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Gre Vocabulary 3000

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List 1
GRE Verbal 750 Quantitative 800, AW 5.5

2008

10

Princeton, MIT, M. Fin

Unit 1

ABANDON A B D I C AT E

ABASE ABERRANT

ABASH ABET

A B AT E A B E YA N C E

A B B R E V I AT E ABHOR

abandon [ 1 n.

] carefree, freedom from constraint

added spices to the stew with complete abandon unconstraint, uninhibitedness, unrestraint 2 v. to give (oneself) over unrestrainedly abandon herself to a life of complete idleness abandon oneself to emotion indulge, surrender, give up 3 v. to withdraw from often in the face of danger or encroachment abandon the ship/homes salvage 4 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) NASA the bad weather forced NASA to abandon the launch abort, drop, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off keep, continue, maintain, carry on abase [ 1 v. ] to lower in rank, office, prestige, or esteem

was unwilling to abase himself by pleading guilty to a crime that he did not commit debauch, degrade, profane, vitiate, discredit, foul, smirch, take down elevate, ennoble, uplift, aggrandize, canonize, deify, exalt abash [ 1 vt. ] to destroy the self-possession or self-confidence of ,disconcert, embarrass

Nothing could abash him. discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, fluster, nonplus, mortify

embolden abate [ 1 v. ] to reduce in degree or intensity /

abate his rage/pain taper off intensify 2 v.

moderate, recede, subside, remit, wane, die (away or down or out),let up, phase down, ratchet (down)

to reduce in amount or value

abate a tax de-escalate, deplete, downscale, dwindle, augment, promote 3 v. to put an end to abate a nuisance abrogate, annul, invalidate, nullify, rescind, vacate abbreviate [ 1 v. ] to make briefer building as bldg. building bldg

abbreviate the word

abridge, curtail, cut back, syncopate truncate extend, protract, elongate, lengthen, prolong abdicate [ 1 v. ] to renounce a throne to relinquish (power or responsibility) formally

abdicate the throne/crown cede, relinquish, renounce, resign, step down (from) constitute, assume, usurp aberrant [ 1 adj. ] deviating from the usual or natural type

This behavior might be aberrant enough to draw attention. abnormal, anomalous, peculiar, singular, unwonted uncustomary normal, natural, regular, standard, typical abet [ 1 ] v. < to assist or support in the achievement of a purpose > aid and abet 2 v.

ferment, foment, provoke, instigate, stir (up), whip (up) to actively encourage (as an activity or plan) aid, assist, back, support, prop (up) stymie, frustrate, obstruct, thwart, impede, forestall , hinder abeyance [ 1 n. ] temporary inactivity

hold the plan in abeyance doldrums, quiescence, moratorium, latency, dormancy, suspension, cold storage, deep freeze

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continuance, fulfillment abhor [ 1 vt. ] to regard with extreme repugnance

He abhors the way people leave their trash at the picnic sites in the park. abominate, despise, detest, execrate, loathe greatly admire

Unit 2

ABIDING ABOVEBOARD

ABJECT ABRADE

ABJURE ABRIDGE

ABNEGATE ABROGATE

ABOMINATE ABSCOND

abiding [ 1 vt.

] lasting for a long time; enduring

an abiding love of Espanol ageless, enduring, eternal, everlasting, perennial, perpetual, timeless evanescent , ephemeral abject [ 1 adj. ] cast down in spirit, spiritless

a man made abject by suffering spiritless spirited, excited, exultant 2 3 adj. adj. sunk to or existing in a low state or condition expressing or offered in a humble and often ingratiating spirit an abject apology abject poverty abject flattery

base, humble, menial, servile, slavish abjure [ 1 v. ] a firm and final rejecting or abandoning often made under oath

abjure one’s belief recant, renege, renounce, abnegate, forswear (also foreswear), repudiate affirm, espouse, embrace 2 v. to resist the temptation of abjure extravagance keep (from), refrain (from), withhold (from) bow to, give in to, submit to, succumb to, surrender to, yield to abnegate [ ]

1

v.

deny, renounce

abnegated the idea of freedom recant, renege, repudiate, unsay, forswear (also foreswear), take back, reaffirm 2 v. surrender, relinquish abnegated her powers cede, resign, step aside (from), step down (from) adhere to abominate 1 v. [ ] to hate or loathe intensely, abhor

We abominate jokes that make fun of people who have physical disabilities. despise, detest, execrate, loathe esteem, love, adore aboveboard [ b vb d] ] 1 adj. free from all traces of deceit or duplicity This transaction was totally aboveboard, so there was no reason to question it. chicanery, surreptitious, underhanded abrade [ 1 v. ] to rub or wear away especially by friction; wear down spiritually

My skin was abraded. chafe, excoriate, rasp, graze, scuff augment abridge [ 1 v. ] to shorten in duration or extent

modern transportation abridges distance curtail, truncate, cut back extend in length, protract, amplify 2 v. to shorten by omission of words without sacrifice of sense an abridged edition abbreviate, curtail, condense, syncopate abrogate [ 1 v. ] to abolish by authoritative action, annul

abrogate the law/ treaty disannul, invalidate, nullify, quash, rescind, roll back, strike down embrace, uphold, institute 2 v. to treat as nonexistent abrogate their responsibilities abscond [ ]

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1

v.

to depart secretly and hide oneself

abscond from the prison flee, lam, run off, break out (of), clear out

Unit 3

ABSOLUTE ABSTRUSE

ABSOLVE ABSURD

ABSTAIN ABSTEMIOUS ABUNDANT ABUSE

ABSTRACT ABUT

absolute [ 1 adj. absolute ruler

] unconstrained by constitutional or other provisions

arbitrary, autocratic, despotic, dictatorial, monocratic, tyrannical 2 adj. unqualified in extent or degree; total absolute silence complete, utter, deadly, downright, out-and-out qualified 3 adj. free from imperfection free or relatively; free from mixture absolute alcohol plain, refined, unadulterated, unalloyed, undiluted, unmixed adulterated, alloyed, diluted, impure, mixed 4 adj. positive, unquestionable absolute proof clear, deciding, decisive, definitive inconclusive, indecisive, unclear absolve [ 1 v. ] to set free from an obligation or the consequences of guilt, exculpate

absolve somebody from blame acquit, exonerate, vindicate blame, criminate, incriminate abstain [ 1 v. ] to refrain from something by one's own choice

abstain from smoking/voting forgo, keep from, refrain from, withhold (from) bow to, give in to, submit to, succumb to, surrender to, yield to abstemious [ 1 adj. alcohol, sparring an abstemious diet abstemious meals continent, temperate, self-abnegating, self-denying ] marked by restraint especially in the consumption of food or

indulgent abstract [ 1 vt. ] to make an abstract of summarize 135

abstracted the 135-page report in three short paragraphs digest, recapitulate, synopsize, sum up, boil down elaborate 2 vt. to draw away the attention of personal problems abstracted him detract, divert, call off, throw off abstraction attention abstruse [ 1 adj. ] difficult to comprehend : recondite n.

the abstruse calculations arcane, esoteric, hermetic (also hermetical), recondite accessible, patent, shallow, superficial absurd [ 1 adj. ] ridiculously unreasonable, unsound, or incongruous

an absurd argument wild, bizarre, ludicrous, insane, nonsensical, preposterous, half-baked rational, sensible, realistic, reasonable abundant [ 1 adj. ] marked by great plenty (as of resources)

a abundant land ample, cornucopian, teeming, replete, abounding infrequent, rare, uncommon, inadequate, scanty, scarce abuse [ 1 v. ] language that condemns or vilifies usually unjustly, intemperately, and angrily

He alleged that he was verbally abused by his colleagues. assail, bash, castigate, excoriate, lambaste abusive 2 v. to put to a wrong or improper use; abuse alcohol to use excessively abuse a privilege misemploy, misuse abut [ 1 v. ] to touch at one end or side; lie adjacent Our land abuts a wildlife preserve. skirt, verge on, border on, butt on, march with

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Unit 4

ABYSMAL ACCEDE A C C E L E R AT E ACCIDENTAL ACCLIMATE ACCOLADE

ACCESSIBLE A C C E S S O RY ACCOMMODATE ACCOST

abysmal [ 1 adj.

] immeasurably low or wretched

abysmal living conditions bottomless shallow shoal 2 adj. immeasurably great an abysmal cliff abysmal ignorance profound skin-deep, superficial accede [ 1 v. ] to express approval or give consent

acceded to their pleas acquiesce, assent, consent, subscribe, come round demur, dissent 2 v. To arrive at or come into an office or dignity: accede to the throne accelerate [ 1 v. ] to cause to move faster

accelerate his steps balloon, escalate, snowball, mushroom, proliferate, burgeon, build up retard 2 3 v. v. to bring about at an earlier time to become greater in size, extent, volume, amount, or number accelerate their departure toy purchases accelerate dramatically during the Christmas season accumulate, balloon, enlarge, escalate, mushroom, proliferate, snowball, roll up contract, decrease, diminish, dwindle, lessen, recede, wane accessible [ 1 adj. ] situated within easy reach

the town accessible by rail handy, reachable inconvenient, unhandy, unreachable, untouchable 2 adj. capable of being understood or appreciated The information ought to be made more accessible.

apprehensible, fathomable, legible, scrutable abstruse, incoherent, incomprehensible, inscrutable, insensible 3 adj. possible to get The data is not currently accessible. available, attainable, obtainable, procurable unattainable, unavailable, unobtainable accessory [ 1 adj. ] having a secondary, supplementary, or subordinate function.

accessory features such as call-waiting accessory, peripheral, supplementary of primarily importance, chief, main, principal 2 case abettor, confederate accidental [ 1 adj. ] occurring unexpectedly or by chance n. one associated with another in wrongdoing two accessories, the driver of the getaway car and the dishonest bank teller, were charged in the robbery

The discovery of gold was entirely accidental. incidental, fortuitous, unintended, unintentional, unpremeditated, unwitting calculated, deliberate, intended, planned, premeditated 2 adj. not being a vital part of or belonging to something Its commercial value was accidental. alien, extraneous, external, adventitious inherent, innate, intrinsic acclimate [ 1 vt. ] to change (something) so as to make it suitable for a new use or situation

acclimate oneself to a nine-to-five office job adjust, accommodate, shape, suit, tailor make unfamiliar with accolade [ 1 n. ] an expression of approval

disapprobation won virtually every accolade that the film world has to offer applause, credit, distinction 2 v. to praise or honor excoriation, criticism, reprobation, castigation, cutting remark, derogation, reproof. denigration, denunciation, swearword accommodate [ 1 v. ] to provide with something desired, needed, or suited (as a 600

helpful service, a loan, or lodgings) This cruise ship was big enough to accommodate over 600 people.

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fit, hold, take 2 situation accommodated the lectern to the height of the guest speaker acclimate, adjust, condition, conform, doctor, edit, shape, suit, tailor 3 v. to bring to a state free of conflicts, inconsistencies, or differences The idea that the United States could harmoniously accommodate all was a fiction. attune, conciliate, conform, coordinate, reconcile disharmonize accost [ 1 vt. ] to approach and speak to often in a challenging or aggressive way v. to change (something) so as to make it suitable for a new use or

accosted by three gang members

Unit 5

ACCRETE ACRID

ACCUMULATE ACRIMONIOUS

ACERBIC ACUMEN

ACME ACUTE

ACQUIESCE ADAMANT

accrete [ 1 v.

] to grow or increase gradually, as by addition

silt accreting at the mouth of the river accumulate, build up, pile (up), stack (up) wear away, reduction in substance caused by erosion accretion n. accumulate [ 1 vi. ] to increase gradually in quantity or number

accumulate a fortune mount, swell, garner, snowball, build up, bulk (up) dissipate, diminish, dwindle, recede, wane acerbic [ 1 adj. ] marked by the use of wit that is intended to cause hurt feelings

acerbic commentary pungent, sardonic, satiric, scalding, scathing sweet, saccharin acerbity n. acme [ 1 n. ] the highest point or stage, as of achievement or development

the acme of his career culmination, pinnacle, tip-top, high-water mark bottom, nadir, rock bottom 2 n. the most perfect type or example a movie that has come to be regarded as the acme of the Hollywood musical apotheosis, epitome, exemplar acquiesce [ 1 v. ] to accept, comply, or submit tacitly or passively

acquiesce to my own fleecing assent, consent, subscribe, come round resist, defy, dissent acrid [ 1 2 ] adj. adj. sharp and harsh or unpleasantly pungent in taste or odor : irritating marked by the use of wit that is intended to cause hurt feelings

acrid smell of tobacco acrid temper gentle acrimonious [ 1 adj. ] having or showing deep-seated resentment

the acrimonious debate between the two candidates embittered, hard, rancorous, resentful, sore acumen [ 1 matters the business acumen keenness, shrewdness, canniness, clear-sightedness, hardheadedness unable to discerning acute [ 1 penetrating an acute thinker delicate, fine, keen, perceptive, sensitive 2 adj. needing immediate attention acute appendicitis exigent, imperative, compelling, urgent mild, noncritical, nonurgent 3 adj. extreme in degree, or effect experiencing acute distress over the misunderstanding with her best friend dreadful, excruciating, profound ] adj. marked by keen discernment or intellectual perception especially of subtle distinctions n. ] exceptional discernment and judgment especially in practical

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light, moderate, soft adamant [ 1 adj. unyielding; inflexible adamant about staying here hardheaded, headstrong, intransigent, pertinacious, obdurate, uncompromising vacillatory, incline to yield, amenable, compliant, relenting, yielding ] unshakable or insistent especially in maintaining a position or opinion,

Unit 6

ADAPT AD-LIB adapt [ 1 vt. ]

ADDICT ADMONISH

ADHERE ADORE

ADJOURN ADULATE

ADJUNCT ADULTERATE

to modify according with the changing circumstances adapt the novel for the screen

adapt to the change

adjust, conform, edit, accommodate, shape, suit, tailor addict [ 1 2 v. n. ] to devote or surrender (oneself) to something habitually or obsessively a person with a strong and habitual liking for something

be addicted to drug/ alcohol science-fiction addicts who eagerly await each new installment in the series devotee, enthusiast, fanatic, maniac nonfan adhere [ 1 v. ] to cause to stick fast

adhere to the surface cleave, cling, hew detach 2 v. to act according to the commands of adhere to the rules cling to, hew to, stand by, stick to, comply with defy, disobey, rebel against 3 v. to give steadfast support to our coach adheres to the belief that we can win this game if we just have a positive attitude keep to, stand by, stick to or with defect from adherent n. a follower of a leader, party, or profession

forerunner adjourn [ 1 vi. ] to suspend a session indefinitely or to another time or place

The meeting adjourned for a week. prorogate, prorogue, recess, suspend convoke adjunct [ 1 n. ] something joined or added to another thing but not essentially a part of it

Massage therapy can be used as an adjunct along with the medication. appendage, appliance, attachment, add-on essential element ad-lib [ 1 adj. ] made or done without previous thought or preparation

not bad for an ad-lib comedy routine extemporary, impromptu, improvisational, offhanded considered, planned, premeditated, rehearsed admonish [ 1 v. ] to give advice to

admonished the patient to eat more healthy foods counsel 2 v. to reprove gently but earnestly. admonished her for littering chide, reprimand, reproach, reprove, tick off admonishment n. adore [ 1 ] vt. to take pleasure in

I adore those earrings. fancy, relish, savor, delight in, rejoice in 2 vt. to feel passion, devotion, or tenderness for adored his wife cherish abhor, abominate, despise, detest, execrate, loathe adulate [ 1 v. ] to praise too much

incompetent assistants who spend all their time adulating her overpraise, belaud, soft-soap, butter up scorn, disdain, vituperate, disparage adulterate [ 1 vt. ] to corrupt, debase, or make impure by the addition of a foreign or inferior

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substance or element adulterate its products with cheap additives alloy, contaminate, pollute, taint, water down enrich, fortify, strengthen

Unit 7

ADUMBRATE AFFABLE

ADVENTITIOUS ADVERSARY ADVERT AFFINITY AFFLUENT AGGRANDIZE

ADVOCATE AGGRAVATE

adumbrate [ 1 vt. adumbrate a plan revelation 2 vt.

] to disclose partially or guardedly.

to give a slight indication of beforehand

The strife in Bloody Kansas adumbrated the civil war that would follow. forerun, harbinger, herald, prefigure adventitious [ 1 adj. ] coming from another source and not inherent or innate

Moral considerations are adventitious to the study of art. alien, extraneous, external, foreign, supervenient constitutional, essential, intrinsic, inborn, inbred, innate, inherent adversary [ 1 n. ] one that contends with, opposes, or resists : enemy

political adversary antagonist, foe, opponent ally, amigo, friend advert [ 1 vi. ] to call attention; refer:

He adverted to the problem in the opening paragraph. advertent a inattentive, remiss, heedless, negligent advocate [ 1 vt. ] to speak, plead, or argue in favor of; support

advocates traditional teaching methods back, champion, endorse, patronize

impunge affable [ 1 adj. ] characterized by ease and friendliness

an affable manner cordial, genial, hospitable, sociable, good-natured, good-tempered, well-disposed irascible, testy, ill-tempered, unamiable, ungenial affinity [ 1 n. ] a habitual attraction to some activity or thing

always had an affinity for nurturing living things bent, penchant, predilection, predisposition, proclivity, propensity aversion, repugnance, antipathy 2 n. the fact or state of having something in common a study showing an affinity between obesity and socioeconomic status association, bearing, kinship affluent [ 1 adj. ] having a generously sufficient and typically increasing supply of material possessions

affluent society opulent, loaded, deep-pocketed, silk-stocking, well-endowed, well-off, well-to-do needy, impecunious, impoverished, indigent, penurious aggrandize [ 1 vt. ] to enhance the power, wealth, position, or reputation of

exploited the situation to aggrandize himself augment, boost , expand, magnify, add (to),pump up relegate, disparage, efface, abase, demean aggravate [ 1 vt. ] to make worse, more serious, or more severe

Stress and lack of sleep could aggravate the situation. complicate, worsen alleviate, succor, console, assuage, mitigate, relieve 2 already v. to disturb the peace of mind of (someone) especially by repeated disagreeable acts 10 annoy, bother, nettle, vex it really aggravates me when I arrive 10 minutes before the stated closing time, and the store's closed

Unit 8

AGGREGATE

AGGRESSIVE

AGGRIEVE

AGITATE

AGOG

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AGONIZE

AIRTIGHT

ALACRITY

ALIBI

A L I E N AT E

aggregate [ 1 n.

] a mass or body of units or parts somewhat loosely associated with one another

An empire is the aggregate of many states under one common head. sum, summation, totality isolated units 2 v. to collect or gather into a mass or whole aggregates content from many other sites coalesce, join together disaggregate v. disperse aggressive [ 1 adj. ] having a quality of anger and determination that makes it ready to attack others

aggressive behavior fierce, assaultive, combative, militant, confrontational, go-getting, self-assertive, truculent, pugnacious even-tempered, nonbelligerent, pacific, uncombative, uncontentious 2 adj. marked by or uttered with forcefulness an aggressive campaign to win the African-American vote dynamic, energetic, full-blooded, vigorous aggrieve [ 1 vt. gratify aggrieved adj. a line of aggrieved ticket-holders, demanding a refund for the cancelled play discontent, disgruntled, displeased, dissatisfied, malcontent agitate 1 [ v. ] to attempt to arouse public feeling ] , to give pain or trouble to, distress

agitate for better conditions debate, dispute, bat (around or back and forth), hash (over or out), talk over 2 v. to excite and often trouble the mind or feelings of : disturb There's no need to agitate the patient about little things. bother, discomfort, discompose, perturb calm, compose, soothe, tranquilize agog 1 [ ] adj. showing urgent desire or interest

Children were agog over new toys. avid, ardent, enthusiastic, solicitous, voracious

apathetic, indifferent, uneager, unenthusiastic agonize 1 [ v. ] to feel deep sadness or mental pain

agonizes over every decision anguish, suffer airtight [ 1 2 adj. adj. ] having no noticeable weakness, flaw, or loophole impermeable to air or nearly so

an airtight argument an airtight seal alacrity [ 1 n. ] promptness in response : cheerful readiness

accepted the invitation with alacrity amenability, gameness, obligingness, willingness dilatoriness, hesitance and reluctance alibi [ 1 n. or negligence) He always has a very creative alibi for undone homework. defense, justification, plea, reason alienate [ 1 v. ] to make unfriendly, or indifferent especially where attachment formerly existed ] an excuse usually intended to avert blame or punishment (as for failure

alienated most of his colleagues with his bad temper disaffect, disgruntle, sour unite, reunite, reconcile 2 v. to convey or transfer (as property or a right) usually by a specific act rather than the due course of law A landowner has a right to alienate his right of ownership. assign, cede, deed, make over

Unit 9

ALIGN ALLURE

ALLAY ALLY

ALLEGIANCE ALOFT

ALLEVIATE ALOOF

ALLUDE ALTRUISM

align [

]

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1

vt.

to bring into line or alignment

align the cars with the curb askew, awry, warped 2 vt. to adjust to produce a proper relationship or orientation align the wheels of the truck improperly adjusted, irregular allay [ 1 ] vt. to subdue or reduce in intensity or severity, alleviate allay one’s fears or doubts assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe excite, aggravate, foment, increase the intensity of, exacerbate allegiance [ 1 n. ] devotion or loyalty to a person, group, or cause

They swore their allegiance to the USA. commitment, dedication, piety, faithfulness, steadfastness inconstancy, infidelity, perfidiousness, treachery alleviate [ 1 v. ] relieve, lessen

alleviate pain/suffering ease, assuage, mitigate, mollify, palliate, soothe exacerbate allude [ 1 vi. ] to convey an idea indirectly

He also alluded to his rival's past marital troubles. imply, indicate, infer, insinuate, intimate, suggest allure [ 1 vt. ] to attract or delight as if by magic

entice, seduce, solicit, tempt, captivate, enchant, lead on alluring an alluring smile unattractive 2 market bait, beguile, decoy, entice, seduce, lead on v. to lead away from a usual or proper course by offering some pleasure or advantage allured by the promise of big bucks, he decided to have a go at a job on the trading floor of the stock

ally [
1

]
n. one in helpful association with another enter the war as an ally of America supporter, confederate, sympathizer adversary, rival

2

v.

to enter into an alliance

several tribes allied to fend off the invaders disband aloft [ 1 ] adv. in the air especially : in flight (as in an airplane) The balloon stayed aloft for days overhead grounded aloof [ 1 ] adj. removed or distant either physically or emotionally stood apart with aloof dignity an aloof church sociable altruism [ 1 n. ] unselfish regard for or devotion to the welfare of others

detached, offish, unsociable, withdrawn, standoffish

Ambition that is masked as altruism. egoism altruistic adj. egotistic, self-centered, self-concerned, selfish

Unit 10

AMALGAMATE AMENABLE

AMBIGUOUS AMENITY

AMBLE AMIABLE

AMBROSIAL AMICABLE

AMELIORATE AMITY

amalgamate [ 1 v.

] to combine into a unified or integrated whole; unite

to amalgamate with an American company mix, fuse, intermix, compound, meld, comingle, integrate, intermingle separate, isolate ambiguous [ 1 adj. ] open to more than one interpretation doubtful or uncertain

Students have ambiguous feelings about their role in the world. Frustrated by ambiguous instructions doubtful, equivocal, unclear, uncertain distinct, pellucid, patent, blatant, explicit, lucid, perspicuous

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amble [ 1

] vi. / n. to walk slowly or leisurely; stroll

Every evening, they ambled along the bank. ramble, saunter, stroll, wander, dally, dawdle step quickly ambrosial [ 1 adj. ] something extremely pleasing to taste or smell

The ambrosial aroma of the roast stimulated our appetites. savory, aromal, aromatic, perfumed, redolent, odorous fetid, noisome, stenchy, malodorous, rancid ameliorate [ 1 vt. ] to make or become better; improve

to ameliorate the suffering of people who have lost their jobs improve, convalesce, recuperate aggravate, worsen, deteriorate ameliorator damper n. n.

amenable [
1 adj.

] readily brought to yield, submit, or cooperate

a high-spirited and rebellious girl not at all amenable to persuasion. compliant, docile, submissive, tractable, obedient intransigent, contumacious ungovernable, unruly intractable, recalcitrant, refractory

uncontrollable,

amenity [
1 n.

] something that conduces to comfort, convenience, or enjoyment

the amenity of the new surroundings comfort, convenience, affability 2 n. the quality of being pleasant or agreeable a discussion conducted in perfect amenity agreeability, cordiality, harmony, accord, concord, consonance discordance, inharmony

amiable [
1 adj.

] being friendly, sociable, and congenial

an amiable teacher not easily annoyed friendly, affable, amicable, genial, easy to get along with disagreeable, ill-natured, ill-tempered, unamiable, ungenial, ungracious, unpleasant

amicable [
1 adj.

] characterized by friendly goodwill; amiable an amicable divorce

maintain amicable relations

friendly, affable, amicable, genial, easy to get along with antagonistic, hostile, unfriendly

amity [
1 n.

]
, friendship; especially: friendly relations between nations They parted in amity.

live in amity with his neighbors friendship enmity, hostility

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List 2

Verbal 720 Quantitative 800

Unit 1

AMORPHOUS ANECDOTE

ANALGESIC ANEMIC

ANARCHIST ANESTHETIC

ANATHEMA ANIMATE

ANCILLARY ANIMUS

amorphous [ ] 1 adj. having no definite form: shapeless an amorphous cloud mass shapeless, unformed, unshaped 2 adj. being without definite character or nature : unclassifiable an amorphous segment of society unclassifiable analgesic [ ] n. a medication that reduces or eliminates pain Aspirin is a kind of analgesic. anesthetic, anodyne anarchist [ ] n. a person who rebels against any authority, established order, or ruling power rebel, insurgent anarchy n. a state of lawlessness or political disorder due to the absence of governmental authority chaos, disarray, topsy-turviness, commotion, turmoil order anathema [ ] 1 n. a ban or curse solemnly pronounced by ecclesiastical authority and accompanied by excommunication curse, execration, imprecation, malediction benediction, benison, blessing ancillary [ ] 1 adj. of secondary importance The company hopes to boost its sales through ancillary products. subordinate, subsidiary

main paramount 2 adj. : auxiliary, supplementary the need for ancillary evidence Some practice in the deft use of words may well be ancillary to the study of natural science. auxiliary, supplementary anecdote [ ] 1 n. a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident He told us all sorts of humorous anecdotes about his childhood. He is a master raconteur with endless anecdotes. anemic [ ] 1 adj. lacking force, vitality, or spirit an anemic economic recovery. Investors are worried about the stock's anemic performance. sapless, infirm, feeble, decrepit, wan, pale, pallid, effete, lethargic vigorous, spirited forceful anesthetic [ ] 1 n. : something (as a drug) that relieves pain The dentist waited until the anesthetic took effect. analgesic, anodyne 2 adj. lacking awareness or sensitivity be anesthetic to their feelings sensate animate [ ] 1 adj. having or showing life The lecture was about ancient worship of animate and inanimate objects. breathing, live, living dead, expired, deceased, lifeless, nonliving 2 adj. having much high-spirited energy and movement Animate dance will get the blood pumping. bouncing, brisk, energetic, sprightly, vivacious inactive, lackadaisical, languid, listless, leaden 3 v. to give spirit and support to The writer's humor animates the novel. brace, energize, enliven, invigorate, ginger (up), pep up, vitalize damp, dampen, deaden animation the quality or condition of being alive, active, spirited, or vigorous. lassitude, lethargy , 4 v. to move to action a criminal animated by greed goad, prod, spur, galvanize, stimulate

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5

v.

to make or design in such a way as to create apparently spontaneous CG

lifelike movement Kongfu Panda's very realistic panda was animated by CG.

animus [ ] 1 n. a usually prejudiced and often spiteful or malevolent ill will, enmity She felt no animus toward those who had wronged her. animosity, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor friendliness, amity, amenity

Unit 2

ANNOY ANNUL ANOMALOUS ANTEDILUVIAN ANTERIOR ANTIC

ANONYMOUS APATHY

ANTAGONIZE APHORISM

annoy [ ] 1 vt. to disturb or irritate especially by repeated acts Mosquitoes annoy us in the summer. The sound of footsteps on the bare floor annoyed the downstairs neighbors. aggravate, bother, chafe, gall, grate, irk, nettle, peeve, pique, rile, ruffle, spite, vex soothe, defuse, allay, conciliate, propitiate, mitigate, assuage, appease, pacify, placate, calm, settle, subdue, solace, mollify annul [ ] 1 v. to declare or make legally invalid or void The marriage was annulled last month. disannul, cancel, invalidate, abrogate, nullify, repeal, rescind make legal enact 2 v. to balance with an equal force so as to make ineffective Unfortunately, his arrogant attitude annuls the many generous favors he does for people. counterbalance, neutralize anomalous [ ] 1 adj. being out of the ordinary He is in an anomalous position as the only part-time teacher in XDF. aberrant, abnormal, atypical, phenomenal, singular, uncustomary, unwonted unexceptional, unextraordinary anomaly n. deviation or departure from the normal or common order, form, or rule.

XDF

2 adj. departing from some accepted standard of what is normal an anomalous burst of anger from this usually easygoing person natural standard anonymous [ ] 1 adj. not named or identified He made an anonymous phone call to the police. The donor wishes to remain anonymous. incognito, innominate, unnamed, unidentified, untitled dubbed, named, termed 2 adj. lacking individuality, distinction, or recognizability the anonymous faces in the crowd antagonize [ ] 1 vt. , to act in opposition to : counteract He did not mean to antagonize you. antagonize a bill counteract, disagree agree, concede, grant win over 2 vt. to incur or provoke the hostility of His remark antagonized his friends. aggravate, exasperate, gall, inflame, nettle, provoke, peeve, pique, irritate, rile, roil, chafe, grate, ruffle,vex soothe, defuse, allay, conciliate, propitiate, mitigate, assuage, appease, pacify, placate, calm, settle, subdue, solace, mollify antediluvian [ ] 1 adj. extremely old and antiquated He has antediluvian notions about the role of women in the workplace. an antediluvian automobile aged, age-old, prehistoric, antique, aged, immemorial modern, new, recent 2 n. a person with old-fashioned ideas an antediluvian who thought a woman without talent is virtuous reactionary modern, trendy anterior [ ] 1 adj. coming before in time or development finish the work anterior to the schedule tests anterior to the college entrance examination antecedent, foregoing, former, forward, precedent, preceding, prior after, ensuing, following, posterior, subsequent, succeeding antic [ ] 1 adj. characterized by clownish extravagance or absurdity The clown came on with many antic gestures.

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chucklesome, comedic, comic, droll, farcical, laughable, ludicrous, hilarious humorless, unamusing, uncomic, unfunny, unhumorous grave

serious, solemn, somber

apathy [ ] 1 n. lack of feeling or emotion People have shown surprising apathy toward these important social problems. affectlessness, emotionlessness, impassiveness, impassivity, insensibility, numbness, phlegm emotion, feeling, sensibility 2 n. lack of interest or concern She heard the story with apathy. Her poor grades are proof enough of her apathy concerning all matters academic. disinterestedness, disregard, incuriosity, insouciance, nonchalance, unconcern concern, interest, regard aphorism [ ] 1 n. a short witty sentence which expresses a general truth or comment When decorating, remember the familiar aphorism, “less is more.” adage, epigram, maxim, proverb

Unit 3

APOCALYPTIC APOCRYPHAL APOPLECTIC APOSTASY APPEAL APPEALING APPLAUSE APPOSITE

APPALL APPRECIABLE

apocalyptic [ ] 1 adj. of a revelatory or prophetic nature No one listened to her apocalyptic predictions. prophetic, predictive, prognostic, farsighted 2 adj. of, relating to, or being a major turning point the apocalyptic Battle of Stalingrad leading to the ultimate defeat of Nazi Germany trivial, petty, minor, immaterial, inconsequential, insignificant 3 adj. wildly unrestrained : grandiose apocalyptic tone apocryphal [ ] 1 adj. of doubtful authenticity : spurious an apocryphal story about the president's childhood spurious, unauthentic, ungenuine

factual, true, truthful, authentic apoplectic [ ] 1 adj. extremely angry; furious He became apoplectic about wasteful government spending. The coach was so apoplectic when the player missed the free throw that he threw his clipboard onto the court. choleric, enraged, furious, incensed, indignant, infuriated, irate, ireful, outraged angerless, delighted, pleased apostasy [ ] 1 n. renunciation of a religious faith Some people completely abandon the faith after apostasy. 2 n. abandonment of a previous loyalty : defection He was looked down upon for apostasy. defection, perfidy, treacherousness, recreancy fidelity, allegiance, loyalty, piety appall [ ]

1 vt. to overcome with consternation, shock, or dismay He felt appalled by the whole idea of marriage so we broke up. dismay, terrify, intimidate, frighten, horrify, daunt, deter embolden, encourage, nerve appeal [ ] 1 n. an application (as to a recognized authority) for corroboration, vindication, or decision A piteous appeal for help. to make an appeal to the public to donate needed blood adjuration, conjuration, entreaty, petition, pleading, supplication 1 n. to charge with a crime : accuse My lawyer said the court's decision wasn't correct and that we should file for an appeal. charge, accuse, incriminate, inculpate, indict absolve exonerate, exculpate

vindicate

appealing [ ] 1 adj. attractive, inviting The large salary made Goldman Sachs’s offer more appealing to him. alluring, captivating, charismatic, charming, enchanting, engaging, entrancing, luring, seductive repellent, repelling, repugnant, repulsive, unalluring applause [ ] 1 n. approval publicly expressed (as by clapping the hands) Her appearance was greeted with applause. acclamation, cheer, cheering, ovation, plaudit, rave

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hissing, booing apposite [ ] 1 adj. highly pertinent or appropriate: apt to enrich his essay with some very apposite quotations from famous people appliacable, apropos, germane, pointed, relative, relevant extraneous, irrelevant, impertinent, irrelative, pointless appreciable [ ] 1 adj. , capable of being perceived or measured; perceptible the appreciable changes in temperature There doesn't seem to be any appreciable difference between this piece and that one. apprehensible, perceptible, detectable, discernible, palpable, distinguishable, sensible impalpable, imperceptible, inappreciable, indistinguishable, insensible, undetectable

Unit 4

APPREHENSION APPRISE APT ARCHAIC

APPROBATION ARCHETYPE

APPROPRIATE ARDOR

APROPOS ARDUOUS

apprehension [ ] 1 n. suspicion or fear especially of future evil She had a strong apprehension about her sister's health dread, foreboding, misgiving, anxiousness, unease, uneasiness, worry composure, equanimity unconcern 2 n. seizure by legal process : arrestment apprehension of the thief arrest discharge 3 n. the knowledge gained from the process of coming to know or understand something a good apprehension of how computer systems work understanding, comprehension incomprehension apprise [ ] 1 v. to give notice to; inform apprise him of the danger that may be involved inform, acquaint, make known to withhold information approbation 1 n. [ ] an expression of warm approval

The proposal met his approbation. approval, favor disapproval, disapprobation, disfavor appropriate [ ] 1 v. to take possession of or make use of exclusively for oneself, often without permission to appropriate private property The economy has been weakened by corrupt officials who have appropriated the country's resources for their own use. purloin, pirate, embezzle, peculate, usurp 2 adj. especially suitable or compatible: fitting Red wine is a more appropriate choice with the meal. I don't think jeans and a T-shirt are appropriate attire for a wedding. T apt, becoming, felicitous, fitting, proper, meet, suitable, apposite, apropos improper, inapposite, inappropriate, inapt, unmeet, unseemly, unsuitable apropos [ ] 1 adj. being both relevant and opportune The actor announced to reporters that he would only answer to apropos questions about the movie. appliacable, apropos, germane, pointed, relative, relevant extraneous, irrelevant, impertinent, irrelative, pointless 2 prep. having to do with to make a number of telling observations apropos the current political situation apropos, apropos of, as far as, as for, as regards (also as respects), as to, concerning, of, on, regarding, respecting, touching, toward (or towards) apt [ ] 1 adj. , exactly suitable; appropriate apt remark/ choice/ description apropos, germane, relative, relevant, appropirate extraneous, irrelevant, impertinent, irrelative inappropriate, improper, unseemly 2 adj. having a tendency : likely He is apt to fly out in rage. likely, inclined, tending, given unlikely disinclined 3 adj. keenly intelligent and responsive an apt pupil He is apt at mathematics. brilliant, clever, quick-witted, ready-witted, smart foolish, dull, dumb, stupid, unintelligent archaic [ 1 adj. ] no longer current or applicable; antiquated

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archaic laws antiquated, outdated, outmoded, prehistoric, superannuated fashionable up-to-date, fresh, modern, new, novel archaism the use of archaic diction or style modern diction archetype [ ] 1 n. an ideal example of a type an archetype of the successful entrepreneur ideal, a perfect example, quintessence 2 n. something belonging to an earlier time from which something else was later developed The abacus is sometimes cited as the archetype of the modern digital calculator antecedent, foregoer, forerunner, precursor, predecessor, prototype 3 n. something from which copies are made Frankenstein’ . . . ‘Dracula’ . . . ‘Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde’ . . . the archetypes that have influenced all subsequent horror stories”(New York Times) ( ) archetype, prototype ardor [ ] 1 n. strong enthusiasm or devotion; zeal His ardor was damped. avidity, zeal, fervor, fervency, fervidness, passion, passionateness, vehemence apathy, torpor, impassivity, insensitivity arduous [ ] 1 adj. hard to accomplish or achieve: difficult a long and arduous undertaking an arduous journey across miles of desert grueling, laborious, taxing, onerous, burdensome easy, simple, unchallenging, undemanding, facile, effortless

Unit 5

ARGOT ARREST ARRESTING ARRHYTHMIC ARTICULATE ASCENDANT ASCETIC ASEPTIC

ARROGANCE ASKEW

argot [ ] 1 n. a specialized vocabulary or set of idioms used by a particular group groups communicating in their own secret argots argot, cant, jargon, shoptalk standard language common verbalism

arrest

[

]

1 vt. to make inactive arrest the growth of the tumor check, rein, curb, contain, hamper, thwart, bring to a halt vitalize, activate, animate, invigorate prod, goad, spur, galvanize, provoke, stimulate 2 n/v. the stopping of a process or activity; to bring to a standstill Science cannot yet arrest the process of aging. cease, cessation, closure, conclusion, discontinuance, discontinuation, ending, halt, stop, termination; check, stop continuance, continuation 3 v. to take or keep under one's control by authority of law She was charged with resisting arrest. apprehend discharge 4 v. to hold the attention of as if by a spell The behavior of the daredevil arrested pedestrians. enchant, fascinate, bedazzle, grip, hypnotize, mesmerize arresting [ ] 1 adj. attracting and holding the attention; striking an arresting spectacle absorbing, engaging, engrossing, enthralling, fascinating, gripping, immersing, intriguing, riveting boring, drab, tedious, monotonous, uninteresting

arrhythmic [ ] 1 adj. lacking rhythm or regularity arrhythmic pulse irregular, disorderly regular, orderly arrogance [ ] 1 n overbearing pride Her arrogance has earned her a lot of enemies. assumption, bumptiousness, haughtiness, hauteur, imperiousness, loftiness, peremptoriness, pomposity, pompousness, presumptuousness, superciliousness humility, modesty, humbleness, unassumingness articulate [ ] 1 v. to utter clearly and distinctly He cannot articulate his thoughts. a theory first articulated by ancient philosophers enunciate murmur, mumble, mutter, slur 2 adj. able to express oneself clearly and well The television crew covering the science fair were looking for photogenic and articulate students to explain

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their projects on the air eloquent, fluent, silver-tongued, well-spoken inarticulate, ineloquent, unvocal ascendant [ ] 1 adj. dominant in position or influence; superior. This idea was in the ascendant. superior, dominant, sovereign having no influence/ power 2 adj. moving upward : rising The teacher told the students to write even numbers in ascendant order. declining ascetic [ ] 1 adj. practicing strict self-denial as a measure of personal and especially spiritual discipline This is an ascetic diet of rice and beans. abstemious, abstinent, self-denying sumptuous, luxurious licentious, sybaritic, voluptuous 2 n. a person who renounces material comforts and leads a life of austere self-discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion. We normally see an ascetic meditating in a Yogic pose. stoic, spartan sybarite, hedonist, voluptuary aseptic [ ] 1 adj. preventing infection Surgery must be in aseptic environments. sterile, germfree germy, unsterile contaminated, tainted 2 adj. lacking vitality inactive, lackadaisical, languid, listless, spiritless active, animated, energetic, energetic, vivacious 3 adj. emotion, or warmth aseptic essays an aseptic smile affectlessness, emotionlessness, impassiveness, impassivity, insensibility, numbness, phlegm emotion, feeling, sensibility askew [ ]

1 adj. out of line, awry The picture hung askew. His tie was askew. crooked, cockeyed, oblique, lopsided, skewed, aslant, slanted, slanting, listing, tilted, awry aligned straight, erect

Unit 6

ASPECT ASSERT

ASPERITY ASSERTIVE

ASPERSION ASSESS

ASPIRANT ASSIDUOUS

ASSENT ASSUAGE

aspect [ ] 1 n. appearance to the eye or mind His face had a frightening aspect. appearance, look, figure, presence, mien asperity [ ] 1 n. roughness of manner or of temper She responded with such asperity that we knew she was offended by the question. roughness, crudity, rudeness, poignancy, harshness softness, mildness 2 n. rigor, severity He has encountered more than his share of asperities on the road to success. severity, hardness, hardship, rigor aspersion [ ] 1 n. a false or misleading charge meant to harm someone's reputation cast aspersions on my loyalty defamation, besmirchment, calumny, calumniation, maligning, obloquy, vilification glowing tribute, eulogy, extolling, laudation, praise, commendation, compliment adulation aspirant [ ] 1 n. , one who aspires, as to advancement, honors, or a high position a bevy of ever-smiling aspirants for the Miss America title Envy can make oneself backward, self-confidence can tells him to be a aspirant. seeker noncandidate 2 adj. seeking to attain a desired position or status The pilot was an aspirant astronaut. assent [ ] 1 vi. to agree to something especially after thoughtful consideration The general proposed a detailed plan and the president assented. accede, agree, assent, consent, subscribe, come round

flattery,

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dissent, disagree assert [ ] 1 vt. to state or declare positively and often forcefully or aggressively asserted one’s innocence. He asserted that there were corrupt officials in the government. aver, allege, avow, avouch, insist deny, gainsay assertive [ ] 1 adj. inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured. You will have to make many personal judgments when being assertive. assertory, self-assured, self-assertive, peremptory diffident assess [ ] 1 v. to determine the importance, size, or value of We need to assess whether or not the system is working. Damage to the boat was assessed at $5,000. $5,000 evaluate, appraise, guesstimate 2 v. to establish or apply as a charge or penalty The utility company will assess a fee if your payment is late. assess, charge, exact, fine, lay, levy, put remit assiduous [ ] 1 adj. marked by careful unremitting attention or persistent application; busy tended his garden with assiduous attention The project required some assiduous planning. diligent, industrious, sedulous idle, inactive, unbusy, unemployed, unoccupied assiduity n. persistent application or diligence; unflagging effort. assuage [ ] 1 vt. to lessen the intensity of He couldn't assuage his guilt over the divorce. aggravate, exacerbate 2 vt. to pacify or calm Life contains sorrows that cannot be assuaged, and it is important to be honest in acknowledging this. compose, soothe, calm, pacify, placate, appease, lighten, relieve, alleviate, assuage, allay, mitigate, moderate, conciliate, propitiate aggravate, annoy, enrage, exasperate, incense, infuriate, ire, irk, irritate, madden, nettle, peeve, provoke, rile, roil, vex 3 vt. to put an end to by satisfying

assuage his thirst That meal certainly assuaged my hunger. satisfy, sate, satiate, quench

Unit 7

ASTOUNDING ASTUTE ATONE ATROCIOUS

ASUNDER ATTENUATE

ASYLUM ASSYMMETRICAL AUDACIOUS AUGUR

astounding [ ] 1 adj. causing astonishment or amazement The richness and variety of the undersea environment are astounding amazing, astonishing, blindsiding, dumbfounding, shocking, startling, stunning, stupefying unsurprising astute [ ] 1 adj. having or showing shrewdness and perspicacity Astute salesmen know how to invest emotionally. canny, smart, shrewd, perspicacious, clear-eyed, clear-sighted, savvy, hardheaded unknowing asunder [ 's nd ] 1 adv. into separate parts or pieces broken asunder Buildings were burst asunder. piecemeal in a piece together 2 adv. apart from each other in position A quite conscience sleeps in thunder, but rest and guilt live far asunder. Our opinions are wide as the poles asunder. apart together

asylum 1

[ n.

