up m otivation levels and exercising w ith other people can be a good way to do this. And don’t forget about the local park. It is a great place to exercise fo r free. Som etim es parks provide a running tra ck or other com m unal facilities, a ll of which are free to use.

Unit 18

Film and entertainment

Track 29
Thank you fo r coming to this ta lk on the A ustralian Film Institute, or AFI as most of us know it.
We pride ourselves on the w ork we have done over the last 50 years, and I hope to let you know how we w ill keep prom oting and developing this great country's film industry. I’m going to start by giving you a little bit of history about the AFI, then I’ll go on to te ll you about the w ork w e’re involved in at the moment, and then te ll you a little bit about w hat the future holds fo r the AFI.
So, le t’s sta rt at the beginning. 1958 is an im portant date in our history, as it was when the
Institute was founded. Since then, we have been w orking continuously fo r the following purpose; to promote film and television in Australia. I th in k however our celebrated film and television awards are w hat we at the AFI are most w e ll known for, which do indeed fu lfill our aims of promotion of the industry. In fact, we th in k these awards have also elevated the standards of
Australian film since th e ir inception in the sixties. We're incredibly proud of them.
The awards became so popular that we expanded them . In 1986, TV categories were added to the list of prestigious awards we offered. The awards have grown in popularity and status over the years, and there is no doubt that we are one of the leading film and television award ceremonies in the country. We have just recently held our 50th anniversary, which took place at
Melbourne's Princess Theatre. Some big names in the film and television industry were there and it was a real celebration of success.
Now, this leads me up to our present work...

Track 30
My favourite book is called the Hunger Games. It was w ritte n by Suzanne Collins I think and it is a really good book. The story is set in North Am erica, but at a tim e when things are very bad. It’s a story of a te rrib le society, which is separated into d istricts. A boy and g irl from each d istrict are sent to take part in the Hunger Games. These games are televised fo r everyone to see. The games are basically a fight to the death fo r the children taking part. The story follow s a g irl called Katniss, who is forced to take part in the games when she offers herself up instead of her sister. I like the story so much because it is very exciting. At first, I found it really horrifying, but the more I read it, the more I couldn’t put the book down. I really came to like the main character too. She is so strong. I was recommended this book by some friends and it didn’t disappoint me.

Track 31
A film I saw recently which I p a rticula rly liked was Toy Story 3. It’s the third of a trilog y of Toy
Story film s, and I think it’s the best, but saddest one. These film s are made by Pixar and they are cartoon film s, but I th in k they are fo r adults as w e ll as children! The film is about toys that get throw n out as th e ir owner is too old to play w ith them anymore. They’re given to a nursery school, but the nursery school children are horrible and the toys are treated really badly. So, the story follow s th e ir journey to get back to th e ir original owner. The main characters in the film are Woody, who is voiced by Tom Hanks, and Buzz Lightyear. I like this film so much because the

100

Grammar for IELTS

Tracks 2 9 -34 story and the anim ation are so good. I found that, even though it's a cartoon, it was really easy to get involved in the characters and what was happening to them . I th in k I cried fo r the last half hour of the film ... but it's an incredibly heartw arm ing film about love and friendship. I would recommend this film to anyone who enjoys both a laugh and a cry! I th in k this film would be loved by m ost people in the w orld.

Unit 19

Wildlife

Track 32
Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Examiner:
Student:

Are zoos cru e l to animals?
I don’t know. I think some zoos are cruel, fo r example zoos that keep anim als in s m a ll cages. But there are also zoos that give the anim als space to move and look a fte r them w ell. This i th in k is good. Zoos can also help protect endangered species, and this is a really great thing. There are some countries that have no laws to protect th e ir anim als - th a t’s a real problem . So, overall I don't th in k zoos are as bad as people think.
Do you th in k we could do more to protect our w ildlife?
Yes, we could do a little more. I th in k many areas of rainforest w hich have been destroyed by industries really need to be rejuvenated. Lots of w ild life live there and if they don’t have these forests, they w on ’t be able to survive. Gorillas, which are one of the most endangered rainforest species, are dying out rapidly.
Do you th in k hunting is justified?
I th in k hunting som etim es is a necessary thing. But I th in k hunting as asport, when the main purpose is enjoyment, is a little cruel. We a ll need to eat, and tra d ition a l societies which don’t have shops to buy food need to be able to hunt fo r the things they need. This is necessary fo r them to be able to live.

Track 33
1

Owls are divided into two groups, which are classified 'typical ow ls’ and ‘barn owls'.

2

Barn owls, which are nocturnal, fly silently.

3

Owls w hich are nomadic rear a great num ber of young.

U

Long-eared owls which live in the north m igrate to Europe fo r winter.

Track 34
Hello everyone. As you know, this w eek’s lectures are on w ild life in Britain, and today w e’re going to look at the barn owl, which is a com m on nocturnal creature around the B ritish Isles. Now, if you have a look at page three of your handout, you w ill see an outline of a barn owl. Now, it looks like a harm less creature, but this actually couldn’t be fu rth e r from the tru th . They may be relatively harm less to you and me, but to the B ritish rodent, they are a k ille r! Now, why is this?
Well, firs tly it has a lot to do w ith th e ir sw iftness and silence. Look, fo r example, at the wings, which can vary from 80cm to 95cm. That’s alm ost a m etre! Wings that large have a great deal of power. Now, most people think that beaks are probably the way most birds hunt. But these beaks, which are curved downwards, are not used to hunt prey. When owls hunt prey, they have two massive anatom ical advantages. Firstly, th e ir feathers, which have serrated edges, can separate from each other. This makes th e ir flig h t absolutely silent, so they can approach th e ir

Audio script

prey unnoticed. It is th e ir claws which are used to catch prey. Once they are upon the prey, the extrem ely pow erful claws go into action. So, y o u 'll see, they are not really as sweet' as they look!
Now, th e ir habitats...