] / an inviolable place of refuge and protection giving shelter to criminals and debtors/

something (as a building) that offers cover from the weather or protection from danger an insane asylum The embassy serves as an asylum for that country's nationals in need of help. harbor, haven, refuge, sanctuary, sanctum

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asymmetrical [ ] 1 adj. , having no balance or symmetry the asymmetrical construction asymmetric, nonsymmetrical, unsymmetrical, unbalanced symmetrical balanced atone [ ] 1 v. to make amends, as for a sin or fault Blood must atone for blood. Even death cannot atone for the offence. redeem atrocious [ ] 1 adj. , extremely wicked, brutal, or cruel Murder is an atrocious crime. heinous benign, kind, kindhearted, benignant, good-hearted, humane, sympathetic, tenderhearted 2 adj. extremely unsatisfactory The service on plane was atrocious. satisfactory wonderful attenuate [ ]

v. to lessen the amount, force, magnitude, or value of an investment attenuated by inflation . cheapen, devalue, downgrade, reduce, write down appreciate, enhance, upgrade, mark up attenuation n. audacious [ ]

1 adj. fearlessly, often recklessly daring; bold an audacious plan bold, adventurous, brash, brassy, brazen, rash, reckless cautious, circumspect, guarded, wary 2 adj. contemptuous of law, religion, or decorum impertinent, impudent, insolent timid, meek 3 adj. inclined or willing to take risks audacious adventurers risking everything they had for a shot at glory daring, emboldened, enterprising, nervy, venturesome 4 adj. marked by originality and verve an audacious interpretation of two dramas audacity n. augur [ 1 n. ] one who predicts future events or developments

The ancient Roman augurs predicted the future by reading the flight of birds. forecaster, foreseer, diviner, foreteller, prophesier, visionary 2 v. to show signs of a favorable or successful outcome This augurs well for us. forebode, promise 3 vt. to tell of or describe beforehand The fortune-teller augured nothing but a series of calamities for me. forecast, predict, presage, prognosticate, prophesy

Unit 8

AUTHENTIC AVER

AUTHORITY AVERSION

AUTOCRACY AVID

AUTONOMY AWASH

AVA R I C E A W E

authentic

[

]

1 adj. being exactly as appears or as claimed found an authentic Native American arrowhead bona fide, certified, genuine bogus, counterfeit, fake, mock, phony, spurious 2 adj. following an original exactly an authentic reconstruction of the Parthenon accurate, exact, precise, right, veracious corrupt, false authenticity n. authority [ ]

1 n. a person with a high level of knowledge or skill in a field a leading authority on neural anatomy expert, connoisseur, maestro, master, virtuoso amateur inexpert 2 n. lawful control over the affairs of a political unit (as a nation) The sheriff had authority over the whole county. administration, governance, regime, regimen 3 n. the power to direct the thinking or behavior of others usually indirectly He speaks with a persuasive authority on matters of public health. clout, credit, leverage, weight 4 n. the right or means to command or control others By the authority vested in me, I now pronounce you married. arm, command, control, dominion, reign

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impotence, powerlessness 5 n. a warrant for action On what authority do you make such a claim? grounds, justification autocracy [ ] n. government in which a person possesses unlimited power It signified the British rejection of autocracy by constituting the first formal restraining of the power of the monarch absolutism, dictatorship, totalitarianism, tyranny democracy autocratic adj. autonomy [ ]

1 n. the quality or state of being self-governing The province has been granted autonomy. self-governance, sovereignty dependence, subjection 2 n. self-directing freedom and especially moral independence a teacher who encourages individual autonomy independence, liberty, free will constraint, duress autonomous adj. avarice [ ]

n. excessive or insatiable desire for wealth or gain The bank official's embezzlement was motivated by pure avarice. acquisitiveness, avidity, covetousness, cupidity, greediness, rapacity generosity, magnanimity avaricious adj. aver [ ]

1 v. to state as a fact usually forcefully was tearfully averring his innocence allege, assert, avouch, avow, declare, purport, warrant deny, gainsay 2 v. to state clearly and strongly She averred that she didn't need any help choosing her own clothes. affirm, insist, maintain, profess aversion [ ]

1 n. a dislike so strong as to cause stomach upset or queasiness a natural aversion toward insects distaste, horror, loathing, nausea, repugnance, repulsion, revulsion 2 n. something or someone that is hated

Clichés should be the aversion of every good writer. abhorrence, abomination, antipathy, detestation, execration love avid [ ]

1 adj. marked by keen interest and enthusiasm avid movie fans agog, ardent, eager, keen, impatient, thirsty apathetic, indifferent 2 adj. having or marked by an eager and often selfish desire especially for material possessions She stared at the jewels with an avid glint in his eye. acquisitive, avaricious, covetous, greedy, rapacious avidity n. awash [ ]

1 adj. containing, covered with, or thoroughly penetrated by water The streets were awash from the heavy rains. doused, drenched, saturated, sodden, soggy, soaked, afloat dry, arid, dehydrated, drained 2 adj. filled, covered, or completely overrun as if by a flood The program is currently awash in submissions and will not be accepting any more until next term. abounding, abundant, flush, fraught, replete, swarming, teeming, thronging dearth, insufficient, scant awe [ ] n./v. an emotion variously combining dread, veneration, and wonder that is inspired by authority or by the sacred or sublime She gazed in awe at the great stone. admiration, reverence, respect, veneration irreverence, insolence, scorn, superciliousness awesome adj.

Unit 9

AWKWARD BACKHANDED

AWNING BADGER

AWRY BADINAGE

AXIOMATIC BAIT

BABBLE BALE

awkward

[

]

1 adj. lacking dexterity or skill awkward with a needle and thread handless, maladroit

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adroit, deft, dexterous, proficient, skilled 2 adj. showing or marked by a lack of skill and tact (as in dealing with a situation) Her awkward handling of the seating arrangements resulted in many hurt feelings. botched, bungling, fumbled, inept, inexpert, maladroit 3 adj. lacking ease or grace (as of movement or expression) an awkward design clumsy, gauche, graceless, gawkish elegant, graceful, polished, lithe, coordinated 4 adj. causing embarrassment the awkward situation of having to listen as your host and hostess quarrel loudly in the next room discomfiting, disturbing, disconcerting, embarrassing, flustering 5 adj. difficult to use or operate especially because of size, weight, or design The manual can opener is too awkward to hold. ponderous, ungainly, unhandy, unwieldy, bunglesome, cranky handy awning [ ]

n. a piece of material attached to a caravan or building which provides shelter from the rain or sun stayed under the awning outside the Starbucks during the rainstorm awning, ceiling, cover, roof, tent awry [ ]

1 adj. in a turned or twisted position or direction Her sunglass is awry. askew, aslant, lopsided, slanted aligned, direct, even, straight 2 adj./adv. off the correct or expected course Operation Redwing was initially launched by US special-operation troops in hopes of capturing or killing a Taliban leader but went awry. amiss, aside, astray, erroneous right, well axiomatic [ ]

1 adj. based on or involving an axiom or system of axioms Euclidean geometry is based on five axiomatic principles. dictum, fundamental, maxim 2 adj. taken for granted, self-evident an axiomatic truth self-evident, prima facie

controversial axiom n. babble [ ]

1 v. to utter a meaningless confusion of words or sounds Babies babble before they can talk. drivel, gabble, gibber, jabber, prattle, abracadabra articulate 2 v. to engage in casual or rambling conversation The little girls babbled contentedly for the whole ride home. chatter, prate backhanded [ ]

adj. , indirect, devious, especially sarcastic a backhanded compliment feigned, roundabout, sarcastic, hypocritical, two-faced, double-faced, left-handed forthright ; artless, candid, genuine, honest, sincere badger [ ]

vt. to harass or annoy persistently badger him into purchasing bait, plague badinage [ ]

n. playful repartee, banter the sophisticated badinage of the characters in plays by Oscar Wilde banter, persiflage, repartee bait [ ] 1 v. to persecute or exasperate with unjust, malicious, or persistent attacks bait him with gibes about his humble origin badger, annoy, harass, heckle appease, pacify, mollify, disarm 2 v. to lead away from a usual or proper course by offering some pleasure or advantage the investment scheme baits the greedy and the unscrupulous allure, decoy, entice, seduce 3 n. something (as food) used in luring especially to a hook or trap The squad leader has finally realized that his team was a bait. allurement, snare, trap, temptation bale [ ] n. woe, sorrow relieve spirit from the bale misery, suffering, anguish, grief joy

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Unit 10

BALEFUL BALM

BALK BANAL

BALKY BANE

BALLAD BANISH

BALLOON BANTER

baleful

[

]

1 adj. harmful or malignant in intent or effect a policy with baleful effects harmful, pernicious, detrimental beneficent 2 adj. foreboding or threatening evil a baleful look direful, doomy, ominous, ill-boding, minatory, portentous, sinister unthreatening 3 adj. likely to cause or capable of causing death a medicine that is beneficial in small doses but baleful in large deadly, fatal, lethal healthy, wholesome balk [ ]

1 v. to check or stop by or as if by an obstacle circumvent, frustrate, foil, thwart advance, forward, foster, nurture, promote 2 v. to show unwillingness to accept, do, engage in, or agree to She balked at the very idea of compromise. decline, refuse, spurn, repudiate, turn down accept, approve balky adj. balky [ ]

adj. refusing or likely to refuse to proceed, act, or function as directed or expected a balky mule contumacious, defiant, perverse, intractable, obstreperous, refractory, unruly, untoward, wayward. willful compliant, docile, subdued, submissive, tractable ballad [ ]

n. a narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain a haunting ballad about loneliness ditty, jingle, lyric, vocal balloon [ ]

1 v. to increase rapidly The use of computers has ballooned. inflate, escalate, expand, burgeon, mushroom, snowball decrease, taper, dwindle, diminish, recede, wane balm [ ]

1 n. a sweet-smelling oil that heals wounds or reduce pain Friendship is the finest balm in need. irritant balmy adj. 2 n. a sweet or pleasant smell The balm of the restaurant's backyard garden enhances the aura of romance. aroma, fragrance, incense, perfume, redolence fetor, malodor, stench, stink banal [ ]

adj. lacking originality, freshness, or novelty; trite The slogan is too banal. cliché, hackneyed, stereotyped, threadbare, trite, timeworn, shopworn, stale, moth-eaten novel, innovative, arresting banality n. bane [ ]

1 n. a source of harm or ruin Drinking was the bane of his life. affliction, curse, nemesis, scourge blessing, boon, felicity, windfall 2 n. a substance that by chemical action can kill or injure a living thing a plant that is believed to be the bane of the wolf toxic, toxin, venom baneful adj. banish [ ]

1 vt. to require by authority to leave a country Since the diplomatic relation between the two nations has been broken, diplomats were all banished. deport, exile, expatriate, expel repatriate 2 vt. to drive or force out permanently banished the troublemakers from the youth recreational center banishment banter [ n./v. ] good-humored, playful conversation n.

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banter with someone badinage, persiflage, repartee

List 3
“ —— 2007 6 GRE Verbal 720, Quantitative 800, AW 5.0 ”

Unit 1

BARB BARRAGE

BARBAROUS BARREN

BAREFACED BARRICADE

BARGAIN BARTER

BAROQUE BATCH

barb [ ] 1 n. a biting or pointedly critical remark or comment delivered one last barb to his ex-girlfriend as he stalked away affront, criticism, offense, outrage, sarcasm, slight praise, applause, compliment barbarous [ ] 1 adj. mercilessly harsh or cruel insulted by barbarous language brutal, atrocious, fiendish, heartless, savage, truculent, vicious merciful, benevolent , humane, sympathetic 2 adj. uncivilized some barbarous behaviors such as eating with your fingers wild, uncultivated civilized, decent, decorous barefaced [ ] 1 adj. undisguisedly bold; brazen a barefaced lie apparent, plain, bald, evident, manifest, obvious, perspicuous secret, furtive, clandestine, surreptitious bargain [ ] 1 n. an agreement between parties settling what each gives or receives in a transaction They made a bargain that one would help the other next week. accord, compact, contract, covenant, deal, pact, settlement 2 vi. to negotiate over the terms of a purchase

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bargain over the price haggle, negotiate baroque [ ]

1 adj. characterized by extravagance, complexity, or flamboyance a baroque prose byzantine, complicated, convoluted, elaborate, fancy, intricate, knotty, labyrinthine, lavish, tangled austere, plain, simple 2 adj. going beyond a normal or acceptable limit in degree or amount Eventually even the movie seems bored by its baroque violence. exorbitant, extravagant, lavish, overdue moderate, modest, temperate barrage [ ] 1 n. a heavy curtain of artillery fire directed in front of friendly troops to protect them Troops are advancing under the shield of barrage. bombardment, fusillade 2 n. an overwhelming, concentrated outpouring, as of words The announcement was met with a barrage of criticism and protests. salvo, hail, cannonade, shower, storm, volley 3 v. to attack with a rapid or overwhelming outpouring of many things at once The athlete was barraged with requests for an autograph. bomb barren [ ] 1 adj. incapable of producing offspring a poor, barren woman fruitless, impotent, infertile, effete prolific, fecund 2 adj. producing no results; unproductive That line of investigation proved barren, so the police tried other avenues. bootless, ineffective, inefficacious, unavailing, vain effective, successful, productive, virtuous 3 adj. deficient in production of vegetation and especially crops barren deserts and wastelands desolate, impoverished, waste arable, fruitful, luxuriant, verdant 4 adj. utterly lacking in something needed, wanted, or expected Their proposal for revitalizing the downtown business district is utterly barren of practical methods. bare, bereft, destitute, void filled, flush, fraught, full, replete, rife barricade [ 1 n. ] an obstruction or rampart thrown up across a way or passage

The police put up barricades to block off the parade route. fence, hedge, wall, barrier, obstacle, blockade, obstruction 2 v. to prevent access to by means of a barricade streets have been barricaded by authorities bar, check, hinder, impede, obstruct, wall off permit barter [ ]

1 v. to trade (goods or services) without the exchange of money barter wheat for cotton swap, trade batch [ ]

1 n. a number of things considered as a unit a batch of cookies array, collection, package, parcel, group 2 n. a usually small number of persons considered as a unit Show the next batch of applicants in, please. band, body, cluster, party

Unit 2

BATHETIC BELIE

BAWDY BELLWETHER

BEDECK BELABOR BENEFICENT BENIGN

BELEAGUER BERATE

bathetic [ ] 1 adj. characterized by exceptional commonplaceness a bathetic funeral scene trite, cliché, commonplace, hackneyed, stale, stereotyped offbeat exceptional bathos n. bawdy [ ]

1 adj. boisterously or humorously indecent a bawdy joke || bawdy house obscene, lewd, ribald, vulgar decent, decorous chaste, noble bedeck [ 1 vt. ] to make more attractive by adding something that is beautiful or becoming

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flag bedecking the balcony || bedeck with jewels adorn, beautify, decorate, dress, embellish, emblaze strip blemish, deface, mar, spoil belabor [ ]

1 v. to criticize harshly and usually publicly It’s not wise to belabor other people's flaws when you're hardly perfect yourself. beat, baste, batter, excoriate, lambaste, abuse, assail, vituperate, scathe applaud, extol, eulogize, endorse, acclaim 2 v. to explain or insist on excessively belabor the obvious dwell on, harp on disregard, omit, ignore, neglect, slight, slur over beleaguer [ ]

1 vt. to surround (as a fortified place) with armed forces for the purpose of capturing or preventing commerce and communication beleaguered the castle for months siege, besiege, invest, blockade retreat, withdraw 2 vt. trouble, harass, beset We are still beleaguered by the very problem. annoy, harass, pester, plague, tease delight beleaguering adj. belie [ ] 1 v. to picture falsely; misrepresent The report belied the real severity of the aftermath. misrepresent, falsify betray, reveal 2 v. to show (something) to be false or wrong Practical experience belies this theory. debunk, discredit, refute, shoot down attest, confirm, validate, verify 3 v. to keep secret or shut off from view Security Council issued false assurances that belied the true gravity of the situation. conceal, curtain, disguise, mask disclose, expose 4 v. to be counter to; contradict At first glance, life at the boarding school seemed to belie all the bad things I had heard about it. contradict, contravene agree

bellwether [ ] 1 n. one that takes the lead or initiative Paris is a bellwether of the fashion industry. leader, pacemaker, pilot, trendsetter follower, disciple, imitator beneficent [ ]

1 adj. characterized by or performing acts of kindness or charity beneficent couple who are regular volunteers at an orphan kind, altruistic, benevolent, philanthropic, benign, compassionate, sympathetic atrocious, barbarous, truculent, vicious 2 adj. promoting or contributing to personal or social well-being the beneficent effect of sunshine helpful, advantageous, favorable, kindly, profitable, salutary detrimental, harmful, noxious, toxic beneficently adv.

benign [

]

1 adj. showing kindness and gentleness a benign coach beneficent, gentle, kind abrasive, caustic, coarse, hard, harsh, rough, scathing, stern 2 adj. not causing or being capable of causing injury or hurt Don’t worry; his eccentricities are entirely benign. harmless, innocent, innocuous, inoffensive baleful, deleterious, detrimental, harmful, injurious, pernicious berate [ ]

1 v. to scold or condemn vehemently and at length He berated them in public. castigate, flay, lambaste, scold, rail, upbraid, reproach, reprimand commend, compliment, praise

Unit 3

BESEECH BLANDISHMENT

BESMIRCH BLASÉ

BIFURCATE BLAST

BIGOT BLATANT

BLAND BLAZON

beseech [ ] 1 v. to beg for urgently or anxiously They besought the military to act immediately.

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appeal, conjure, entreat, implore, petition, plead, supplicate demand besmirch [ ]

1 v. to make dirty; soil besmirched the white bed sheets with their dirty hands foul, smirch, smudge, taint clean, cleanse 2 v. to detract from the honor or luster of besmirch your reputation by fabricating scandals defile, smear, soil, stain honor bifurcate [ ]

1 vi./vt. (to cause) to divide into two branches or parts Their visions of the company’s future slowly began to bifurcate. divide, diverge, fork coalesce converge bigot [ ]

1 n. a person obstinately devoted to his own opinions and prejudices He is a bigot, or “a slave of dogma”. —— dogmatist, partisan depreciator, disparager bigoted bland [ ]

1 adj. not irritating or stimulating; soothing stick to bland diet to lose weight mild, light, soft, soothing, tender pungent, tangy, zesty 2 adj. dull, insipid a bland story with naïve plot banal, sapless, insipid riveting, enchanting 3 adj. not harsh or stern especially in nature or effect bland food that was good for babies and invalids balmy, benign, bland, delicate, mellow, nonabrasive abrasive, caustic, coarse, hard, harsh, rough, scathing, stern blandishment [ ]

1 n. something that tends to coax or cajole Our blandishment left her unmoved. flattery, adulation

blasé [ ] 1 adj. apathetic to pleasure or excitement as a result of excessive indulgence or enjoyment Years of extravagance has made him totally blasé. indifferent, jaded, unconcerned, world-weary zealous, fanatic curious blast [ ]

1 n. an explosion or violent detonation blast wave of a nuclear bomb burst, detonation, eruption, outburst implosion 2 n. a violent gust of wind blasts of bleak air blow, flurry 3 n. a loud explosive sound a sharp blast of the horn startled the other driver bang, boom, thunderclap murmur, whisper 4 vt. to cause to break open or into pieces by or as if by an explosive The highway engineers will have to blast that hill in order to put a road through here. demolish, explode, smash, blow up 5 vt. to criticize harshly and usually publicly blasted the new governor for every little misstep abuse, assail, belabor, castigate, lambaste, scathe, vituperate blatant [ ]

1 adj. noisy, especially in a vulgar or offensive manner blatant radios boisterous, clamant, clamorous, vociferous quiet, reticent, taciturn 2 adj. very noticeable especially for being incorrect or bad a blatant lie || a blatant error in simple addition conspicuous, flagrant, glaring, patent, striking, pronounced subtle, unimpressive blazon [ ]

1 vt. to make known openly or publicly Their very public canoodling has pretty much blazoned the fact that they are having an affair. annunciate, broadcast, declare, publicize, proclaim withhold 2 v. to make more attractive by adding something that is beautiful or becoming The university’s dormitory has been blazoned with banners celebrating graduation.

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adorn, bedeck, embellish, garnish blemish, deface, mar, spoil

Unit 4

BLEMISH BLUNDER

BLIGHT BLUNT

BLISS BLUR

BLITHE BLURT

BLUEPRINT BLUSTER

blemish [ ] 1 n. a noticeable imperfection The first LCD had several blemishes on its surface, so we took it back to the store. blotch, defect, fault, flaw, mar, spot, scar 2 v. to reduce the soundness, effectiveness, or perfection of A scratch blemished the finish on the car. break, disfigure, harm, hurt, impair, injure, spoil, vitiate fix, renovate, repair, revamp unblemished adj. blight [ ]

1 v. to affect (as a plant) with blight wither, shrivel flourish 2 v. to impair the quality or effect of Illness blighted his career. blemishes. damage, deteriorate, harm, impair, mar, ruin blighted adj.

|| Cosmetics are often used to conceal facial

bliss [ ] 1 n. extreme happiness; ecstasy Ignorance is bliss ——The Matrix. beatitude, joy, ecstasy, elation grief, misery 2 n. a dwelling place of perfect happiness for the soul after death the road to eternal bliss heaven, paradise hell blissful adj. blithe [ 1 ] adj. of a happy lighthearted character or disposition

Everyone loved her for her blithe spirit. bright, buoyant, gay, jocular, jocund, jovial dour, gloomy, morose, saturnine, sulky, sullen 2 adj. having or showing freedom from worries or troubles He has a blithe attitude about ever having to earn a living because he knows there's a trust fund in his future. debonair, insouciant, lighthearted careworn blueprint [ ]

1 n. a photographic print used especially for architects’ plans a blueprint for the new library arrangement, design, plan, scheme 2 v. to work out the details of (something) in advance blueprinted the schedule of events for the festival right down to the last detail arrange, budget, calculate, organize, frame, lay out blunder [ ]

1 n. a gross error or mistake resulting usually from stupidity, ignorance, or carelessness That's your second blunder today. mistake, gaffe, lapse, error 2 v. to make a stupid, usually serious error in; botch screw up, mess up 3 v. to move unsteadily or confusedly Without my glasses I blundered into the wrong room. stumble, falter, limp, plod blundering adj. blunt [ ]

1 vt. to make less sharp or definite dull, deaden, hebetate, benumb, enfeeble, attenuate whet, sharpen 2 vt. to reduce or weaken in strength or feeling The abrupt music blunted the effect of the movie's final tragic scene. dampen, deaden 3 adj. being or characterized by direct, brief, and potentially rude speech or manner He values honesty and is quite blunt about telling people what he doesn't like about them. abrupt, bluff, brusque, curt, gruff circuitous, mealy-mouthed blur [ ] 1 v. Sorrowful tears blurred her eyes. shroud, becloud, befog, obscure to (cause sth. to) become vague or indistinct

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clear 2 v. to make (something) unclear to the understanding An article for the layman that blurs the distinction between the two kinds of cholesterol. obfuscate clarify, illuminate blurring adj. blurt [ ] to utter abruptly and impulsively

1 vt. blurt out the secret burst, bolt, ejaculate, cry out muffle, mute bluster [ ]

1 v. to speak in a loudly arrogant or bullying manner He was blustering alone in the meeting, which triggered wide dissatisfaction. roar, clamor, bluster, rattle whisper 2 n. loudly boastful or threatening speech grandiloquence, braggadocio 3 n. a state of noisy, confused activity a mayor who got things done without a lot of bluster disturbance, pandemonium, tumult, turmoil blustering adj.

Unit 5

BOGGLE BOO

BOISTEROUS BO O N

BOLSTER BOOR

BOMBAST B O O T LE S S

BONHOMIE BOUND

boggle [ ] 1 v. to hesitate because of doubt, fear, or scruples boggle at the dilemma hesitate, falter, waver 2 v. to make or do (something) in a clumsy or unskillful way She boggled her first effort to make Christmas cookies. botch, bungle. boisterous [ 1 adj. ] noisily turbulent

a boisterous queue in front of the pavilion || boisterous mirth. rowdy, vociferous, blatant, clamorous, raucous, rambunctious quiet, sedate boisterousness n. bolster [ ]

1 n./v. a structural part designed to eliminate friction or provide support or bearing pillows that bolster the building brace, buttress, bear, sustain, undergird, underpin, uphold, prop up 2 v. to give a boost to news that bolsters the morale of the troops buoy, reinforce dampen bombast [ ]

1 n. grandiloquent, pompous speech or writing “Their eloquence is all bombast”, said Charles Kingsley. braggadocio, grandiloquence, exaggeration understatement bombastic adj. bonhomie [ ]

1 n. a pleasant and affable disposition; geniality affability, amiability, geniality bonhomous adj. boo [ ] 1 n./v. boo the actor off the stage jeer, scorn applaud boon [ ] a sound uttered to show contempt, scorn, or disapproval

1 n. benefit, favor The new solar battery booster is a boon for photographers. gift, benevolence, present, windfall misfortune, scourge 2 adj. likely to seek or enjoy the company of others convivial, extroverted, gregarious, social, outgoing reclusive boor [ ] a rude or insensitive person

1 n. acting like boor peasant, barbarian, buffoon sentimentalist

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bootless [ ] 1 adj. useless, unprofitable, futile The meeting turns out to be a bootless attempt. barren, ineffective, futile, abortive, fruitless, vain worthy, virtuous bound [ ]

1 n. a real or imaginary point beyond which a person or thing cannot go The language in the novel really is beyond the bounds of decency. environs, limits, confines, perimeter unrestrainedness 2 vt. to set limits or bounds to The country is bounded by river. limit, demarcate, delimit enfranchise, free, liberate 3 adj. fully committed to achieving a goal I am bound and determined to write a novel before I turn 30. 30 resolute, determined, single-minded, bent on faltering, hesitant, vacillating, wavering, weak-kneed boundless adj.

Unit 6

BOYCOTT BRAVADO

BRACING BRAVURA

BRAKE BRAZEN

BRASH BREACH

BRASSY BREVITY

boycott [ ] 1 vt. to engage in a concerted refusal to have dealings with (as a person, store, or organization) usually to express disapproval or to force acceptance of certain conditions This brand is being boycotted for damaging environment. refuse patronize bracing [ ]

1 adj. giving strength, vigor, or freshness a bracing news from the frontline invigorating, rejuvenating, reviving, stimulating vapid brace v. brake [ 1 v. ] to cause to move or proceed at a less rapid pace

A seagull swooped down in front of her car, causing her to slam on the brakes. decelerate, retard, slacken accelerate, hasten, rush, speed up brash [ ]

1 adj. foolishly adventurous or bold that brash motorcyclist likes to show off by riding on only one wheel audacious, brassy, daredevil, madcap, reckless, temerarious circumspect, guarded, heedful, prudent, wary 2 adj. showing poor judgment especially in personal relationships or social situations He was reprimanded for his brash comments to the media about the team's coaching staff. imprudent, injudicious, tactless, undiplomatic advisable, discreet, tactful brassy [ ]

1 adj. displaying or marked by rude boldness brassy reporters audacious, bold-faced, brazen, impertinent, impudent, insolent diffident, unassertive, retiring, timid 2 adj. cheap and showy; flashy furtive bravado [ ]

1 n. a pretense of bravery I remembered his youthful bravado. 2 n. blustering swaggering conduct strove to prevent our courage from turning into bravado bravura [ ]

1 adj/n. brilliant technique or style in performance a truly bravura performance of the ballet adroit, artful, dexterous, masterful, virtuoso amateur, artless, unprofessional, unskillful brazen [ ]

1 adj. marked by contemptuous boldness a brazen disregard for the rules bold-faced, impertinent, impudent, insolent modest, self-effacing, diffident, retiring, timid 2 v. to face or undergo with bold self-assurance brazened out the crisis || Some people prefer to brazen a thing out rather than admit defeat. confront, outface, defy

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dodge, duck, shirk, sidestep breach [ ]

1 n. a breaking of a moral or legal code cheating on the exam was a serious breach of the military academy's honor code malefaction, transgression, trespass, violation, wrongdoing 2 v. to fail to keep a builder being sued by a homeowner for breaching a contract contravene, fracture, infringe, transgress obey, observe, comply with, conform to brevity [ ]

1 n. shortness of duration the best quality a graduation speech can have is brevity briefness, conciseness, shortness lengthiness 2 n. the quality or state of being marked by or using only few words to convey much meaning if brevity is the soul of wit, then that speech wasn't at all witty conciseness, pithiness, sententiousness, terseness diffuseness, long-windedness, prolixity, verbosity, wordiness

Unit 7

BRIBE BRO ACH

BRIDLE BROMIDE

BRISK BROOK

BRISTLE B R O W B E AT

BRITTLE BRUIT

bribe [

]

1 v. to give something, such as money or a favor, offered or given to a person in a position of trust to influence that person's views or conduct. They bribed him to keep quiet about the incident. corrupt, pay off, square bridle [ ]

1 v. to keep from exceeding a desirable degree or level (as of expression) try to bridle your criticism next time so that it is helpful and not hurtful check, contain, curb, constrain, inhibit, regulate, restrain, tame, rein in brisk [ 1 ] adj. marked by much life, movement, or activity

brisk and concise response animated, bouncing, bustling, frisky, kinetic, sprightly, vibrant lackadaisical, languid, leaden, dead, inactive, lifeless 2 adj. keen or sharp in speech or manner a brisk greeting bristle [ ]

1 v. to express one's anger usually violently bristle at the suggestion of gay marriage bluster, fulminate, rampage, fume, storm cower 2 v. to be copiously supplied starting a new life in New York city bristling with possibilities brim, overflow, swarm, teem brittle [ ]

1 adj. easily broken, cracked, or snapped as brittle as glass crispy, crumbly, flaky, friable 2 adj. lacking in friendliness or warmth of feeling a brittle apology that was anything but heartfelt chilly, frigid, frosty, glacial, unfriendly, unsympathetic cordial, genial, warmhearted broach [ ]

1 v. to open for the first time broach a keg of beer break close off 2 v. to present or bring forward for discussion broached the topic of plans for next year's parade moot, place, raise, bring up bromide [ ]

1 n. a commonplace or hackneyed statement or notion a newspaper editorial offering the timeworn bromide that people should settle their differences peacefully banality, cliché, platitude, homily, truism, chestnut, shibboleth brook [ ]

1 v. to stand for, tolerate brook no inference with his plans abide, countenance, endure, stomach 2 n. a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river: creek there are tiny fish and frogs in that brook creek, rivulet

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browbeat [

]

1 vt. to intimidate by a stern manner or arrogant speech: bully They would often browbeat the younger child until he cried. blackjack, bulldoze, bully, cow, hector, intimidate bruit [ ]

1 vt. to make (as a piece of information) the subject of common talk without any authority or confirmation of accuracy It’s been bruited that circulate, whisper, noise about keep secret

Unit 8

BUCK BUNGLE

BUDGE BUOY

BULGE B U O YA N T

BULLY BURGEON

BUMPTIOUS BURLESQUE

buck

[

]

1 v. to refuse assent, to refuse to give in to buck the system defy, fight, oppose, repel, withstand assent to, bow to, submit to, succumb to, surrender to, yield to 2 v. to shift possession of (something) from one person to another buck each box to the next person in line transfer, hand over budge [ ]

1 vi. to alter a position or attitude Nothing would budge him. 2 v. to cease resistance (as to another’s arguments, demands, or control) despite hours of intense pressure, she refused to budge from her position concede, relent, submit, succumb, surrender resist bulge [ ]

1 n. a protuberant or swollen part or place bulging eyes convexity, projection, protrusion, protuberance, swell depressed region, cavity, dent, indent, recess, pit 2 n. the more favorable condition or position in a competition somehow she got the bulge on him in the race for the statehouse high ground, inside track, upper hand, whip hand

disadvantage, drawback, handicap, liability 3 n. a sudden, usually temporary increase in number or quantity The baby boom created a bulge in school enrollment. 4 v. to be copiously supplied this guidebook to San Francisco positively bulges with useful information brim, bristle, overflow, swarm, teem bully [ ]

1 n. a person who habitually treats others in an overbearing or intimidating manner they had to deal with the local bullies bullyboy, hector, intimidator underdog 2 adj. of the very best kind that's a bully idea for reviving the town's retail center awesome, fabulous, fantastic, superb, marvelous, unsurpassed, excellent bumptious [ ]

1 adj. having a feeling of superiority that shows itself in an overbearing attitude a bumptious young man whose family wealth gave him a sense of entitlement || be bumptious over one’s inferiors assumptive, haughty, imperious, overweeing, peremptory, pompous, presuming, presumptuous, self-assertive, supercilious humble, modest, unarrogant, unpretentious bungle [ ]

1 vt. to act or work clumsily and awkwardly bungle a job boggle, bumble, fumble, mess up, screw up bring off buoy [ ]

1 vt. to fill with courage or strength of purpose the sudden improvement in his health buoyed him up embolden, hearten, inspire, bear up, buck up daunt, discourage, dishearten, dispirit buoyant [ ]

1 adj. capable of floating a buoyant balloon leaden 2 adj. having or showing a good mood or disposition in a buoyant mood blithe, chipper, eupeptic, lightsome, upbeat, winsome, effervescent dour, gloomy, morose, saturnine, sullen

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burgeon

[

]

1 v. to grow and expand rapidly; flourish My confidence began to burgeon. accelerate, accumulate, balloon, boom, build up, escalate, mount, multiply, mushroom, proliferate,, roll up, snowball, wax, flourish, prosper wane, wither, waste away, subside, subdue burlesque [ ] to copy or exaggerate (someone or something)

1 v. in order to make fun of burlesquing the teacher's nervous tic isn't very nice caricature, imitate, mock, parody, spoof, travesty

Unit 9

BURNISH CACOPHONY

BUTTRESS CADGE

BYZANTINE CAJOLE

CACHE CALCIFY

CACHET CALIBRATE

burnish

[

]

1 v. to make smooth or glossy usually by repeatedly applying surface pressure burnish the knife buff, polish, furbish, grind, smoothen buttress [ ]

1 n. a projecting structure for supporting or giving stability to a wall or building anchor, mainstay, pillar, reliance, standby 2 vt. to provide evidence or information for (as a claim or idea) a mass of circumstantial evidence buttresses the prosecutor's case bolster, corroborate, reinforce, substantiate, shore up contravene, challenge byzantine [ ]

1 adj. complicated or secretive, having many parts or aspects that are usually interrelated a bill to simplify the byzantine tax structure convoluted, intricate, involved, labyrinthine, sophisticated, tangled straightforward, plain, simple, uncomplicated cache [ ]

1 n. a supply stored up and often hidden away maintain a cache of food in case of emergencies

stash, stockpile, store, deposit, hoard, reserve 2 v. to put into a hiding place cached the fugitive slaves in their cellar until they could make their way to Canada conceal, ensconce, secrete, squirrel away display, exhibit cachet [ ]

1 n. an indication of approval carrying great prestige A Mercedes carries a certain cachet. 2 n. prestige being rich doesn’t have the cachet it used to cacophony [ ]

1 n. loud, confused, and usually inharmonious sound the cacophony of a pet store full of animals blare, bluster, clamor, decibel, din, discordance, racket quiet, silence, still, stillness cadge [ ]

1 v. beg, sponge cadge a free cup of coffee earn cajole [ ]

1 v. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals, teasing, or flattery; wheedle cajoled her into doing his laundry for him blandish, blarney, palaver, wheedle, soft-soap, sweet-talk calcify [ ]

1 vt. to make inflexible or unchangeable a leg that calcified harden, obdurate, ossify make malleable, make pliant, make more flexible calibrate [ ]

1 vt. to standardize (as a measuring instrument) by determining the deviation from a standard so as to ascertain the proper correction factors calibrate the polling procedures to ensure objectivity unstandardize 2 vt. to measure precisely especially: to measure against a standard

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Unit 10

CALLIGRAPHY CALLOUS CAMEO CAMOUFLAGE

CALLOW CANARD

CALUMNIATE CANDOR

CAMARADERIE CANON

calligraphy [

]

1 n. artistic, stylized, or elegant handwriting or lettering she specializes in scrollwork with beautiful calligraphy longhand, manuscript, penmanship, script callous [ ]

1 adj. , emotionally hardened; unfeeling a callous indifference to the suffering of others affectless, uncharitable, unsparing, remorseless, indurate, ruthless sympathetic, compassionate, merciful, tender, warmhearted callow [ ]

1 adj. lacking in adult experience or maturity callow young man green, immature, inexperienced, juvenile, unfledged, unripened, puerile adult, experienced, grown-up, mature, ripe calumniate [ ]

1 v. to utter maliciously false statements, charges, or imputations about asperse, blacken, defame, libel, malign, smear, traduce, vilify vindicate calumnious flattering calumny n. a false statement maliciously made to injure another's reputation approbation camaraderie [ ]

1 n. a spirit of friendly good-fellowship There is great camaraderie among the teammates. brotherhood, comradeship, fellowship enmity cameo [ ] 1 n. a brief, vivid portrayal or depiction a literary cameo 2 v. to make a brief but dramatic appearance, as in a film She cameoed as Anne Boleyn in A Man for All Seasons. camouflage [ ]

1 n. behavior or artifice designed to deceive or hide the soldiers must wear protective jungle camouflage while on patrol costume, guise, cloak, dress up unmask canard [ ]

1 n. an unfounded or false, deliberately misleading story. it's a popular canard that the actress died under scandalous circumstances story, whisper candor [ ]

1 n. unreserved, honest, or sincere expression the members of the rock band speak with candor about their recent squabbling bluntness, forthrightness, frankness, unreservedness, straightforwardness artifice, mendacity, dissembling, dissimulation, indirection canon [ ]

1 n. a basis for judgment; a standard or criterion the canons of polite society dogma 2 n. the authentic works of a writer apocrypha canonical adj. conforming to a general rule or acceptable procedure : orthodox heterodox, nontraditional canonize v. to treat as sacred; glorify adore, adulate, idolize, deify, worship abase, degrade, demean, humiliate

List 4
“ G —— 2008 6 Verbal710 Quantitative800 AW5.0 ”

Unit 1

CANVASS CARDINAL

CAPITULATE CARICATURE

CAPRICE CAPTIVATE CARNAL CAROUSE

CAREWORN CARP

canvass [ 1 v.

] to examine carefully or discuss thoroughly; scrutinize:

“The evidence had been repeatedly canvassed in American courts” 2 v. to solicit votes or orders canvass voters interview, poll, solicit, survey capitulate [ 1 v. ] to give up all resistance; acquiesce; yield to go through (a region) or go to (persons)

one side finally capitulated when it became clear that they couldn’t win the argument budge, concede, relent, submit, succumb, surrender, knuckle under resist, oppose caprice [ 1 n. ] an impulsive change of mind

an out-of-character caprice led him to take the day off from work and go to the beach crank, fancy, vagary, vagrancy, whimsy 2 n. an inclination to change one's mind impulsively. his knack for picking racetrack winners appears to owe as much to caprice as it does to a canny assessment of horseflesh freakishness, impulsiveness, whimsicalness confirmation capricious adj. steadfast, resolute, constant, pertinacious

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captivate [ 1 vt.

] to attract and hold by charm, beauty, or excellence

I was captivated by her brilliant mind. allure, beguile, bewitch, enchant, fascinate, magnetize repulse careworn 1 [ adj. ] showing the effect of grief or anxiety

a careworn face lighthearted cardinal [ 1 adj. ] of foremost importance; paramount

the cardinal rule of medicine: do no harm dominant, overbearing, overriding, paramount, preeminent, primal, supreme minor caricature [ 1 n. parts or characteristics caricaturist n. 2 v. to copy or exaggerate (someone or something) in order to make fun of caricatured the supervisor's distinctive walk burlesque, imitate, mock, parody, spoof, travesty carnal [ 1 ] adj. relating to the physical || carnal remains ] exaggeration by means of often ludicrous distortion of

seen with carnal eyes spiritual 2 adj. worldly a carnal mind

corporal, corporeal, fleshly, material, somatic

earthborn, mundane, temporal, terrestrial, worldly carouse [ 1 vi. ] to drink liquor freely or excessively

stay at home instead of going out and carousing with friends binge, jamboree, revel, roister, wassail carp [ 1 ] vi. to make often peevish criticisms or objections about matters that are

minor, unimportant, or irrelevant carped about the order of names on the wedding invitations cavil, fuss, niggle, nitpick 2 v. to express dissatisfaction, pain, or resentment usually tiresomely gripe, grizzle, grouch, grouse, grumble, wail

crow, delight, rejoice

Unit 2

CARVE CAST CASTIGATE CATALYZE CATASTROPHE CATEGORICAL CATHOLIC CAUSTIC CAVEAT CAVIL

carve [ 1

] vi. to create a three-dimensional representation of (something) using solid material

carved a statue out of rare marble sculpture 2 v. || carve out a way through the enemy forge, grind out, thrash out, work out, work up cast [ 1 2 3 ] n. vt. vt. a set of characters or persons to assign (as an actor) to a role or part to put forth, give off, to place as if by throwing to produce or bring about especially by long or repeated effort finally carved out a niche for the sport in the school's athletic program

He was cast in the leading role. cast doubt on their reliability discharge, emanate, irradiate, issue, shoot, throw out, give out 4 v. to get rid of as useless or unwanted once she became rich and didn't need them anymore, she cast off all her old friends like so much junk ditch, dump, jettison, toss castigate [ 1 v. ] to criticize harshly and usually publicly

The author castigated the prime minister as an ineffective leader. berate, chastise, lambaste, reprimand, reproach, rebuke, vituperate, excoriate, rail (at or against) approbate, accolade, extol 2 v. to inflict a penalty on for a fault or crime a judge who believes in castigating criminals to the full extent of the law chasten, chastise, correct, discipline, penalize excuse, pardon, spare catalyze [ 1 vt. ] to be the cause of (a situation, action, or state of mind)

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a reinstitution of the draft would catalyze protests around the country breed, beget, effectuate, engender, generate, prompt, spawn, yield, result in , bring (about retard, prevent, inhibit catalyst n. inhibitor catastrophe [ 1 2 n. n. ] the final event of the dramatic action especially of a tragedy utter failure : fiasco an agent that provokes or speeds significant change or action a catalyst for change of lifestyle

apocalypse, calamity, cataclysm, debacle, tragedy the party was a catastrophe bummer, debacle, disaster, fiasco, fizzle, washout blockbuster, hit, smash, success, winner categorical [ 1 adj. ] being without exception or qualification; absolute

a categorical denial definite, downright, fair, utter, thorough, unalloyed, unconditional, unqualified conditional, qualified catholic [ 1 adj. ] not limited or specialized in application or purpose

a catholic taste in music unlimited, unqualified, unrestricted, unspecialized, all-around (also all-round) narrow, limited, restricted, specialized caustic [ 1 adj. ] capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action : corrosive

The chemical was so caustic that it ate through the pipes. palliating 2 adj. marked by incisive sarcasm caustic movie reviews acerbic, acrid, barbed, mordant, pungent, sardonic, satiric, scathing, sharp genial, smooth, kind, innocuous caveat [ 1 agreement a final caveat warning, admonish cavil [ 1 v. ] to find fault unnecessarily; raise trivial objections :quibble || caviling about the price of a cup of coffee Let us not cavil too much. n. ] a warning of a specific limitation of something such as information or an

carp, fuss, niggle, nitpick, quibble

Unit 3

C AV O R T CE NS URE

CE DE C E NS US

CE M E NT CE S S ATI O N

CE NS O R CH AFF

CE NS O RI O US C H AG RI N

cavort [ 1 vi.

] to bound or prance about in a sprightly manner; caper

Children are cavorting in the sand. caper, disport, frisk, gambol, rollick, romp trudge cede [ 1 ] vt. to surrender possession of, especially by treaty

cede the island to America relinquish, render, yield, renounce, resign, turn in, turn over, step aside (from), give up, hand over, lay down possess cement [ 1 n./v. ] a uniting or binding force or influence

justice is the cement that holds a political community together cord, knot, link, tie censor [ 1 objectionable censor the news bowdlerize, expurgate, red-pencil, clean up censorship n. censorious [ 1 adj. ] highly critical. vt. ] to examine in order to suppress or delete anything considered

censorious comment eulogistic censure [ 1 v. ] to express public or formal disapproval of

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He was censured by the committee for his failure to report the problem. condemn, denounce, objurgate, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, reprehend, pan commend, extol, laud, endorse census [ 1 n. ] an official survey of the population of a country that is carried out in order to find out

how many people live there and to obtain details of such things as people's ages and jobs tale, tally cessation [ 1 n. ] the stopping of a process or activity

the cessation of the storm was a relief check, cutoff, closure, discontinuance, expiration, halt, shutdown, termination commencement, start continuation chaff [t 1 ] v. to make jokes

a coworker who likes to chaff at others' expense, and this often results in hurt feelings banter, gag, jape, jest, quip, wisecrack chagrin [ 1 n. ] disquietude or distress of mind caused by humiliation, disappointment, or failure

He thought for a minute, anger and chagrin mixing with the embarrassment on his face. elation, cheerfulness, proud satisfaction, delight

Unit 4

CHAMELEON CH ARY

CHAMPION CHAOS CH AS E CH AS M

CHARADE CH AUV I NI S TI C

CHARLATAN CHE CK

chameleon 1 n.

[

] a person who dexterously and expediently changes or adopts opinions

at the summer resort he acquired a reputation as a social chameleon—someone who could be whatever his hosts wanted him to be chancer, opportunist, temporizer, timeserver, trimmer, weathercock champion 1 [ vt. / n. ] to fight for, defend, or support as a champion

to champion the cause of civil rights advocate, back, endorse, patronize, plump for disparage, impugn, oppose chaos [ 1 n. ] a condition or place of great disorder or confusion.

the boy's room is in such chaos that it looks as though a tornado had struck disarrangement, dishevelment, disorder, disarray, havoc, mess, muddle, jumble, welter order chaotic adj. happening in a state of complete disorder and confusion strictly structured, strictly featured charade [ 1 n. ] a display of emotion or behavior that is insincere or intended to deceive

His concern was a charade. disguise, facade, playacting, pretense, put-on, semblance 2 charlatan 1 n. [ n. ] a person who makes elaborate, fraudulent, and often voluble claims to skill or knowledge; a game in which words or phrases are represented in pantomime

a quack or fraud. the famed broker turned out to be a charlatan fake, fraud, hoaxer, mountebank, phony, pretender, quack, imposter chary [ 1 adj. ] very cautious

chary investors who weren't burned by the dot-com bust alert, cautious, circumspect, conservative, gingerly, guarded, heedful, wary rash, bold chase [ 1 2 v. v. ] to decorate (metal) by engraving or embossing. to drive or force out

chase the cat out of the garden banish, dismiss, expel, extrude, kick out, cast out chasm [ 1 n. ] a pronounced difference of opinion, interests, or loyalty.

contradiction, dissent, disjunction, discord, conflict, rift, rivalry, dichotomy chauvinistic [ 1 adj. ] having or showing excessive favoritism towards one's own country

At times I have also been aggressive, chauvinistic and hot-tempered.

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jingoist, jingoistic, nationalistic, superpatriotic check 1 [ ] vt. to arrest the motion of abruptly

a tree finally checked the skidding car arrest, stall, bridle, contain, curb, tame, bring up, draw up, hold up, pull up propagate, goad, hasten 2 vt. to be in agreement on every point their story of what happened checks with the report of the eyewitness accord, cohere, conform, correspond, dovetail, fit, harmonize, jibe, tally differ, disagree with

Unit 5

CHERUBIC CHROMATIC

CHICANERY CHRONIC

CHIDE CHURL

CHOLERIC CIPHER

CHORD CIRCUITOUS

cherubic 1

[ adj.

] innocent-looking usually chubby and rosy

A representation of Cupid as a naked, cherubic boy usually is used as a symbol of love. fiendish, devilish chicanery [ 1 n ] deception by artful subterfuge or sophistry || He wasn't above using chicanery to win votes. deception, artifice, legerdemain, wile, subterfuge aboveboard action chide [ 1 v. ] to scold mildly so as to correct or improve honest dealing forthrightness

Well-doer never does chicanery and person who is good at chicanery does not belong well-doer.

My wife chided me for forgetting to offer our guests some refreshments. reprove, reprimand, reproach, tick off praise, commend choleric [ 1 adj. ] easily angered; bad-tempered. || men of the choleric type take to kicking and smashing

choleric disposition

crabby, cranky, irascible, peevish, petulant, bad-tempered, hot-tempered, short-tempered, testy difficult to provoke, pacific, placid, calm, serene, tranquil, composed, nonchalant choler n. 2 adj. ready disposition to irritation : irascibility also : anger feeling or showing anger: angry, irate

I absolutely get choleric when a salesman calls during the dinner hour. angered, apoplectic, ballistic, enraged, furious, incensed, inflamed, enflamed, infuriated, irate, ireful, outraged, rankled, riled, wrathful angerless, delighted, pleased chord [ 1 ] vi. to be in accord; agree.

The revised system chords perfectly with the original goals. accord, agree, conform, consist, correspond, dovetail, fit, harmonize, jibe, rhyme, square, tally differ from, disagree with chromatic 1 [ adj. ] relating to colors or color

the chromatic paintings of Matisse and the other Fauvists colored , colorful, motley, multicolored, multihued, varicolored, variegated, kaleidoscopic colorless, pallid, blanched chronic 1 [ adj. ] marked by long duration or frequent recurrence monochromatic, monochromic, monotone, self-colored

chronic disease frequent, usual, routine sporadic 2 adj. infrequent being such by habit and not likely to change

a chronic smoker who has quit many times inveterate churl [ 1 ] n. th ; a rude, boorish person

By the 19 century, ‘churl’ had a new and pejorative meaning, “one inclined to uncivil or loutish behavior”. 19 churl boor, lout churlish adj. of, like, or befitting a churl; boorish or vulgar sophisticated crude, coarse, boorish, loutish, uncultured, unpolished genteel, complaisance, courtly, polished 2 n. Don't bother asking a churl for donations. miser, niggard, skinflint, penny-pincher generous/ liberal/ munificent person waster, wastrel, spendthrift, prodigal, profligate, dissipater a mean grasping person who is usually stingy with money

cipher [

]

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1

n.

a person of no importance or influence

The intern is a mere cipher in the company. dwarf, half-pint, insect, insignificancy, lightweight, morsel, nonentity, nothing, nullity, snippersnapper, whippersnapper, zero big shot, big wheel, bigwig, eminence, figure, personage 2 v. to determine (a value) by doing the necessary mathematical operations We were surprised by how much we had spent on the cruise after we had ciphered out the grand total. compute, work out 3 n. a method of transforming a text in order to conceal its meaning convert their messages into cipher code, secret message circuitous [ 1 adj. ] not being forthright or direct in language or action

We took a circuitous route to the airport so as to avoid the massive traffic jam. indirect, circular, roundabout direct, straight, straightforward circuity 2 adj. n. lack of straightforwardness using or containing more words than necessary to express an idea straightforwardness, direction a circuitous explanation for what seems like a fairly basic concept circumlocutory, diffuse, long-winded, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy compact, concise, pithy, succinct, terse

Unit 6

CIRCUMLOCUTION CIRCUMSCRIBE CIRCUMSPECT CLAIM CLANDESTINE CLARION

CIRCUMVENT CLARITY

CIVILITY CLASP

circumlocution [ 1 n.

] the use of unnecessarily wordy and indirect language, evasion in speech

The other son of your parents’ is a circumlocution for your brother. equivocation, shuffle, tergiversation pithy utters, straightforward utter , express succinctly circumlocutory a. direct 2 n. the use of too many words to express an idea your papers have to be five pages long, but that's five pages of substance, not circumlocution. direct encounter

5

5

diffuseness, diffusion, long-windedness, prolixity, redundancy, verbalism, verboseness, verbosity, windiness, wordage, wordiness conciseness, concision, pithiness, succinctness, terseness circumscribe [ 1 vt. ] to limit narrowly; restrict

Teammates circumscribed his enthusiasm so as not to make the losing side feel worse. cap, limit, confine, delimit, restrict exceed 2 vt. to surround by or as if by a boundary || Circumscribe a circle around a square. fields circumscribed by tall trees surround, encompass circumspect [ 1 adj. ] careful to consider all circumstances and possible consequences: prudent

The banks should have been more circumspect in their dealings. alert, careful, gingerly, guarded, heedful, prudent, cautious, chary, wary careless, incautious, unmindful, unwary circumvent [ 1 vt. ] to avoid having to comply with (something) especially through cleverness || He found a way to circumvent the law. audacious, reckless

circumvent all the red tape avoid, bypass, dodge, sidestep, skirt, get around comply with, follow, obey, observe civility 1 [ n. ] courteous behavior; politeness

confront, direct encounter

They greeted us with civility. politeness, courtesy, politeness, genteelness, gentility, graciousness discourteousness, discourtesy, impoliteness, incivility, rudeness, surliness, ungraciousness claim 1 [ v. ] to ask for especially as a right || After many years had passed, he suddenly appeared to

a fragile claim to fame claim his inheritance. call for, command, quest renounce 2 v.

to state as a fact usually forcefully

People claim that they have been kidnapped by aliens. allege, assert deny, gainsay 3 v. to deprive of life

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Cancer claims hundreds of thousands of Americans each year. animate 4 n. a legal right to participation in the advantages, profits, and responsibility of something A shareholder has a claim in the business. clandestine 1 adj. [ ] kept or done in secret, often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose

their clandestine love affair secret, covert, furtive, surreptitious, sneaky, stealthy, undercover, underground, underhand, underhanded open, overt, public clarion 1 [ adj. ] loud and clear || The Internationale is a clarion call to the labouring people aboveboard

clarion call for democracy of the world. soft and indistinct clarity 1 [ n. ]

the quality or state of being clear: lucidity

Clarity of diction is vital for a XDF teacher. clarity, explicitness, lucidity, lucidness, perspicuity, perspicuousness obscureness, obscurity, unclarity clarify v. clarify his mind obfuscate, obscure 2 n. the state or quality of being easily seen through mountain streams with water of incredible clarity clearness, limpidity, limpidness, translucence, translucency, transparency cloudiness, opacity, opaqueness, turbidity, turbidness clasp [ 1 ] n./v. the act or manner of holding to free of confusion clarify a subject

purify, clear, elucidate, explain, illuminate, illustrate

Be careful that your clasp on the cat isn't too tight, or she could get hurt. clench, grapple, grasp, grip, handgrip, handhold

Unit 7

CLEMENT CLOUT

CLICHÉ CLOYING

CLOG CLUMSY

CLOT COAGULATE

CLOUDBURST COALESCE

clement 1

[ adj.

] tolerant and kind in the judgment of and expectations for others

Clement judge reduced the sentence. charitable, lenient, merciful harsh, severe, stern, strict clemency 2 adj. n. marked by temperatures that are neither too high nor too low ,

Hawaii is known for its delightfully clement climate. mild, genial, gentle, balmy, equable harsh, inclement, severe cliché [ 1 n./ adj. ] a hackneyed theme, characterization, or situation

Cliché is a feature of bad news. banality, bromide, platitude, trite, bathetic, hackneyed, stereotypical fresh, new, original, creative clog [ 1 ] n. something that makes movement or progress difficult

impede with a clog balk, bar, block, deterrent, drag, fetter, holdback, hurdle, impediment, inhibition, interference, obstacle, obstruction, shackles, stop, stumbling block, trammel 2 v. to create difficulty for the work or activity of They always clog the courts. encumber, fetter, hinder, hold back, hold up, impede, inhibit, interfere with, obstruct, shackle, stymie, tie up, trammel aid, assist, help 3 v. facilitate to prevent passage through by filling with something

Within a few years the pipe began to clog up. block, choke, clot, gum up, jam, obstruct, occlude, stop up, stuff clear, free, open up, unblock, unclog, unstop clot [ 1 ] n. a number of things considered as a unit

A clot of daisies occupied one corner of the flower bed. array, assemblage, band, block, bunch, cluster, clutch, collection, constellation, grouping, huddle, knot, lot, muster, package 2 v. to prevent passage through by filling with something Within a few years the pipe began to clog up. block, choke, clog, gum up, jam, obstruct, occlude, stop up, stuff clear, free, open up, unblock, unclog, unstop 3 v. to turn from a liquid into a substance resembling jelly Scabs form over cuts when your blood starts to clot. congeal, jell, jelly cloudburst [ ]

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1

n.

a sudden copious rainfall

The weatherman warned of possible cloudbursts in the afternoon. downfall, downpour clout [ 1 ] n. influence ; pull ,

The queen may have privilege but she has no real political clout. power, influence, capacity, heft, leverage impuissance, impotence cloying 1 [ adj. ] excessively sweet or sentimental

lovey-dovey, maudlin, mawkish, saccharine, sentimental unsentimental the cloying sentiments of so many Mother's Day cards clumsy 1 [ adj. ] lacking or showing a lack of nimbleness in using one's hands a lack of skill and tact

turn out to be a clumsy sleight of hand awkward, ham-handed, heavy-handed, maladroit, unhandy, bungling, inept, maladroit adroit, deft, dexterous, dexterous, handy 2 manner be clumsy on the dance floor awkward, graceless, ungainly, gauche, inelegant, rustic, ungraceful graceful, urbane, refined 3 adj. hastily or roughly constructed A clumsy mock-up of the real thing rough, unrefined refined coagulate [ 1 v. , ] to cause to become viscous or thickened into a coherent mass : curdle, clot adj. lacking social grace and assurance showing an inability to move in a graceful

The blood coagulates to stop wounds bleeding. clot, congeal, jelly melt, liquefy, fluidify, dissolve coagulant n. coalesce 1 [ v. , ] to unite into a whole: fuse thin an agent that causes a liquid to coagulate

Different units coalesced into one army associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, connect, couple, fuse, interfuse, join, link (up), unify, unite break up, dissever, section, separate, sever, split, sunder, unlink, disband

Unit 8

COAX COGNIZANT

CODA COLLAPSE

COERCE COLLUDE

C O E VA L COLOSSAL

COGENT C O LT I S H

coax 1

[ vt.

] to persuade or try to persuade by pleading or flattery; cajole

coax a child to take its medicine blandish, cajole, wheedle, palaver coda 1 [ n. ] the concluding passage of a movement or composition

A song includes prelude, loud song and coda. finale, epilogue overture, prelude coerce 1 [ vt. ] to achieve by force or threat || A confession was coerced from the suspect by police.

be coerced into agreeing force, threaten, compel coercion n. do voluntary behavior coeval 1 [ adj. ]

the act of persuading someone forcefully to do something that they do not want to

of the same or equal age, antiquity, or duration

Two stars thought to be coeval because they have nearly the same mass and brightness. coetaneous, coexisting, concurrent, contemporaneous, simultaneous, synchronic, synchronous asynchronous, noncontemporary, nonsimultaneous cogent 1 process. convincing, compelling, conclusive, telling, persuasive, satisfying unconvincing, unpersuasive 2 adj. pertinent, relevant a cogent analysis apropos, germane, relative, relevant extraneous, irrelevant, impertinent, irrelative [ adj. ] appealing forcibly to the mind or reason: convincing

Six Sigma is one of the most cogent methods for modern enterprises to control quality and optimizing

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cognizant 1 adj.

[

] fully informed; conscious; aware

We are cognizant of the problem. aware, conscious, witting, apprehensive, sensible oblivious, unconscious, unaware, unmindful incognizance collapse 1 [ vi. ] to fall or shrink together abruptly and completely n.

President Bush is vowing to rebuild bridge which collapsed last year. || One ant-hole may cause the collapse of a thousand-li dyke. compact, condense, constrict, constringe, contract , implode, squeeze decompress, expand, open, outspread, outstretch 2 n. a complete depletion of energy or strength He suffered a mental collapse under the strain of studying for his bar exam. exhaustion, tiredness, lassitude, weariness refreshment, rejuvenation, revitalization 3 v./n. to be unsuccessful/ a falling short of one's goals the legal case collapsed in the face of the opposition's evidence defeat, nonachievement, nonsuccess accomplishment, achievement, success collude 1 conspire collude with competitors to control the price connive, conspire, contrive, intrigue, machinate, put up act independently colossal 1 [ adj. ] of a size, extent, or degree that elicits awe or taxes belief; immense v. [ ] to act together secretly to achieve a fraudulent, illegal, or deceitful purpose;

a colossal waste of public money huge, giant, titanic, gargantuan, mammoth, tremendous, elephantine, prodigious tiny, micro, minute, miniature, minuscule, wee, infinitesimal coltish 1 2 [ adj. adj. disciplined given to good-natured joking or teasing Off camera the actor is high-spiritedly coltish, but turns serious once the camera starts rolling. antic, frisky, frolicsome, larky, spotftul earnest, serious-minded, sober ] not subjected to discipline

Unit 9

COMA COMMEND

COMBUSTIBLE COMMENSURATE

COMELY COMMINGLE

COMITY COMMENCEMENT COMMITMENT COMMITTED

coma 1

[ n.

] a state of profound unconsciousness caused by disease, injury, or poison

The girl lay in a coma for three days after the accident. insensibility, blackout, knockout consciousness, awareness 2 n. a state of mental or physical sluggishness : torpor alacrity ] capable of igniting and burning sluggish, torpor activity, animation combustible 1 adj. [

release a combustible gas burnable, combustive, flammable, ignitable, inflammable incombustible, nonburnable, noncombustible, nonflammable, noninflammable, unburnable fireproof 2 adj. easily excited a high-strung combustible temper excitable, agitable, touchy comely 1 [ n. ] pleasing and wholesome in appearance; attractive

a comely young woman attractive, cute, fair, good-looking, gorgeous, handsome, lovely, pretty, ravishing, well-favored, seemly. stunning homely, ill-favored, ugly unattractive, unbeautiful, uncomely, uncute, unhandsome, unlovely, unpleasing, unpretty comity 1 [ n. ] friendly social atmosphere social harmony || comity of nations

group activities promoting comity compatibility, concord, peace conflict, discord, dissension commencement [ 1 n. progressed. ] a beginning; a start.

There was a large turnout at the commencement of the conference, but the numbers dwindled as it

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birth, onset, outset, start, genesis, inception, nascence, threshold close, conclusion, end, ending 2 n. the ceremonies or the day for conferring degrees or diplomas The purpose of a commencement speaker is to dispense wisdom. matriculation commend 1 vt. [ ] to mention with approbation: praise

Jason commended his students' studious attitude. Jason approbate, praise, acclaim, applaud, compliment, eulogize, extol blame, criticize, reprehend, reprobate, chide, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, reprove, censure, admonish berate, deplore, execrate 2 vt. to entrust for care or preservation I commend my fate into your hands. commit, delegate, deliver, entrust, confide, consign, hand over hold, keep, retain 3 vt. to recommend as worthy of confidence or notice I commend this book to anyone interested in learning more about American history.

commensurate 1 adj.

[

] equal in measure or extent 5 15

Five yards is commensurate with fifteen feet. equal, tantamount unequal, disparate, preponderant 2 adj.

corresponding in size or degree; proportionate

a job commensurate with her abilities commensurable, commensurate, proportionate disproportionate commingle 1 v. [ ] to blend thoroughly into a harmonious whole || Fact and

Ground waters originating in different beds commingle. fiction commingle in the story.

amalgamate, fuse, mix, immix, commix, compound, mingle, immingle, intermingle, intermix, merge break down, break up, separate, unmix commitment 1 n. [ ] the state or an instance of being obligated or emotionally impelled

a commitment to a cause dedication, devotedness, fealty, piety, steadfastness 2 3 n. n. a strong belief in something the act of revealing one’s view of conviction, belief, faith He made a commitment to pay the rent on time.

ambivalence, equivocation committed 1 [ adj. ] loyal to a belief, organization, or group, and willing to work hard for it

remain committed to one’s youthful ideal loyal, faithful, allegiant disloyal noncommittal adj. a noncommittal reply confirmable giving no clear indication of attitude or feeling

Unit 10

COMMODIOUS COMMONSENSICAL COMMOTION COMPENDIUM COMPLACENCY COMPLACENCE COMPLIANT COMPLIMENT COMPLY COMPOSE

commodious [ 1 adj. a commodious closet spacious, roomy

] comfortably or conveniently spacious: roomy

constricted, cramped, snug, constringed commonsensical 1 adj. [ ] displaying common sense based on sound reasoning or information

The only commonsensical solution would be to divide the children into groups according to age. justified, logical, rational, reasonable, reasoned, valid, well-founded, levelheaded groundless, illogical, invalid, irrational, nonrational, nonsensical, nonvalid, unfounded, uninformed, unjustified, unreasonable, unreasoned, unsound commotion 1 n. [ ] an agitated disturbance preposterous

The commotion was created when the nation's top rock band arrived in town. tumult, turmoil, pandemonium, hurry-scurry tranquility, calmness, quiet, serenity compendium 1 n. [ ] a brief summary of a larger work or of a field of knowledge: abstract order

a compendium of information abstract, brief, overview

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compendious adj.

concise and comprehensive

his compendious knowledge of this subject concise, brief, laconic, compendiary, succinct 2 Compendium of Materia Medica compilation, miscellany complacency 1 n. [ ] a feeling of self-satisfaction, coupled with an unawareness of trouble || A momentary complacency that was quickly a list or collection of various items.

Complacency is the enemy of study. dispelled by the shock of cold reality.

conceit, pomposity, pompousness, pride, self-admiration, self-assumption, smugness, vanity anxiety humbleness, humility, modesty

complaisance 1 n.

[

] disposition to please or comply: affability || The complaisance of his girlfriend is such that she

She speaks with complaisance. meekly goes along with everything he says.

affability, amenability, amiability, good-naturedness obstinacy compliant 1 adj. [ churlishness ] ready or disposed to comply: submissive

a corrupt regime aided by a compliant television station amenable, conformable, docile, submissive, tractable balky, contumacious, disobedient, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, noncompliant, obstreperous, rebel, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, unamenable, ungovernable, unruly, willful, wayward compliment 1 n./ vt. [ ] an expression of praise, admiration, or congratulation

a man meriting the compliments and homage of his fellows praise, commend, eulogize, extol, laud vituperate complimentary adj. vituperative 2 n. formal and respectful recognition : honor How about a delicious dessert then, with our compliment? comply 1 requested the devices comply with industry standards individuals who fail to comply. conform, submit, observe defy, disobey, rebel against, violate, breach, transgress || There will be penalties against [ vi. ] to conform, submit, or adapt (as to a regulation or to another's wishes) as required or expressing or containing a compliment

compose 1

[ v.

] to free from agitation: calm

She took a deep breath and composed herself. contain, settle agitate, discompose, disquiet, disturb, perturb, upset, vex composed adj. distraught, restless composure n. 2 v. a calmness or repose especially of mind, bearing, or appearance to form the substance of : constitute free from agitation: calm

composed of many ingredients constitute, comprise, make up

List 5
——
2007 10G Verbal 730 Quantitative 800 AW 6.0

Unit 1

COMPOUND CONCAVE

COMPRESS CONCEAL

COMPROMISE CONCEDE

COMPUNCTION CONCENTRATE

CONCATENATE CONCERTED

compound [ ] 1 n. composed of or resulting from union of separate elements, ingredients, or parts mixed the chemicals together to form a new compound admixture, alloy, amalgam, amalgamation, cocktail, combination, composite, fusion, intermixture, meld, mix, conflation, synthesis 2 adj. consisting of two or more substances, ingredients, elements, or parts a compound word || “Steamboat” is a compound noun. amalgamated noncompound 3 vt. to put or bring together so as to form a new and longer whole the German language's propensity for compounding words chain, conjugate, couple, hook, interconnect, interlink, join, link, yoke disconnect, disjoin, disjoint, dissever, disunite, separate, unchain, uncouple, unhitch, unyoke 4 v. to make greater in size, amount, or number We compounded our error by waiting too long to call for help. Aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, enlarge, escalate, expand, extend, raise, swell abate, decrease, diminish, dwindle, lessen, lower, minify, reduce 5 v. to agree for a consideration not to prosecute (an offense) compound a felony compress [ ] 1 vt. to reduce in size or volume as if by squeezing compress a computer file || The science textbook compresses a lot of information about human reproduction into a few short chapters. capsule, collapse, compact, condense, constrict, constringe, contract, shrink, telescope increase in volume, decompress, expand, outspread, outstretch balloon compromise 1 v. [ ] to adjust or settle by mutual concessions

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Eventually we reached a compromise on the number of hours per week that would be devoted to piano practice. accommodation, negotiation 2 v. to place in danger Officials were concerned that his statements would compromise national security. hazard, imperil, jeopardy, jeopardize, menace, peril, venture compunction [ ]

1 n. anxiety arising from awareness of guilt compunction of conscience || a brutal murderer who killed without compunction anxiety, misgiving, scruple absence of misgiving concatenate [ ]

1 v. to put or bring together so as to form a new and longer whole The movie actually concatenates several episodes from various books into one extended narrative. catenate, chain, couple, hook, interconnect, interlink, join, link, yoke disconnect, disjoin, disjoint, dissever, disunite, separate, unchain, uncouple, unhitch, unyoke concave [ ]

1 adj. curved like the inner surface of a sphere a concave lens dented, depressed, dished, indented, recessed bulging, convex, protuberant conceal [ ] 1 v. to prevent disclosure or recognition of Drunkenness reveal what soberness conceal. cache, secrete, disguise, mask, occult, ensconce display, exhibit bare, disclose, expose, reveal, uncover, unmask concede [ ]

1 vt. to grant as a right or privilege She grudgingly conceded his point. acknowledge, grant, confess refuse to grant , deny concession n. : the act of yielding aggression 2 v. to cease resistance (as to another's arguments, demands, or control) He conceded as soon as it became clear that he could not win. capitulate, give in, quit, submit, succumb, surrender resist concentrate [ ]

1 v. to bring or direct toward a common center or objective : focus concentrate one’s efforts center, focus, rivet deploy, dispel, disperse, dissipate 2 vt. to make less dilute prolonged boiling is required to concentrate the sap when making maple syrup condense dilute, water down 3 v. to come together in one body or place recent immigrants tend to concentrate in port cities. accumulate, amass, assemble, collect, congregate, garner dispel, disperse, dissipate, scatter, break up, disband concerted [ ]

1 adj. planned or accomplished together The ITER project, commendable though it is, should be merely a component of a concerted effort. || A victory results from the concerted effort of the entire team. collaborative, combined, cooperative, united separate individual, single, sole, solitary

Unit 2

CONCILIATE CONDIGN

CONCISE CONDOLE

CONCORD CONDONE

CONCUR CONDUCIVE

CONDESCENDING CONFIDENT

conciliate [ ] 1 v. to lessen the anger or agitation of A principal trying to conciliate the parents who did not receive their tickets to the graduation ceremonies. appease, pacify, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate, calm (down), ease, soothe, palliate, disarm annoy, enrage, vex, nettle, rile, incense, inflame, exasperate, infuriate, discompose, disturb, perturb, upset 2 vt. to make compatible : reconcile It will be hard to conciliate the views of labor and management regarding health benefits. attune, reconcile, coordinate, accommodate discontent disharmonize conciliatory adj. contentious belligerent concise [ ]

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1 adj. marked by brevity of expression or statement a clear and concise account of the accident || Concise Design of Spacecraft Automatic System aphoristic, compendious, curt, laconic, pithy, succinct, terse, elliptical circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, long-winded, prolix, verbose, windy, wordy concord [ ]

1 n harmony or agreement of interests or feelings; accord No discord, no concord. comity, compatibility, peace conflict, discord, dissension, variance concur [ ]

1 vi. to express agreement concur with an excellent opinion agree, coincide differ, disagree 2 v. to occur or exist at the same time The race to the moon, the Vietnam War, and the civil rights movement all concurred in the 1960s. coexist, synchronize, co-occur 3 v. to participate or assist in a joint effort to accomplish an end All people concurred to pass the reform legislation band together, collaborate, concert, conjoin, league, team up, unite condescending [ ] 1 adj. displaying a patronizingly superior attitude treat sb. in a condescending manner patronizing condescension n. patronizing attitude or behavior condign [ ] 1 adj. deserved, appropriate condign punishment || A suspension without pay is condign punishment for breaking the company's code of business ethics due, deserved, merited, justified, warranted undeserved, undue, unmerited

condole

[

]

1 vi. to express sympathetic sorrow We condole with him on the death of his father. compassionate, sympathize with, yearn over condolence n. ; sympathy with another in sorrow condone 1 [ vt. ] to overlook, forgive, or disregard (an offense) without protest or censure.