Track 35
In this module, w e're going to be exploring the natural habitats that the planet Earth provides, starting w ith probably one of the most famous, rainforests. Now, rainforests are exactly that: forests which see a great am ount of rain. The reason they are so im portant is that they provide excellent conditions fo r many species to survive in. L e t’s look at how this is by exploring exactly what the rainforest is made up of.
Now, starting from the bottom of the rainforest, we can find the forest floor. Or ra th e r we can’t find it, as it is littered w ith leaves and branches which cover the ground! This area is a haven fo r creatures like spiders and a ll kinds of w ild life . Now, this forest flo o r occasionally has a shrub layer. This layer, which is only located near rivers, contains sm all trees and w ell, shrubbery, as the name suggests. It is a popular area fo r a ll m anner of amphibians.
The next area w ithin the rainforest is generally w ithout light and extrem ely hot and damp.
This area, which is called the understory, which by the way is a ll one word - under - story, is a popular home fo r creatures which dw ell in the branches, like snakes, lizards, and som etim es even jaguars!
The most w ell-kno w n area, called the canopy, is populated by some birds and sm a ll insects.
The canopy is basically the tree-tops. It is the densely-packed canopy that blocks the light to the low er areas of rainforest. Not much reaches above the canopy, but there are a few exceptional trees that clim b much fu rth e r into the sky. These trees grow in areas called em ergent zones.
These zones, which are a perfect environm ent for birds and other sm a ll creatures, lie at the very top of the rainforest, and individual trees can stretch up to 50 m etres in the air.
Now, as we can see, this means that rainforests have a m ultitude of unusual conditions, perfect fo r many creatures. But why are such conditions perfect? Well, let's go on to look....

102

Grammar for IELTS

Units 1-2

Answer key
1

People and relationships

Exercise 1
1 shines Tense: Present simple
Rule number: 2
2 have you been Tense: Present perfect sim ple
Rule num ber: 3
3 does the bus leave Tense: Present sim ple
Rule number: U
U went/didn't like Tense: Past simple
Rule number: 2
5 has seen Tense: Present perfect simple
Rule number: 1
6 crossed Tense: Past simple
Rule number: 3
Exercise 2
1 has improved
2 disregarded
3 have invested
U visit
5 partake
6 also had
7 include
8 brought
9 created
10 destroys
Exercise 3
1 do you live
2 come
3 have lived
U moved
5 Do you
6 live
7 do
8 live
9 share
10 goes
11 Do you like
12 love
13 arrived
U didn't like
15 have grown
16 know
17 have
18 has M oscow changed
19 has become
20 have opened

21
22
23
24

eat have came OR have come meet Exercise U
Own answ ers

2

Free time

Exercise 1
1 have you been doing Tense: Present perfect continuous Rule number: 2
2 am watching Tense: Present continuous Rule number: 1
3 has been increasing Tense: Present perfect continuous Rule number: 1
U w as having Tense: Past continuous Rule number: 3
5 were walking Tense: Past continuous Rule number: 1
6 am reading Tense: Present continuous Rule number: 3
Exercise 2
1 I don't agree
2 I am having
3 I like
U Do you mind
5 I'm thinking
Exercise 3
The amount of leisure time available to people has been increasing since the early twentieth century when m achines started to be invented to do many labour intensive tasks both at w ork and in the home.
Previously, people were spending many more hours doing basic menial tasks and as a result had less time available for hobbies and activities. Although recently many people have been complaining about their work life balance, studies show that the amount of free time we have has been rising continuously for over 50 years. More people are playing sport on a regular basis nowadays and young people are taking up traditional style hobbies such as knitting and walking in the countryside. There has also been a large amount of government investment in leisure facilities in local communities, which has assisted the uptake of hobbies for a range of people including children and the elderly.
A few years ago, visitors to a local park would see people who were playing football or walking their dog.
However, nowadays people are using the gym or a climbing wall as their way of sporting recreation.

Answer key

Summary
1 has been increasing
2 are playing
3 are taking up
Exercise U a 1 has been rising
2
are still buying
(Note: the number + singular verb) b 1 were viewing
2 were watching

Exam practice model answer
This graph shows the kinds of activities done by old people in their spare time, covering a period from the 1980s to now in Europe. We can see that generally the activities listed have been increasing in popularity amongst the elderly, with hiking increasing steadily throughout the years, and playing sport being the most popular overall.
In the 1980s, nearly all activities were growing in popularity. The only activity which w as becoming less popular over these years w as going to the theatre.
Going to the theatre declined steeply from 5 0 % to 30%.
This changed in the 1990s, and going to the theatre became more popular, w hereas reading saw a dramatic drop in popularity. The num ber of people doing all other activities increased.
This century, hiking, reading, going to the theatre and surfing the Internet have all been increasing in popularity. However, playing sport has been decreasing in popularity. Despite this, playing sport is still the second most popular activity nowadays amongst this group. Most elderly people are hiking nowadays in their spare time.
(173 words)
Note the tenses in both the continuous and simple.

3 Fame
Exercise 1
1 hadn't cared Form: past perfect
2 used to respect Form: used to
3 would dream Form: would
4 hadn't earned Form: past perfect
5 had always thought Form: past perfect
6 had been waiting Form: past perfect continuous
Exercise 2
1 had lived
2 had never travelled
3 used to work
U ‘d been working
5 had travelled
6 had appeared

104

Grammar for IELTS

Exercise 3
Making money out of other people's fame is a highly specialized skill, but one that can bring great rewards to those who practise it proficiently. Marianne Beretoli is one of those people; she owns a company which sells information about celebrities to other celebrities as a kind of careers advice service. Although she was born in France, she used to dream of moving to the
USA, specifically Hollywood. Whilst studying business at university Beretoli was known for her innovative approach to applying theory to practice and she would te often challenge the ideas of her tutors. When she had graduated, Beretoli worked in Paris and tried unsuccessfully to set up her own marketing agency.
Then she decided to move to the U SA and within months realised that she had boon making made the right decision. She moved from Paris to Los Angeles in 1995 and after she had been working as an assistant for an advertising agency for a few years, she had set up her own company providing information services to the rich and famous.
Exercise U
1 B
2 C

Exam practice
1 A, C
2 b
3 b

U

Education

Exercise 1
1 'm going to Form: going to Rule number: 1
2 will Form: will Rule number: 3
3 's going to Form: going to Rule number: 2
U w on't Form: won't
5 will Form: will Rule number: 1
Exercise 2
1 C
2 A
3 B
Exercise 3
1 I'm going to walk
2 I'll call her
3 Shall I do it?
Exercise 4
Librarian:
John:

Hello there. How can I help you? j-witi: I’m going to do a presentation on
Mary Shelley, and I'd like to get som e books on her.

Units 3 -6
Librarian:

John:
Librarian:

John:

Librarian:

Okay. The biographies are on the third floor. I'll te write the aisle num ber down for you.
Thanks. I might use the Internet too and look for resources on there.
That's a good idea. If you're going to use the Internet, have a look on the Great
British Authors website.
Thanks. I w ill I'm go ing te . I haven't heard of that site before. Thanks very much for the information.
That's quite all right. Feel free to come and a sk me any questions and I wornfe w ill do my best to help.