By his silence, he seemed to condone their behavior. too quick to condone his friend's faults. disregard, ignore, overlook, remit, shrug off, gloss over denounce exact conducive [ ]

|| He is

1 adj. tending to promote or assist be conducive to education The state's long-standing low tax is conducive to entrepreneurship. facilitative, useful unhelpful, useless confident [ ] 1 adj. having or showing assurance and self-reliance Thicker and fuller hair would make a man more confident at work. assured, self-assured, self-confident diffident

Unit 3

CONFINE CONGENIAL

CONFLUENCE CONGRUENT

CONFRONT CONJECTURE

CONFOUND CONGEAL CONNIVE CONNOISSEUR

confine [ ] 1 vt. to shut or keep in, especially to imprison The thief was confined in a prison. imprison, commit, confine, immure, incarcerate, jail discharge, free, liberate, release 1 v. to keep within limits Please confine yourself to the subject limit, circumscribe, restrict exceed confluence [ ]

1 n. the coming together of two or more things to the same point a happy confluence of beautiful weather and spectacular scenery during our vacation conjunction divergence confront [ ]

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1 vt. to come face to face with, especially with defiance or hostility You must confront your fear in order to conquer it. affront, brazen, encounter, face, meet dodge, duck, parry, shirk, sidestep confrontation n. confound [ ]

1 vt. to throw into a state of mental uncertainty We are all confounded by his self-contradictory claims. baffle, bewilder, confuse, muddle, perplex, puzzle clarify 2 v. to fail to differentiate (a thing) from something similar or related I think you must have confounded astrology with astronomy. misidentify, mistake, mix up discriminate, distinguish 3 v. to prove to be false new discoveries that confounded much of what archaeologists thought they have known about the ancient Mayan civilization belie, debunk, falsify, disprove, rebut, refute confirm, validate, verify confounding adj. congeal [ ]

1 v. to change from a fluid to a solid state by or as if by cold The blood had started to congeal. coagulate, solidify, indurate, clot melt, liquefy congealment n. congenial [ ] 1 adj. having or marked by agreement in feeling or action a congenial host who invited us for a feast agreeable, amicable, compatible, unanimous, united discordant, incompatible 2 adj. giving pleasure or contentment to the mind or senses a couple relaxing in the congenial atmosphere of a luxury health SPA delightful, dulcet, felicitous, palatable unpleasant congeniality n. congruent [ ]

1 adj. being in agreement, harmony, or correspondence; congruous a theory congruent with the known facts consonant, compatible, consistent, harmonious, accordant disagreeable conflicting, incompatible 2 adj. coinciding exactly when superimposed

These two triangles are congruent. identical, exact disparate congruity n. conjecture [ ] 1 n. a conclusion deduced by surmise or guesswork That was only a conjecture, not a fact. speculation, supposition, surmise, theory fact axiom 2 v. to decide the size, amount, number, or distance of (something) without actual measurement calculate, estimate, guess, gauge prove 3 v. to form an opinion from little or no evidence conjecture that this disease is caused by a defective gene assume, imagine, presume, speculate, suppose connive [ ]

1 vi. to cooperate secretly or have a secret understanding; collude They connived to take over the throne. conspire, intrigue, plot, collude, intrigue, machinate ,put up 2 v. to pretend ignorance of or fail to take action against something one ought to oppose The guards were suspected of conniving at the prisoner's escape. blink, disregard, overlook, wink disapprove conniver n. connoisseur [ ] 1 n. a person who enjoys with discrimination and appreciation of subtleties and details especially in matters of culture or art a connoisseur of wine and cigarette aesthete, cognoscente 2 n. a person with a high level of knowledge or skill in a field works that are highly prized by connoisseurs of art glass adept, artist, authority, maestro, master, maven, proficient, virtuoso amateur, inexpert, nonexpert tyro, neophyte

Unit 4

CONSCIENTIOUS CONSENSUS CONSEQUENCE CONSERVE CONSIDERABLE CONSOLE

CONSERVATIVE CO NS E RVATO RY CONSOLIDATE CONSONANT

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conscientious [

]

1 adj. taking, showing, or involving great care and effort a conscientious researcher careful, exact, heedful, meticulous, painstaking, scrupulous careless, remiss 1 adj. governed by or conforming to the dictates of conscience a conscientious police officer conscionable, ethical, honest, moral, upright, principled, scrupulous unscrupulous conscience n. consensus [ ]

1 n. general agreement; unanimity The board has finally reached a consensus. accord, assent, agreement, harmony, unanimity, unison disagreement consequence [ ] 1 n. something produced by a cause or necessarily following from a set of conditions negative consequences of the war aftermath, effect, outcome, result source, origin, cause, antecedent 2 n. significance; importance a mistake of no consequence moment, magnitude, weight triviality consequential adj.

conservative [ ] 1 adj. favoring traditional views and values; tending to oppose change a conservative political stance hidebound, reactionary, die-hard radical, aggressive 2 adj. not excessively showy dressing in conservative outfits so as to make a good impression at job interviews muted, repressed, low-key, understated, unpretentious flamboyant, ostentatious, splashy 3 adj. having or showing a close attentiveness to avoiding danger or trouble He made conservative investments, and so he wasn't ruined when the market went into a free fall. alert, heedful, cautious, circumspect, gingerly, guarded, wary, vigilant heedless

conservatory [ ] 1 n. a greenhouse for growing or displaying plants The college's conservatory is entirely devoted to cultivating and displaying orchids. greenhouse, hothouse 2 n. a school specializing in one of the fine arts an opera conservatory conserve [ ] 1 vt. to keep in a safe or sound state, especially to avoid wasteful or destructive use conserve natural resources husband, preserve, save dissipate, lavish, waste, squander conservation n. considerable [ ] 1 adj. sufficiently large in size, amount, or number to merit attention a considerable amount of fortune extensive, substantial, large-scale 2 adj. worth consideration; significant a considerable artist important, significant, consequential, momentous, weighty trivial insubstantial, negligible, nominal, trifling console [ ]

1 vt. to alleviate the grief, sense of loss, or trouble of; comfort Only her children could console her when her husband died. comfort, solace, soothe, calm distress, torment, torture consolation n. consolidate [ ]

1 vt. to join together into one whole; unite consolidate several small school districts unify, combine, amalgamate dissolve, sunder, fragment 2 vt. to make firm or secure; strengthen consolidate the defense line enhance, strengthen, fortify, reinforce abate, attenuate, undermine, weaken consolidation n. consonant [ ] 1 adj. being in agreement or harmony; free from elements making for discord His performance was rarely consonant with his reputation. harmonious, compatible, congenial, consistent, congruous, correspondent

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conflicting, dissonant, discrepant, inconsistent consonance n.

Unit 5

CONSPICUOUS CONSTRUCT

CONSPIRE CONSUMMATE

CONSTITUTE CONTAGIOUS

CONSTRAIN CONTAMINATE

CONSTRINGE CONTENT

conspicuous [ ] 1 adj. obvious to the eye or mind, attracting attention a conspicuous change in her appearance apparent, clear, distinct, evident, manifest, plain, patent, noticeable hidden, concealed conspicuousness n. conspire [ ]

1 v. to plan together secretly to commit an illegal or wrongful act or accomplish a legal purpose through illegal action A group of POWs conspired to abscond. plot, contrive, connive, cogitate, intrigue, put up conspiracy n. constitute [ ]

1 vt. to appoint to an office, function, or dignity He was constituted manager. nominate, designate, authorize discharge, dismiss abdicate, resign 2 v. make up, form, compose Water constitutes the greater part of the human body. compose, comprise, form constitution n. constrain [ ] 1 v. to force by imposed stricture, restriction, or limitation Low temperature constrains the chemical reactivity. bridle, check, confine, imprison, restrain, trammel release 2 v. to cause (a person) to give in to pressure constrained by his conscience to tell the truth coerce, compel, oblige, sandbag constrained adj.

constringe [ ] 1 vt. to make narrow or draw together A styptic pencil stopped the bleeding by constringing the small blood vessels at the site of cut. capsule, constrict, narrow, compress, squeeze, telescope broaden, expand, outstretch construct [ ] 1 v. to form by assembling or combining parts construct a new library assemble, build, fabricate, make, produce, rear, set up demolish, destroy, raze 2 v. to create or think of by clever use of the imagination He managed to construct a theory that fits all the facts. contrive, devise, excogitate, fabricate, vamp up construction n. consummate [ ]

1 adj. extremely skilled and accomplished a consummate liar accomplished, finished, virtuosic, versed, veteran amateur 2 adj. complete in every detail; perfect The difficult aria displayed her consummate skill. flawless, impeccable, perfect defective 3 adj. of the greatest or highest degree or quantity maximum, paramount, supreme, top, utmost minimal contagious [ ] 1 adj. communicable by contact; catching contagious diseases infectious, pestilent, transmissible incommunicable 2 adj. exciting a similar feeling or reaction in others The enthusiasm of the new club members was contagious. catching, epidemic, spreading contagiousness n. contaminate [ ] 1 vt. to soil, stain, corrupt, or infect by contact or association Bacteria contaminated the wound. pollute, defile, taint, infect purify, sanitize contamination n. contaminant n.

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content [ ] 1 v. to appease the desires of One glass of beer every day could content him. satisfy, gratify, rejoice discontent 2 n. a major object of interest or concern (as in a discussion or artistic composition) Although I appreciate the poem's lyrical qualities, I don't understand its content. motive, subject, theme, topic 3 n. the idea that is conveyed or intended to be conveyed to the mind by language, symbol, or action The speech was filled with fancy words but devoid of any real content. intention, purport, sense, significance contented adj.

Unit 6

CONTENTIOUS CONTIGUOUS CONTORT CONTRITE CONTUMACIOUS CONUNDRUM

CONTRACT CONVALESCE

CONTRAVENCE CONVENIENCE

contentious [ ] 1 adj. likely to cause contention; argumentative contentious contents in a movie controversial, disputatious, polemical, scrappy 2 adj. exhibiting an often perverse and wearisome tendency to quarrels and disputes The Tartars were a contentious people who terrorized much of Asia and eastern Europe during the Middle Ages. belligerent, bellicose, combative, truculent, litigious, pugnacious dovish, peace-loving contiguous [ ] 1 adj. sharing an edge or boundary; touching contiguous nations at war adjacent, abutting, neighboring, juxtaposed, verging apart, separate contiguity contort [ ]

1 vt. to twist, wrench, or bend severely out of shape a contorted version of the truth deform, distort, warp, misshape contortion n. contract [ ] 1 n. a binding agreement between two or more persons or parties, especially one that is written and enforceable by law a billion-dollar contract from Department of Defense agreement, compact, convention, treaty 2 v. to reduce in size by drawing together; shrink contract muscle compress, condense, concentrate expand inflate 3 v. to become affected by a disease or disorder contracted a severe cold that later turned into pneumonia catch, get, sicken heal contractor n. contravene [ ] 1 v. to violate, to oppose in argument: contradict contravene the proposal with no reservation breach, infringe, transgress, fracture, deny, contradict, gainsay, reject uphold, support, buttress comply, conform, observe contravention n. contrite [ ]

1 adj. feeling or showing sorrow and remorse for a sin or shortcoming too late to feel contrite compunctious, regrettable, remorseful, apologetic, penitent, repentant, rueful impenitent, unrepentant contumacious [ ] 1 adj. stubbornly disobedient; rebellious Contumacious insurgents refuse to talk. balky, contumacious, defiant, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, restive, ungovernable, unruly, untoward, wayward, willful obedient, docile, ruly contumacy n. conundrum [ ] 1 n. a paradoxical, insoluble, or difficult problem; a dilemma a difficult conundrum even for the experts enigma, mystery, puzzlement, riddle, secret

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convalesce [ ] 1 vi. to recover health and strength gradually after sickness or weakness the time needed to convalesce after an operation heal, recover, recuperate, recoup, snap back aggravate, deteriorate, intensify convenience [ ] 1 n. fitness or suitability for performing an action or fulfilling a requirement the convenience of living in megacity accommodation, amenity, ease, facility burden, millstone convenient adj.

Unit 7

CONVENTION CONVERGE CONVERSANT CONVERT CONVEY CONVICTION CONVOKE CONVOLUTED

CONVEX CONVULSION

convention [

]

1 n. general agreement on or acceptance of certain practices or attitudes By convention, north is at the top of most maps. custom, ritual, manner deviation 2 n. a general agreement about basic principles or procedures Under this circumstance Geneva convention does not comply. treaty, agreement, compact, contract 3 n. a coming together of a number of persons for a specified purpose attended a convention of mathematicians in California assembly, congress, council, gathering conventional adj. converge [ ] 1 v. tending to move toward one point or one another the main streets converge on a central square meet, focus, concentrate diverge, deviate, digress convergent adj. convergence n. conversant [ ]

1 adj. having frequent or familiar association conversant with the accounting system acquaint, aware, familiar, informed, versed

ignorant, unfamiliar conversance n. convert [ ]

1 n. one that is converted proselyte 2 vt. to bring over from one belief, view, or party to another European missionaries converted thousands to Christianity. persuade, proselytize, bring, lead 3 vt. to alter the physical or chemical nature or properties of especially in manufacturing convert water into ice alter, change, transform, transfigure converter n. convertible adj. ; n. convex [ ] 1 adj. having a surface or boundary that curves or bulges outward, as the exterior of a sphere A convex function has the property that a line joining any two points on its graph lies on or above the graph. bulging dent, concave convey [ ]

1 vt. to take or carry from one place to another; transport goods conveyed by sea carry, transfer, ferry, transmit 2 v. to impart or communicate by statement, suggestion, gesture, or appearance struggling to convey his feelings conduct, communicate, impart, pass on withhold conviction [ ] 1 n. the state of being convinced a warrior of strong conviction assurance, certainty, certitude dubiety, incredulity; uncertainty, incertitude 2 n. state of being found or proved guilty evidence that led to the suspect's conviction sentence acquittal convict v. convoke [ ] 1 v. to bring together by or as if by summons to convoke Parliament assemble, convene, summon, muster adjourn

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convoluted [ ] 1 adj. complicated; intricate a convoluted way of describing a simple mechanism complex, knotty, involved, sophisticated, twisted, tangled, labyrinthine straightforward convulsion [ ] 1 n. an abnormal violent and involuntary contraction of the muscles Convulsions are usually accompanied by loss of consciousness. 2 n. a violent disturbance a regime in convulsion commotion, ferment, tumult, upheaval, clamor, tempest, uproar serenity, tranquility convulse v.

Unit 8

COOP COPIOUS CORONATION CORPOREAL

COQUETTE CORROBORATE

CORDON CORROSIVE

CORNUCOPIA CORRUGATED

coop [ ] 1 vt. to confine in a restricted and often crowded area Those restless kids were cooped up in the house on a rainy. box, cage, corral, encage, enclose, envelop, fence, hedge, immure, include, pen, wall free, liberate, release copious [ ]

1 adj. large in quantity; abundant a copious harvest plentiful, abundant, ample, gushing sparse, dearth, scant coquette [ ]

1 n. a woman who makes teasing sexual or romantic overtures; a flirt A coquette though she might appear to be at first, Violetta from Verdi’s La Traviata is actually yearning for true love. vamp, flirt 2 v. to deal with something playfully rather than seriously interested only in coquetting with her, not marrying her trifle, dally, flirt, mess around

coquet v.

coquettish adj.

cordon [ ] 1 n. a line or ring of police, soldiers, or vehicles preventing people from entering an area a cordon of police perimeter 2 v. to form a protective or restrictive cordon around cordoned off the area around the explosion scene close, obstruct, block cornucopia [ ] 1 n. an overflowing store; an abundance a cornucopia of employment opportunities plentitude, plethora, wealth, profusion, affluence lack, pittance, deficiency

coronation [

]

1 n. the act or ceremony of crowning a sovereign or the sovereign's consort Two different musical pieces by Mozart (a piano concerto and a mass) are both titled “Coronation”. enthronement, crowning abdication coronate v. corporeal [ ] 1 adj. not spiritual corporeal suffering bodily, carnal, corporal, somatic, physical, fleshly spiritual 2 adj. not immaterial or intangible material, physical, substantial, sensible, tangible intangible, disembodied, immaterial corroborate [ ] 1 vt. to support with evidence or authority; make more certain new evidence to corroborate the defendant's story confirm, authenticate, justify, substantiate, validate, verify controvert, contradict, deny 2 vt. to provide evidence or information for (as a claim or idea) My personal experience does not corroborate your faith in the essential goodness of people. back, bolster, buttress, reinforce, support corroboration n. corrosive [ 1 adj. ] tending to destroy slowly by chemical action

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Concentrated sulfur acid is highly corrosive. erosive, caustic noncorrosive 2 adj. bitingly sarcastic corrosive satire sarcastic, barbed, acerbic, satiric, acrid, barbed, mordant, tart corrosion n. corrugated [ ]

1 adj. shaped into a series of regular folds that look like waves corrugated paper wrinkled, creased, folded smooth corrugation n.

Unit 9

COSMOPOLITAN COSSET COURT COVERT

COUNTENANCE COVETOUS

COUNTERFEIT COW

COUNTERMAND COWARDICE

cosmopolitan [

]

1 adj. having worldwide rather than limited or provincial scope or bearing a cosmopolitan traveler universal, catholic, global, worldwide insular, provincial cosmopolitism n. cosset [ ] 1 v. to treat as a pet; pamper caress, cuddle, dote, pet, mollycoddle slight abuse cosseted adj. countenance [ ]

1 v. to put up with (something painful or difficult) The college administration will not countenance cheating. abide, endure, stand, stomach, wear 2 v. to have a favorable opinion of I don't countenance such behavior in children of any age. accept, favor, subscribe disapprove, frown 3 n. evenness of emotions or temper

The doctor’s purposeful countenance was in stark contrast to everyone else's hysteria. aplomb, calmness, composure, sangfroid, serenity agitation, discomposure, perturbation counterfeit [ ] 1 adj. made in imitation of something else with intent to deceive counterfeit money forged, bogus, spurious, pseudo, feigned, artificial, phony authentic, genuine 2 vt. to make a fraudulent replica of counterfeit the signature copy, forge, imitate, simulate, mimic 3 vt. to present a false appearance of to counterfeit a happy expression while visiting a sick friend affect, assume, fake, pretend countermand [ ]

1 vt. to revoke (a command) by a contrary order countermand an order annul, repeal, rescind, revoke, cancel approve, permit, sanction court [ ] 1 vt./n. to seek the affections of court the young lady by bring her flowers every day woo, pursue, invite spurn, snub courteous adj. covert [ ] 1 adj. not openly shown, engaged in, or avowed covert alliance cloistered, hidden, secret, sheltered open, overt, aboveboard 2 n. a place where a person goes to hide or to avoid others set up a covert from which to watch wildlife without being detected concealment, hermitage, hideaway, nest, lair covetous [ ] 1 adj. marked by inordinate desire for wealth or possessions or for another's possessions cast covetous eyes on their neighbors’ fields acquisitive, avaricious, avid, rapacious, grasping easily-satiated unenvious covet v.

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cow [

]

1 v. to frighten with threats or a show of force cow sb. into doing sth. intimidate, browbeat, bully, hector, awe embolden, encourage, inspirit cowed adj. cowardice [ ]

1 n. lack of courage or resolution cowardice in the face of danger cravenness, dastardliness, gutlessness, poltroonery, pusillanimity, spinelessness courage, guts, pluck , intrepidness, nerve, stoutness, valiance, valor coward n.

Unit 10

COWER C R AV E N

COZEN C R E AS E

CRAMPED CREDENCE

CR ASS CREDULOUS

C R AV E CREEK

cower [ ] 1 vi. to cringe in fear The dog cowered under the table. fawn, flinch, grovel, quail, recoil, wince cozen [ ] 1 v. to mislead by means of a petty trick or fraud; deceive The salesman cozened the old lady into buying his goods. bamboozle, dupe, cheat, deceive, beguile, delude, take in cramped [ ]

1 n. uncomfortably small or restricted a cramped cubbyhole in an office confined, limited, restrained commodious, spacious cramp n. crass [ ] 1 adj. so crude and unrefined as to be lacking in discrimination and sensibility crass receptionist coarse, crude, rude, incult, uncouth, vulgar civilized, polished, refined, urbane. genteel

crave [ ] 1 vt. to have an intense desire for crave alcohols and cigarettes need, yearn, desire, pine, thirst, itch, long, yen spurn craving n. craven [ ] 1 adj. lacking the least bit of courage; contemptibly fainthearted a craven deserter cowardly, gutless, pusillanimous, spineless dauntless, fearless, gallant, gutsy, intrepid, stalwart, stout, stouthearted, valiant, valorous crease [ ]

1 n. a line made by pressing, folding, or wrinkling flatten the creases of the map wrinkle, corrugation, fold, furrow creased adj. credence [ ]

1 n. firm belief in the integrity, ability, effectiveness, or genuineness of someone or something give credence to gossip belief, credit, faith, trust, reliance doubt, skepticism credulous [ ] 1 adj. disposed to believe too readily; gullible accused of swindling credulous investors believing, unwary, gullible, naïve, unsuspecting disbelieving, skeptical credulity n. creek [ ] 1 n. a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river went wading in the creek stream, branch, brook, rivulet

List 6
—— 2007 "Just do it. -- It pays." 10G Verbal 700 Quantitative800 AW 5.0 Princeton

Unit 1

CREEP CROOK

CRESCENDO CROON

CREST CROUCH

CRESTFALLEN CRUCIAL

CRONYISM CRUMPLE

creep

[

]

1 vi./n. to go very slowly creeping through the crowd drag, loiter, tarry scurry, run 2 vi. to move slowly with the body close to the ground The kitten crept silently across the floor before suddenly pouncing on the mouse. crawl, grovel, slide, slither swagger crescendo [ ]

1 n./v. a gradual increase in volume of a musical passage The movement begins with a crescendo of a clarinet. decrescendo 2 n. the peak of a gradual increase complaints about stifling smog conditions reach a crescendo apex, acme, apogee, climax, peak, pinnacle, summit, zenith nadir crest [ ]

1 n. the top, as of a hill or wave on the crest of a wave apex, acme, apogee, climax, peak, pinnacle, summit, zenith bottom crestfallen 1 [ adj. ] dispirited and depressed; dejected

be crestfallen at the failure downcast, dispirited, low, gloomy, melancholic, sorrowful, woeful elated, buoyant, excited, exhilarated, exultant cronyism [ ] favoritism shown to old friends without regard for their qualifications

1 n. officials practicing cronyism favoritism crook [ ]

1 v. to cause to turn away from a straight line crook your finger to pull the trigger arch, bow, crook, curve, hook, swerve straighten, unbend, uncurl croon [ ]

1 v. to sing or speak in a gentle murmuring manner croon mellow tunes whisper, grumble, mumble, murmur shout, yell crouch [ ]

1 v. to lower the body stance especially by bending the legs crouched behind a rock and watched vigilantly huddle, squat arise, stand crucial [ ]

1 adj. extremely significant or important a crucial step in his professional career critical, decisive, key, pivotal, vital inconsequential, insignificant, trivial crumple [ ]

1 v. to press, bend, or crush out of shape crumple a piece of paper rumple, crimple, crease, fold, wrinkle smooth 2 v. to fall down or in as a result of physical pressure The box crumpled when I accidentally dropped a brick on it. collapse, founder, implode, tumble, yield

Unit 2

CRUTCH CUMBERSOME

CRUX CUNNING

CRYPTIC CULPABLE CURMUDGEON CURSORY

CULTIVATE CURT

crutch

[

]

1 n./v. something that supports or sustains a crutch for local economy brace, buttress, column, stay, support, underpinning, underpropping crux [ ]

1 n. the basic, central, or critical point or feature the crux of the problem core, substance, kernel, gist, pivot trifle, triviality cryptic [ ]

1 adj. secret or occult cryptic message covert, furtive, secret, stealthy public, open 2 adj. having or seeming to have a hidden or ambiguous meaning The senator made some cryptic explanations about the military operations. ambiguous, equivocal, nebulous, obscure, unclear, vague clear, explicit, obvious, plain 3 adj. being beyond one's powers to know, understand, or explain puzzled by the cryptic e-mail message left on his computer arcane, enigmatic, impenetrable, inscrutable, mystic, occult, uncanny comprehendible, understandable culpable [ ]

1 adj. deserving of blame or censure as being wrong, evil, improper, or injurious culpable behaviors blameworthy, censurable, guilty, reprehensible, sinful, reproachable inculpable, innocent culpability n. cultivate [ ]

1 v. to improve by labor, care, or study cultivate the mind educate, instruct, illuminate, nurse degrade, deteriorate, impair 2 v. to promote the growth of (a biological culture) cultivate vegetables grow, breed, produce, raise, develop, nurture balk, frustrate, thwart

cultivation cumbersome [

n. ]

1 adj. difficult to handle because of weight or bulk a cumbersome piece of machinery unhandy, ponderous, heavy, unwieldy, onerous ,thorny light, weightless handy cunning [ ]

1 adj. marked by or given to artful subtlety and deceptiveness cunning tactics artful, crafty, devious, foxy, sly, tricky, wily artless, naïve, unsophisticated 2 adj. skillful with the hands Only the most cunning cabinetmaker could have crafted such a beautifully proportioned chest of drawers. clever, deft, handy heavy-handed, ham-handed 3 n. the inclination or practice of misleading others through lies or trickery used cunning and subterfuge to work her way up the corporate ladder artifice, deception, fraud ingenuousness, sincerity curmudgeon [ ]

1 n. an irritable and complaining person a terrible old curmudgeon crosspatch, fusser, griper, grouser, growler, grumbler, whiner agreeable person cursory [ ]

1 adj. acting or done with excessive or careless speed a cursory glance at the headline headlong, overhasty, pell-mell, precipitate, precipitous, rash fastidious, thorough, deliberate, unhurried, unrushed curt [ ]

1 adj. being or characterized by direct, brief, and potentially rude speech or manner his curt reply abrupt, bluff, brusque, downright, unceremonious circuitous, mealymouthed 2 adj. marked by the use of few words to convey much information or meaning on a daily basis she e-mailed to her commanders curt reports on the situation aphoristic, compendious, elliptical, laconic, pithy, sententious, succinct, terse diffuse, long-winded, prolix, verbose

Unit 3

CURTAIL DALLY

CYNIC DAMPER

DABBLE DANDY

DAFT DANK

DAIS DAPPER

curtail

[

]

1 vt. to make less in extent or duration curtail your holiday abbreviate, abridge, syncopate, truncate, cut back elongate, protract, prolong, extend, lengthen cynic [ ]

1 n. a person who believes all people are motivated by selfishness. A cynic might think that the governor visited the hospital just to gain votes. misanthrope, naysayer, pessimist dabble [ ]

1 v. to work or involve oneself superficially or intermittently especially in a secondary interest dabble in arts dedicate, specialize dabbler vi. one not deeply engaged in or concerned with something He's not a dedicated musician, just a dabbler. , specialist daft [ ] 1 adj. having or showing a very abnormal or sick state of mind The king was clearly daft, talking to trees and rocks. bedlam, demented, deranged, lunatic, psychotic, unbalanced, unsound balanced, sane 2 adj. showing or marked by a lack of good sense or judgment a daft plan, doomed to wretched failure and merciless ridicule fatuous, featherheaded, nonsensical, preposterous, senseless judicious, prudent, sagacious, sapient, wise dais [ ]

1 n. a raised platform, as in a lecture hall, for speakers or honored guests. the speaker took his place at the front of the dais podium, rostrum, tribune dally [ 1 ] vi. to spend time doing nothing

I kept dallying at my desk until I couldn't put off doing my work any longer. dawdle, loll, lounge, hang around 2 v. to engage in activity for amusement he spent his college years dallying, seemingly determined to acquire as little knowledge as possible disport, frolic, recreate, rollick, sport 3 v. to move or act slowly don't dally on the way to the interview crawl, creep, dillydally, drag, lag, linger, loiter, tarry dash, hasten, scoot, scurry damper [ ]

1 n. one that deadens, restrains, or depresses Rain put a damper on our picnic plans. ameliorator dandy [ ]

1 n. a man who gives exaggerated attention to personal appearance That was a dandy of a game. fop, gallant 2 adj. of the very best kind that's a dandy new racing bike awesome, fabulous, superb, sensational, splendid, unsurpassed atrocious, awful, execrable, lousy, pathetic, wretched dank [ ]

1 adj. slightly or moderately wet vegetables tended to go bad quickly in the dank cellar damp, wettish dapper [ ]

1 adj. being strikingly neat and trim in style or appearance The students all looked very dapper in their uniforms. natty, sharp, snappy, spruce frowsy, unkempt, slovenly, unkempt

Unit 4

DAPPLED DEADPAN

DAREDEVIL DEARTH

DART DEBACLE

DAUNT DEBARK

D AW D L E DEBASE

dappled

[

]

1 adj. marked with small spots or contrasting with the background; mottled, spotted a dappled fawn blotchy, mottled, specked, piebald, splotched, stippled unspotted 2 adj. having blotches of two or more colors a forest that was vibrant with the dappled foliage of autumn marbled, mottled, piebald, pinto, splotched, spotted daredevil [ ]

1 adj./n. ( ) foolishly adventurous or bold His daredevil stunts are sure to end in disaster someday. audacious, brash, madcap, overbold, reckless, temerarious circumspect, guarded, heedful, prudent, wary 2 adj. having or showing a lack of concern for the consequences of one’s actions a daredevil driver who thinks that racing on city streets is a harmless game foolhardy, irresponsible, harum-scarum responsible dart [ ] 1 vi. to move suddenly and rapidly The dog darted across the street. flicker, flitter, flutter 2 n. an act or expression showing scorn and usually intended to hurt another's feelings The darts flew fast and furiously when the two former lovers bumped into each other at the party. party affront, barb, offense, sarcasm, slight, slur daunt [ ]

1 vt. to lessen the courage or confidence of She was not at all daunted by the size of the problem. demoralize, dishearten, dismay, dispirit, frustrate, unnerve embolden, make resolute, hearten dauntless undaunted a. pusillanimous, trepid, craven, easily discouraged, meek, timorous dawdle [ ]

1 v. to spend time idly dawdle the day away bum, dally, loll, loaf, lounge, hang about, kick around hie 2 v. to move or act slowly If you continue to dawdle, we'll be late for sure. crawl, creep, dally, dillydally, lag, linger, loiter, tarry bolt, hasten, course, dash, speed, scurry

deadpan

[

]

1 n. impassively matter-of-fact, as in style, behavior, or expression a deadpan comedy catatonic, expressionless, impassive, inexpressive, stolid, vacant demonstrative, expressive dearth [ ]

1 n. an inadequate supply a dearth of evidence want, deficit, insufficiency, paucity, pinch, scantiness, scarcity, undersupply plethora, spate, copiousness, abundance, adequacy, amplitude, opulence debacle [ ]

1 n. a complete failure; fiasco the debacle of the war bummer, calamity, catastrophe, cataclysm, fiasco, fizzle, flop, washout complete success, éclat, blockbuster debark [ ]

1 vt. to unload, as from a ship or an airplane the seasick passengers debarked as soon as the ship dropped anchor land embark debase [ ]

1 v. to reduce to a lower standing in one's own eyes or in others' eyes our failure to win a single game completely debased abase, debauch, degrade, demean, demoralize, deprave, deteriorate, profane, subvert, vitiate aggrandize, canonize, deify, elevate, exalt, ennoble

Unit 5

DEBILITATE DECANT

DEBRIS DECIPHER

DEBUNK DECODE

DEBUT DECORUM

DECADENCE DECREPIT

debilitate

[

]

1 vt. to impair the strength of; enfeeble The virus debilitates the body's immune system. devitalize, enervate, enfeeble, prostrate, sap invigorate, fortify, strengthen, beef up

debris

[

]

1 n. discarded or useless material the unsightly debris left after mining operations had ceased dross, dust, litter, offal, refuse, effluvium junk debunk [ ]

1 v. to reveal the true nature of debunk a supposed miracle drug uncloak, uncover, undress, unmask, show up camouflage, cloak, disguise, mask 2 v. to prove to be false a Web site that assiduously debunks urban legends belie, confound, confute, discredit, falsify, rebut, refute confirm, establish, validate, verify debut [ ] a first public appearance

1 n. made her single debut farewell performance decadence 1 or level n. [ ]

a process, condition, or period of deterioration or decline, a change to a lower state

The book condemns the decadence of modern society. degeneracy, degeneration, degradation, deterioration, downfall, eclipse ascent, rise, upswing decant [ ]

1 vt. to pour off (wine, for example) without disturbing the sediment The bottles were uncorked and the wine was decanted an hour before the meal.

decipher

[

]

1 vt. to read or interpret (ambiguous, obscure, or illegible matter). we deciphered the hidden message to find out when we were supposed to meet break, crack, decrypt, decode cipher, encipher, encode, encrypt 2 v. to have a clear idea of a convoluted thriller, the plot of which I was never able to actually decipher apprehend, perceive, recognize, seize, sense, make out decode [ ]

1 vt. to change (as a secret message) from code into ordinary language the agents worked into the night to decode the intercepted message from the enemy spy

break, crack, decipher, decrypt 2 v. , to have a clear idea of a convoluted thriller, the plot of which I was never able to actually decipher apprehend, perceive, recognize, seize, sense ,make out decorum [ ]

1 n. appropriateness of behavior or conduct; propriety high standards of decorum are usually required when attending the opera form, propriety impropriety, indecency decorous adj. decorous behavior mangy, unseemly indecorous proper decrepit [ ]

marked by propriety and good taste

1 adj. weakened, worn out, impaired, or broken down by old age, illness a decrepit old man vigorous, sturdy, sound, robust, hale

Unit 6

DEFAULT DEFT

DEFER DEFUSE

DEFERENCE DEFY

DEFICIENCY DEHYDRATE

DEFILE DEIFY

default

[

]

1 v. ( ) to fail to pay financial debts, the nonperformance of an assigned or expected action default on a loan delinquency, dereliction, misprision, nonfeasance, oversight pay one's debt defer [ ]

1 v. to put off; postpone; defer we agreed to defer a discussion of the issue delay, remit, shelve, hold off, hold over, lay over, put off exigent 2 vi. to submit to another's wishes, opinion, or governance usually through deference or respect defer to her father’s wishes

deference

[

]

1 n. a readiness or willingness to yield to the wishes of others He is shown much deference by his colleagues. acquiescence, compliancy, docility, obedience, submissiveness contempt, defiance, disobedience, intractability, recalcitrance deferential adj. showing or expressing deference imperious, impudent deficiency [ ]

1 n. the quality or state of being deficient: inadequate there is a deficiency of fresh food in the diet of many of the working poor want, dearth, deficit, famine, paucity, scantiness, scarcity surfeit, abundance, adequacy, amplitude, opulence, sufficiency defile [ ]

1 n. a narrow passage or gorge They climbed up the mountain through a defile. 2 v. to treat (a sacred place or object) shamefully or with great disrespect art conservators were careful not to do anything that might defile the holy relic profane, violate 3 v. to make unfit for use by the addition of something harmful or undesirable supplies of meat that had been defiled by maggots befoul, foul, pollute, taint decontaminate, purify deft [ ] 1 adj. characterized by facility and skill He finished off the painting with a few deft strokes of the brush. cunning, adroit, dexterous, expert, masterful, virtuoso awkward, maladroit, ham-handed, amateur, artless, unprofessional, unskillful defuse [ ] to make less dangerous, tense, or hostile

1 vt. defuse the crisis foment defy [ ]

1 vt. to go against the commands, prohibitions, or rules of defy the court mock, rebel, oppose, confront acquiesce, obey, comply with, conform to capitulate to, submit to, succumb to, surrender to, yield to dehydrate [ ]

1 vt. to remove water from; make anhydrous bought a dehumidifier in order to dehydrate the damp basement dampen, desiccate, parch, scorch, sear hydrate, saturate with water, reconstitute 2 v. to deprive of vitality or savor years of being trapped in a loveless marriage had dehydrated his spirit deaden, devitalize, enervate, petrify, sap brace, energize, enliven, invigorate, vitalize, vivify deify [ ]

1 v. to offer honor or respect to (someone) as a divine power some ancient pagans deified such objects of nature as trees and rivers glorify, revere, venerate 2 v. to love or admire too much materialistic people who deify money adore, adulate, canonize, dote 3 v. to assign a high status or value to Valentino was virtually deified by legions of female fans. aggrandize, canonize, dignify, ennoble, glorify, magnify abase, degrade, demean, humble, humiliate deification n. debasement

Unit 7

DEJECT DELUSION

DELETERIOUS DELUGE

DELIBERATE DELICACY DELVE DEMAGOGUE

DELIRIUM DEMANDING

deject

[

]

1 vt. to lower the spirits of; dishearten nothing dejects a TV pundit more than the reality check that nobody cares what he thinks oppress, sadden, weigh down, bum out brighten, buoy, lighten, rejoice, cheer up deleterious [ ]

1 adj. harmful often in a subtle or unexpected way deleterious to health adverse, baleful, baneful, detrimental, mischievous, nocuous, noxious, pernicious beneficial, salutary, salubrious, wholesome, benign, harmless, innocuous

deliberate

[

]

1 adj. characterized by or resulting from careful and thorough consideration a deliberate decision calculated, considered, reasoned, thoughtful impetuous, haste, casual, unadvised, uncalculated, unconsidered, unstudied delicacy [ ]

1 n. fineness of appearance, construction, or execution; elegance lace of great delicacy dainty, delectable, kickshaw, tidbit crudity, husk, coarseness, roughness delirium [ ]

1 n. an acute mental disturbance characterized by confused thinking and disrupted attention usually accompanied by disordered speech and hallucinations shoppers running around in a delirium the day before Christmas agitation, distraction, hysteria, rage, rampage, uproar delusion [ ]

1 n. a false idea This was not optimism, it was delusion. hallucination, illusion, unreality, falsehood, misconception truth, verity delusive adj. false, deceptive transparent deluge [ ]

1 n. a drenching rain drizzle 2 n. a great flow of water or of something that overwhelms received a deluge of offers offer inundation, overflow, spate, torrent delve [ ]

1 vt. vi. to make a careful or detailed search for information The book delves into the latest research. probe, investigate, inquire into, look into, dig into demagogue [ ]

1 n. a leader who makes use of popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power that politician is just a demagogue who preys upon people's fears and prejudices firebrand, fomenter, incendiary, instigator, kindler, provocateur demanding [ ]