Exam practice

Exercise 3
1 C
E
A
B
D
Exercise 6
1 over 50s
2 networked
3 Asia
U (interactive) movies
Exercise 5
1 will have
2 will have
3 will have
U will have

8 B

5

A s well a s consum er goods another growth area is the travel industry. Travel experts estimate that in as little as five years’ time travel agencies will have disappeared from our shopping centres and alm ost all travellers will be buying hotels and flights from online agencies. The Internet

Exercise 1
1 'II be watching Tense: Future continuous OR
’m watching Tense: Present continuous
2 will have moved Tense: Future perfect
3 "m changing Tense: Present continuous
U will have become Tense: Future perfect simple
5 will have started Tense: Future perfect simple
Exercise 2
In the late 1990s experts predicted that online shopping would not be able to compete with in-store shopping yet the recent rise in online sales figures su g ge sts that their predictions were wrong. In fact all evidence points to the fact that online shopping will have outstripped in-store shopping within the next five years. This rapid increase has been driven by a num ber of factors including price, convenience and choice. Most online retailers use a delivery service and as a result of tracking retailers shopping habits, many will soon be introducing specific delivery tim ings so that custom ers can ensure their goods are delivered when they are at home. Online companies are already working on innovative w ays to attract custom ers. For example, later this year one of the country's largest electronics retailers, Browns, is launching a 24-hour replacement products service for custom ers who need to return faulty goods. Brow ns hopes that by 2015 over
9 0 % of its custom er base will have graduated to online purchasing. shifted been playing created developed

Exam practice
1
2
3
U
5
6

first
10th- 31st
Social
digital map
July 22n d tracking system s

6

The family

Exercise 1
1 The male w as the main income earner in the last century.
2 Do you know whether extended families are traditional in Japan?
3 The government gives poorer families benefits.
U Family m em bers don't always get on well.
5 Household tasks are often shared by men and women.
6 Single parent families are becoming increasingly comm on in Western society.
7 There urgently need to be studies on why the family structure is less important.
Exercise 2
How important is the family?
It could be argued that the family is a structure in declinejyet many sociologists now claim that we are beginning to see a renewal in family values and family structures. Jason Lloyd1 an eminent sociologist at the University of Salford1 claim s that today people are

Answer key

yearning for the days of traditional family values. He asserts, " ...we can see examples of a renaissance of family values everywhere: in the TV adverts that sell products using happy families; in the promotions of seasonal family celebrations like Christmas^ even in the language of politicians about sociat cohesion/^
Lloyd’s claim s have recently been echoed by other sociologists around the globe, which gives them even more weight. So, are we beginning to see a return to the traditional family structure? Only time will tell.

happen if they move to another country. Therefore there should be a rule that the adoptive parents allow the child to revisit their home country and retain their original culture.
In conclusion, I think the personal benefits adoption gives a child and the aw areness that can be raised from these adoptions far outweighs any negative factors, such as change of culture.

Exercise 3
I'm going to talk about my grandm other on my father’s side. She is quite little and has white hair and glasses.
I have gla sse s too. We are the only people in the family that wear glasses! She is very old now and I don't get to see her very often... I think I see her maybe two or three times a year. She lives quite far away in the countryside. It takes us about three hours to travel there. Whenever we visit, she always gives sweets to_ m e. She is important to me because she is so kind and so nice, and I really love her. She is definitely my favourite family member! I think I take after her in som e ways. We laugh at the sam e things and we both like reading. When we go and visit, we always go out walking in the fields and have a really lovely time. My dad always says that we are very similar. I would like to be as wise as her when I am older. I would also like to have a sim ilar life. She had a very successful career.
She w as a doctor and worked for charities. She w as very much in love with my grandfather, which I think is lovely. Education com es from many places, not just formal schooling. People learn from their family, their friends, the television and personal experience among many other ways. Although these avenues of learning are certainly important, I believe that education within schools is much more important, as it lays the foundations for future achievement and wider succe ss as I shall show.
Firstly, formal qualifications which are earned at school are often the entry points to certain careers and jobs. In order to be a lawyer or doctor, you need to do well at school so you can go on to study for professional qualifications. Additionally, many jobs a sk for basic qualifications in maths and English when you apply. Without these qualifications, an individual could become limited in what they can do with their professional lives.
In addition to this, school also prepares you for relationships outside your family, which is an important aspect of life. School is a good socialisation tool because a student needs to deal with relationships on many different levels, for example with teachers and school friends, and they also need to deal with threats to happiness such as bullying or workloads.
Families are important as often children gain their moral outlook and aspirational goals from their parents. However, children can succeed without a favourable family setting to a certain extent. It is doubtful whether they could succeed without schooling.
In conclusion, although there are many beneficial form s of education, I believe schooling is more important than education within the family. This is because formal education gives you qualifications and socialisation that the family cannot offer.

106

Grammar for IELTS

7

The environment

Exercise 1
1 believe are 3 has
U changes
5 are
6 do

CM

Exercise 4
Adoption has long been a comm on thing, yet there has been a recent trend in adopting children from overseas.
This trend has been noted in the media as more and more celebrities have adopted children from other countries. Som e people think this is a negative thing, but I think that on the whole the positive effects of this outweigh any negative repercussions as I shall go on to show.
Firstly, adopting from other countries raises the aw areness of a country’s plight. Seeing fam ous people adopting children from countries like Cambodia m eans that Cambodia is in the news more and people can find out what is going on there. Also, these children move to richer countries and can tell people about their native country, raising aw areness on a sm aller scale.
Secondly, these children may well not be adopted unless people come from overseas to do it. A happy life in another country is surely better than an unhappy life in the country where a person w as born. The new country will give the child more opportunity and a family that they may not get if they were to stay in the orphanage.
However. it is important for the children to retain their culture. There is a danger that this might not

Exam practice model answer

Units 7 -9
Exercise 2
1 c
2 a
3 d
4 b
Exercise 3
The graph shows the amount of wildlife in gardens in cities in the UK from 1980s to 201 Os. Overall, the number of birds and insects has increased, whereas the number of butterflies has decreased. There were four million butterflies in UK city gardens in the 1980s however, this number decreased rapidly from 2000 to 2010 and now butterflies are the least populous of the three groups with only two million in UK city gardens. Both birds and insects have increased steadily in quantity over the period. The quantity of birds has increased from 2.5 to
3.5 million and insects have increased from 2.0 to 4.5 million. In general it can be said that each decade has seen a rise in bird and insect numbers.
Exercise U
1 thinks
2 Som e climatologists
3 is difficult
U government and scientists

Exam practice
1
2
3
U
5

both
(deep sea] nets an important factor noise of ships is useful

8

Food

Exercise 1
1 meat
2 few
3 soup
U meats
5 a bowl of soup, som e
6 much
Exercise 2
1 much meat
2 m eals
3 su g a r
U juice or water
5 a couple of
Exercise 3
Last year I went to a wonderful restaurant overlooking the river in my city, Marseille, with a group of friends.
The special occasion w as my friend's 21st birthday and we decided to go out for dinner. We wanted to eat a_

beef because this restaurant is fam ous for meat, but as we arrived late they didn't have many beefs left.
Instead we ate bouillabaisse which is a kind of seafood stew containing -a- fish and shellfish. I had a couple of g la sse s of orange juice. For dessert we each had a. slice of birthday cakes which the restaurant had made especially for my friend. The cake had 21 candles and my friend blew them all out in one go so she made frwefr a lot of w ishes for the future. We had so many much fun that night.