1 adj. not easily satisfied or pleased His mother could be demanding at times. exacting, fastidious, finical, finicking, fussy, picky 2 adj. requiring much time, effort, or careful attention the demanding assignment kept them working all night long arduous, burdensome, challenging, exacting, grueling, killing, laborious, onerous, persnickety, taxing, toilsome light, unchallenging, undemanding

Unit 8

DEMOLITION DENIGRATE

DEMONSTRATE DENOUEMENT

DEMORALIZE DENOUNCE

DEMOTIC DENT

DEMUR DENUDE

demolition [

]

1 n. the act or process of wrecking or destroying, especially destruction by explosives. the demolition of dangerous buildings annihilation, decimation, devastation, havoc, wreckage building, construction, erection, raising demonstrate [ ]

1 v. to show or make clear by using examples the paleontologist hopes to demonstrate that dinosaurs once existed in central Peru by unearthing the fossil evidence exemplify, instance unable to prove 2 v. to make plain or understandable a few striking facts should demonstrate the complex nature of our topic clarify, construe, demystify, elucidate, explicate, illuminate obscure 3 v. to make known (something abstract) through outward signs the babysitter's actions during the emergency demonstrate beyond doubt her general dependability bespeak, betray, display, evince, manifest, reveal demoralize [ ]

1 vt. to undermine the confidence or morale of; dishearten demoralize the staff daunt, dishearten, dismay, dispirit, unnerve invigorate, cheer 2 v. to lower in character, dignity, or quality

we refused to be demoralized by our humiliating defeat abase, corrupt, debauch, degrade, demean elevate, ennoble, uplift demotic [ ] popular, common

1 adj. demotic entertainments profound demur [ ]

1 vi. to voice opposition; object demur at the suggestion challenge, exception, expostulation, fuss, kick, protest, remonstrance, stink accept, accede 2 n. hesitation (as in doing or accepting) usually based on doubt of the acceptability of something offered or proposed; qualm we accepted his offer to pay for our dinners without demur denigrate [ ]

1 vt. to express scornfully one's low opinion of denigrate one's opponents belittle, depreciate, derogate, dismiss, disparage honor, acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, magnify denouement [ ]

1 n. the final resolution or clarification of a dramatic or narrative plot a surprising/ unexpected denouement denounce [ ]

1 v. to express public or formal disapproval of the governor has denounced the court's decision and vows to press for a constitutional amendment condemn, objurgate, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, reprove cite, commend, endorse 2 v. to declare to be morally wrong or evil the church council denounced the bishop's teachings, officially declaring them to be heresy anathematize, censure, execrate, reprehend, reprobate denunciation n. an act of denouncing especially : a public condemnation panegyric, accolade, eulogy dent [ ]

1 n. a depression in a surface made by pressure or a blow a dent in the side of a car cavity, depression, hollow, indenture, recess bulge, convexity, projection, protrusion, protuberance 2 v. to make smaller in amount, volume, or extent

hopefully this vacation won't dent our bank account too much abate, downscale, downsize, dwindle aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, enlarge, escalate denude [ ]

1 vt. to divest of covering; make bare Drought has completely denuded the hills of grass. cover

Unit 9

DEPLETE DEPOSIT

DEPLORE DEPRAVITY

DEPLOY DEPRECATE

DEPORTATION DEPRECIATE

DEPOSE DEPRESSED

deplete

[

]

1 vt. to decrease the fullness of; to make complete use of miners depleted the vein of copper ore after only a few months consume, devour, drain, exhaust, draw down, play out, use up enrich, renew, replace deplore [ ]

1 vt. to feel or express sorrow for a statement from the bishops deploring the loss of life in the war overseas mourn, bewail, grieve for, wail for delight, exult in, glory in, rejoice in deploy [ ] to spread out, utilize, or arrange for a deliberate purpose

1 v. deploy a sales force concentrate deportation [ ]

1 n. the removal from a country of an alien whose presence is unlawful or prejudicial deport all illegal immigrants banishment, displacement, expatriation, expulsion, relegation depose [ ]

1 vt. to testify to under oath or by affidavit he was nervous when the time to depose before the jury finally arrived

attest, swear perjure 2 v. to remove from a throne or other high position a military junta deposed the dictator after he had bankrupted the country defrock, deprive, oust, uncrown crown, enthrone 3 v. to arrange something in a certain spot or position deposed her fan and gloves on the dressing table deposit, dispose, emplace, situate deposit [ ]

1 n. a natural accumulation (as of iron ore, coal, or gas) rich deposits of oil and natural gas dregs, precipitate, sediment, settlings, hoard, reserve process of eroding 2 v. to put in an account we quickly deposited the check in a bank account withdraw depravity [ ]

1 n. immoral conduct or practices harmful or offensive to society He was sinking into a life of utter depravity. debauchery, iniquitousness, licentiousness, perversion, turpitude, dissoluteness morality, virtue deprecate [ ]

1 vt. to hold an unfavorable opinion of deprecates TV sitcoms as childish and simpleminded deprecate, discountenance, disesteem, disfavor, frown (on or upon) approve, favor 2 vt. to express scornfully one's low opinion of deprecate the comedy as the stupidest movie of the year belittle, denigrate, dismiss, disparage, cry down acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify 3 vt. play down, to make little of She deprecated her facility for languages vaunt depreciate [ ]

1 vt. to lower the price or estimated value of New cars start to depreciate as soon as they are on the road. cheapen, depress, devalue, downgrade, mark down appreciate, enhance, upgrade, mark up 2 vt. to lower in estimation or esteem dared to depreciate Shakespeare, saying his works have no relevance for modern audiences

denigrate, disparage, play down, talk down acclaim, exalt, extol, glorify, magnify depressed [ ]

1 adj. feeling unhappiness I was depressed and didn't feel much like going to the party crestfallen, dejected, despondent, gloomy, low-spirited, wretched blissful, buoyant, gleeful, joyous, jubilant 2 adj. kept from having the necessities of life or a healthful environment a depressed class of people whose living conditions are abominable even by third world standards disadvantaged, underprivileged advantaged, privileged

Unit 10

DEPRIVATION DESCEND

DERACINATE DESCENDANT

DERELICT DESECRATE

DERIDE DESICCATE

DERIVATIVE DESIGNATE

deprivation

[

]

1 n. the condition of being deprived; privation serious sleep deprivation caused by long work hours fecundity deracinate 1 vt. plant derelict [ ] [ ] to pull out by the roots; uproot

1 adj. , lacking a sense of duty; marked by a carelessly easy manner the guards were judged derelict in their duty disregardful, lax, neglectful, neglecting, remiss, slack extremely careful, attentive, conscientious, nonnegligent 2 n. a destitute homeless social misfit a section of the city that seemed to be frequented mostly by derelicts deserted, desolate, disused, forgotten, forsaken, rejected pillar of society deride [ ]

1 vt. to speak of or treat with contemptuous mirth my brothers derided our efforts, but were forced to eat their words when we won first place

gibe, jeer, mock, scout, shoot down, laugh at praise derision n. contemptuous or jeering laughter; ridicule veneration derivative [ ]

1 adj. lacking originality: banal their dull, derivative debut album secondhand original, innovative, precursory descend [ ]

1 v. to lead or extend downward the pathway descends to the river bank dip, fall, plunge, sink arise, ascend, climb, mount, upsweep, upturn 2 v. to originate or come from an ancestral stock or source, to pass by inheritance The house has descended through four generations. a tradition descending from colonial days descendant [ ]

1 n. one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype They are descendants of the original English and Scottish settlers. forbears desecrate [ ]

1 vt. to treat (a sacred place or object) shamefully or with great disrespect desecrate the shrine defile, profane, violate sanctify, revere, hallow desiccate [ ]

1 vt. to preserve (a food) by drying add a cup of desiccated coconut to the mix dehydrate, parch, scorch, sear add water to, hydrate, drench desiccant n. a drying agent (as calcium chloride) 2 v. to deprive of emotional or intellectual vitality that historian's dryasdust prose desiccates what is actually an exciting period in European history brace, castrate, dampen, deaden, devitalize, enervate energize, enliven, invigorate, stimulate, vitalize

designate

[

]

1 v. to pick (someone) by one's authority for a specific position or duty he has yet to designate his successor as head of the firm assign, commission, constitute, nominate, place discharge, dismiss, expel, fire 2 v. to give a name to he was designated Air Jordan by his fans denominate, dub, entitle, label, style, term, title

Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization.

List 7


——

3000 2007 10G Verbal700 Quantitative800 Princeton University

” AW4.0

Unit 1

DESCEND DESPICABLE

DESCENDANT DESPISE

DESECRATE DESPOTIC

DESICCATE DESULTORY

DESIGNATE DETACH

descend [ 1 v.

] to lead or extend downward

the pathway descends to the river bank dip, fall, plunge, sink 2 v. to originate or come from an ancestral stock or source, to pass by inheritance a tradition descending The house has descended through four generations. from colonial days descendant [ 1 n. ] one deriving directly from a precursor or prototype

They are descendants of the original English and Scottish settlers. forbears desecrate [ 1 vt. ] to treat (a sacred place or object) shamefully or with great disrespect

desecrate the shrine defile, profane, violate sanctify, revere, hallow desiccate [ 1 vt. ] to preserve (a food) by drying

add a cup of desiccated coconut to the mix damp, dampen, deaden, devitalize, enervate, dehydrate add water to, hydrate, drench desiccant n. 2 v. a drying agent (as calcium chloride) to deprive of emotional or intellectual vitality

that historian's dryasdust prose desiccates what is actually an exciting period in European history castrate, dampen, deaden, devitalize, enervate

Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization.

energize, enliven, invigorate, stimulate, vitalize designate [ 1 adj. ] to pick (someone) by one's authority for a specific position or duty

ambassador designate despicable [ 1 adj. ] arousing or deserving of one's loathing and disgust

even within the prison population, pedophiles are regarded as particularly despicable contemptible, detestable, dishonorable admirable, commendable, creditable, meritorious, praiseworthy 2 adj. not following or in accordance with standards of honor and decency the cad's despicable behavior toward women currish, dirty, execrable, ignominious, sordid, wretched honorable, lofty, noble, upright, venerable, virtuous despise 1 [ vt. ] to dislike strongly

I despise anchovies on pizza, and I refuse to eat them. abhor, abominate, detest, execrate, loathe, disregard, flout love despotic [ 1 adj. ] arbitrary, autocratic, monocratic, tyrannical

a despotic tyrant authoritative, dictatorial, imperious, overbearing, peremptory, tyrannous desultory [ 1 adj. ] lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern

a desultory search for something of interest on TV digressive, excursive, meandering, rambling, wandering carefully planned, strictly methodical, assiduous 2 adj. disappointing in progress, performance, or quality a desultory fifth place finish detach [ 1 vt. ] to separate or unfasten; disconnect

Detach the white part of the application form and keep it. tether

Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization.

Unit 2

DETAIN DETRITUS

DETER

DETERIORATION DETOUR DETRACT DEVOTED DEVOUT DEXTEROUS DIABOLIC

detain [ 1 v.

] to hold or keep in or as if in custody

detained by the police for questioning manumit deter [ 1 ] vt. to prevent or discourage from acting, as by means of fear or doubt

wouldn’t be deterred by threats dissuade, inhibit spur, courage, persuade deterrent adj/ n. deterrent weapons inducement, incentive deterioration [ 1 n. ] a gradual sinking and wasting away of mind or body ; a deterrent to theft

a continuing deterioration in relations between the two countries decadence, degeneration, deterioration, devolution, downfall, downgrade improvement, recovery, recuperation, rehabilitation, revitalization detour [ 1 n. ] a turning away from a course or standard

we'll regard this relapse as just a brief detour on your road to recovery from substance abuse deflection, departure, deviation, divergency 2 v. to change one's course or direction we had to detour for a few miles around the section of highway under construction deviate, diverge, sheer, swerve, veer detract [ 1 v. ] to diminish the importance, value, or effectiveness of something

It is wrong to detract from the achievements of other people in the same field. belittle, depreciate, derogate, disparage, dispraise, write off extol, praise, eulogize, laud, panegyrize 2 v. to draw the attention or mind to something else Numerous typos in the text detract the reader's attention from the novel's intricate plot.

Made By Jason & Franklin. This Document Is Strictly Prohibited For Commercial Purposes Without Authorization.

divert, abstract, call off detritus [ 1 n. ] a product of disintegration, destruction, or wearing away: debris

the detritus of war debris, residue, wreck valuable product devoted 1 [ adj. ] characterized by loyalty and devotion

Good teachers are devoted to learning. constant, loyal, allegiant, dedicated, devout, loyal, pious, staunch, steadfast disloyal, faithless, perfidious, unfaithful 2 adj. feeling or showing love recreant, traitorous, treacherous

a devoted couple will enjoy sharing their lives with one another. adoring, affectionate, fond, tender, tenderhearted unloving devout [ 1 adj. ] devoted to religion or to religious duties or exercises

a devout Buddhist pious, religious, sainted antireligious, impious 2 adj. firm in one's allegiance to someone or something Devout Mavericks fans never lost faith in Nowitzki. constant, loyal, allegiant, dedicated, devout, loyal, pious, staunch, steadfast disloyal, faithless, perfidious, unfaithful dexterous 1 [ adj. ] ready and skilled in physical movements || The dexterous watchmaker was able to repair the antique recreant, traitorous, treacherous

a dexterous surgeon watch's delicate gears and parts. deft, handy

ham-fisted, ham-handed, handless, heavy-handed, unhandy 2 adj. mentally adroit and skillful: clever adroit, clever, cunning dull, foolish, silly, fatuous, unwise diabolic [ 1 adj. ] of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil

The police quickly mobilized to track down the diabolical serial killer. demoniac, demonian, demonic, devilish, satanic angelic, seraphic

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Unit 3

DIAPHANOUS DIFFUSE

DIATRIBE DIGRESS

DIDACTIC DIEHARD DIFFIDENT DILAPIDATE DILATE DILATORY

diaphanous [ 1 adj.

] vague or insubstantial

only a diaphanous hope of success vague, obscure, unexplicit, insubstantial, immaterial substantial 2 adj. clear, distinct of such fine texture as to be transparent or translucent

The bride wore a diaphanous veil. transparent, translucent, transpicuous, gossamer opaque, impermeable of light diatribe 1 [ n. ] a long angry speech or scolding ,

He was forced to sit through a long diatribe. tirade, harangue, jeremiad, philippic, rant 2 n. ironic or satirical criticism The movie reviewer wrote a diatribe of the movie describing it as having excessive sex and violence. irony, satire encomium, eulogy, panegyric, tribute, laudatory piece of writing didactic [ 1 adj. ] designed or intended to teach

Parents’ speech to their kids often seems to be painfully didactic. homiletic, preachy, moralistic, sententious undidactic diehard [ 1 adj. ] / n. strongly or fanatically determined or devoted/ someone

who opposes change and refuses to accept new ideas Some diehard smokers belied the doctors’ suggestion. conservative, hidebound, old-fashioned, reactionary, ultraconservative liberal, nonconservative, open-minded, liberal diffident [ ]

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1

adj.

hesitant in acting or speaking through lack of self-confidence

He is diffident to express his opinions in public. unassured, bashful, retiring, self-effacing, withdrawn confident, assured, self-assured, self-confident 2 adj. reserved in manner; unassertive She was diffident about stating her opinion. introverted extroverted, outgoing diffuse [ 1 adj. ] being at once verbose and ill-organized

a diffuse report circuitous, circumlocutory, long-winded, prolix, verbose, windy, rambling concise, pithy, succinct, terse, laconic 2 adj. not concentrated or localized diffuse lighting concentrated 3 v. extend, scatter The photographer uses a screen to diffuse the light. spread, extend, disperse, disseminate, scatter concentrate, center, centralize, focus digress 1 [ v. ] to turn aside especially from the main subject of attention or course of argument || He digressed so often that it was hard to

digress from her prepared subject follow what he was saying. excurse, ramble, diverge, get off the subject digressive adj. discursive digression n. aside dilapidate [ 1 v. ]

the act or an instance of digressing in a discourse

to bring into a condition of decay or partial ruin

The house has been dilapidated by neglect. ruin, wreck be in use dilate [ 1 vt. ] to enlarge or expand in bulk or extent to become wide || The drug dilates the blood vessels. restore mend, repair rejuvenate, renew, renovate

The cat dilated its eyes in the darkness. expand, amplify, enlarge contract 2 v. narrow to express more fully and in greater detail

He refused to dilate upon his plan for improving the economy in the event that he won the election.

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amplify, develop, elaborate on, flesh out, dilate on, enlarge on abbreviate, abridge, condense, shorten dilatory [ 1 the call. delaying, procrastinating, dragging, lagging, tardy rapid, fast, fleet, precipitate, rocketing, swift hasty, hurrying, scurrying adj. ] tending or intended to cause delay, characterized by procrastination || The homeowner is claiming that local firefighters were dilatory in responding to

dilatory tactics

Unit 4

D I L E T TAN T E DILIGENT DILUTE DINGY DIOCESAN DIPLOMATIC

DIMINISH DIRE

DIN DIRGE

dilettante [ 1 n./ adj.

] / a person having a superficial || Many

interest in an art/ lacking or showing a lack of expert skill Dilettante watch the scene of bustle, adept guard the entrance. dilettante efforts could be seen at the sidewalk art show. dabbler, amateur, nonexpert, nonprofessional, cognoscente authority, expert, pro, professional, specialist diligent [ 1 adj. ] characterized by steady, earnest, and energetic effort: painstaking || a student who has been unceasingly diligent

A new bride is diligent for three days. in pursuit of a degree in mathematics.

assiduous, industrious, sedulous, engaged, hopping, tied-up idle, inactive, unbusy, unemployed, unoccupied dilute [ 1 v. ] to make thinner or less concentrated by adding a liquid such as water/ of relatively low || a dilute acid that's safe to handle in the classroom

strength or concentration dilute a color thin condense, densify, concentrate, thicken 2 vt. to diminish the strength, flavor, or brilliance of by admixture CEO The hiring of the new CEO diluted the power of the company's president.

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weaken fortify, strengthen diminish [ 1 increased. abate, dwindle, lessen, lower, reduce, decline aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, enlarge, escalate, expand, increase, raise, balloon 2 v. to lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of : belittle diminish a rival's accomplishments belittle, deprecate, depreciate, disparage acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, laud, praise din [ 1 ] n. a loud continued noise || There's always a great din from the The din of the engines was deafening. cafeteria during lunch. blare, bluster, cacophony, chatter, clamor, discordance, racket, rattle, roar quiet, silence, still 2 v. to say or state again Safety lessons dinned into us over and over. iterate, rehearse, reiterate dingy [ 1 adj. ] darkened with smoke and grime; dirty or discolored. v. ] to become smaller or less || The sound of the train diminished as our distance from it

diminish an army's strength

A dingy room is always Dickensian image of the poor. || The bed sheets were pretty dingy so we threw them in the laundry pile. darkened, dirty, bedraggled, bemired, besmirched, dusty, mucky, muddy, nasty, smudged, soiled, sordid, stained, sullied clean, cleanly, immaculate, spotless, stainless, unsoiled, unstained, unsullied diocesan 1 [ adj. ] of or relating to a diocese

national or diocesan authority ecumenical diplomatic [ 1 adj. ] employing tact and conciliation especially in situations of stress

be very diplomatic with awkward clients diplomatic, politic gauche, impolitic, tactless, undiplomatic, untactful dire [ 1 ] adj. being or showing a sign of evil or calamity to come

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a dire forecast of a plunge in stock prices baleful, direful, foreboding, ill-boding, inauspicious, menacing, minatory, portentous, sinister, threatening propitious , unthreatening 2 adj. causing fear a series of dire tremors that hinted at a volcanic eruption alarming, dire, direful, dread, dreadful, fearsome, forbidding, formidable, frightening, frightful, ghastly, hair-raising, horrendous, horrible, horrifying, intimidating, redoubtable, scary, shocking, terrible, terrifying 3 adj. needing immediate attention; urgent There is a dire need for food and medicine in the famine-stricken country. immediate, burning, compelling, critical, crying, emergent, exigent, imperative, imperious, importunate, instant, necessitous, pressing, urgent nonurgent, noncritical 4 adj. causing or marked by an atmosphere lacking in cheer With stock prices steadily falling, these are dire days on the trading floor. cheerless, chill, depressing, depressive, desolate, disconsolate, dismal, drear, dreary, funereal, glum, lugubrious, miserable, morose, saturnine, somber, sullen, sunless, wretched bright, cheerful, cheering, cheery, festive, gay, sunshiny dirge [ 1 n. ] a slow, solemn, and mournful piece of music

This funeral dirge is for the dead friend. elegy, requiem

Unit 5

DISABUSE DISAFFECTED DISARM D I S A R R AY D I S AV O W DISCERN DISCHARGE DISCIPLE DISCOMBOBULATE DISCOMFIT

disabuse [ 1 v.

] to free from error, fallacy, or misconception || I must disabuse you of your feelings of grandeur.

disabuse sb. of the notion that disenchant, undeceive lead into error disaffected [ 1 adj. . ] mislead

discontented and resentful especially against authority; rebellious || The soldiers were disaffected toward the

gangs of disaffected teenagers government.

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discontented, dissatisfied, malcontent, rebellious, insubordinate, contumacious satisfied, contented disaffect v. dissatisfy, agitate, upset mollify disarm [ 1 vi. ] to give up or reduce armed forces || The defeated nation was disarmed so that it to fill with discontent and unrest

disarm the captured soldiers would never again be a threat to international order. demilitarize arm, militarize, put on guard 2 vt.

to lessen the anger or agitation of

Her future father-in-law was totally disarmed by her words. appease, assuage, conciliate, gentle, mollify, placate, propitiate anger, enrage, incense, inflame, enflame, infuriate, ire, madden, outrage 3 v. to make harmless disarm a bomb disarray [ 1 n. ] a lack of order or sequence

The room was in disarray. confusion, disarrangement, disorder, disorderliness, disorganization, havoc, mess, messiness, misorder, muddle, muss, shambles, jumble, welter order, orderliness 2 v. to undo the proper order or arrangement of . Changing offices disarrayed my papers completely. muss, rumple, scramble, upset, mess up, mix up arrange, array, dispose, order, organize, range, regulate, straighten up disavow 1 to be true disavow the rumor || She disavowed the testimony that she had given earlier in the trial. [ vt. ] to disclaim knowledge of, responsibility for, or association with to declare not

confuse, disarrange, discompose, dishevel, dislocate, disorganize, disrupt, disturb, hash, jumble, muddle,

deny, repudiate, disaffirm, disclaim, disconfirm, gainsay, negate acknowledge, avow, concede discern 1 [ vt. ] to perceive with the eyes or intellect; detect || too young to discern between right and wrong

discern the motives

behold, descry, distinguish, espy, perceive, regard, differentiate, discriminate confuse, mix up

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discerning adj. a very discerning art critic insightful, incisive myopic, shortsighted discernible/ discernable adj. a discernible mark

showing insight and understanding || She has a discerning palate.

undiscerning perceptible

perceptible, detectable, distinguishable indiscernible, imperceptible discharge 1 [ vt. ] to dismiss from employment /

discharge a worker/soldier fire, dismiss

employ, engage, hire, take on, sign up or on 2 n. a freeing from an obligation or responsibility a full discharge from responsibility for the accident delivery, quietus, quittance 3 v. to set free (as from slavery or confinement) discharged the prisoners upon the signing of the peace treaty disenthrall, emancipate, enfranchise, liberate, loose, manumit, release, spring, unbind, uncage, unchain, unfetter bind, confine, enchain, fetter disciple [ 1 n. ] one who accepts and assists in spreading the doctrines of another, follower

A circle of dedicated disciples who conscientiously wrote down everything the prophet said. acolyte, adherent, convert, epigone, partisan, votary leader, coryphaeus discombobulate 1 v. [ ] upset, confuse

invent cool new ways to discombobulate the old order upset, addle, baffle, bamboozle, befog, befuddle, confound, fuddle, gravel, muddle, muddy, mystify, perplex, puzzle, vex compose, soothe, calm, pacify discomfit [ 1 v. ] to put into a state of perplexity and embarrassment

He was discomfited by the awkward situation of having his ex-girlfriend meet his current one. embarrass, abash, faze, fluster, mortify, nonplus, rattle 2 v. to prevent from achieving a goal Constant interruptions discomfited her in her attempt to finish the speech.

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balk, foil, thwart, baffle, checkmate advance, forward, foster, further, promote encourage

Unit 6

DISCOMMODE DISCREPANCY

DISCOMPOSE DISCONCERT DISCORD DISCRETE DISCRETION DISCRETIONARY

DISCREDIT DISCRIMINATE

discommode [ 1 v.

] to cause inconvenience to: trouble

The breakdown of her car didn't discommode her seriously. disturb, trouble, incommode, put out accommodate, assist, oblige, favor discompose [ 1 Jason agitate, bother, discomfort, disquiet, distemper, disconcert, disturb, perturb, upset, weird out calm, compose, quiet, settle, soothe, tranquilize 2 v. to undo the proper order or arrangement of The wind ruffled her hair and discomposed her carefully arranged papers. disarrange, disarray, disorganize arrange, array, order, organize, range disconcert [ 1 vt. ] to disturb the composure of vt. ] to disturb the composure or calm of; perturb GRE

GRE does not seem to discompose Jason; on the contrary, he looked rather relaxed.

We were disconcerted by the unexpected changes to the program. abash, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, mortify, rattle calm, compose, quiet, settle, soothe, tranquilize discord [ 1 n. ] lack of agreement or harmony (as between persons, things, or ideas)

No discord, no concord. conflict, disaccord, discordance, disharmony, dissension, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, inharmony, schism, strife accord, agreement, concord, harmony, peace discordant adj. concordant, harmonious disagreeable in sound; harsh or dissonant dissonant, cacophonous, disharmonic, disharmonious

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discredit [ 1 v.

] to damage in reputation; disgrace.

discredit his opponents abase, debase, degrade, demean, disgrace, dishonor, humiliate, shame, sink, smirch, take down aggrandize 2 v. canonize, deify elevate exalt to think not to be true or real

I discredit the story that the old house is haunted. negate, doubt, distrust accept, believe, credit discrepancy [ 1 n. ] divergence or disagreement, as between facts or claims confirm, prove, validate, verify

a large discrepancy between the ideal image and the reality contrast, disagreement, disparity, dissimilarity, distance, distinction, diversity converge concord consonant analogousness, community, resemblance, similarity

discrete [ 1 adj.

] constituting a separate entity

a discrete variable detached, disconnected, unattached, unconnected, separate continuous discretion 1 [ n. ] the quality of being discreet; circumspection attached, connected, joined, linked

You must show discretion in choosing your teammates. discreetness, prudence imprudence, indiscretion indiscretion n. resign because of financial indiscretions 2 n. the checking of one's true feelings and impulses when dealing with others In that job you'll be expected to show discretion and act like a professional at all times. continence, discipline, inhibition, refrainment, restraint, self-control, self-restraint disinhibition, incontinence, unconstraint discretionary 1 adj. [ ] left to discretion : exercised at one's own discretion an act at variance with the accepted morality of a society

In many restaurants, discretionary tipping is being replaced by a standard service charge. elective, voluntary compulsory, mandatory, nonelective, nonvoluntary, obligatory, required discriminate 1 vt. [ ] to perceive the distinguishing features of; recognize as distinct

discriminate different kinds of animals

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differentiate, discern, distinguish confuse, mistake, mix up 2 vi. to make a difference in treatment or favor on a basis other than individual merit marked by or showing prejudice; biased The new law discriminated against lower-paid workers. discriminatory adj. prejudiced, biased equitable, impartial, unbiased, impersonal, unprejudiced

Unit 7

DISCURSIVE DI S D AI N DI SE NG AG E DISGUISE D I S I N C L I N AT I O N DISINFECT

DISGORGE DISGRUNTLE DISJOINTED DISINTER

discursive 1

[ adj.

] moving from topic to topic without order || The speaker's discursive style made it difficult to

a long, discursive article understand his point.

desultory, digressional, excursive, meandering, rambling, wandering keen on title, concentrated disdain 1 [ v. ] to look on with scorn

disdain that man for snobbishness contemn, disrespect, slight, sniff, snub, look down honor, respect disengage [ 1 vt. ] to set free from entanglement or difficulty || seek to disengage treat favorably

Disengage the gears when you park the car. myself from the embarrassing situation disengage, disentangle, untangle embroil, entangle disgorge [ 1 v. ] to discharge by the throat and mouth; vomit mesh

He cannot disgorge a fish bone without the doctor’s assistant. volcano disgorged lava. belch, disgorge, eject, eruct, expel, jet, spew, spout swallow, ingest 2 v. to give up on request or under pressure The corrupt officials refused to disgorge his ill-gotten gains.

|| The

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disgruntle [ 1 vt.

] to make ill-humored or discontented

be disgruntled with sb disaffect, displease, dissatisfy, disgruntle content, gratify, please, satisfy 2 v. to cause to change from friendly or loving to unfriendly or uncaring alien, alienate reconcile disguise [ 1 v. ] to modify the manner or appearance of in order to prevent recognition

He always disguises his true feelings. camouflage, costume, mask unmask 2 v. to keep secret or shut off from view That investigative reporter usually does a good job of disguising her true motives for interviewing a person. belie, blanket, conceal, cover, curtain, occult, veil bare, disclose, display, divulge, expose, reveal, show, uncover, unmask, unveil disinclination [ 1 n. ] a lack of willingness or desire to do or accept something a lack of

willingness or desire to do or accept something showing a marked disinclination aversion, disfavor, disliking, disrelish, mislike, unwillingness appetite, favor, fondness, liking, partiality, preference, relish, inclination disinfect [ 1 vt. ] to free from infection especially by destroying harmful microorganisms willingness

disinfect with bleaching powder sterilize infect, pollute, contaminate, taint disjointed 1 [ adj. ] being thrown out of orderly function

a disjointed society chaotic, disorderly orderly, regular, systematic 2 adj. not clearly or logically connected a disjointed speech about a hodgepodge of things disconnected, unconnected coherent, connected disinter [ 1 v. ] to take out of the grave or tomb

The Egyptian mummy was carefully disinterred in hopes that it would yield secrets about the Old Kingdom.

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unbury, unearth bury, inter, tomb, inhume

Unit 8

DISINTERESTED DISJUNCTIVE D I S PAR AG E D I S PAS S I O N AT E

DISMANTLE DISMAY D I S PAT C H DISPOSE

DISPAR AGE D I S R E G AR D

disinterested [ 1 adj.

] free from selfish motive or interest: unbiased

a disinterested decision equal, evenhanded, impartial, just, nonpartisan, dispassionate, objective, square, unbiased, unprejudiced biased, inequitable, nonobjective, one-sided, partial, partisan, prejudiced, unjust 2 adj. having or showing a lack of interest or concern The city's philistines, naturally disinterested in art, voted to cut the museum's budget. apathetic, incurious, insouciant, nonchalant, perfunctory, unconcerned concerned, interested disjunctive 1 [ adj. ] marked by breaks or disunity

a disjunctive narrative sequence discrete, separate, disconnected, disunited combined, connected, jointed, mixed, united dismantle 1 [ vt. ] to take to pieces also : to destroy the integrity or functioning of

dismantle a machine break down, knock down assemble, construct dismay [ 1 v. ] to cause to lose courage or resolution

The excessive homework dismayed ourselves. chill, daunt, dishearten, dispirit, frustrate, unnerve embolden, encourage, hearten, nerve 2 v. to trouble the mind of; to make uneasy Parents became increasingly dismayed by their son's GPA. agitate, bother, discomfort, discompose, disquiet, distemper, distress, perturb, unsettle, upset calm, compose, quiet, soothe, tranquilize

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disparage 1 belittle

[ vt.

] to lower in rank or reputation; to speak of in a slighting or disrespectful way; || Voters don't like political advertisements in which

use the past to disparage the present opponents disparage one another.

belittle, denigrate, deprecate, depreciate, derogate, degrade acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, laud disparate 1 [ adj. ] fundamentally distinct or different in kind; entirely dissimilar

This couple of seemingly disparate topics have something in common. dissimilar, distinct, distinguishable, diverse, nonidentical, unalike alike, identical, indistinguishable, kindred, like, parallel, same, similar dispassionate [ 1 adj. ] devoid of or unaffected by passion, emotion, or bias

Journalists should aim to be dispassionate observers. disinterested, equal, equitable, evenhanded, impartial, just, nonpartisan, objective, unbiased, unprejudiced biased, inequitable, nonobjective, one-sided, partial, partisan, prejudiced, unjust dispatch [ 1 n. ] promptness and efficiency in performance or transmission

do sth. with dispatch alacrity, haste, swiftness, expedition, promptitude leisureliness, delay, procrastination 2 v. to cause to go or be taken from one place to another to dispatch a messenger with urgent news transfer, transmit, transport, pack off accept, receive 3 v. to deprive of life || The man dispatched the termites with professional efficiency. dispatch a criminal animate 4 v. to achieve a victory over They dispatched the other team with breaking a sweat. conquer, defeat, subdue, triumph over, prevail over lose to dispose [ 1 vt. ] to give a tendency to: incline willing or likely inclined

faulty diet disposes one to sickness disposed adj. not feel disposed to argue with her willing, inclined, predisposed, prone disinclined, indisposed

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2

vi.

of

dispose of

to get rid of; throw out

disposal n. 3 v.

the act of getting rid of something that is no longer wanted or needed to place, distribute, or arrange especially in an orderly way

the permanent disposal of radioactive wastes Dispose the surgical instruments in the exact order in which they would be needed. array, arrange disarrange, disarray, disorder, upset, mess up, muss up disregard [ 1 vt. ] to pay no attention to

disregard the advice of his executives ignore, overlook, slight heed, mind, regard, attend to 2 n. lack of interest or concern Revelers fired guns in the air with complete disregard for the possible consequences. apathy, disinterestedness, incuriosity, nonchalance, torpor, unconcern concern, interest, regard

Unit 9

DISSECT DI S S I PATE

DISSEMBLE DI S S O LU TE

D I S S E M I N AT E DI S S O LV E

DISSENSION DI S S O N AN CE

DISSENT DI S S U ADE

dissect [ 1 vt.

] to examine, analyze, or criticize in minute detail || let's dissect

dissect some basic problems in mathematics analysis the plot of this thriller to see what makes it thrilling. analyze 2 vt. ( )

to cut apart or separate (tissue), especially for anatomical study

dissect the brain of Einstein anatomize, assay, break down dissemble 1 [ v. ] to put on a false appearance || He dissembled happiness at the news that his

dissemble fear with a smile ex-girlfriend was getting married to someone else.

dissimulate, affect, assume, bluff, counterfeit, fake, sham behave honestly

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disseminate [ 1 vt.

] to spread abroad; promulgate || The Internet allows us to disseminate information faster.

disseminate Marxism-Leninism broadcast, circulate, propagate gather, amass, garner dissension 1 n. [ ]

difference of opinion; disagreement || There

Although we have dissension, we are friend all the same. is a continued dissension among historians on the exact spot of Columbus's first landing.

conflict, disaccord, discordance, discordancy, disharmony, dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, inharmony, schism, strife accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, consensus, unanimity dissent [ 1 v. ] to differ in opinion || Anyone who dissented was encouraged to speak

I dissent from what you said. out while they had the chance. differ, disagree, nonconcur agree, assent, concur 2 n.

departure from a generally accepted theory, opinion, or practice

The church reacted to any form of dissent by promptly excommunicating its proponents. heterodoxy, nonconformity conformity 3 n. orthodoxy a lack of agreement or harmony

conflict, disaccord, discordance, discordancy, disharmony, dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, inharmony, schism, strife accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, consensus, unanimity dissipate 1 [ vt. ] to drive away; disperse.

The wind finally dissipated the smoke. disband, dispel, disperse, scatter accumulate, gather, amass, cluster, assemble, concentrate, congregate 2 vt. to spend or expend intemperately or wastefully: squander dissipate too much time and effort waste, squander, lavish conserve 3 vi. to indulge in the intemperate pursuit of pleasure, especially : to drink to excess indulge dissolute 1 [ adj. ] lacking moral restraint; indulging in sensual pleasures or vices.

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lead a dissolute life dissipated, libertine, rakish, reprobate abstinent, abstemious, temperate, ascetic, stoic, spartan, self-denying uncorrupted dissolve 1 [ v. ] to cause to pass into solution; to reduce (solid matter) to liquid form; melt pure, uncorrupt,

Sugar dissolves in the water. liquefy, melt coagulate, solidify, freeze 2 vt. to break into component parts; disintegrate disintegrate, disband, break up consolidate, unify 3 v. to cease to be visible; to cease to exist The mist dissolved in the morning sun. dematerialize, vanish appear 4 v. materialize to put an end to by formal action

The king dissolved parliament. terminate, abrogate, annul, cancel, disannul, invalidate, negate, null, nullify, repeal, rescind dissonance 1 n [ ] a harsh, disagreeable combination of sounds; discord || Dissonance among the three partners doomed the project.

cognitive dissonance

conflict, disaccord, discordance, discordancy, disharmony, dissent, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, disunity, division, friction, inharmony, schism, strife accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, consensus, unanimity dissuade 1 [ vt. , ] to deter (a person) from a course of action or a purpose by persuasion or exhortation / || Her parents tried to dissuade her from her

dissuade sb. from (doing) sth intention to drop out of college. deter, dissuade, inhibit encourage persuade

Unit 10

DISTAIN DISTRACT

DISTAL DISTRAUGHT

DISTEND DIURNAL

DISTILL DIVERGE

DISTORT DIVERSITY

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distain 1

[ v.

] loss of honor, respect, or reputation

dishonor, belittle, denigrate, deprecate, depreciate, degrade praise, acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, laud 2 v. to make dirty hands distained with blood bemire, besmirch, daub, muddy, smirch, smudge, soil, stain, sully clean distal [ 1 point the distal end of nerve proximal distend 1 [ v. ] to swell out or expand from or as if from internal pressure ] adj. situated away from the point of attachment or origin or a central

The stomachs of starving people often distend. expand, dilate, inflate, swell constrict, compress distill [ 1 vt. ] to increase the concentration of, separate, or purify by or as if by distillation.

distill the water before pouring it in the steam iron purify, filter, refine, fine distillate n. 2 v. a purified form; an essence to fall or let fall in or as if in drops

The basement walls distill water every time it rains heavily. distill, dribble, drop, trickle

distort [ 1 vt.

] to twist out of the true meaning or proportion || The coach's message

A painter may exaggerate or distort shapes and forms. was so distorted after passing through so many people that it was unintelligible. deform, misshape, torture, falsify, misinterpret, misrepresent, pervert, twist distract [ 1 vt. ]

to draw or direct (as one's attention) to a different object

be distracted by a sudden noise abstract, divert, detract, call off distracted adj. rapt 2 vt. to trouble the mind of; to make uneasy The students are easily distracted before the exam.