For Exam practice model answer see audio script
Track 12.

9

Employment and finance

Exercise 1
1 the Rule: 1
2 a Rule: 1
3 - Rules: 1 and 2, - Rule: 1
U - Rule: 3, the Rule: 5
5 - Rule: 2
6 an Rule: U
7 the Rule: 3
Exercise 2
1 A
2 the
3 U the
5 6 a
7 the
8 the
9 the
10 the
11 the
12

-

13
K
15
16
17
18
19
20

the a a the the the Exercise 3
1 the reasons
2 third
3 people are bored
U difficult task
5 the family

Answer key

107

Exercise U
The pie chart sh o w s the main careers of m illionaires in the United States in percentages. We can see that the majority of m illionaires are businesspeople, while other jobs such as in the entertainment or tfre politics only represent a sm a ll proportion of the total. However, it could be said that m illionaires are m ostly people in the b u sin e ss and entertainment industries. In the USA, people who work in §; business account for just under two thirds of millionaires. The next largest group of millionaires on the chart is people who work in film and television. They account for 15 % of the total. This group is closely followed by people who work in music. This sector accounts for a tenth of all millionaires in the USA.
The sm aller groups all make up fewer than 10% of millionaires when combined. These people are sportspeople, politicians and people in other careers.
The sm allest group is the 'other' group with two per cent. Exam practice model answer
The bar chart show s the percentage of people who have part-time jobs in the countries that make up the
United Kingdom, both in 1980 and in 2010. There'has generally been a sm all increase in part-time w orkers from 1980 to 2010, except in Northern Ireland. The graph also show s that England and Wales have far more part-time w orkers than Northern Ireland and
Scotland.
In 1980, 2 5 % of people in England worked part time.
The only country with a greater percentage of part-time w orkers w as Wales, with around 3 3 % working part time. Both countries saw an increase in the percentage of people working part time in 2010. In England, the percentage rose to over 3 0 % and in Wales percentage rose to just over 35%.
Scotland had the smallest percentage of part-time workers in 1980, with just over ten per cent. However, this rose to almost 2 0 % in 2010 which is a large increase.
Lastly, Northern Ireland was the only country which had a decreasing percentage of part-time workers. In 1980, it had around 15% of people in part-time work. This decreased by a couple of per cent in 2010.

10

Youth

Exercise 1
1 A s a result OR Therefore Function: Result
2 In addition to Function: Addition
3 Thirdly, Lastly, Finally Function: Ordering
U due to OR because of Function: Reason
5 but OR yet Function: Contrast
6 In conclusion OR In sum m ary Function: Sum m arizing

108

Grammar for IELTS

Exercise 2
1 Volunteering
2 community based
3 expensive (to staff)
U Drama
5 likely to continue
6 new schem es
Exercise 3
1 due to
2 for example
3 although
U In addition to
5 However
6 because of
7 Lastly
8 such as
9 A s a result of
Exercise U
34 1 5 2 6 7

Exam practice
1
2
3
4
5
6

birth embrace unemployment su b -n o rm s anti-social behaviour
(eventual) rejection

11

People and places

Exercise 1
1 D
2 S
3 D
U D
5 S
6 D
Exercise 3
1 C
2 C
3 A
Exercise U
1 The countryside hasn't become more attractive to families nowadays. OR The countryside has become less attractive to families nowadays. OR The city has become more attractive to families nowadays.
2 You've thought about the presentation a lot less clearly than me. OR You haven't thought about the presentation as clearly as me. OR I’ve thought about the presentation a lot more clearly than you.

Units 10-14
3 We have done less research for the presentation than we could. OR We haven't done as much research for the presentation as we could.
U Our final grade will be as high as our last presentation. OR Our final grade will be
(much) higher than our last presentation.

Exam practice
1
2
3
U

B
C
B
C

12

Crime

Exercise 1
1 should go OR ought to go
2 have to follow OR must follow
3 might OR may OR could
U don't have to pay a fine
5 can take
Exercise 2
1 might OR could OR may
2 might not OR may not
3 should
U should OR ought to
Exercise 3
Crime prevention musts start from education. If people are not raised well, then thevwtU miaht/mav/could commit crim es in the future. It's the responsibility of both parents and schools to educate children in the difference between right and wrong. This could be done in special ethics classes in schools, and perhaps parenting classes mightfHt be a good idea for parents who are unsure of how to raise children with more moral values. These classes shouldn't be compulsory though as this might te be too expensive and unnecessary.
However, although all parents m ustn’t might not go, it could be useful for those who are struggling. More information wtU might/mav/could help these parents.

For Exam practice model answers see audio script
Track 20.

13

The Planet

Exercise 1
1 couldn't have known OR m ustn't have known
2 had to hunt
3 should have taken OR ought to have taken
U must have been
5 might/could/may have been inhabiting
OR might/could/may have inhabited

6 could travel
7 didn't have to pay
8 must have been developing OR m ust have developed
Exercise 2
1 might have
2 had to
3 didn't have to
U could
5 shouldn't have
6 couldn't have
Exercise 3
1 couldn't
2 could have OR might have
3 couldn't have
U couldn't
5 should have OR ought to have
6 must have
Exercise U
1 tree line
2 rainy
3 snow line
U plant species
5 (dinosaur) fossils
6 scientific
7 U weeks

Exam practice
1
2
3
U
5

narrow
Andrew
relevant information much information constantly moving

14

Globalization

Exercise 1
1 would not have gone, had not opened Conditional: third
2 buy, want Conditional: zero
3 continues, will stay Conditional: first
U would not communicate, had developed
Conditional: mixed (second + third)
5 were connected, would be Conditional: second
Exercise 2 Suggested answers
2 local bu sinesses will continue to disappear.
3 the way we communicate could start to change in a negative way.
U we will have a better world.
Exercised Model answers
2 Student: I don’t think so. if globalization had caused young people to care less about their countries, we wouldn't see so much national pride in sporting

Answer key

competitions like The Olympics or the World Cup.
Conditionai: third or mixed
3 Student: I would say that they should be more positive. Jf globalization didn't exist, we wouldn't have so many opportunities for work, travel and we wouldn't be able to buy so many different products.
Conditional: first or second
U Student: I think this depends on what you mean by equal, jf people in a country have the sam e opportunities in life, then globalization is good and can help the world but this is not always what happens.
Conditional: any
For Exam practice model answers see audio script
Track 26.

15

Culture and modern society

Exercise 1
1 she had been to the opera the day before and had really enjoyed it.
2 the government had to invest more money in the arts.
3 the m useum hadn’t had any internationally recognized exhibitions for several years.
U what the theatre director intended to do to increase ticket sales.
5 warned that
6 said OR claimed that
7 denied OR argued that
8 recommended
Exercise 3
1 had declined, w as
2 had misrepresented
3 w as not, attended
U had, would OR have, will (if still true now)

Exam practice
1
2
3
U
5

True
Not given
True
False
Not given

16

Health and fitness

6 This OR That
7 He OR She, it
8 then
Exercise 2
1 your
2 their
3 my
4 theirs
5 These
6 you
7 this/that
8 It /T his /That
Exercise 3
1 In my opinion politicians should listen to the people that vote for they them . People want to buy healthy food but it is expensive so they buy fast food instead which is not good for h+s th eir health. Politicians should change this situation. 2 Dieticians suggest vitamins are necessary to combat allergies. This view has been criticized by scientists who say that thts such/ these nutrients do not always help to reduce allergies. Therefore, because thorn they don’t agree, people don’t know what advice to follow.
3 Organic food is not a solution to the health problem s of the world. t e ] t is less efficient than other methods of food production. In addition, that these/those problems are more often related to less wealthy families in developing countries. Families who live theft there cannot afford to buy organic produce so they this is not useful for us.
Exercise 4
1 superm arkets
2 fruit and vegetables have increased considerably in price
3 a rise in obesity and other health related problems
4 my mother
5 [many) young people
6 the basic cooking skills
7 cooking
8 young people
9 processed m eals
10 processed m eals

Exam practice model essay
Exercise 1
1 your
2 their
3 It OR This
U They OR These
5 it OR this

110

Grammar for IELTS

Healthcare costs all over the world are rising due the rise in modern diseases which are a product of unhealthy lifestyles. These lifestyles include poor diet, sm oking and lack of exercise. While many people do not need to use medical services, there are others who constantly need medication due to their unhealthy daily

Units 15-18 lives. In my view people who are responsible for their own illness should have to contribute towards the cost of their medical treatment.
First of all, it is important to highlight the fact that ignorance is not an excuse. Information about health and fitness is widely available so everyone should know that sm oking and eating fast food are not only bad for our health, but can cause serious diseases.
Furthermore, there is a wide range of help services which people can consult for advice on improving their health from doctors to sports trainers and dieticians.
People who continue to live unhealthy lifestyles despite advice from doctors or medical professional should not receive free or reduced cost medical services. Secondly, it is clear that certain types of treatment are very expensive and som e diseases can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle. If people who are obese require treatment, they are taking money away from another patient, whose operation or treatment may be costly, but necessary. Therefore it could be a good solution to make people pay som e money towards the cost of their treatment. If their health improved, this payment could be reduced.
In conclusion, m aking people contribute towards the cost of medical treatment for self-inflicted diseases could help reduce this type of disease and make more money available for other people.
(275 words)

17

Fashion

Exercise 1
1 D
2 B
3 E
4 C
5 A
Exercise 2
Paragraph 1, beginning The bar chart... = B
Paragraph 2, beginning Overall... = A
Paragraph 3, beginning Reqarding... = C
Exercise 3
1 C
2 B
3 A

Exam practice
A
B
C
D
E

vi viii ii i v

18

Film and entertainment

Exercise 1
1 To a certain extent, popular culture is being dictated by the entertainment industry.
2 The new Broadway play, Star
Memories, should be avoided.
3 In the USA, cinem a-going has been voted as the most popular weekend hobby.
4 The entertainment industry is known to be very competitive. OR
It is known that the entertainment industry is very competitive.
5 Hollywood is regarded as the most influential town for filmmaking.
6 At the beginning of the 20th Century, fam ous actors and actresses were contractually restricted [by large film companies).
7 In relation to the plot of the book, the ending of the film had been changed.
8 We were told to sit in seats 4a and 4b.
Exercise 2
1 w as founded
2 most well known
3 the standards
4 TV categories were
5 50th
/fiftieth anniversary
Exercise 3
'M y favourite book is called the Hunger Games. It w as wretewritten by Suzanne Collins I think and it is a really good book. The story is set in North America, but at a time when things are very bad. It's a story of a terrible society, which is separated into districts. A boy and girl from each district s end are sent to take part in the Hunger Games. These gam es are televised for everyone to see. The gam es are basically a fight to the death for the children taking part. The story follows a girl called Katniss, who is forced to take part in the gam es when she offers herself up instead of her sister.
I like the story so much because it is very exciting. At first, I found it really horrifying, but the more I read it, the more I couldn't put the book down. I really came to like the main character too. She is so strong. I w as recommended this book by som e friends and it didn't disappoint me.'
Exercise 4
The student didn't talk about the main them es in the book. For Exam practice model answers see audio script
Track 31.