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agitate, bother, discomfort, discompose, dismay, disquiet, distress, perturb, upset calm, compose, quiet, soothe, tranquilize 3 adj. insane, mad insane, delirious, hysterical distraught [ 1 adj. ] deeply agitated, as from emotional conflict; insane

Her distraught mother had spent all night waiting by the phone. agitated, delirious, distracted, frenzied, hysterical collected, composed, recollected, self-collected, self-composed, self-possessed diurnal [ 1 adj. ] occurring or active during the daytime rather than at night

diurnal animals nocturnal 2 adj. occurring, done, produced, or appearing every day a love as constant and certain as the diurnal tides daily, day-to-day, 3 adj. a publication that appears at regular intervals A microfilm contains a collection of diurnals. bulletin, magazine, periodical, review, serial, journal diverge 1 [ v. ] to change one's course or direction

The deer abruptly diverged from its intended path the moment it spied the waiting lion. detour, deviate, diverge, sheer, swerve, turn off 2 vt. to go or move in different directions from a central point At that point the road and the railroad tracks diverge. branch out, divide, spread converge, join 3 v. to become or be different in character or form: differ in opinion differ, disagree conform 4 vt. to depart from a set course or norm; deviate excurse, ramble, diverge, get off the subject diversity [ 1 n. ] variety or multiformity

the diversity of species diverseness, multifariousness, multiplicity, variousness , miscellaneousness 2 n. the quality or state of being different There is no fundamental diversity between the two ideologies. contrast, disagreement, discrepancy, disparateness, disparity, dissimilarity, dissimilitude, distinction, otherness, unlikeness alikeness, analogy, likeness, resemblance, sameness, similarity

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List 8
——
2006 10G Verbal 750 Quantitative 790 AW 5.5 Lazard

Unit 1

DIVERT DOFF

DIVESTITURE DIVULGE DODDER DOGGED DOGMA DOLDRUMS

DODGE DOLOROUS

divert [ ] 1 vt. to turn from one course or use to another: deflect divert traffic to a side street deflect, redirect, swing, veer, wheel fix, set, settle 2 v. to cause (someone) to pass the time agreeably occupied A light comedy divert the tired business executive disport, entertain, regale, solace 3 v. to draw the attention or mind to something else divert one’s attention || The parents tried to divert the child with a toy while the doctor was giving her a shot. abstract, detract, call off divestiture [ ] 1 n. the act of taking away from a person Melodramas were popular because they offered the audience a divestiture of neutrality. deprivation, dispossession acquisition endowment divulge [ ] 1 vt. to make known (as a confidence or secret) refuse to divulge details of the negotiations the name of the winner, but he wouldn't budge. bare, disclose, discover, expose, uncover, unmask, unveil conceal, cover up, hide, mask, shroud, veil dodder [ ] 1 vi. to progress feebly and unsteadily He could only dodder along after the operation.

|| We tried to make him divulge

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careen, lurch, teeter, totter, waddle dodge [ ]

1 v. to avoid (a blow, for example) by moving or shifting quickly aside dodge a storm of bullets || He dodged the first punch but was hit by the second. avoid, escape, shirk, malinger, goldbrick, evade, parry, sidestep, circumvent, fence, hedge, avert, elude, shun, skirt, bilk, eschew, weasel doff [ ] 1 vt. to take off; remove The blazing sun soon had the men doffing their jackets. put off, take off don, put on dogged [ ] 1 adj. continuing despite difficulties, opposition, or discouragement showing no signs of slackening or yielding in one's purpose gain respect through sheer dogged determination || A madman who spent his life in dogged pursuit of power insistent, persevering, pertinacious, tenacious, determined easily discouraged yielded 2 adj. sticking to an opinion, purpose, or course of action in spite of reason, arguments, or persuasion Your dogged adherence to a really lame argument is embarrassing. adamant, hardheaded, headstrong, inflexible, intransigent, mulish, obdurate opinionated, ossified, pertinacious, self-opinionated, self-willed stubborn, unbending, uncompromising, unrelenting, unyielding, willful acquiescent, amenable, compliant, complying, flexible, pliable, pliant, relenting, yielding dogma [ ] 1 n. a doctrine or body of doctrines concerning faith or morals formally stated and authoritatively proclaimed by a church People are beginning to question the old dogmas. || The newspaper seeks to be independent of political dogma. credo, doctrine, gospel heresy, heterodoxy dogmatic characterized by an authoritative, arrogant assertion of unproved principles a dogmatic critic dictatorial, dictative, authoritarian, authoritative, magisterial doldrums [ ] The economy

1 n. a state or period of inactivity, stagnation, or slump August is a time of doldrums for many enterprises. is in the doldrums. abeyance, dormancy, latency, quiescence, moratorium continuation

2 n. a state or spell of low spirits The team had been in the doldrums ever since losing the championship. dejection, depression, desolation, despondence, dolefulness, gloom, melancholy, unhappiness bliss, ecstasy, elation, exhilaration, exuberance, exultation, jubilation, rapture, felicity dolorous [ ] 1 adj. causing, marked by, or expressing misery or grief He lifted a pair of sapphire, dolorous eyes. agonized, bemoaning, bewailing, deplorable, grievous ,miserable, plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful happy, joyful, jovial, jubilant

Unit 2

D O LT DOODLE

DO M I C I LE DORMANT

D O MI N AN T DOUR

DO N DOUSE

D O NO R DOWNPLAY

dolt [

] 1 n. a stupid person What a dolt I have been! idiot, fool, moron, simpleton, dullard illuminati, intellectual genius doltish adj.

domicile [ ] 1 n. a residence; a home an alternate domicile in emergency home, dwelling, habitation, abode, house, lodging 2 v. to establish in or provide with a domicile The university domiciles students in a variety of buildings in and around its urban campus. accommodate, bestow lodge, harbor, put up banish, expel dominant [ ] 1 adj. commanding, controlling, or prevailing over all others the dominant culture ascendant, leading, outweighing, paramount, prevalent, principal, supreme subordinate 2 adj. of, relating to, or exerting ecological or genetic dominance recessive dominate v. dominance n.

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don [

] 1 vt. to put on (an article of clothing) donned a raincoat for his trip assume, wear, put on doff

donor [

]

1 n. one that gives, donates, or presents something donors of funds to research foundations donator, presenter, contributor, subscriber, patron, sugar daddy acceptor doodle [ ]

1 vi. to scribble aimlessly, especially when preoccupied I often doodle when I'm on the phone. mess around 2 vi. to spend time in aimless activity I plan to spend the entire vacation just doodling. dawdle, trifle dormant [ ]

1 adj. in a state of rest or inactivity; inoperative; in abeyance volcanoes which have been dormant for thousand years dead, latent, lurking, abeyant, quiescent, inert active, busy, operating 2 adj. having biological activity suspended The bears lay dormant in their den during the winter. asleep, resting, napping, slumbering awake dormancy n. dour [ ] 1 adj. , sullen, gloomy The captain’s dour look depressed us all. morose, sulky, surly, moody gay 2 adj. harsh and threatening in manner or appearance His dour criticism made us regret having undertaken the job. strict, sharp, austere, exacting, fierce, gruff, intimidating, rough, stark, stern benign, gentle, mild, tender douse [ ] 1 vt. to put out (a light or fire) douse a fire with water quench, extinguish, put out kindle, ignite, inflame

2 n. to make wet The heavy rains thoroughly doused the tourists. bathe, drench, soak, sodden, sop dehydrate, desiccate parch, scorch, sear downplay [ ]

1 vt. to minimize the significance of, play down downplay the bad news de-emphasize, disregard, ignore, overlook, neglect, understate, play down address, emphasize, underscore

Unit 3

DOWNPOUR DRE ARY

DOYEN DRENCH

D O ZE DRIVEL

D R AC O N I AN DRIZZLE

D R AW L DROLL

downpour [ ] 1 n. a heavy fall of rain power failure due to the downpour deluge, downfall, cloudburst, rainstorm drizzle, sprinkle doyen [ ]

1 n. a person considered to be knowledgeable or uniquely skilled as a result of long experience in some field of endeavor a doyen in the industry authority, expert, master, maven, veteran, virtuoso amateur, layman tyro, novice, neophyte, rookie, fledgling 2 n. the senior member of a group He's the doyen of the admission committee, and his opinion has considerable weight. elder, senior junior doze [ ]

1 vi./n. to sleep lightly or briefly He dozed off during the lecture. drowse, nap, wink, slumber wake draconian [ 1 adj. ] exceedingly harsh; very severe

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abolish a draconian legal code rigid, ironhanded, strict, stringent mild, genial, lenient drawl [ ]

1 v. to speak slowly with vowels greatly prolonged The old woman was drawling on and on. extend, lengthen, prolong, protract, draw out drivel, gibber dreary [ ]

1 adj. having nothing likely to provide cheer, comfort, or interest The day is cold, rainy, and dreary. desolate, gloomy, sullen, dull, monotone, pedestrian, somber jocund 2 adj. causing unhappiness decided to see a professional counselor in order to save their dreary marriage depressing, dismal, heartbreaking, mournful, pathetic, melancholy cheering drearily adv. drench [ ]

1 vt. to wet thoroughly The thunderstorm drenched us to the skin. deluge, douse, soak, saturate, sodden, sop, wet dehydrate, desiccate, dry, parch, scorch, sear drivel [ ] 1 n. unintelligible or meaningless talk My roommate talks in her sleep, but it's just drivel. abracadabra, nonsense, prattle, gabble, prattle 2 v. to talk stupidly and carelessly He always drivel on about his “distinguished” family. babble, gabble, gibber, jabber drizzle [ ] 1 vi./n. a fine misty rain The intermittent drizzle was just heavy enough to spoil all of our outdoor activities. mist, sprinkle deluge, downpour drizzling adj. droll [ ] 1 adj. a droll man with a strong dialect

amusingly odd or whimsically comical

antic, comic, farcical, funny, hilarious, laughable, humorous, ridiculous, ludicrous, uproarious, whimsical lame, unamusing, uncomic, unfunny, unhumorous, unhysterical drollness n.

Unit 4

DRONE DULLARD

DRUDGERY DUPE

DUBI O US DUPLICITY

DUCTILE DWINDLE

DULCE T DYSPEPTIC

drone [

]

1 vt. to talk in a persistently dull or monotonous tone droning bees hum, buzz, bumble 2 n. a monotonous sound like that of an insect in motion heard the drone of an helicopter overhead burr, whir 2 v. to spend time doing nothing Instead of getting a job, he preferred to drone and live off his parents. dally, dawdle, hang, laze, loll, lounge drudgery [ ]

1 n. tedious, menial, or unpleasant work get away from the drudgery of their everyday lives labor, slavery, toil, travail, grind sinecure fun, play dubious [ ]

1 adj. giving rise to uncertainty; questionable or suspect as to true nature or quality a dubious assertion debatable, doubtful, disputable, equivocal, problematic, questionable, shaky certain, incontestable, undeniable reliable 2 adj. not feeling sure about the truth, wisdom, or trustworthiness of someone or something dubious about a diet that claims I can eat all I want and still lose weight distrustful, skeptical, suspicious, unsure convinced, positive, sure

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3 adj. slow to begin or proceed with a course of action because of doubts or uncertainty I'm dubious about our plan to go hang gliding without having had any training. undecided, disinclined, loath, reluctant, reticent disposed, inclined dubiety n. ductile [ ]

1 adj. easily molded or shaped, malleable Gold is a kind of ductile metal. malleable, moldable inflexible 2 adj. easily led or influenced a ductile personality pliant, yielding, supple adamant, intractable, refractory, obdurate dulcet [ ]

1 adj. pleasing to the ear; melodious; generally pleasing or agreeable dulcet tones from harps and flutes sweet, agreeable, delightful, euphonic, mellifluous, tuneful, winsome cacophonous, grating dullard [ ]

1 n. a stupid or unimaginative person moron, simpleton, idiot, fool wit genius dull adj. dupe [ ] 1 n. something that is made to look exactly like something else He built a dupe of the original model, which is locked in a vault. clone, duplicate, facsimile, imitation, mock, replica archetype, original, prototype 2 n. one that is easily deceived or cheated The swindler was able to escape with all of the dupe's money. fool, victim, gull connoisseur 3 vt. to deceive (an unwary person) The public is easily duped by extravagant claims in advertising. bamboozle, beguile, cheat, cozen, delude, gull, hoax, hoodwink dupable adj. duplicity [ ] 1 n. deliberate deceptiveness in behavior or speech accidentally reveal their duplicity

artifice, deceit, craft, cunning, fraudulence, guile honesty, artlessness, forthrightness, guilelessness, ingenuousness, sincerity dwindle [ ]

1 vi. to become gradually less until little remains His vast fortune is dwindling away. abate, decrease, drop, diminish, reduce, shrink, taper, wane, knock down aggrandize, balloon, burgeon, increase accumulate dwindling adj. dyspeptic [ ]

1 adj. bad-tempered The sultry day makes us dyspeptic. cantankerous, disagreeable, irritable, fretful, irascible, peevish, splenetic, surly amiable, easygoing, genial, good-humored, good-natured, good-tempered 2 adj. pertaining to, subject to, or suffering from dyspepsia dyspepsia n.

Unit 5

EARNEST ECCENTRIC

EARSHOT E C L AT

EARSPLITTING E CL I P S E

EAVESDROP EBULLIENT E C S TAS Y E C U M E N I C AL

earnest [ ] 1 adj. characterized by or proceeding from an intense and serious state of mind, grave an earnest machine operator grave, serious, solemn, staid, sober facetious, frivolous, flip, flippant, playful earshot [ ]

1 n. the range within which one may hear a person's unaided voice wait until he was out of earshot hail, hearing, sound earsplitting [ ]

1 adj. distressingly loud or shrill earsplitting noise of airplane engines blaring, blasting, deafening, loud, piercing, plangent, resounding, roaring, stentorian, thunderous gentle, soft eavesdrop [ 1 v. ] to listen secretly to the private conversation of others

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eavesdropping on the conversation overhear, wiretap ebullient [ ]

1 adj. zestfully enthusiastic The ebullient dancers left an enduring impression on us. boiling, exuberant, effervescent, vivacious, brash tepid, torpid ebullience n. eccentric [ ]

1 adj. deviating from conventional or accepted usage or conduct an eccentric millionaire strange, bizarre, erratic, idiosyncratic, odd, offbeat, outlandish, quaint, weird ordinary, regular eccentricity n. éclat [ ]

1 n. brilliant or conspicuous success The premier of Mozart’s Le Nozze di Figaro enjoyed a great éclat in 1786. 1786 fame, renown, brilliance, triumph debacle, fiasco eclipse [ ]

1 n. a change to a lower state or level the eclipse of the town from a grand seaside resort to a tacky tourist trap decadence, degeneration, degradation, deterioration, ebb, fall ascent, rise, upswing 2 vt. to obscure or diminish in importance, fame, or reputation Her score eclipsed the old record. adumbrate, obscure, overshadow 3 vt. to be greater, better, or stronger than The brilliant young pianist now eclipsed even his own mentor in musical artistry. beat, exceed, excel, outshine, outstrip, surpass, transcend fall behind ecstasy [ ]

1 n. a state of being beyond reason and self-control an ecstasy of rage mania, rhapsody self-control composure, sangfroid 2 n. intense joy or delight be in ecstasy over the offer from Harvard University

delight, elation, euphoria, exhilaration, rapture, transport depression, melancholy ecumenical [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or representing the whole of a body of churches catholic diocesan 2 adj. worldwide or general in extent, influence, or application an ecumenical scope universal, cosmopolitan, global, planetary, worldwide provincial, insular

Unit 6

EDIBLE EFFLUVIUM

EDIFICE EFFRONTERY

EFFACE EFFULGENT

EFFERVESCE EFFUSIVE

EFFETE EGALITARIAN

edible [ ] 1 adj. fit to be eaten No chemicals in the laboratory is edible. eatable, comestible, consumable, digestible, esculent inedible edibility n. edifice [ ]

1 n. a large or massive structure The Capitol is one of the most impressive edifices in the United States. building, erection, palace cottage 2 n. the arrangement of parts that gives something its basic form The edifice of the argument is quite simple, once you get past the fancy language. architecture, configuration, framework, skeleton, structure efface [ ] 1 v t. to eliminate or make indistinct by or as if by wearing away a surface efface those unpleasant memories eradicate, erase, expunge, exterminate, extirpate, liquidate, eclipse, obliterate, wipe, root out blazon, decorate emboss self-effacing adj.

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effervesce [ ] 1 vi. to bubble, hiss, and foam as gas escapes effervescing with bubbles bubble, foam, froth 2 vi. to show high spirits or animation effervescing over the news of victory rejoice, exult, jubilate, triumph grieve effervescent adj. effervescence n. effete [ ]

1 adj. depleted of vitality, force, or effectiveness an effete monarchy consumed, debilitated, decadent, degenerate, depleted, drained, exhausted, feeble hale, sound, robust 2 adj. lacking strength of will or character The government is too effete to take out the powerful special interests that really ruin this state. frail, invertebrate, nerveless, spineless backboned, firm, hard, strong, tough effetely adv. effluvium [ ]

1 n. an offensive exhalation or smell Repulsive effluvia made us vomit. malodor, stink, stench fragrance, aroma 2 n. a by-product especially in the form of waste With nothing but effluvia obtained, researchers decided to abandon this method. dross, refuse, rubbish, trash, waste effluvial adj. effrontery [ ]

1 n. flagrant disregard of courtesy or propriety and an arrogant assumption of privilege had the effrontery to insult her father audacity, brashness, brazenness, insolence, nerve, presumption, temerity decorum, propriety, courtesy, grace timidity effulgent [ ]

1 adj. shining brilliantly; resplendent an effulgent sunset on the Atlantic bright, beaming, glorious, luminous, radiant, splendid dim, murky, dull effulgence n.

effusive [ ] 1 adj. unrestrained or excessive in emotional expression The principal delivered an effusive address at the commencement ceremony. emotional, expansive, demonstrative, gushy, passionate inhibited, reserved, restrained undemonstrative, unemotional effusion n. egalitarian [ ]

numb, torpid

1 adj. affirming, promoting, or characterized by belief in equal political, economic, social, and civil rights for all people the egalitarian principle guiding his endeavor disinterested, impartial, unprejudiced, unbiased, objective inequitable, discriminating, unfair egalitarianism n.

Unit 7

EGOISM ELEGY

ELABORATE ELEPHANTINE

ELASTIC ELEVATE

ELATE ELICIT

ELEEMOSYNARY ELLIPTICAL

egoistic [ ] 1 adj. being centered in or preoccupied with oneself and the gratification of one's own desires egoistic behaviors others detest egocentric, self-centered, individualistic, navel-gazing altruistic, selfless ego n. egoism n. egoist n. elaborate [ ]

1 adj. marked by complexity, fullness of detail, or ornament an elaborate manual circumstantial, complex, complicated, intricate, knotty, minute, particular, particularized, sophisticated sketchy, brief, compendious, summary 2 vt. to expand something in detail The defense committee asked the PhD candidate to elaborate one critical assumption in his thesis. develop, expand, amplify, explain abstract, abbreviate, condense, simplify

downplay, ignore, neglect, overlook

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elastic [ ] 1 adj. easily resuming original shape after being stretched or expanded elastic rubber band bouncy, flexible, malleable, resilient, stretchable, supple rigid, stiff 2 adj. capable of recovering quickly especially from depression or disappointment owe her success to an elastic optimistic nature adaptable, adjustable, buoyant, pliable, volatile established, fixed, immutable inelastic adj. elate [ ]

1 v. to fill with joy or pride The phenomenal sales record elated him. cheer, excite, exhilarate, inspire, stimulate depress, dishearten, sadden elated adj. elation n. eleemosynary[ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or supported by charity an eleemosynary foundation funded by the Bill Gates benevolent, charitable, humane, humanitarian, philanthropic parsimonious elegy [ ]

1 n. a song or poem expressing sorrow or lamentation an moving elegy played at the funeral dirge, lamentation, requiem ode elephantine [ ] 1 adj. having enormous size or strength an elephantine meteor crate huge, colossal, enormous, gargantuan, gigantic, massive, prodigious, tremendous microscopic, minute, tiny , infinitesimal 2 adj. clumsy, ponderous elephantine movements awkward, graceless, maladroit graceful elevate [ ]

1 vt. to improve morally, intellectually, or culturally a novel that both entertains and elevates readers advance, boost, enhance, ennoble, raise, upgrade abase, debase, demote, degrade 2 vt. to raise the spirits of

one of the most elevating moments in their lives elate, enrapture, exhilarate, intoxicate, transport depress elevation n. elicit [ ]

1 vt. to draw forth or bring out The king’s speech elicited lasting cheer and applause. arouse, evoke, excite, inspire, provoke, raise appease, placate, mollify, pacify elliptical [ ]

1 adj. of or relating to deliberate obscurity (as of literary or conversational style) give an elliptical response to the inquiry ambiguous, arcane, cryptic, enigmatic, equivocal, inscrutable, murky, nebulous, occult, opaque, vague clear, explicit, unambiguous, unequivocal 2 adj. of, relating to, or shaped like an ellipse oval, ovate circular, round ellipse n.

Unit 8

ELUCIDATE E MB AR R AS S

EMACIATE E MBE D

EMANCIPATE EMBE Z ZLE

EMBARGO EMBO L DE N

EMBARK EMBO S S

elucidate [ ] 1 v. to make lucid especially by explanation or analysis elucidate an abstruse equation in quantum mechanics clarify, clear, construe, explain, explicate, expound, illustrate confuse, obfuscate, obscure garble elucidation n. emaciate [ ]

1 vt. to cause to lose flesh so as to become very thin become emaciated by long illness fatten 2 vt. to make feeble His hesitation emaciated the force of his argument. droop, flag, sag, decay, enfeeble, enervate, languish, wane, wither invigorate

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emaciation n. emancipate [ ] 1 v. to free from bondage, oppression, or restraint emancipate students from excessive assignments discharge, enfranchise, free, liberate, loose, manumit, release bind, shackle enslave, enthrall emancipation n. embargo [ ]

1 n. a legal prohibition on commerce a trade embargo on luxuries ban, interdiction, proscription, sanction, veto approval, license, permission, prescription embark [ ]

1 vi. to go aboard a vessel or aircraft, as at the start of a journey With all cargos embarked, the ship weighed the anchor. board disembark 2 vi. to make a start embark on a world tour begin, commence, launch, initiate, start, conclude, end, finish, terminate embarrass [ ]

1 vt. to cause to experience a state of self-conscious distress bawdy jokes that embarrassed her abash, discomfit, disconcert, faze, fluster, mortify, nonplus 2 vt. to create difficulty for the work or activity of A lot of this paperwork is unnecessary and just embarrasses the organization. encumber, handicap, hinder, impede, inhibit, obstruct, shackle, stymie, trammel aid, facilitate embarrassing adj. embarrassment n. embed [ ]

1 vt. to enclose closely in or as if in a matrix The thorn was embedded in her thumb. entrench, fix, ingrain, root extract dislodge, uproot embedded adj. embezzle [ ]

1 vt. to appropriate (as property entrusted to one's care) fraudulently to one's own use limitations on the right of the state to embezzle private property appropriate, peculate

confiscate embezzlement n. embolden [ ]

1 v. to instill with boldness or courage be emboldened by the wine encourage, animate, cheer, hearten, strengthen daunt, discourage, dishearten, dispirit emboss [ 1 work embossed with a design of Shanghai skyline adorn, beautify, bedeck, blazon, ornament, garnish flatten, efface vt. ] to raise the surface of into bosses; especially to ornament with raised

Unit 9

EMBRACE EMULATE

EMBROIDER ENACT

EMIGRATE ENAMEL

EMINENCE ENCOMIUM

EMOLLIENT ENCOMPASS

embrace [ ] 1 vt. to take up willingly or eagerly embrace the opportunity to study further accept, adopt, espouse, welcome abjure abrogate, renounce, spurn 2 vt. to surround or cover closely The stone walls that embrace the monastery serve to symbolize its function as a retreat from an unquiet world. circle, encompass, envelop, wrap embroider [ ]

1 v. to give an elaborate account of, often with florid language and fictitious details embroider the story of his adventures in the army elaborate, embellish, exaggerate, magnify, overstate, hyperbolize downplay, de-emphasize emigrate [ ]

1 vi. to leave one's place of residence or country to live elsewhere have to emigrate to the United States due to political persecution migrate

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immigrate emigrant n. eminent [ ]

repatriate emigration n.

1 adj. exhibiting eminence especially in standing above others in some quality or position an eminent young scientist famous, celebrated, distinguished, famed, notable, prominent, renowned mediocre, undistinguished eminence n. emollient [ ]

1 adj. making less intense or harsh soothe us in our grieves with emollient words appeasing, assuaging, mollifying, mitigating, relieving aggravating, intensifying emulate [ ]

1 vt. to strive to equal or excel, especially through imitation a role model worthy emulating copy, imitate, mimic, mime emulation n. enact [ ]

1 vt. to establish by legal and authoritative act Congress enacted the tax reform bill. constitute, establish, legislate, pass, ratify, ordain, lay down abolish, repeal, rescind, revoke enactment n. enamel [ ]

1 v. to give a glossy or brilliant surface to glaze, varnish efface 2 v. to adorn with a brightly colored surface adorn, beautify, bedeck, decorate, , embellish, garnish, ornament disfigure encomium [ ]

1 n. glowing and warmly enthusiastic praise received encomiums from literary critics accolade, applause, compliment, eulogy, laud, panegyric, salutation, tribute criticism abuse, invective, vituperation encompass [ ]

1 v. to constitute or include a plan that encompasses multiple aims contain, comprehend, embody, entail, involve, subsume

exclude 2 v. envelop Berlin had already been encompassed by the Red Army and all Soviet soldiers were patiently waiting for the order to put a final nail in Nazi Germany’s coffin. circle, embrace, enclose, environ, surround

Unit 10

ENCUMBER ENGENDER

ENDEMIC ENGROSS

ENDORSE ENIGMA

ENERVATE ENFRANCHISE ENLIGHTEN ENMITY

encumber [ ] 1 v. to impede or hamper the function or activity of Negotiation between the two parties were encumbered by a lack of trust hamper, hinder, impede, obstruct, retard, stymie promote, further aid, assist, facilitate, help 2 v. to place a weight or burden on Don't encumber your pack animal so much that it can hardly move. burden, laden, lumber, saddle unload endemic [ ]

1 adj. prevalent in or peculiar to a particular locality, region, or people an endemic disease aboriginal, indigenous, native, domestic exotic, foreign, nonindigenous, nonnative endorse [ ]

1 vt. to express support or approval of publicly and definitely endorse a presidential candidate advocate, back, approve, certify, champion, sanction, support, uphold deprecate, impugn, oppose endorsement n. enervate [ ]

1 vt. to weaken or destroy the strength or vitality of His constitution was enervated by lustful lifestyle. debilitate, disable, enfeeble, fatigue, sap fortify, strengthen energize, invigorate, vitalize 2 vt. to deprive of emotional or intellectual vitality

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A lifetime of working in dreary jobs had enervated his very soul. dampen, deaden, petrify brace, energize, enliven, invigorate, vitalize, vivify enervation n. enfranchise [ ]

1 vt. to endow with the rights of citizenship, especially the right to vote Slaves in US were emancipated in 1863 but were not enfranchised until the Fifteenth Amendment went into effect in 1870. 1863 1870 disenfranchise, disempower 2 vt. to set free (as from slavery) In a way, modern labor-saving appliances enfranchised people, giving them much more leisure time. discharge, emancipate, free, liberate, manumit, rescue, unfetter bind, confine, enfetter subjugate, subdue; enthrall engender [ ]

1 vt. to cause to exist or to develop Her latest book has engendered a lot of controversy. beget, cause, catalyze, generate, induce, invoke, produce, spawn 2 vt. to come into existence Feelings of confidence and independence that were only just beginning to engender within her. actualize, appear, arise, form, materialize, spring cease disappear, perish eradicate; quash; terminate engross [ ]

1 vt. to occupy exclusively was completely engrossed in his work absorb, engage, enthrall, fascinate, grip, immerse engrossed adj. enigma [ ]

1 n. something hard to understand or explain The smile on Da Vinci’s masterpiece Mona Lisa has been an enigma for hundred years. mystery, conundrum, puzzle, riddle enigmatic adj. enlighten [ ]

1 vt. to give information to; inform or instruct enlightened us about the thorny problem apprise, instruct bewilder, confuse, confound, perplex 2 vt. to provide (someone) with moral or spiritual understanding Many people around the world have been enlightened by the teachings of Gautama Buddha.

edify, educate, illuminate, nurture enlightening adj. enmity [ ]

1 n. positive, active, and typically mutual hatred or ill will an unspoken enmity between two factions animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, feud, gall, hostility, rancor amity, comity concord

List 9
“ GRE ” —— 2009 10 GRE Verbal730 Quantitative 800

Unit 1

ENTANGLE ENTREAT

ENTHUSIASM ENUNCIATE

ENTICE EPHEMERAL

ENTRANCE EPIC

ENTRAP EPICURE

entangle 1

[ vt.

] to twist together into a usually confused mass

we managed to entangle the string of lights into a hopeless mess of wires interlace, intertwist, knot, snarl, tangle 2 v. to make complex or difficult the history of Alexander the Great is entangled by variant accounts of his exploits complexify, perplex, sophisticate simplify, streamline enthusiasm 1 n. [ ] urgent desire or interest

in my enthusiasm to get going, I forgot to pack any foul-weather clothing ardor, avidity, desirousness, impatience, keenness, lust, thirst apathy, indifference enthusiastic adj. halfhearted entice 1 [ vt. ] to attract artfully or adroitly or by arousing hope or desire: tempt; lure

entice sb into doing sth allure, bait, beguile, decoy, seduce, solicit, tempt, lead on enticing adj. formidable entrance 1 [ n. ] the means or right of entering or participating in

entrance to the club is by invitation only

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access, admission, admittance, gateway, ingress, passport, ticket 2 vt. to fill with delight, wonder, or enchantment be entranced by the view enrapture, enthrall, ravish, transport, carry away bore, disappoint, disgust, repel, repulse entrancing adj. unprepossessing entrap 1 [ vt. ] to lure into a compromising statement or act

a string of inconsistent statements finally entrapped the witness ensnare, ensnarl, entoil, mesh, net, snare, catch up disentangle, untangle entreat 1 [ vt. ] to plead with especially in order to persuade, ask urgently

entreated his boss for another chance beseech, besiege, conjure, implore, importune, solicit, supplicate, plead to, appeal to enunciate 1 [ vi. ] to utter articulate sounds

enunciate your words, and then you won't have to repeat them so often articulate 2 v. to make known openly or publicly today the President enunciated a new foreign policy annunciate, broadcast, declare, herald, proclaim, promulgate, publicize, release, give out ephemeral 1 [ adj. ] lasting a very short time

ephemeral pleasures evanescent, fleeting, impermanent, temporary, transient, transitory, fugacious, fugitive eternal, permanent, perpetual, enduring, everlasting, ceaseless, immortal, undying epic [ 1 ] adj. surpassing the usual or ordinary, particularly in scope or size his genius was epic august, grandiose, imposing, magnificent, majestic, monumental humble, unheroic, unimpressive, modest epicure 1 [ n. ] one with sensitive and discriminating tastes especially in food or wine

Thomas Jefferson was one of America's first great epicures bon vivant, gastronomist, gourmand, gourmet

Unit 2

EPIGRAM EQUITY

EPILOGUE EQUIVALENT

EPITHET EQUIVOCATE

EPITOMIZE ERODE

EQUABLE ERRANT

epigram 1

[ n.

] a short, witty poem expressing a single thought or observation

Benjamin Franklin's most famous epigram, “Remember that time is money” adage, aphorism, apothegm, byword, maxim, proverb epilogue 1 2 [ n. n. ] a concluding section that rounds out the design of a literary work the final scene of a play that comments on or summarizes the main action

preface coda epithet 1 [ n. ] a descriptive or familiar name given instead of or in addition to the one belonging to a disparaging or abusive word or phrase

an individual

King Richard I of England was given the very laudatory epithet “the Lion-Hearted” alias, cognomen, sobriquet epitomize 1 [ v. ] to make into a short statement of the main points (as of a report)

his personal code of behavior on the playing field is epitomized by his favorite saying, Nice guys finish last. abstract, digest, encapsulate, outline, recapitulate, synopsize, sum up 2 v. to represent in visible form, to be a typical example of || behavior that epitomizes selfishness body, express, externalize, incarnate, incorporate, instantiate, manifest, materialize, substantiate equable 1 [ adj. ] not easily disturbed; serene the Parthenon in Athens epitomizes the ancient Greek ideal of architectural beauty

equable temperament balmy, genial, gentle, moderate, temperate harsh, inclement, intemperate, severe equanimity n. agitation, excitability

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equity [ 1 n.

] lack of favoritism toward one side or another

the lower wages paid to women for equal work violated the notion of equity disinterestedness, equity, evenhandedness, fairness, impartiality, neutrality, nonpartisanship bias, favoritism, nonobjectivity, one-sidedness, partiality, partisanship, prejudice equitable a. biased, discriminatory equivalent 1 [ adj./n. ] equal in force, amount, or value

that huge mansion is the equivalent of five ordinary houses coequal, coordinate, counterpart, peer, rival, parallel equivocate 1 deceive When asked about his tax plan, the candidate didn't equivocate. fudge, hedge, weasel, prevaricate, palter communicate straightforwardly equivocal adj. ambiguous. equivocation n. clarity erode [ 1 v. ] to consume or wear away gradually || inflation eroding buying power open to two or more interpretations and often intended to mislead; [ vi. ] to use equivocal language especially with intent to

flooding eroded the hillside corrode, fret, gnaw, nibble, bite at errant 1 [ ] adj.

traveling from place to place

the errant gunslinger as a standard character in western novels ambulant, fugitive, nomadic, perambulatory, roaming, roving, vagabond, vagrant, wandering 2 adj. straying from the proper course or standards misbehaving, mischievous errant youngsters behaved, behaving, nice, orderly

Unit 3

E R R AT I C ESPOUSE

ERUDITE ESTEEM

E S C A L AT E ESTIMABLE

ESCHEW ESTRANGE

ESOTERIC ETCH

erratic 1

[ adj.

] not staying constant

business at the fast-food restaurant has been so erratic lately that the manager never knows how much staff to have on hand changing, fluctuating, irregular, unequal, unstable, unsteady, varying changeless, constant, stable, steady, unchanging, unvarying 2 adj. different from the ordinary in a way that causes curiosity or suspicion the key to the code was the erratic punctuation the killer used bizarre, eccentric, offbeat, outlandish, out-of-the-way, peculiar, quaint, queer, remarkable, screwy, spaced-out, way-out, weird erudite 1 [ adj. ] characterized by erudition; learned

an erudite scholar knowledgeable, learned, lettered, literate, scholarly, well-read ignorant, unlettered, benighted, illiterate, uneducated, unscholarly escalate 1 [ vi. ] to increase in extent, volume, number, amount, intensity, or scope

We don’t want to escalate the war. aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, expand, pump up, build up wane, diminish eschew 1 [ v. ] to avoid habitually especially on moral or practical grounds

the minister eschews involvement in local politics, since he doesn't want to diminish his moral authority in the community dodge, elude, evade, shirk, shun, weasel out of embrace, greet, welcome, habitually indulge in, seek esoteric 1 [ adj. ] difficult for one of ordinary knowledge or intelligence to understand

esoteric terminology abstruse, arcane, hermetic, recondite shallow, superficial 2 adj. not known or meant to be known by the general populace The actor must have had some esoteric motive for leaving stage. confidential, inside, intimate, nonpublic, privy, secret

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common accepted, generally known, open, public espouse 1 [ vt. ] to take up and support as a cause

the revolutionary cause embrace, take on, take up abjure, repudiate 2 esteem 1 [ n./v. vt. ] to regard with respect; prize to take in marriage; marry

be held in high esteem appreciation, estimation, favor, regard, respect disfavor, odium estimable 1 [ adj. ] deserving of esteem; admirable

an estimable adversary prestigious, reputable, applaudable, commendable, creditable, meritorious, praiseworthy contemptible, infamous, censurable, discreditable, illaudable, reprehensible estrange 1 [ vt. ] to arouse especially mutual enmity or indifference in where there had

formerly been love, affection, or friendliness he estranged several of his coworkers alienate, disaffect, disgruntle, sour reconcile etch [ 1 ] v. to produce (as a pattern or design) on a hard material by eating into the material's surface

(as by acid or laser beam) the artist etched his landscape on a copper plate grave, incise, inscribe 2 v. to produce a vivid impression of in just a few pages the writer etched an unforgettable portrait of one of the more remarkable First Ladies impress, imprint, infix, ingrain

Unit 4

ETERNAL EUPHONIOUS

ETHEREAL EUPHORIA

ETHICS EVACUATE

EULOGIZE EUPHEMISM EVANESCENT EVASIVE

eternal 1

[ adj.

] having infinite duration; everlasting; perpetual

eternal love ageless, everlasting, immortal, imperishable, perennial, perpetual, undying ephemeral ethereal 1 [ adj. ] resembling air in lightness, highly refined; delicate

the bakery's scrumptious pastries have a wonderfully ethereal consistency fluffy, gossamer, light heavy, leaden, ponderous 2 adj. of, relating to, or suggesting heaven a land of ethereal beauty and tranquility elysian, empyreal, heavenly, supernal chthonic, hellish, infernal, Tartarean 3 —— bodiless, formless, incorporeal, insubstantial, nonmaterial, nonphysical, spiritual bodily, corporeal, material, physical, substantial ethics 1 [ n. ] rules or standards governing the conduct of a person or the members of a profession adj. not of this world; spiritual; not composed of matter that ethereal attribute that every performer should have—charisma

an old-fashioned work ethic ethos, morality, morals, norms, principles, standards eulogize 1 [ vt. ] to speak or write in high praise of

He was eulogized at his funeral as a caring husband and a good father. defame, pan, stricture euphemism 1 n. [ ] the substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may

offend or suggest something unpleasant using “eliminate” as a euphemism for “kill” euphonious 1 [ ] pleasing or agreeable to the ear

adj.

mellifluous, melodious, canorous, harmonizing, symphonious, tuneful cacophonous, discordant, disharmonious, dissonant, tuneless, unmelodious euphoria 1 [ n. ] a state of overwhelming usually pleasurable emotion

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The initial euphoria following her victory in the election has now subsided. elation, exhilaration, intoxication, transport, rapture, rhapsody depression evacuate 1 [ vt. ] to empty or remove the contents of

were ordered to evacuate the building clear, vacate, void fill up, occupy, load 2 vt. to remove especially from a military zone or dangerous area During World War II, children were evacuated from London to the country. conquer evanescent 1 [ ] tending to vanish like vapor

adj.

Beauty is as evanescent as a rainbow. ephemeral, fleeting, impermanent, temporary, transient, transitory ceaseless, endless, enduring, eternal, everlasting, immortal, permanent, perpetual, timeless, undying, unending, abiding, lasting, perpetual evasive 1 [ adj. ] hard to find, capture, or isolate; equivocal

an evasive statement fugitive, slippery unequivocal

Unit 5

EVERLASTING EXACTING

EVICT EXALT

EVINCE EXASPERATE

EVOKE EXCAVATE

EXACERBATE EXCEPTIONAL

everlasting 1

[ adj.