Answer key

19

Wildlife

Exercise 1
1 The anim al Liberation League, whose opinion was criticized by senior politicians* failed... (non-defining)
2 Wildlife in Mexico, which has flourished for m a n y y e a r s j s now.... (non-defining)
3 which OR that (defining)
U Dian Fossev. who died in 1985, helped...[non-defining]
5 London, where a third of the city is actually open s p a c e j s home... (non-defining)
6 which OR that (defining)
7 which OR that [defining]
8 Evolution, which is the generally accepted theory of how life on earth developed* is... [non-defining]
Sentence 7 can have the relative pronoun omitted.
Exercise 2
1 that keep anim als in sm all cages
2 that give the anim als space to move and look after them well
3 that have no laws to protect their anim als
U which have been destroyed by industries
5 , which are one of the most endangered rainforest species,
6 , when the main purpose is enjoyment,
7 which don't have shops to buy food
Exercise 3
1 ...two groups, which... (non-defining]
2 ...owls, which are nocturnal, fly... (non-defining)
3 [defining - there are resident owls which produce only 2 offspring)
U [defining - there are southern long­ eared owls which do not migrate)
Exercise U
1 W ings
2 to hunt prey
3 (can) separate
U catch prey

Exam practice
1
2
3
U

leaves and branches near rivers
Understory
(perfect) environment for

20

Men and women

Exercise 1
1 A large audience of dedicated fans = determiner
+ adjective + noun + prepositional phrase

112

Grammar for IELTS

2 The politician who had proposed new laws on paternity rights = determiner + noun + relative clause 3 The development of language skills in boys and girls = determiner + general noun + specific noun + prepositional phrase
U The latest figures from the Driving
Standards Agency = determiner + adjective
+ noun + prepositional phrase
5 Gender intelligence stereotypes
= noun + noun + noun
6 Men who decide to give up work to bring up their children = noun + relative clause
Exercise 2
1 a large quantity of household products that we use in our daily lives
2 a language for program m ing computers
3 the scientific and technical education of women
U a dramatic rise in the num ber of women who are studying and working in science and technology
5 the importance of a focused education which allows people to develop their skills
Exercise 3 Suggested answers
2 the range/type of activities for boys and girls
3 the availability/amount of space for physical exercise
U the amount/number of children in a class OR the size of classes
5 the personality/character of the teacher
6 the sum/amount of money spent on facilities
Exercise U model answer
Som e people argue that the types of jobs which are more suited to men are in more technical fields such a s engineering or construction. However, this is not always true as can be seen in the increase in female engineers over recent decades. The range of employment opportunities for men and women has changed dramatically over the last twenty years.
Nowadays, for example, the skills needed for working in business are taught at school and university and women are just as capable as men in acquiring these skills. In fact, women who hold senior positions in business are excellent role m odels for both girls and boys. Exam practice model answer
Although the care of children has traditionally been the role of women, nowadays many men have decided to stay at home to raise children while the woman in the family goes to work. However, som e people believe that women have a natural ability for childcare and this role should be left to them. I disagree with this for the following reasons.

Units 19-20
Firstly, both men and women have qualities which are important for bringing up and educating children.
These qualities are not specific to men or women, therefore both genders are able to raise children successfully. By saying that childcare is a specific female role, children will receive a m essage which portrays women as carers only. For example, young girls who are taught to believe that the place of women is in the home may not try hard in school subjects which are more male dominated, such as science.
Secondly, the role of women in the workplace has changed significantly in the last fifty years. Many women now hold senior positions in many areas of employment. Women contribute a range of skills to the

workplace which are both valuable and important. In my opinion, women should continue to focus on their careers and ensure that their daughters are aware of the opportunities which are available to them in life.
Men should also take on som e of the responsibility of childcare and teach their so n s that this is a valuable role in society for men as well as women.
In conclusion, it is important that men and women share childcare duties because both genders have important qualities and skills. However, women and men should also be allowed to focus on their careers and provide strong role m odels for children.
[287 words)

Answer key

113

Grammar reference
Unit 1 Simple tenses
Present simple - subject + present verb
+
1live he/she/it lives we live you live they live

-

1 don't live he/she/it doesn't live we don't live you don't live they don't live

? do 1live? does he/she/it live? do we live ? do you live ? do they live ?

Past simple - subject + past verb
+
1lived he/she/it lived we lived you lived they lived

-

1didn 't live he/she/it didn't live we didn't live you didn't live they didn't live

? did 1live ? did he/she/it live? did we live ? did you live ? did they live?

Present perfect - subject + has/have + past participle
+
1have lived he/she/it has lived we have lived you have lived they have lived

114

Grammar for IELTS

-

1haven't lived he/she/it hasn't lived we haven't lived you haven't lived they haven't lived

? have 1lived? has he/she/it lived? have we lived? have you lived? have they lived?

Unit 2

Continuous tenses

Present continuous - subject + to be + (verb )ing
+
1am watching he/she/it is watching we are watching you are watching they are watching

?

I ’m not watching he/she/it isn't watching we aren’t watching you aren't watching they aren't watching

am 1watching? is he/she/it watching? are we watching? are you watching? are they watching?

Present continuous - subject + was/were + (verb )ing
+
1was watching he/she/it was watching we were watching you were watching they were watching

?

1wasn't watching he/she/it wasn't watching we weren't watching you weren't watching they weren't watching

was 1 watching? was he/she/it watching? were we watching? were you watching? were they watching?

Present Perfect Continuous - Subject + has/have + been + (verb)/ng
+
1have been watching he/she/it has been watching we have been watching you have been watching they have been watching

-

1haven't been watching he/she/it hasn't been watching we haven't been watching you haven’t been watching they haven't been watching

? have 1been watching? has he/she/it been watching? have we been watching? have you been watching? have they been watching?

Grammar reference

115

Unit 3

Past

Past perfect - subject + had + past participle
+

-

1had played he/she/it had played we had played you had played they had played

1hadn 't played he/she/it hadn't played we hadn't played you hadn't played they hadn't played

? had 1played? had he/she/it played? had we played? had you played? had they played?

Past perfect continuous - subject + had + been + (verb)ing
+

-

1had been playing he/she/it had been playing we had been playing you had been playing they had been playing

1hadn't been playing he/she/it hadn’t been playing we hadn't been playing you weren't playing they weren't playing

? had 1been playing? had he/she/it been playing ? had we been playing? had you been playing? had they been playing?

Used to - subject + used to + verb
+

-

1 used to play he/she/it used to play we used to play you used to play they used to play

Would - subject + would + verb
+

I would play he/she/it would play we would play you would play they would play

116

Grammar for IELTS

1didn 't use to play he/she/it didn't use to play we didn't use to play you didn't use to play they didn't use to play

? did 1use to play? did he/she/it use to play? did we use to play? did you use to play? did they use to play?

Unit U

Future 1

Going to - Subject + to be + going to + infinitive
+
1am going to learn he/she/it is going to learn we are going to learn you are going to learn they are going to learn

-

I'm not going to learn he/she/it isn 't going to learn we aren't going to learn you aren't going to learn they aren't going to learn

? am 1going to learn? is he/she/it going to learn? are we going to learn? are you going to learn ? are they going to learn?

W ill - Subject + w ill + infinitive
+
1w ill learn he/she/it w ill learn we w ill learn you w ill learn they w ill learn

-

1won't learn he/she/it won't learn we won't learn you won't learn they won't learn

? w ill/shall 1learn? w ill he/she/it learn ? w ill/shall we learn? w ill you learn? w ill they learn?

Grammar reference

117

Unit 5

Future 2

Future continuous - subject + will + be + (verb)/ng
+
1w ill be waiting he/she/it w ill be waiting we will be waiting you will be waiting they will be waiting

?

-

1won't be waiting he/she/it won't be waiting we won't be waiting you won’t be waiting they won't be waiting

w ill/s halt 1be waiting ? w ill he/she/it be waiting? w ill/shall we be waiting? will you be waiting? will they be waiting?

Future perfect simple - subject + will + have + past participle
+
1w ill have waited he/she/it will have waited we will have waited you w ill have waited they w ill have waited

?

-

1won't have waited he/she/it won't have waited we won't have waited you won't have waited they won’t have waited

w ill/shall 1have waited? will he/she/it have waited? w ill/shall we have waited? will you have waited? will they have waited?

Future perfect continuous - subject + will + have + been + past participle
+
1w ill have been waiting he/she/it will have been waiting we w ill have been waiting you will have been waiting they w ill have been waiting

118

Grammar for IELTS

-

1won't have been waiting he/she/it won't have been waiting we won't have been waiting you won't have been waiting they won't have been waiting

? w ill/shall 1have been waiting? will he/she/it have been waiting? w ill/shall we have been waiting? will you have been waiting? w ill they have been waiting?

Unit 11

Comparatives and superlatives

Comparative and superlative adjectives comparative adjective

superlative

sm aii (ends in double consonant)

sm aller (+er)

the sm allest

big (ends in consonant + vowel + consonant)

bigger (+ final consonant + er)

the biggest

late [ends in e)

later (+ r)

the latest

early (ends in y)

earlier [y + i + er)

the earliest

Irregular comparative and superlative adjectives comparative adjective

superlative

good

better

best

bad

worse

worst

far

fa rth er/fu rthe r

the farthest/furthest

old

older/elder

the oldest/eldest

Comparative and superlative adverbs adverb superlative

comparative

fast (same form as adjective)

faster (+ er)

the fastest (+ esf)

quietly (adjective + ly)

more quietly (+ more]

the most quietly (+ the most]

Irregular comparative and superlative adverbs comparative adverb

superlative

well

better

best

badly

worse

worst

far

fa rth e r/ further

the farthest/furthest

Gram mar reference

119

Unit 14

Conditionals

Zero conditional if/w he n + present simple + present simple

Other possible structures: lf+ modal verb + modal verb
+
If/when people have free time, they enjoy life.

-

If/when people don’t have free time, they do not enjoy life.

?
If/when people have free time, do they enjoy life?

First conditional if + present sim ple + w ill + infinitive without ‘to’

Other possible structures: if+ if+ if + if +

present present present present sim ple + can/could/may/might sim ple + imperative continuous + w ill + infinitive without 'to' perfect + w ill + infinitive without ‘to’
+

If people have free time, they will enjoy life.

-

If people don’t have free time, they won’t enjoy life.

?
If people have free time, w ill they enjoy life?

Second conditional if+ past sim ple + would + infinitive without 'to'

Other possible structures: if + past simple + could/might if + were to + would + infinitive without 'to' if + past simple + should + infinitive without ‘to’
+

?

If people had free time, they would enjoy life.

120

If people didn't have free time, they wouldn't enjoy life.

If people had free time, would they enjoy life?

Grammar for IELTS

Third conditional if + past perfect sim ple + would have + past participle

Other possible structures: if+ past perfect sim ple + could/might if + were to + would + infinitive without 'to' if + past sim ple + should + infinitive without 'to'
+
If people had had free time, they would have enjoyed life.

-

If people hadn ’t had free time, they wouldn't have enjoyed life.

?
If people had had free time, would they have enjoyed life?

Mixed conditional if+ past perfect sim ple + would + infinitive without 'to' if+ past sim ple + would have + past participle
+

-

?

If people had had free time, they would enjoy life.

If people hadn't had free time, they wouldn't enjoy life.

If people hadn't had free time, would they enjoy life?

If people had free time, they would have enjoyed life.

If people didn't have free time, they would enjoy life.

If people had free time, would they have enjoyed life?

Gram mar reference

Unit 15

Reported Speech

Tense changes
Direct speech

Reported/indirect speech

Present simple:
7 like opera'

Past simple:
She said Ithatl she liked opera.

Present simple continuous:
'I'm studvina Japanese flower arranaina.'

Past continuous:
He said Ithatl he was studvina Japanese flower arranging. Present perfect simple:
7 have never been to the National Museum.'

Past perfect:
He said Ithatl he had never been to the National
Museum.

Present perfect continuous:
‘We've been oaintina for manv vears. ’

Past perfect continuous:
He said Ithat] they had been oaintina for many years.

Past simple:
‘We went to the theatre.'

Past perfect:
He said Ithatl they had aone to the theatre.

Past continuous:
'Yesterday 1was listenina to the lecture on the radio show. ’

Past perfect continuous:
She said that the previous day she had been listenina to the lecture on the radio show.

Past perfect:
7 had read the novel.'

Past perfect:
She said Ithatl she had read the novel.

Going to (present):
'I'm aoina to visit the local craft shoD.'

Going to (past):
She said Ithatl she was aoina to visit the local craft shop.' Will:
‘I'll start photography classes soon.'

Would:
He said Ithatl he would start photoaraphv classes soon. Can:
7 can draw w ell.'

Could:
She said Ithatl she could draw well.

May:
7 think young people may not be interested in reading.' Might:
The teacher said she thought Ithatl young people m iaht not be interested in readinq.

Must:
7 m ust attend my son's school orchestra concert.'

Had to:
My boss said Ithatl he had to attend his son's school orchestra concert.

Time/place word changes today —> that day tomorrow —» the next/following day yesterday —> f/?e day before/the previous day
3 days ago — » 3 days before/earlier now —> f/ien here —> f/?ere

122

Grammar for IELTS

Unit 18

Passive Constructions

The passive can only be used with a verb that takes an object. am/is/are + past participle

Present simple

am /is/are + being + past participle

Present continuous

was/were + past participle

Past simple
Past continuous

was/were + being + past participle

Present perfect

have/has + been + past participle

Present perfect continuous (unusual]

have/has + been + being + past participle had + been + past participle

Past perfect

had + been + being + past participle

Past perfect continuous (unusual)

used to + be + past participle

Used to

would + be + past participle

Would

w ill + be + past participle

W ill

is/are + going to + be + past participle

Going to

e.g. should + be + past participle

Modal constructions - present/future
Modal constructions - past

e.g. should have + been + past participle

Semi-modal constructions

e.g. had to + be + past participle

Other Passive Constructions (avoiding using the subject)
A common way to use most reporting verbs in the passive is: to be + past participle of the reporting verb + to + past participle
Active: People say that film s distort real life.
Passive: Films are said to distort real life.
Active: They advise parents to m onitor the programmes their children watch.
Passive: Parents are advised to m onitor the programmes their children watch.
Some verbs (e.g. say, know, believe, understand, find) can also be used in the following structure:
It is/was/has been + past participle of the reporting verb + that + clause
Active: People say that films distort real life.
Passive: It is said that films distort real life.
Active: Researchers have found that too many hours watching television can be detrimental.
Passive: It has been found that too many hours watching television can be detrimental.