] lasting forever; eternal

To his everlasting credit, he never once gave in to temptation. ageless, enduring, eternal, immortal, imperishable, perennial, perpetual, undying impermanent, mortal, temporary, transient, ephemeral evict [ 1 ] vt. to put out (a tenant, for example) by legal process; expel.

Her landlord has threatened to evict her if she doesn't pay the rent soon. harbor evince 1 [ vt. ] to make known (something abstract) through outward signs

evince a strong desire bespeak, betray, declare, demonstrate, expose, manifest, reveal, give away, conceal, keep hidden evoke 1 [ vt. ] to call forth or up

evoke memories elicit, inspire, raise exacerbate 1 [ vt. , ] to make more violent, bitter, or severe

a heavy rainfall that exacerbated the flood problems aggravate, complicate, worsen allay, alleviate, assuage, mitigate, relieve, palliate exacting 1 [ adj. ] making severe demands; rigorous

an exacting instructor choosy, demanding, fastidious, finical, fussy, pernickety, persnickety, picky exact v. condone, forgive 2 adj. requiring much time, effort, or careful attention editing and proofreading will always be an exacting task arduous, burdensome, challenging, grueling, killing, laborious, onerous, taxing, toilsome light, unchallenging, undemanding exalt [ 1 vt. ] to raise in rank, character, or status; elevate to force the payment or yielding of exact tribute from a conquered people

popular support and media hype have exalted Super Bowl Sunday to the level of a national holiday aggrandize, canonize, deify, dignify, elevate, ennoble, magnify abase, degrade, demean ,humble, lower in status 2 vt. to glorify, praise, or honor. emblazon, extol, glorify, laud, magnify condemn exasperate 1 [ vt. ] to excite the anger of

I was exasperated by the flight delays.

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aggravate, gall, nettle, peeve, rile, ruffle, vex, burn up mitigate, mollify excavate 1 [ v. ] to dig out and remove

excavate soil from one area fill in exceptional 1 [ ] being an exception; uncommon; extraordinary

adj.

exceptional bravery aberrant, abnormal, anomalous, exceeding, extraordinary, peculiar, unwonted commonplace, prosaic, customary, normal, ordinary, typical, unextraordinary, usual

Unit 6

EXCORIATE EXECRATE

EXCRETE EXEMPLARY

EXCRUCIATE EXEMPT

EXCULPATE EXHAUST

EXCURSIVE EXHILARATE

excoriate 1

[ v.

] to criticize harshly and usually publicly

She was excoriated as a racist. abuse, assail, belabor, castigate, excoriate, lambaste, vituperate accolade, extol, flatter, praise lavishly excrete 1 [ vt. ] to separate and discharge (waste matter) from the blood, tissues, or organs

excrete sweat absorb, ingest excruciate 1 [ vt. ] to inflict severe pain on; torture

She has long been excruciated by a persistent pain in her back. agonize, anguish, plague, rack, torment, torture, harrow exult exculpate 1 [ vt. ] to clear from alleged fault or guilt

I have gathered evidence that will exculpate my client. absolve, acquit, clear, exonerate, vindicate

attribute guilt, inculpate, indict, criminate, incriminate excursive 1 [ adj. ] passing from one topic to another

an excursive story line that some readers of Melville's novel find very rewarding desultory, digressive, meandering, rambling, wandering execrate 1 [ v. ] to declare to be morally wrong or evil

leaders from all over the world execrated the terrorists responsible for the bomb blast anathematize, censure, decry, denounce, reprehend, reprobate bless 2 v. to dislike strongly execrates anyone who would physically abuse children or animals abhor, abominate, despise, detest, loathe love exemplary 1 [ adj. ] constituting, serving as, or worthy of being a pattern to be imitated

as a hospital volunteer he has given exemplary service to his community monitory, archetypal, imitable, paradigmatic, quintessential exemplify v. 2 adj. to show or illustrate by example serving as or offering a warning

armies have traditionally used public execution as an exemplary punishment for the crime of desertion admonishing, admonitory, monitory, premonitory, warning exempt 1 [ vt. ] to release or deliver from some liability or requirement to which others are subject

a man exempted from military service exhaust 1 [ vt. ] to consume entirely, : to make complete use of

exhausted our funds in a week consume, devour, drain, expend, spend, use up exhaustive adj. conduct an exhaustive investigation incomplete, partial 2 vt. to wear out completely exhausted by overwork fatigue, frazzle, harass, wear out, weary, knock out exhilarate [ ] testing all possibilities; thorough complete

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1

vt.

to make cheerful and excited

be exhilarated by her success electrify, galvanize, intoxicate, pump up, turn on sadden, depress exhilarating adj. soporific

Unit 7

EXHORT EXOTIC

EXIGENT E X PA N S I V E

EXODUS EXPEDITE

EXONERATE EXPEDITION

EXORBITANT E X P I AT E

exhort 1

[ vt.

] to urge by strong, often stirring argument, admonition, advice, or appeal

The speaker exhorted the graduating students to go forth and try to make a difference in the world. encourage, goad, nudge, prod, prompt, egg on exigent 1 [ adj. ] requiring immediate aid or action

exigent circumstances compelling, dire, emergent, exigent, imperative, importunate, necessitous, pressing, urgent deferrable, noncritical, nonurgent exodus 1 [ vt. ] a mass departure

the mass exodus from the cities for the beaches on most summer weekends gush, outpour, outpouring influx, flux, inflow, inrush exonerate 1 [ vt. ] to free from blame

An investigation exonerated the school from any blame. absolve, acquit, clear, vindicate censure, incriminate, inculpate, prove guilty exorbitant 1 [ adj. ] exceeding the customary or appropriate limits in intensity, quality, amount, or size

exorbitant prices

extravagant, intolerable, lavish, overdue, overweening, unconscionable middling, moderate, modest, reasonable, temperate exotic 1 [ adj. ] excitingly or mysteriously unusual

famous for her exotic tastes outlandish, strange indigenous, familiar, nonglamorous, plain-Jane, unexotic expansive 1 [ adj. ] having a great expanse or extent

expansive beach broad, extended, far-reaching, rangy limited, narrow 2 adj. open and communicative; talkative or effusive Wine made the guest expansive. reserved, taciturn, withdrawn, diffident expedite 1 [ vt. ] to speed up the progress of; accelerate

expedite your plans retard expedition 1 [ n. ] speed in performance; promptness

deal with the order with the greatest possible expedition passage, peregrination, travel, trek foot-dragging expiate 1 [ vt. ] to extinguish the guilt incurred by

expiate one’s sin mend, redeem, atone for

Unit 8

EXPIRE EXQUISITE

EXPLICIT EXTANT

EXPLOIT EXTEMPORIZE

EXPONENT E X P U R G AT E EXTENUATE EXTINCT

expire

[

]

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1

v.

to breathe one's last breath; die

The patient expired early this morning. conclude, elapse, terminate, decease, leave off, let up come to life 2 v. to come to an end My membership in the club has expired. discontinue, elapse, end, finish, terminate, wind up, wink out continue, persist, hang on explicit 1 [ adj. ] fully revealed or expressed without vagueness, implication, or ambiguity

explicit instructions clear-cut, definite, specific, unambiguous, unequivocal, univocal obscure, implicit, implied, inferred, ambiguous, circuitous, equivocal, indefinite, unspecific, vague 2 adj. fully developed or formulated

explicit plan inchoate exploit 1 2 [ n. v. ] a notable or heroic act to employ to the greatest possible advantage

his wartime exploits exploit your opponent's weakness abuse, leverage, milk, play on, capitalize on impose on exponent 1 [ n. ] one that speaks for, represents, or advocates

Exponents of space exploration earnestly called for more missions to the outer reaches of the solar system. advocator, backer, booster, champion, espouser, friend, promoter, proponent adversary, antagonist, opponent 2 n. one who brings an art or science to full realization has long reigned as the nation's leading exponent of modern dance expounder, guru, interpreter, practitioner, high priest expurgate 1 v. [ ] to remove erroneous, vulgar, obscene, or otherwise objectionable material from

(a book, for example) before publication an expurgated edition of the letters bowdlerize, obliterate, launder, red-pencil, clean up exquisite 1 [ adj. ] extreme in degree, power, or effect

suffered exquisite pain acute, dreadful, excruciating, explosive, ferocious, fierce, furious, intensive, keen, profound, terrible,

vehement, vicious light, moderate, soft 2 adj. having qualities that appeal to a refined taste exquisite pen-and-ink drawings of city scenes dainty, delicate, elegant, recherché, select extant 1 [ adj. ] still in existence; not destroyed, lost, or extinct || extant manuscripts

the most charming writer extant current, immediate, ongoing, present-day, existent destroyed, extinct ,lost, missing, dead, extinct, nonextant extemporize 1 v. [ ]

to do or perform (something) without prior preparation or practice

a good talk show host has to be able to extemporize the interviews when things don't go as planned follow a script extemporaneous planned extenuate 1 [ vt. ] to lessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of by making partial excuses

try to extenuate their vandalism with the old refrain of “Boys will be boys” deodorize, excuse, explain away, gloss over, gloze over extinct 1 [ adj. ] no longer existing or living

extinct species bygone, bypast, defunct, expired, nonextant, vanished alive, extant, existing, living, resuscitated extinction n. perpetuation

Unit 9

E X T I NG U I S H EXTRANEOUS

E X TO L EXTRAVAGANT

E X TO RT EXTRACT EXTRACTION EXTRICATE EXUBERANT EXUDE

extinguish

[

]

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1

vt.

to put out (a fire, for example); quench

the fire in the skillet was quickly extinguished by slamming the lid on blanket, douse, quench, put out, snuff out ignite, rekindle 2 v. to bring to a complete end the physical soundness, existence, or usefulness of a fatal blunder that extinguished all hope that the team would actually win the play-offs annihilate, decimate, demolish, desolate, devastate, pulverize, ruin, shatter, smash, tear down, pull down, rub out build, construct, erect, raise, rear, set up, put up extol [ 1 v. ] to praise highly; glorify

extol the virtues of carol, exalt, glorify, laud, magnify, resound censure, impugn, malign, deprecate, detract rail, villify, excoriate extort [ 1 v. ] to obtain from a person by force, intimidation, or undue or illegal power

The criminals extorted large sums of money from their victims. wrest, wring extract 1 [ n. ] to pull or take out forcibly

extracted a wisdom tooth pull, uproot, wrest, wring, yank, root out, tear out embed extraction 1 [ ks'træk n. n] origin; lineage; ancestry

a family of French extraction bloodline, breeding, descent, genealogy, lineage, origin, family tree extraneous 1 [ ] having no relevance

adj.

an extraneous digression impertinent, inapplicable, irrelative, accidental, adventitious, external applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, pertinent, relative, relevant 2 adj. not forming an essential or vital part the architect's streamlined modern style shuns any sort of extraneous ornamentation accidental, adventitious, alien, external, foreign essential, inherent, innate, intrinsic extravagant 1 [ ] given to spending money freely or foolishly

adj.

has always been extravagant with her money profligate, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful frugal, conserving, economical, penny-pinching, scrimping, skimping, thrifty 2 adj. going beyond a normal or acceptable limit in degree or amount the book doesn't quite merit the extravagant praise that it has received baroque, exorbitant, immoderate, inordinate, lavish, overdue, overmuch, overweening, plethoric, unconscionable, unmerciful middling, moderate, modest, reasonable, temperate extricate 1 [ vt. ] to free or remove from an entanglement or difficulty

extricate himself from financial difficulties disengage, disentangle, free, liberate, release, untangle enmesh, entangle, embroil exuberant 1 [ adj. ] joyously unrestrained and enthusiastic

Exuberant crowds rushed to greet the returning national champions. ebullient, effervescent, frolic, buoyant, bouncy, vivacious austere 2 adj. sullen produced in extreme abundance

an exuberant imagination ample, lavish, lush, luxuriant, opulent, plentiful, prodigal, profuse, riotous meager, scant, sparse exude 1 [ vi. ] to flow forth slowly through small openings

a sticky resin exuded from the bark bleed, ooze, seep absorb

Unit 10

E X U LT FACILITATE

FA B L E FACTION

FA B R I C AT E FALLACY

FA C E T I O U S FALLOW

FA C I L E FAIL-SAFE

exult

[ 1

] vi. to rejoice especially with feelings or display of triumph or self-satisfaction

exult in a triumph

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delight, glory, jubilate, joy, rejoice, triumph lament, mourn exultant fable [ 1 ] n. a story intended to teach a basic truth or moral about life adj. bemoan

This classic Christmas film is essentially a fableshowing how every person's life has meaning. apologue, parable 2 n. a legendary story of supernatural happenings According to an ancient fable, the waters of the mountain spring are the tears of a woman weeping for her lost children. legend, mythos, tale 3 n. a statement known by its maker to be untrue and made in order to deceive The stories of lost cities of gold may have been fables deliberately concocted by Native Americans to dupe the Spanish. fabrication, falsehood, lie, mendacity, prevarication, story fact fabulous fabricate 1 [ vt. truth adj. ] to make up for the purpose of deception

be accused of fabricating evidence concoct, coin, devise, forge, fake, feign, invent 2 vt. to bring into being by combining, shaping, or transforming materials All the key parts are fabricated from high quality titanium alloy. assemble, construct, erect, frame, fashion, manufacture, produce, rear, set up demount, disassemble, dismantle, dismember fabrication facetious 1 [ adj. n. ] joking or jesting often inappropriately The house was essentially fabricated at the factory and then shipped to the site for assembly.

Stop being facetious! This is the life-and-death moment. humorous, jocose, jocular, waggish, witty earnest, sincere facile [ 1 ] adj. having or showing a lack of depth of understanding or character lugubrious

propose a facile solution to a complex problem cursory, shallow, simplistic, superficial deep, profound 2 adj. a facile victory cheap, easy, effortless, painless, royal comprehensive, exhaustive easily accomplished or attained

arduous, demanding, difficult, formidable, hard, laborious, toilsome, tough facilitate 1 [ vt. ] to make easy or easier

The new airport will facilitate the development of tourism. ease, expedite, forward, further, help check, hamper, handicap, hinder, impede, obstruct, thwart, retard facility faction 1 [ n. n. ] a party or group (as within a government) that is often contentious or self-seeking North-Ocean Faction complicate

affiliated with one faction bloc, body, clique, coalition, sect, wing factional adj. fallacious 1 [ adj. ]

containing or based on a fallacy

the once-common fallacious claim that girls just weren't any good at math illogical, invalid, irrational, mad, reasonless, sophistic, unreasonable sound 2 adj. fallacious testimony beguiling, deceiving, deceptive, deluding, delusive, delusory, false, fraudulent, misleading authentic, veritable fallacy n. fallow 1 [ ] adj. left untilled or unsown after plowing valid tending to deceive or mislead

The field was lying fallow. untilled, uncultivated 2 adj. not being in a state of use, activity, or employment The coal mine has been lying fallow since the drop in prices made it unprofitable. dead, dormant, inert, inoperative, latent, unused, vacant functioning, occupied, operative, running, working fail-safe 1 [ n. ] a measure taken to preclude loss or injury active

There are so many fail-safes built into the system that a highly unlikely series of mistakes would have to be made before failure could occur. caution, palladium, preventive, safeguard 2 adj. having no chance of failure Men have traditionally regarded flowers as the fail-safe gift for a fail-safe device Valentine's Day.

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certain, foolproof, sure, unfailing fallible

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List 10
“ GRE ” —— 2009 10 GRE Verbal730 Quantitative 800

Unit 1

FA L S E H O O D FASCINATE

FA LT E R FAST

FA N AT I C FASTIDIOUS

FA N TA S Y FATEFUL

FA R C E FATHOM

falsehood 1

[ n.

] a statement known by its maker to be untrue and made in order to deceive

Truth always rise above falsehood, as oil rise above water. deception, fable, lie, mendacity, prevarication, untruth truth, verity falter [ 1 2 vi. vi. ] to walk unsteadily to be unsteady in purpose or action, as from loss of courage or confidence

lurch, stagger, stumble, teeter, totter, wobble Mr. Garrison never once faltered in his demand that slavery be unconditionally abolished. balance, halt, hesitate, vacillate, waver faltering fanatic 1 [ n. adj. ] a person marked or motivated by an extreme, unreasoning enthusiasm, as for a cause.

a soccer fanatic bigot, devotee, enthusiast, fiend, freak, maniac, partisan, zealot nonfan 2 adj. marked by excessive enthusiasm and often intense uncritical devotion SM They are fanatic about sadomasochism. extreme, rabid, radical, revolutionary, ultra conservative fanatical fantasy [ 1 n. adj. ] imaginative fiction featuring especially strange settings and grotesque characters rational

indulge in a fantasy chimera, conceit, daydream, delusion, dream, hallucination, illusion, vision

actuality, fact, reality, truth 2 vt. to form a mental picture of He regularly fantasies romantic encounters that he knows will never happen. dream, envisage, envision, fantasize, imagine, picture fantastic farce [ 1 ] n. a light dramatic composition marked by broadly satirical comedy and adj.

improbable plot burlesque, caricature, parody, sham, travesty serious play 2 n. ridiculous or empty show The enforcement of this law became a farce. joke, mockery, nonsense farcical fascinate 1 [ vt. adj. ] to hold an intense interest or attraction for

toys that fascinate infants allure, arrest ,attract, bewitch, captivate, charm, enchant, enthrall, grip disgust, repel fascinating fast [ 1 ] n. an act of abstaining from food adj.

fast to death hunger strike 2 adj. characterized by quick motion, operation, or effect The fast pace of construction resulted in our new house being done ahead of schedule. brisk, expeditious, fleeting, hasty, quick, rapid, speedy, swift slow 3 adj. firm in one's allegiance to someone or something The two girls soon became fast and inseparable friends. constant, dedicated, devoted, devout, loyal, pious disloyal, perfidious 4 adj. treacherous firmly positioned in place and difficult to dislodge

The rusty, old screws are so fast in the fitting that there's no hope of getting them out. firm, frozen, lodged, secure, stable, staunch, strong, stuck loose, shaky fasten fastidious [ v. ] insecure

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1

adj.

possessing or displaying careful, meticulous attention to detail

be fastidious about personal hygiene and appearance demanding, exacting, fussy, hypercritical, squeamish undemanding fateful 1 [ adj. ] involving momentous consequences cursory indiscriminate, uncritical

make a fateful decision to declare war critical, crucial, important, momentous, significant inconsequential, insignificant, petty, paltry, trivial, unimportant 2 adj. bringing death or disaster a fateful journey calamitous, cataclysmic, catastrophic, deadly, destructive, disastrous, fatal, ruinous fathom 1 levels. plumb 2 vt. to penetrate and come to understand unable to fathom the what he was talking about apprehend, cognize, comprehend, grasp, know, understand misunderstand fathomable adj. [ vt. ] to measure the depth of (as a body of water) typically with a weighted line

The pilot had to continually fathom the river, which drought conditions had lowered to unprecedented

Unit 2

FATIGUE FAZE

FATUOUS FECKLESS

FAULTFINDER FECUND

FAVORABLE FEEBLE

FAWN FEIGN

fatigue 1

[ n.

] weariness or exhaustion from labor, exertion, or stress

The day-long battle against the blaze left firefighters in a state of utter fatigue. collapse, exhaustion, lassitude, tiredness, weariness refreshment, rejuvenation, revitalization 2 n. something, such as tiring effort or activity, that causes weariness Although he had joined the army for action and adventure, much of his day seemed to be devoted to mindless fatigues. drudge, drudgery, grind, labor, sweat, toil, travail fun, play sinecure

fatuous 1

[ adj.

] complacently or inanely foolish

Emperor Yang in the Sui Dynasty is not only a rare fatuous tyrant but also an outstanding poet. asinine, brainless, foolish, obtuse, silly, simple, stupid, unwitty, witless sagacious, sapient faultfinder 1 [ n. ] one who is given to petty criticism and constant complaint judicious, prudent, sensible, wise

No sooner had we finished decorating the church than the parish faultfinder decided that she didn't like it. carper, castigator, caviler, censurer, critic, disparager, hypercritic, nitpicker favorable 1 [ adj. ] expressing approval

Favorable reviews for the movie were few . admiring, applauding, commendatory, complimentary, positive adverse, disapproving, negative 2 adj. tending to promote or facilitate mild climate favorable to his health advantageous, benefic, beneficial, favoring, good, helpful, salutary unfavorable, disadvantageous, untoward, unpropitious fawn [ 1 ] vi. to seek favor or attention by flattery and obsequious behavior

fawn on one's superior cower, cringe, flatter, grovel, toady, truckle domineer fawning faze [ 1 ] vt. to disturb the composure of: disconcert, dismay Nothing can faze her. abash, annoy, bother, disconcert, dismay, disturb, discomfit, embarrass, fluster, rattle calm, lull feckless 1 [ adj. ] having no real worth or purpose adj.

years of feckless negotiations bootless, fruitless, futile, meaningless, purposeless, useless, worthless effective, effectual, efficacious 2 adj. careless and irresponsible The young man was feckless and irresponsible. careless, heedless, inadvertent, irresponsible, slipshod, sloppy careful, cautious, circumspect, discreet, wary

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fecund 1

[ adj.

] fruitful in offspring or vegetation

fecund black soil cornucopian, fertile, fruitful, lush, luxuriant, productive, prolific, rich barren, infertile, sterile fecundity feeble 1 [ ] adj. markedly lacking in strength n.

The heartbeat was feeble and irregular. debilitated, effete, enervated, faint, fragile, frail, infirm, languid, sapped mighty, powerful, robust, stalwart, stout, strong enfeeble feign [ 1 ] vt. to give a false appearance of vt.

I would never feign illness just to postpone a test. affect, assume, counterfeit, dissemble, pretend, profess, sham, simulate unfeigned adj.

Unit 3

FENDER FESTER

FERAL FETID

FERTILIZE FETTER

FERVI D FIASCO

FERVO R FICKLE

fender 1

[ n.

] a cushioning device, such as a bundle of rope or a piece of timber, used on the side

of a vessel or dock to absorb impact or friction a fender on the SUV buffer, bumper, cocoon, cushioning, pad feral [ 1 ] adj. not domesticated or cultivated Animal experts discourage homeowners from trying to adopt feral animals as pets. undomesticated, untamed, wild cultivated 2 adj. domestic, tame having or showing the nature and appetites of a lower animal

The movie reveals just how thin the veneer of civilization is and how feral we are at bottom.

animalistic, beastly, brutal rational fertilize 1 [ vt. ] to make fertile

Reading will fertilize vocabulary. enrich, manure deplete, drain, exhaust fertilizer fervid [ 1 ] adj. having a notably high temperature n.

set out when the fervid heat subsides boiling, hot, scorching, searing, sultry, sweltering, torrid arctic, chilling, cold, freezing, frigid, frozen, glacial, icy 2 adj. marked by great passion or zeal a fervid patriot ardent, fervent, impassioned, passionate, perfervid cold, cool, dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional fervor 1 [ n. ] great warmth and intensity of emotion

A blind patriotic fervor is called chauvinism. ardor, enthusiasm, passion, zeal, zealotry apathy, indifference, impassiveness, unconcern fester [ 1 v. ] to infect, inflame, or corrupt

A dirty wound will probably fester. corrupt, decompose, putrefy, rot, spoil heal, cure fetid [ 1 ] adj. having a heavy offensive smell Ammonia has a fetid odor that sickened the people. foul, fusty, malodorous, noisome, reeking, smelly, stinky, strong ambrosial, aromatic, balmy, fragrant, redolent, scented fetter [ 1 ] n. something that limits one's freedom of action or choice

a fetter that prevents us from trying something new circumscription, constraint, curb, limitation, restraint, stricture 2 v. to restrain from motion, action, or progress be fettered by family responsibilities chain, clog, enfetter, hamper, manacle, restrain, shackle, trammel enfranchise, free, liberate, unbind, unfetter, unshackle facilitate

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enfetter fiasco 1 [ n.

v. ] a complete failure

The Hitler's plot ended in a fiasco. catastrophe, debacle, disaster, failure blockbuster, éclat, success fickle [ 1 ] adj. likely to change frequently, suddenly, or unexpectedly

a fickle lover capricious, fluid, mercurial, mutable, temperamental, volatile constant, immutable, invariable, stable, steady 2 adj. not true in one's allegiance to someone or something When the family's fortune disappeared, so did their fickle friends. disloyal, perfidious, recreant, traitorous, treacherous, unfaithful faithful, loyal

Unit 4

FICTITIOUS FILTER fictitious 1 [ adj. ]

FIDELITY FINALE

FIGURATIVE FINESSE

FIGURINE FINICKY

FILIBUSTER FLACCID

not real and existing only in the imagination

His wartime exploits turned out to be entirely fictitious, as he had never even been in the military. chimerical, fabricated, fabulous, fictional, imagined, invented actual, existing, real fidelity [ 1 n. ] the quality or state of being faithful

They have never wavered in their fidelity to the cause of liberation. adherence, allegiance, commitment, devotion, faith, loyalty, piety disloyalty, infidelity, perfidy infidel figurative 1 [ adj. n. ] expressing one thing in terms normally denoting another with which it may be regarded treachery

as analogous The word here is used in its figurative sense. extended, metaphorical

literal figurine 1 [ n. ] a small statue

His collection of figurines includes toy soldiers from every war that America has fought. figure, statuette colossus filibuster 1 [ n./v. ] the use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speechmaking, for the purpose

of delaying legislative action The Senator used a filibuster to stop the bill. delay, hindrance, impediment, obstruction, postponement ,procrastination filter [ ] to pass through a filter steep the tea and then filter it to get rid of the leaves screen 2 v. to remove(usually visible) impurities from After frying the chicken, we filtered the oil and kept it in the refrigerator to use again. clear, distill, garble, purify adulterate finale [ 1 n. ] the closing part, scene, or number in a public performance contaminate

1 v.

Didier Drogba pulled one back for Chelsea in a finale. close, coda, conclusion, end prologue finesse [ 1 n. ] mental skill or quickness overture

The musician shows wonderful finesse. adeptness, adroitness, cleverness, dexterity, proficiency awkwardness, ineptitude, gaucherie, ungainliness 2 v. to plan out usually with subtle skill or care finesse the schedule contrive, frame, machinate, maneuver, manipulate 3 v. to get or keep away from (as a responsibility) through cleverness or trickery He tried to finesse the blame for the foreign policy fiasco, even though he was secretary of state at the time. avoid, dodge, eschew, evade, shun confront finicky [ ]

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1 standards

adj.

extremely or excessively particular, exacting, or meticulous in taste or

have a reputation for being finicky eater demanding, exacting, fastidious, fussy, nice, particular undemanding, unfussy flaccid 1 [ adj. ] not firm or stiff; lacking normal or youthful firmness

flaccid muscles droopy, floppy, lank, loose, slack, yielding stiff, sturdy resilient

Unit 5

FLAG FLEET

F L A M B O YA N T FLEXIBLE

F L AT T E R FLINCH

F L AW FLIPPANCY

FLEDGLING FLIRT

flag

[ 1

] n. a piece of fabric that is used as a symbol (as of a nation) or as a signaling device We respect the flag of our fathers. banner, ensign, pendant, pennant 2 v. to become unsteady, feeble, or spiritless We flagged as we neared the end of the long mountain trail. decay, decline, deteriorate, emaciate, fade, fail, languish, sag, waste, wilt, wither thrive unflagging revitalize, revive adj. ] marked by or given to strikingly elaborate or colorful display

flamboyant 1

[

adj.

or behavior; ornate Las Vegas showgirls wearing flamboyant headdresses flaring, florid, garish, ornate, ostentatious, showy natural flamboyance flatter [ 1 vt. ] to praise excessively especially from motives of self-interest n. conservative, quiet, understated

Friends who flatter you to your face are not true friends. adulate, blandish, compliment, court, massage, overpraise, stroke, wheedle abuse censure, criticize

2

vt.

to think highly of (oneself)

Don't flatter yourself that no one has ever thought of that idea before. pique, plume 3 vt. to show off becomingly or advantageously Orange flatters those with golden skin tones. become, enhance, suit mar, spoil flattering adj. flaw [ 1 ] n. an imperfection, often concealed, that impairs soundness The absence of flaw in beauty is itself a flaw. blight, blotch, defect, fault, imperfection, mar, scar, spot 2 v. to reduce the soundness, effectiveness, or perfection of That crack has flawed the vase to the extent that its value in the antiques market is greatly reduced. blemish, break, compromise, cripple, harm, hurt, impair, injure, spoil, vitiate fix, mend, repair, revamp flawed fledgling 1 [ n. adj. ] a person who is just starting out in a field of activity flawless adj.

At hockey he's still a fledgling and needs to work on his basic skating skills. apprentice, beginner, freshman, neophyte, novice, tyro, recruit, rookie veteran fledge fleet [ 1 ] n. a group of vehicles traveling together or under one management fleet of the Royal Navy armada, caravan, cavalcade, motorcade 2 adj. moving, proceeding, or acting with great speed He was fleet as a deer. brisk, expeditious, fast, hasty, nimble, quick, rapid, rattling, speedy, swift slow 3 vi. to move or pass swiftly dart, flit, hurry, hustle plod fleeting flexible 1 [ adj. adj. ] capable of being readily changed v.

Our schedules are highly flexible. adaptable, adjustable, alterable, changeable, elastic, fluid, malleable, modifiable, pliable, variable

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fixed, immutable, inflexible, invariable 2 adj. Their boss was flexible and lenient. docile, manageable, tractable

stiff, rigid

susceptible to influence or persuasion

adamant, headstrong, intractable, mulish, recalcitrant, refractory, stubborn, obstinate flexibility flinch [ 1 ] vi. to draw back in fear, pain, or disgust n.

He met my gaze without flinching. cringe, quail, recoil, shrink, wince face, meet flippancy [ 1 n. ] unbecoming levity or pertness especially in respect to grave or sacred matters confront

The flippancy of your answer annoyed me. facetiousness, flightiness, frivolousness, frothiness, levity, silliness earnestness, gravity, seriousness, soberness, solemnity, solemnness flirt [ 1 ] vi. to behave amorously without serious intent The waitress at that restaurant flirts with all single male customers. coquet, dally, frivol, toy, trifle 2 vi. to make an irregular series of quick, sudden movements lazily watched the butterflies flirting among the wildflowers dance, dart, fleet, flick, flit, flutter, hurry, rush, zip

Unit 6

FLIT FLOUT

FLOCK FLUCTUATE

FLORID FLUENT

FLOUNDER FLUKY

FLOURISH FLUSH

flit

[

] 1 vi. to pass quickly or abruptly from one place or condition to another Memories of the evening flitted through her mind. dance, dart, fleet, flick, flirt, flutter, hurry, rush, zip plod

flock

[ 1

] n. a great number of persons or creatures massed together

a flock of ill-disposed reporters at the press conference army, drove, herd, legion 2 vi. to congregate or travel in a flock or crowd Vacationers flocked to the towns along the shore in order to escape the August heat. mob, swarm, throng florid [ 1 ] adj. full of fine words and fancy expressions

gave a florid speech to attract attention bombastic, flowery, grandiloquent, magniloquent, rhetorical 2 adj. elaborately and often excessively decorated a florid architectural style baroque, bedizened, flamboyant, fussy, luscious, ornate austere, plain, severe, stark, unadorned flounder 1 [ vi. ] to proceed or act clumsily or ineffectually

flounder through the desert blunder, fumble, lumber, plod, struggle, trudge glide, slide flourish 1 [ vi. ] to grow luxuriantly; to achieve success breeze, waltz

The program will flourish once it receives adequate funding. bloom, burgeon, prosper, thrive languish, wane 2 n. a bedroom with cute little flourishes without unnecessary flourishes. adornment, decoration, embellishment, ornamentation flout [ 1 ] n./v. to treat with contemptuous disregard flout the academic norm by plagiarizing despise, disregard, gibe, sneer, taunt respect, revere, venerate fluctuate 1 [ vi. ] to shift back and forth uncertainly Samples of ice cores collected from Antarctica suggested fail Her writing style is simple and clear, an embellishment or ornamentation

Stock prices fluctuate wildly.

that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has been fluctuating periodically. mutate, shift, swing, oscillate, vacillate, vary, waver stabilize fluctuation n. plateau

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fluent[ 1

] adj. able to express oneself clearly and well a very fluent speaker who always communicates his points well eloquent, silver-tongued, well-spoken inarticulate, ineloquent, unvocal 2 adj. involving minimal difficulty or effort a fluent performance of one of the oldest magic tricks in the book effortless, facile, fluid, painless, ready, simple, smooth arduous, demanding, exacting, formidable, grueling, hard, laborious, murderous, rough, toilsome, tough fluency n.

fluky [ 1

] adj. coming or happening by good luck especially unexpectedly

a fluky coincidence that kept me safely at home when the blizzard hit fortuitous, lucky, providential hapless, unfortunate, unlucky, ill-fated 2 adj. happening by or depending on chance casual, chance, inadvertent, incidental, unintended, unintentional calculated, deliberate, intended, intentional, planned, premeditated fluke n. flush [ 1 ] adj. having a healthy reddish skin tone

blooming, florid, glowing, red, rosy, rubicund, sanguine ashen, doughy, livid, pale, pallid, wan 2 adj. having goods, property, or money in abundance She's very flush now that she has her inheritance. affluent, loaded, opulent, wealthy destitute, impoverished, indigent, needy, impecunious 3 adj. marked by abundance a field flush with flowers abounding, abundant, awash, fraught, lousy, replete, swarming, teeming, thronging inadequate, insufficient, scant, scarce, short 4 vi. to pour liquid over or through in order to cleanse flush a wound with iodine irrigate, rinse, sluice, wash

Unit 7

FLUSTER FOOTLOOSE

FOIBLE FORBEARANCE

FOIL FOREBEAR

FOMENT FORESTALL

FOOLPROOF FOREWORD

fluster 1

[ v.

] to put into a state of agitated confusion

A GPA of 1.0 flusters him. 1.0 abash, confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, faze, mortify, nonplus, rattle calm, quiet, settle, soothe, tranquilize foible [ 1 n. ] a minor flaw or shortcoming in character or behavior

admired their teacher despite his foibles demerit, dereliction, failing, fault, frailty, shortcoming, sin, vice, want, weakness merit, virtue foil [ 1 ] v. to prevent from being successful; defeat foil her enemy by pulling some strings baffle, balk, beat, checkmate, discomfit, frustrate, thwart forward, foster, further, promote foment 1 [ vt. ] to promote the growth or development of

He was accused of fomenting violence. abet, brew, ferment, incite, instigate, provoke, raise, stir quash, quell, quench, squash foolproof 1 [ adj. ] so simple, plain, or reliable as to leave no opportunity for error,

misuse, or failure Anything foolproof is impossible and what truly counts is probability. guaranteed, infallible, safe, unfailing, fail-safe fallible footloose 1 [ adj. ] having no attachments or ties; free to do as one pleases

After having been chained for so long, the suddenly footloose dog ran about the yard tirelessly. loose, unbound, unconfined, unfettered, unrestrained, untrammeled bound, confined, restrained, tied forbearance 1 n. [ ] tolerance and restraint in the face of provocation; patience

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reach the end of my forbearance patience, temperance, tolerance, toleration impatience 2 n. kind, gentle, or compassionate treatment especially towards someone who is undeserving of it The judge showed forbearance, and gave the teenaged first offender a suspended sentence. charity, clemency, leniency, mercifulness, quarter vindictiveness forebear 1 [ n. ] a person from whom one is descended; an ancestor

The son of Abrahamis traditionally considered to be the forebear of the Arabs. ancestor, antecedent, asendant,father, grandfather, primogenitor, progenitor descendant, offspring forestall 1 [ vt. ] to delay, hinder, or prevent by taking precautionary measures beforehand

You can often forestall skidding on the ice simply by driving more slowly. avert, deter, obviate, preclude, prevent abet, assist, facilitate, further, precipitate, promote foreword[ 1 n. ] a preface or an introductory note, as for a book, especially by a person other than the author Jason Franklin

The foreword of this book is co-written by Jason and Franklin. beginning, introduction, overture, preamble, preface, prelude, prologue epilogue, coda finale

Unit 8

FORGE FOUNDER

FORMIDABLE FRACAS

FORTHRIGHT FRACTURE

FORTIFY FRAGILE

FOSTER FRAIL

forge

[ 1 v.

] to make or imitate falsely especially with intent to defraud

The boy forged his father’s signature on his transcript. coin, counterfeit, fabricate, fake 2 v. to form (as metal) by or as if by heating and hammering They agreed to forge closer economic a real man forged by adversity

and political ties. build, construct, form, make, manufacture, mold, shape forger formidable 1 [ adj. n. ] causing fear, dread, or apprehension

a nation that possesses formidable nuclear deterrence direful, dreadful, fearsome, forbidding, ghastly, horrible, intimidating, redoubtable, terrifying comforting 2 adj. requiring considerable physical or mental effort They have recently made running a marathon is a formidable undertaking a formidable decision. arduous, challenging, demanding, exacting, grueling, heavy, laborious, sweaty, toilsome, tough, strenuous easy, effortless, facile, mindless, simple forthright 1 [ adj. ] free in expressing one's true feelings and opinions

her forthright way of dealing with people candid, forthcoming, frank, honest, open, outspoken, straightforward dissembling 2 adj. free from ambiguity or evasiveness: going straight to the point was forthright in appraising the problem direct, plain, straight circuitous, indirect, roundabout fortify [ 1 vt. ] to give physical strength, courage, or endurance to

This country will fortify the coastal areas. energize, harden, invigorate, reinforce, strengthen, toughen debilitate, enervate, enfeeble, vitiate, weaken 2 vt. to prepare (oneself) mentally or emotionally She fortified herself for the incoming tennis tournament with a series of confidence-boosting exercises. brace, forearm, gird, nerve, poise, ready, steel foster [ 1 vt. ] to help the growth or development of

detect and foster artistic talent advance, encourage, forward, further, incubate, promote discourage, frustrate, inhibit 2 vt. to bring to maturity through care and education a greathearted couple fostering two adopted children as well as their own breed, cultivate, nourish, nurse, nurture, raise, rear founder [ ]

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1

n.

one that founds or establishes

founders of the nation architect, author, creator, father, generator, initiator, originator, sire terminator 2 vi. to fail utterly The theater company foundered after its corporate funding dried up. collapse, flunk, miss, strike out, wash out succeed, work out 3 vi. to become submerged The ship struck a reef and foundered. sink, submerge, submerse, go down float fracas 1 [ n. ] a physical dispute between opposing individuals or groups; a rough and often noisy

fight usually involving several people The police were called in to break up the fracas. battle, clash, combat, conflict, contest, hassle, skirmish, struggle, tussle fracture 1 [ n. ] the act or process of breaking

a sudden fracture of the established order breach, break, rupture, schism, split unity 2 v. to cause to separate into pieces usually suddenly or forcibly Their happiness was fractured by an unforeseen tragedy. disrupt, fragment, rive cement fragile 1 [ adj. ] easily broken or destroyed

a fragile piece of glass breakable, feeble, frail, friable, frangible, infirm, unsound, weak tough, durable 2 adj. easily injured without careful handling Babies are extremely fragile, so remember to care for them gently. delicate, sensitive fragility frail [ 1 ] adj. physically weak Working for three days without any sleep made him extremely frail. weak, effete, enervated, feeble, fragile, infirm, languid, unsubstantial robust n.

hale, sturdy 2 adj. easily led astray; morally weak frail and pathetic humanity characterless, invertebrate, nerveless, spineless faithful, resolute 3 adj. slight, unsubstantial a frail hope of success fragile, negligible, slight, small good frailty n.