Gram mar reference

123

The International English Language
Testing System (IELTS) Test
IELTS is jointly managed by the British Council, Cambridge ESO L Examinations and IDP Education, Australia.
There are two versions of the test:
• Academic
• General Training
Academic is for students wishing to study at undergraduate or postgraduate levels in an English-m edium environment. General Training is for people who wish to migrate to an English-speaking country.
This book is primarily for students taking the Academic version.

The Test
There are four modules:
Listening

Reading

Writing
Speaking

30 minutes, plus 10 minutes for transferring answ ers to the answ er sheet
NB: the audio is heard only once.
Approx. 10 questions per section
Section 1: two speakers discuss a social situation
Section 2: one speaker talks about a non-academ ic topic
Section 3: up to four speakers d iscuss an educational project
Section 4: one speaker gives a talk of general academic interest
60 minutes
3
texts, taken from authentic sources, on general, academic topics. They may contain diagrams, charts, etc.
40 questions: may include multiple choice, sentence completion, completing a diagram, graph or chart, choosing headings, yes/no, true/false questions, classification and matching exercises.
Task 1: 20 minutes: description of a table, chart, graph or diagram (150 words minimum)
Task 2: 40 minutes: an essay in response to an argument or problem (250 words minimum)
11-14 minutes
A three-part face-to-face oral interview with an examiner.
The interview is recorded.
Part 1: introductions and general questions (4-5 mins)
Part 2: individual long turn (3-4 mins! - the candidate is given a task, has one minute to prepare, then talks for 1-2 minutes, with som e questions from the examiner.
Part 3: two-way discussion (4-5 mins): the examiner a sk s further questions on the topic from Part 2, and gives the candidate the opportunity to discuss more abstract issues or ideas.

Timetabling

Listening, Reading and Writing m ust be taken on the sam e day, and in the order listed above.
Speaking can be taken up to 7 days before or after the other modules.

Scoring

Each section is given a band score. The average of the four scores produces the Overall Band
Score. You do not pass or fail IELTS; you receive a score.

IELTS and the Common European Framework of Reference
The C EF R show s the level of the learner and is used for many English as a Foreign Language examinations. The table below show s the approximate CEFR level and the equivalent IELTS Overall Band Score:
I CEFR description

IELTS Band Score

Proficient user
(Advanced)

C2
C1

9
7-8

Independent user
(Intermediate - Upper Intermediate)

124

CEFRcode

B2
B1

5-6.5
4-5

1

This table contains th e g e n e ra l descriptors fo r the band scores 1 -9 :
IELTS Band
Scores

Expert user

Has fully operational command of the language: appropriate, accurate and fluent with complete understanding.

Very good user

Has fully operational command of the language, with only occasional unsystematic inaccuracies and inappropriacies. Misunderstandings may occur in unfamiliar situations. Handles complex detailed argumentation well.

Good user

Has operational command of the language, though with occasional inaccuracies, inappropriacies and misunderstandings in some situations. Generally handles complex language well and understands detailed reasoning.

Competent user

Has generally effective command of the language despite some inaccuracies, inappropriacies and misunderstandings. Can use and understand fairly complex language, particularly in familiar situations.

Modest user

Has partial command of the language, coping with overall meaning in most situations, though is likely to make many mistakes. Should be able to handle basic communication in own field.

Limited user

Basic competence is limited to familiar situations. Has frequent problems in understanding and expression. Is not able to use complex language.

Extremely limited user Conveys and understands only general meaning in very familiar situations.
Frequent breakdowns in communication occur.

Intermittent user

No real communication is possible except for the most basic information using isolated words or short formulae in familiar situations and to meet immediate needs. Has great difficulty understanding spoken and written English.

Non user

Essentially has no ability to use the Language beyond possibly a few isolated words.

Did not attempt the test

No assessable information provided.

Marking
The Listening and Reading papers have 40 items, each worth one m ark if correctly answered. Here are som e examples of how m arks are translated into band scores:
Listening:

16 out of 40 correct answers:
23 out of 40 correct answers:
30 out of 40 correct answers:

band score 5 band score 6 band score 7

Reading

15 out of 40 correct answers:
23 out of 40 correct answers:
30 out of 40 correct answers:

band score 5 band score 6 band score 7

Writing and Speaking are marked according to performance descriptors.
Writing: exam iners award a band score for each of four areas with equal weighting:





Task achievement (Task 1)
Task response(T ask 2)
Coherence and cohesion
Lexical resource and gram m atical range and accuracy

Speaking: exam iners award a band score for each of four areas with equal weighting:





Fluency and coherence
Lexical resource
Grammatical range
Accuracy and pronunciation

For full details of how the examination is scored and marked, go to: www.ielts.org

125

Collins

IELTS Test preparation covered by Collins

English for Exams

Skills for IELTS
The only series o f topic-based IELTS test preparation books focusing on each skill.

IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+

IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+

IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+

IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+

978-O-OO-742327-9

978-O-OO-742324-8

978-O-OO-742326-2

978-O-OO-742325-5

Available internationally from all good bookshops.

Vocabulary for IELTS

If you need help finding your local stockist, please email us, telling us where you live, at collins.elt@harpercolIins.co.uk. Key vocabulary practice to succeed in all four IELTS test papers.
IELTS 5.0-6+
CEF Level: B2+

Visit collinselt.com to see other titles in our ELT range, and sign up to receive IELTS language updates.

978-O-OO-745682-6

Key Words for IELTS
Three graded reference books providing the vocabulary students need to succeed in the IELTS test.

Price:

£7-99

IELTS 4.0-5.5
CEF Level: B1-B2

IELTS 5.5-6.5
CEF Level: B2-C1

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CEF Level: C 1-C 2

978-O-OO-736545-6

978-O-OO-736546-3

978-O-OO-736547-O

1

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