Unit 9

FRAUDULENT FRIABLE

FRAUGHT FRICTION

FRENZY FRIGID

FREQUENT FRINGE

FRETFUL FRIVOLOUS

fraudulent

[

] characterized by, based on, or done by fraud

1 adj.

a fraudulent interpretation of experimental data deceitful, deceptive, dishonest, duplicitous, guileful, underhanded reliable, trustworthy fraudulence fraught 1 [ ] adj. full of or accompanied by something n. authentic honest, straight

an experience fraught with peril abounding, abundant, awash, flush, replete, thronging scarce 2 adj. causing or characterized by emotional distress or tension a fraught relationship between the two neighboring countries uneasy, agitating, anxious, distressful, disturbing, restless, tense, unsettling, nail-biting calming, relaxing frenzy [ 1 n. ] a violent mental or emotional agitation

She is subject to these frenzies several times a year. delirium, fever, furor, fury, hysteria, insanity, rage, rampage, uproar sanity frenetic frequent [ adj. ]

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1

v.

to pay frequent visits to; be in or at often

to frequent opera houses haunt, resort, visit avoid, shun 2 adj. happening at short intervals; often repeated or occurring He used to make frequent trips to Los Angeles common, constant, everyday, habitual, periodical, repeated rare frequency fretful 1 [ ] adj. inclined to be vexed or troubled n.

Adolescence is the most fretful stages of human development. irritable, fractious, peevish, pettish, petulant easygoing fret friable 1 [ adj. v. ] easily crumbled or pulverized

friable mineral rock crumbly, delicate, feeble, fragile, frail, infirm, weak sturdy, substantial friction 1 [ n. ] the rubbing of one object or surface against another

lubricant that significantly reduces friction abrasion 2 n. the clashing between two persons or parties of opposed views There is a friction between the professor and students. disagreement, conflict, contention, dissidence, schism, war accord, harmony, peace, concord frictional frigid [ 1 adj. ] extremely cold adj.

an unusually frigid winter of Wuhan cold, arctic, chilling, freezing, frosty, glacial roasting, scalding, scorching, searing, seething, sizzling, sultry, sweltering, torrid 2 adj. lacking warmth or ardor a formal but frigid welcome indifferent, cold, emotionless, passionless, unresponsive ardent, amorous, cordial frigidity fringe [ 1 n. ] something that resembles such a border or edging n.

“Don’t act on the fringes of the law,” warns the customs officer. border, boundary, circumference, edge, margin, perimeter, periphery, skirt center, core 2 v. to be adjacent to abut, border, neighbor, skirt, verge frivolous 1 [ adj. ] marked by unbecoming levity

a frivolous young woman giddy, shallow, superficial earnest, sober, serious 2 adj. of little weight or importance The frivolous comment was soon forgotten. trivial, flimsy, light, petty, trifling consequential, eventful, meaningful, momentous, weighty frivolity n.

Unit 10

FROTHY FULMINATE

FROWSY FUMBLE

FRUGAL FUROR

FRUSTRATE FURTIVE

FULL-BODIED FURY

frothy [

] made of light thin material

1 adj. delicate, gossamer, light weighty 2 adj. a frothy movie flighty, frivolous, puerile earnest, serious, sober frowsy [ 1 adj. ] sturdy

a frothy laptop made of carbon fiber and alloys

gaily frivolous or light in content or treatment

having a slovenly or uncared-for appearance

frowsy hair slovenly, unkempt, untidy dapper, neat, tidy, spruce 2 adj. having an unpleasant smell The abandoned house was dank and frowsy and barely fit for human habitation. fetid, noisome, smelly, stinky

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ambrosial, aromatic, fragrant, redolent frugal [ 1 adj. ] characterized by or reflecting economy in the use of resources

be frugal in her expenditures sparing, economical, provident, stingy extravagant, prodigal, sumptuous frugality frustrate 1 [ vt. n. ] to prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire

frustrated their scheme in time ruin, baffle, balk, circumvent, foil, thwart abet accomplish, fulfill 2 vt. to lessen the courage or confidence of frustrated by his failure chill, daunt, dishearten, dismay, dispirit embolden, encourage, nerve, steel frustration full-bodied 1 [ adj. n. ] having importance, significance, or meaningfulness frustrated adj.

a full-bodied study of genetic engineering important, consequential, momentous, significant, weighty trivial 2 adj. having richness and intensity of flavor or aroma full-bodied perfume in the cabin strong, concentrated insipid fulminate 1 [ v. ] to issue a thunderous verbal attack or denunciation

fulminate the so-called curricular reform criticize, blame, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, lambaste, reprehend, reprobate applaud, compliment, praise fulmination fumble 1 [ vt. ] to make awkward attempts to do or find something n.

fumbled in his pocket for a coin botch, flounder, mess, stumble 2 n. an unintentional departure from truth or accuracy played the entire piano piece without a single fumble blunder, fault, gaffe, lapse, misstep, mistake

furor

[ 1 n.

] a state of intense excitement or ecstasy

The decision to raise tax has caused a great furor among the working class. delirium, frenzy, fever, fury, hysteria, outrage, rage, uproar, wrath serenity, tranquility delight, pleasure furtive 1 [ adj. ] done by stealth

a furtive glance at her secret, clandestine, covert, stealthy, surreptitious aboveboard furtively fury [ 1 ] n. intense, disordered, and often destructive rage The gods unleashed their fury on the offending mortal. anger, indignation, ire, mad, rage, wrath forbearance furious adj. delight, pleasure adv. candid, forthright

List 11
GRE GRE Verbal 780 Quantitative 800

——

AW 4.5

Unit 1

FUSSY GAINSAY

FUSTY GALL

FUTILE GALLANT

GADFLY GALVANIZE

GAFFE GAMBLE

fussy [

]

1 adj. taking, showing, or involving great care and effort a fussy actuarial problem careful, exact, meticulous, punctilious careless 2 adj. elaborately and often excessively decorated The room, with its rococo furniture and its overabundance of knickknacks, is just too fussy for my taste. bedizened, florid austere, plain, stark 3 adj. hard to please It is widely known that cats are fussy eaters. choosy, delicate, demanding, exacting, fastidious, nice, particular, persnickety, picky undemanding, unfussy fusty [ ]

1 adj. rigidly old-fashioned or reactionary fusty old carpets antiquated, archaic, bygone, moldy, outdated 2 adj. saturated with dust and stale odors the fusty odor of a damp cellar malodorous, fetid, musty, noisome, smelly, stale ambrosial, aromatic, fragrant, perfumed, redolent, savory, scented, sweet futile [ ]

1 adj. serving no useful purpose; completely ineffective It would be an undoubtedly futile effort to persuade him. abortive, bootless, fruitless, ineffective, useless, vain effectual, efficacious 2 adj. lacking in seriousness or maturity

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the futile chatter of gossip columnists about the comings and goings of Hollywood celebrities flighty, frivolous, frothy earnest, serious futility n. gadfly [ ]

1 n. one that acts as a provocative stimulus goad, impetus, impulse, incentive, irritant, spur, stimulus balm 2 n. a person who stimulates or annoys especially by persistent criticism a tactless gadfly during post-game interviews with the losing team annoyer, bother, persecutor, teaser, pest gaffe [ ]

1 n. a social or diplomatic blunder A gaffe is when a politician tells the truth. —— Michael Kinsley impropriety, indecorum, indiscretion decency, decorum, propriety 2 n. a blatant mistake or misjudgment so-called debates, which were mainly about seeing which candidate made the most gaffes blunder, lapse, misstep, oversight gainsay [ ]

1 v. to declare false deny, contradict, contravene, naysay acknowledge, admit, avow, concede affirm 2 vt. to oppose, especially by contradiction No one dare to gainsay him. disagree, refute, reject, repudiate concur gall [ ] 1 vt. irritate, vex The sarcastic applause from the audience galled her. aggravate, exasperate, grate, inflame, provoke, pique, roil appease, assuage, calm, lull, pacify, placate 2 n. a deep-seated ill will Her kindly feelings turned to gall when she found out her nephew only wanted her money. animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, hostility, rancor amity 3 n. shameless boldness I can't believe he had the gall to ask me how much I weigh.

audacity, brass, nerve, presumptuousness, temerity gallant [ ] 1 adj. brave, spirited; nobly chivalrous and often self-sacrificing Gallant paratroopers jumped out of the plane without hesitation. bold, courageous, dauntless, heroic, stouthearted, valorous craven, pusillanimous 2 adj. having, characterized by, or arising from a dignified and generous nature The members of that service club are known for their gallant service to the community. chivalrous, elevated, loft, magnanimous, sublime base, debased, degenerate, ignoble gallantly adv. galvanize [ ] 1 vt. to stimulate or excite as if by an electric shock an issue that would galvanize public opinion provoke, agitate, excite, intoxicate, motivate, stimulate, pump up allay, lull, pacify galvanizing adj. gamble [ ]

1 vi. to bet on an uncertain outcome, as of a contest gambled on the train being late bet, adventure, chance, risk, stake, venture 2 vi. to place in danger You don't want to gamble with your life, so buckle up. compromise, hazard, imperil, jeopardize, threaten gambling n.

Unit 2

GAMBOL G ARMENT

GANGLY GARBLE GARRULOUS G ASH

GARGANTUAN GASIFICATION

GARISH GAUCHE

gambol [ ] 1 vi. to leap about playfully young lambs gamboling in the meadow frolic, caper, cavort plod, trudge gangly [ ]

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1 adj. awkwardly tall or long-limbed The suspect is a gangly high school boy. gangling, lanky, rangy, spindling, spindly stalwart garble [ ]

1 vt. to mix up or distort to such an extent as to make misleading or incomprehensible The summary totally garbles the results of the investigation. misrepresent, belie, color, distort, falsify, twist, warp clarify, elucidate 2 vt. to remove usually visible impurities from Garbled spices are less likely to contaminate a recipe. clear, distill, filter, purify adulterate, contaminate gargantuan [ ]

1 adj. tremendous in size, volume, or degree a gargantuan waterfall in the rainforest huge, astronomical, colossal, elephantine, enormous, gigantic, immense, mammoth, monstrous, titanic infinitesimal, minuscule garish [ ]

1 adj. marked by strident color or excessive ornamentation With garish makeup on, she looks exceedingly frivolous. gaudy, blatant, brazen, flamboyant, glaring, ostentatious dim, gloomy, murky, somber conservative, quiet garment [ ] 1 n. an article of clothing pack all garments apparel, attire, costume, dress, suit garrulous [ ]

1 adj. given to excessive and often trivial or rambling talk; tiresomely talkative garrulous traveling companions talkative, chatty, loquacious, verbose, voluble laconic, reserved, reticent, taciturn garrulity n. gash [ ]

1 n. a long deep cut got a gash in his knee that required four stitches incision, laceration, rent, rip, tear 2 v. to make a gash in Her face had been gashed by the rocks as she tumbled down the embankment.

cut, incision, piercing, slash, slice, slit sew gasification [ ]

1 n. conversion into gas gasification of coals evaporation, sublimation solidification liquefaction gasify v. gauche [ ]

1 adj. lacking social experience or grace It would be gauche to mention the subject. awkward, clumsy, crude, inept, maladroit, rustic, tactless graceful polished, refined, urbane gaucheness n.

Unit 3

GAUDY GERMANE

GAUGE GIBE

GEAR GIDDY

GENIAL GILD

GENTEEL GIST

gaudy [ ] 1 adj. ostentatiously or tastelessly ornamented, excessively showy gaudy movie posters blatant, brazen, flashy, garish, glaring, meretricious, tawdry austere, homely, plain conservative, understated, unflamboyant, unflashy

gauge [

]

1 n. a measurement (as of linear dimension) according to some standard or system polls as a gauge of voter satisfaction standard, benchmark, criterion, measure, touchstone, yardstick 2 vt. to determine the capacity or contents of It is hard to gauge his mood. assess, determine, evaluate, figure, measure, scale gear [ ]

1 v. to adjust or adapt so as to make suitable geared the speech towards a conservative audience adapt, adjust, fit, suit, tailor

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genial [ ] 1 adj. having an easygoing and pleasing manner especially in social situations a genial host who makes a point of speaking personally to each and every guest affable, agreeable, gracious, mellow, nice, pleasant, sweet caustic, mordant truculent 2 adj. having or showing kindly feeling and sincere interest amicable, companionable, cordial, warmhearted antagonistic, hostile 3 adj. marked by temperatures that are neither too high nor too low genial sunshine in winter balmy, equable, gentle, mild, moderate, soft, temperate harsh, inclement, intemperate, severe geniality n. genteel [ ]

1 adj. free from vulgarity or rudeness Her genteel behaviors at the ball make others conjecture that she must come from a distinguished noble family. courteous, decent, decorous, mannerly, polite, polished, respectable, urbane, couth, cultured, refined churlish loutish germane [ ]

1 adj. being at once relevant and appropriate details not germane to the discussion applicable, apropos, apposite, pertinent, relevant extraneous, irrelevant inappropriate gibe [ ] 1 vt. to deride or tease with taunting words gibe at the umpire deride, jeer, ridicule, mock, scoff, sneer, taunt respect, revere, venerate giddy [ ]

1 adj. lacking in seriousness or maturity teach a bunch of giddy Girl Scouts how to make a fire flighty, frivolous, frothy grave, serious earnest 2 adj. joyfully elated He's clearly giddy at the news that his ailing grandfather will be fine. elated, elevated, euphoric, exhilarated, exultant, intoxicated, rapturous depressed, melancholy gild [ ]

1 vt. to give an often deceptively attractive or improved appearance to Any further retouch would be gilding the lily. polish, refine, smooth gist [ ] 1 n. the main point or part the gist of the argument core, essence, kernel, pivot, quintessence, substance divergence

Unit 4

GLADIATOR GLOAT

GLAZE GLOOMY

GLIB GLOSS

GLISTEN GLOSSY

GLITCH GLUT

gladiator [ ] 1 n. a person engaged in a fight to the death as public entertainment for ancient Romans He comes to Rome as a gladiator to seek revenge. fighter, belligerent, combatant 2 n. a person engaging in a public fight or controversy boxer glaze [ ] 1 vt. to coat with or as if with a glaze The storm glazed trees with ice. adorn, bedeck, decorate, embellish, garnish strip, uncover 2 vt. to give a smooth glossy surface to polish, burnish, furbish, shine rumple glib [ ]

1 adj. marked by ease and fluency in speaking or writing often to the point of being insincere or deceitful a glib politician nonchalant, oily taciturn awkward 2 adj. lacking depth and substance glib solutions to the knotty problem cursory, shallow, superficial abstruse, deep, profound

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glisten [ ] 1 vi. to shine by reflection with a sparkling luster The calm sea glistened in the sunlight. flash, scintillate, sparkle, twinkle, winkle dim glitch [ ]

1 n. a minor malfunction, mishap, or technical problem postponement due to a glitch in a spacecraft's fuel cell bug, defect, fault, lapse, imperfection, peccadillo fatal error gloat [ ]

1 vi. a feeling of great, often malicious, pleasure or self-satisfaction gloat over his enemy's misfortune crow, relish, triumph mourn gloomy [ ]

1 adj. being without light or without much light black, dark, dim, dimmed, murky, obscure, stygian, pitch-dark bright, luminous, lucent, lucid 2 adj. low in spirits feel gloomy about future career sullen, dejected, dour, melancholy, morose, saturnine, surly frothy buoyant, cheerful, jubilant gloss [ ]

1 n. a brief explanation of a difficult or obscure word or expression abstract, annotation, brief, epitome, synopsis amplification 2 n. a deceptively attractive external appearance used a computer to give her astrological predictions the gloss of real science façade, mask, veneer 3 v. to deal with (a subject or problem) too lightly or not at all gloss over the problems disregard, ignore, neglect, overlook scrutinize 4 v. to make (something) seem less bad by offering excuses I don't want to gloss over her misbehavior, but keep in mind that she's been under a lot of stress lately. excuse, extenuate glossary n. glossy [ 1 ] adj. having a smooth, shiny, lustrous surface

glossy surface of the floor lustrous, burnished, glistening, polished, shining coarse dull, dim glut [ ] 1 v. to fill beyond capacity, especially with food glut himself with Sushi cloy, cram, fill, satiate, surfeit, oversupply, sate lack glutted adj.

Unit 5

GLUTINOUS GOLDBRICK

GLUTTON GORGE

GOAD GOSSAMER

GOBBLE GOURMAND

GOGGLE GOURMET

glutinous [ ] 1 adj. of the nature of or resembling glue glutinous liquid adherent, adhesive, cloggy, gluey, sticky, tenacious, viscid fluid glutton [ ]

1 n. a person who eats or consumes immoderate amounts of food and drink a glutton for work gorger, gourmand gluttony n. goad [ ]

1 vt. to incite or rouse as if with a goad goad someone to do something urge, abet, exhort, instigate, prod, prompt, propel, spur, stimulate check, curb lull gobble [ ]

1 vt. to swallow or eat greedily Lions gobble their prey. devour, gorge, guzzle, quaff, raven, swill nibble goggle [ 1 v. ] to look long and hard in wonder or surprise

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goggled at the characters on the stele blink, gawk, gaze, peer, stare glance, glimpse goldbrick [ ]

1 vi. to shirk one's assigned duties or responsibilities goldbrick his duty as a citizen idle, parry, parry, shirk, sidestep dedicate, devote gorge [ ]

1 n. a narrow steep-walled canyon or part of a canyon Wenchuan earthquake is said to have no detrimental effect on Three-Gorge dam. gap, gulch, notch, ravine 2 vi. to eat greedily or to repletion gorge himself at the party cram, devour, gobble, guzzle, loaf, quaff, sate, swill nibble gorgeous adj. gossamer [ ]

1 n. something light, delicate, or insubstantial the gossamer of youth's dreams ether, delicacy substance, entity 2 adj. extremely light, delicate, or tenuous a gossamer explanation diaphanous ,ethereal, filmy, light, insubstantial, tenuous heavy, leaden, ponderous gourmand [ ] n. one who is excessively fond of eating and drinking the kind of gourmand who swallows food without even pausing to taste it gorger, glutton gourmet [ ]

n. a connoisseur of food and drink a gourmet of Chinese food bon vivant ,connoisseur, epicure layman

Unit 6

GRANDEUR G R AT I F Y

GRANDILOQUENT G R AT U I TO U S

GRANDIOSE GRANDSTAND GREEN G R E G AR I O U S

GRATE GRIEVE

grandeur [ ] 1 n. nobility or greatness of character the glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome magnificence, augustness, brilliance, glory, majesty, nobility, resplendence, splendor frivolousness grand adj. grandiloquent [ ]

1 adj. a lofty, extravagantly colorful, pompous, or bombastic style, manner, or quality especially in language feel disgusted with his grandiloquent speech rhetorical, bombastic, inflated, magniloquent, pretentious secretive simple grandiloquence n. grandiose [ ]

1 adj. characterized by feigned or affected grandeur grandiose words extravagant, flamboyant, pompous, pretentious humble 2 adj. characterized by greatness of scope or intent a grandiose hydroelectric project august, glorious, grand, imposing, magnificent, monumental, splendid trivial humble, unimposing, unimpressive grandiosity n. grandstand [ ] to play or act so as to impress onlookers

1 vi. to grandstand on the stage act, perform, pretend grate [ ]

1 vt. to make a rasping sound The sled grated along the bare pavement. abrade, rasp, scratch, scrape 2 vt. to irritate or annoy persistently a noise that grates on one's nerves irritate, aggravate, gall, nettle, peeve, plague, provoke, vex soothe grating adj. gratify [ 1 vt. ] to give what is desired to, to please or satisfy

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gratify her curiosity appease, cater, content, satisfy displease grieve gratification n. gratuitous [ ]

Her praise will gratify all who worked so hard to earn it.

1 adj. unnecessary or unwarranted a dubious request based on a gratuitous assumption unfounded, unjustified, unreasonable, baseless, groundless justified, warranted 2 adj. given or granted without return or recompense a gratuitous ticket free, complimentary, unearned, voluntary merited 3 adj. not needed by the circumstances or to accomplish an end dispensable, inessential, needless, redundant, superfluous, surplus critical, essential, pivotal, vital gratuity n. green [ ]

adj. deficient in training, knowledge, or experience lead a squad of green recruits inexperienced, callow, fresh, raw, unfledged, young experienced, versed gregarious [ ]

1 adj. likely to seek or enjoy the company of others convivial, extroverted, genial, outgoing, sociable, outgoing aloof antisocial introverted, reclusive 2 adj. tending to group with others of the same kind ecologically define human as gregarious carnivore social solitary grieve [ ]

1 vt. to feel deep sadness or mental pain we all grieved over the lost cat agonize, anguish, suffer bemoan, bewail, deplore delight, exult in, glory in, joy, rejoice in

Unit 7

GRIMACE

GRIN

GRIPE

GRISLY

GROOVE

GROTESQUE

GROVEL

GRUELING

GUILE

GUILT

grimace [ ] 1 v./n. a sharp contortion of the face expressive of pain, disgust or disapproval she made a grimace when she tasted the medicine frown, moue, pout, scowl grin [ ] 1 vi. to express an emotion (as amusement) by curving the lips upward The boss grinned his approval. beam pout

gripe [ ] 1 v. to express dissatisfaction, pain, or resentment usually tiresomely All workers were griping about the new regulations. carp, fuss, grouch, grouse, grumble, wail crow, delight, rejoice 2 v. to disturb the peace of mind of (someone) especially by repeated disagreeable acts constant complaints from the customers griped her to the point where she started snapping back aggravate, annoy, bother, chafe, exasperate, nettle, peeve, pique, rile, ruffle, vex grisly [ ]

1 adj. inspiring repugnance; gruesome a series grisly murders appalling, dreadful, ghastly, gruesome, hideous, horrifying, macabre groove [ u: ] 1 v. to take pleasure in thrill-seekers who groove on skiing will love snowboarding || just sitting around, grooving on the music adore, fancy, savor, relish, get off on, rejoice in, revel in, delight in grotesque [ ] 1 adj. unpleasant to look at that bloody Halloween mask is grotesque hideous, homely, ill-favored, monstrous, unappealing, unattractive, uncomely, unsightly aesthetic, attractive, beautiful, bonny, comely, fetching, gorgeous, knockout, ravishing, seemly, sightly, stunning, taking, well-favored grovel [ ] 1 vi. to draw back or crouch down in fearful submission He made a groveling apology to the girl. cringe, creep, slither, wriggle

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groveler n. grueling [ ]

the one who lies with the body prostrate in token of subservience or abasement

1 adj. requiring much time, effort, or careful attention cutting diamonds can be grueling work arduous, burdensome, laborious, onerous, taxing, toilsome effortless, light, unchallenging, undemanding, undemanding, facile guile [ ]

1 n. the inclination or practice of misleading others through lies or trickery a person so full of guile he can't even be trusted to give you the correct time of day artfulness, canniness, craft, cunningness, deviousness, slyness, subtleness, wiliness artlessness, forthrightness, ingenuousness, sincerity guileless adj. free of guile; artless manipulative guilt [ ] 1 n. a feeling of responsibility for wrongdoing he was wracked with guilt after he accidentally broke his sister's antique grandfather clock contrition, penitence, remorse, repentance, self-reproach, shame impenitence, remorselessness

Unit 8

GULL HACK

GULLIBLE HACKNEYED

GUSH HALCYON

GUST HALE

GUZZLE HALF-BAKED

gull [g l] 1 v. to cause to believe what is untrue we were gulled into believing that if we answered the e-mail, we'd somehow become millionaires, but instead we just got put on a list for junk mail bamboozle, beguile, cozen, delude, dupe, fake out, gaff, hoax, hoodwink, snooker, string along, take in undeceive gullible [ ] 1 adj. easily duped or cheated, readily taken advantage of They sell overpriced souvenirs to gullible tourists. dewy-eyed, exploitable, naive, susceptible, unwary, wide-eyed

gush [ ] 1 v. to flow forth suddenly in great volume water gushing from the hydrant exodus, outpour, outpouring, spout dribble, drip, drop, trickle 2 vi. to make an exaggerated display of affection or enthusiasm an aunt gushing over the baby drool, effuse, enthuse, fuss, rave, slobber gust [ st]

1 n. a sudden intense expression of strong feeling the stressed-out coworker cried out with a gust of emotion burst, ebullition, eruption, explosion, flush, gush guzzle [ ] 1 v. to drink especially liquor greedily, continually, or habitually guzzle beer gulp, quaff, swig, booze, soak, tipple hack [ ] 1 n. a writer who aims solely for commercial success 2 vt. to cut or chop with repeated and irregular blows hacking out new election districts 3 vt. to deal with (something) usually skillfully or efficiently just couldn't hack the new job address, contend with, cope with, manage, maneuver, manipulate 4 v. to put up with (something painful or difficult) she's not sure she can hack that miserable job much longer abide, bide, brook, countenance, endure, handle, stand, stomach, sustain, tolerate

hackneyed [ ] 1 adj. lacking in freshness or originality hackneyed slogans banal, cliché, commonplace, hack, threadbare, trite, well-worn, stereotyped fresh, offbeat, original, novel halcyon [ ] 1 adj. free from storms or physical disturbance hushed, peaceful, placid, serene, tranquil, untroubled tempestuous, stormy, agitated, inclement, restless, rough, turbulent, unquiet, unsettled 2 adj. prosperous, affluent, vigorous growth and well-being especially economically halcyon years booming, flourishing, lush, palmy, prospering, roaring, thriving miserable, depressed, unprosperous hale [ ]

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1 adj. free from infirmity or illness; sound a hale and hearty old lady bouncing, fit, robust, sound, well-conditioned, wholesome effete, infirm, anemic, wan, decrepit, blighted 2 v. to cause to follow by applying steady force on the fishermen haled the huge net onto the deck of the ship drag, draw, haul, lug, tow, tug drive, propel, push half-baked [ ]

1 adj. showing or marked by a lack of good sense or judgment a half-baked scheme daffy, daft, dippy, harebrained, half-witted, preposterous judicious, prudent, sagacious, sapient, sensible, sound, wise

Unit 9

HALLMARK HAMPER

HALLOW HAMSTRING

HALLUCINATION HANGDOG

HAM-HANDED HANKERING

HAMMER HAPHAZARD

hallmark

[

]

1 n. a conspicuous feature or characteristic the dramatic flourishes are the hallmark of the trial lawyer ensign, impresa, logo, symbol, totem, trademark uncharacteristic feature hallow [ ]

1 vt. to respect or honor greatly; revere consecrate, sacralize, sanctify desecrate, deconsecrate, desacralize, desanctify hallucination [ ] 1 n. a false idea or belief the common hallucination that gluttony during the holiday season doesn't have consequences chimera, daydream, delusion, fancy, figment, illusion truth, verity ham-handed [ ]

1 adj. lacking dexterity or grace too ham-handed to use one of those tiny cell phones awkward, handless, heavy-handed, maladroit, unhandy deft, dexterous, handy, sure-handed, adroit

hammer [ ] 1 v. to make repeated efforts especially :to reiterate an opinion or attitude. the lectures all hammered away at the same points || hammered the information into the students' heads hamper [ ] 1 vt. to restrict the movement of by bonds or obstacles: impede Construction is hampering traffic on the highway. cramp, encumber, fetter, handicap, hinder, impede, stymie, trammel facilitate, aid, assist, facilitate, help hamstring [ ] 1 vt. to make ineffective or powerless the downtown development committee claims that it's hamstrung by city ordinances cripple, immobilize, incapacitate, prostrate hangdog [ ] 1 adj. sad, dejected She came home with a hangdog expression on her face. crestfallen, dejected, despondent, disconsolate, doleful, melancholy, sorrowful buoyant, elated, sprightly, blissful, delighted, joyous, jubilant, upbeat hanker [ ]

1 v./n. to have a strong or persistent desire: yearn hankering for adventure appetite, craving, hunger, itch, longing, lust, passion, thirst, yearning odium, lack of desire haphazard [ ] 1 adj. marked by lack of plan, order, or direction We were given a haphazard tour of the city. aimless, arbitrary, desultory, erratic, scattered, stray methodical, systematic, nonrandom, orderly, organized, regular

Unit 10

HARANGUE HARDY

HARASS HARMONIOUS

HARBINGER HARNESS

HARBOR HARROW

HARD-BITTEN HARRY

harangue

[

]

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1 v. a long pompous speech, especially one delivered before a gathering She harangued us for hours about the evils of popular culture. diatribe, harangue, jeremiad, philippic, rant speak temperately harass [ ]

1 v to irritate or torment persistently The troops harrassed the defeated army throughout its retreat. 2 v. to use up all the physical energy of had been visibly harassed by the demands of the presidency drain, fag, fatigue, outwear, tire, tucker out, wear out, knock out, burn out, harbinger [ ] 1 n. one that presages or foreshadows what is to come The October air stung my cheeks, a harbinger of winter. foregoer, herald, outrider, precursor harbor [ ]

1 vt. to provide a place, home, or habitat for harbor a fugitive accommodate, bestow, board, camp, chamber, domicile, lodge, quarter, take in, put up evict 2 v. to keep in one's mind or heart he had long harbored a grudge against his old employer, who had fired him without cause bear, cherish, entertain, hold, nurse hard-bitten [ ] 1 adj. able to withstand hardship, strain, or exposure hard-bitten Chinese people could endure both the scorching heat and the freezing cold hardened, sturdy, tough, cast-iron, inured, rugged, stout, vigorous, hardy delicate, nonhardy, soft, tender, weak hardy [ ] 1 adj. able to withstand hardship, strain, or exposure chrysanthemums are hardy enough to survive a light frost hardened, sturdy, tough, cast-iron, inured, rugged, stout, vigorous, hard-bitten delicate, nonhardy, soft, tender, weak 2 adj. inclined or willing to take risks hardy souls who pioneered new paths into outer space adventurous, audacious, daring, dashing, emboldened, enterprising, gutsy, venturous unadventurous, unenterprising harmonious [ ]

1 adj. having the parts agreeably related a harmonious arrangement of archways and doorways in the palace courtyard balanced, congruous, consonant, eurythmic, harmonic, accordant, coherent, compatible, concordant, conformable, congruent, consonant, correspondent, nonconflicting disharmonic, disharmonious, incongruous, unbalanced conflicting, incompatible, incongruous, inconsistent harness [ ]

1 vt. utilize harness the sun's rays as a source of energy apply, employ, exercise, exploit, operate, utilize fail to utilize harrow [ ] 1 vt. to inflict great distress or torment on the villagers were gaunt and sickly, harrowed by years of disease and starvation agonize, beset, besiege, torment, torture, excruciate, plague assuage harry [ ] 1 v. comfort, mollify

to disturb or distress by or as if by repeated attacks; harass

List 12
“ —— 2009 6 Verbal 720 Quantitative 800 ”

Unit 1

HARSH HAVEN

HASTEN HAVOC

HASTY HEADLONG

HAUNT HEARKEN

HAUTEUR HEARTEN

harsh [ 1

] adj. unpleasantly coarse and rough to the touch, disagreeable to one's

aesthetic or artistic sense the harsh lighting in the cafeteria makes the food look slightly off-color grating, grotesque, jarring, unaesthetic soft, aesthetic 2 adj. unduly exacting, given to exacting standards of discipline and self-restraint a harsh judge when it comes to drug users and especially drug dealers afflicting, agonizing, cruel, excruciating, galling, grievous, harrowing clement, forbearing, gentle, indulgent, lax, lenient, tolerant hasten [ 1 vt. ] to speed up; accelerate

The man’s death was hastened by alcohol abuse. accelerate, bundle, fast-track, rush, speed up slow the progress of, check, retard, brake, decelerate, retard, slow down hasty [ 1 ] adj. fast and typically superficial; acting or done with excessive or careless speed

a hasty decision cursory, headlong, precipitate, rash, rushed, pell-mell deliberate, well considered, unhurried, unrushed haunt [ 1 vt. ] to visit often; frequent

haunt the movie theater affect, habituate, visit, hang at, resort to avoid, shun 2 vt. to come to mind continually; obsess

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a riddle that haunted me all morning hauteur 1 [ n ] haughtiness in bearing and attitude; arrogance

he looked at her with the hauteur of someone who is accustomed to being instantly obeyed bumptiousness, imperiousness, peremptoriness, pomposity, presumptuousness, pretentiousness, superciliousness, superiority humility, humbleness, modesty, unassumingness, unpretentiousness haven [ 1 n. ] a place of safety

a haven for artists asylum, harbor, refuge, retreat, sanctuary unsafe place, dangerous place havoc [ 1 n. ] a state in which everything is out of order

the blackout caused havoc in the city disarrangement, disarray, dishevelment, muddle, muss, tumble, welter order, orderliness 2 n. the state or fact of being rendered nonexistent, physically unsound, or useless the powerful hurricane wreaked havoc all along the coast annihilation, decimation, demolishment, desolation, devastation, extermination, extinction, obliteration, ruin, wreckage building, construction, erection, raising headlong [ 1 adj. ] without deliberation

terrified forest creatures in a headlong retreat from the rapidly spreading fire cursory, overhasty, precipitate, precipitous, rash, pell-mell, helter-skelter deliberate, unhurried, unrushed hearken [ 1 vi. ] to give respectful attention

attend, harken, heed, mind ignore hearten [ 1 vt. ] to give strength, courage, or hope to; encourage

thinking we were hopelessly lost, we were heartened by the sight of a familiar farmhouse embolden, inspire, inspirit, buck up, buoy up, cheer up daunt, dismay, discourage, dishearten, dispirit

Unit 2

HEARTRENDING HEDONISM HEGEMONY HEINOUS HERALD HERESY HERETICAL HERMETIC

HEW HESITANCE

heartrending [ 1 adj.

] causing intense sorrow or distress

a heartrending choice between saving his mother or his wife hedonism [ 1 n. ] the doctrine that pleasure or happiness is the sole or chief good in life

their spring break trip to Mexico became an exercise in heedless hedonism carnality, debauchery, sybaritism, voluptuousness abstinence, asceticism, sobriety, temperance hegemony [ 1 n. ] preponderant influence or authority over others

battled for hegemony in Asia ascendancy, dominance, dominion, predominance, preeminence lack of authority heinous [ 1 adj. ] hatefully or shockingly evil, abominable

a heinous crime commendable hew [hju:] 1 vi. confirm, adhere, to hold to something firmly as if by adhesion hew to tradition adhere, cling, conform 2 v. to give steadfast support to no longer was able to hew to the party line and so he switched political parties cling to, keep to, stand by, stick to defect from herald [ 1 vt. ] to make known openly or publicly

herald the great tidings to all the world annunciate, broadcast, declare, enunciate, proclaim, promulgate

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2

v.

to give a slight indication of beforehand

the reshuffle of the company's management heralded the sweeping changes to come adumbrate, forerun, harbinger, prefigure heresy [ 1 n. ] a controversial or unorthodox opinion or doctrine, departure from a

generally accepted theory, opinion, or practice the heresy of asserting that Shakespeare was not a great writer dissent, dissidence, heterodoxy, nonconformity dogma, conformity, orthodoxy heretical [ 1 adj. ] departure from established beliefs or standards

the belief that women should be allowed to have careers outside the home was once considered heretical heterodox, nonconformist, unconventional, unorthodox conforming, conformist, conventional, orthodox hermetic [ 1 adj. ] relating to or characterized by occultism or abstruseness

wrote hermetic poetry abstruse, arcane, esoteric, recondite easily comprehended, shallow, superficial hesitance [ 1 n. ] the quality or state of being hesitant, reluctance

sales figures for the month were up, as consumers began to overcome their hesitance about purchasing big-ticket items faltering, indecision, irresolution, vacillation, wavering, wobbling alacrity, impetuosity, inclination, willingness

Unit 3

HETERODOX HILARIOUS

HIDEBOUND HISTRIONIC

HIDEOUS HIVE

HIE HOARD

HIKE HOARY

heterodox [ 1 adj. form, custom, or rules

] holding unorthodox opinions or doctrines, not rigidly following established

her heterodox approach to teaching science initially met with some resistance from her peers dissenting, out-there, unconventional, unorthodox conforming, conventional, orthodox, regular, routine hidebound [ 1 adj. ] tending to favor established ideas, conditions, or institutions

the hidebound innkeeper refused to see the need for a Web site archconservative, brassbound, die-hard, old-fashioned, standpat, ultraconservative broad-minded, large-minded, liberal, nonconservative, nonconventional, nonorthodox, nontraditional, open-minded, progressive hideous [ 1 adj. ] exceedingly ugly

wearing a hideous Halloween mask that made the kids all jump with fright homely, ill-favored, monstrous, uncomely, unsightly pulchritudinous, aesthetic, attractive, comely, gorgeous, handsome, knockout, ravishing, seemly, stunning, taking, well-favored hideousness affinity hie [ 1 ] vi. to go quickly, hasten we had best hie home before the rain gets worse bustle, dash, hustle, scoot, scurry, scuttle, shoot, trot dawdle, crawl, creep, poke hike [ 1 ] vi. to rise up, to move from a lower to a higher place or position hike rents boost, elevate, heighten, hoist, upraise backset, drop, lower hilarious [ 1 adj. ] marked by or causing hilarity: extremely funny

hilarious cartoons that the whole family can enjoy hysterical, ludicrous, ridiculous, screaming, sidesplitting, uproarious humorless, lame, unamusing, uncomic, unfunny histrionic [ 1 adj. ] of or relating to actors, acting, or the theater

a penchant for dish throwing, door slamming, and other histrionic displays of temper melodramatic, operatic, stagy, theatrical undramatic

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hive [ 1 2 hoard [ 1

] n. v. ] v. to keep hidden or private a place swarming with activity to store up; accumulate The house was a hive of activity as we prepared for the party.

he's been hoarding empty yogurt containers all winter cache, stash, stockpile, store, squirrel, stockpile lavish hoary [ 1 ] adj. extremely old

hoary legends aged, antique, dateless, immemorial, antediluvian modern, new, recent

Unit 4

HOAX HODGEPODGE HOMOGENIZE HONE

HOMAGE HOODWINK

HOMELY HORTATIVE

HOMILY HOVEL

h o ax [ 1

] n./v. to cause to believe what is untrue

a skilled forger who hoaxed the art world into believing that the paintings were long-lost Vermeers bamboozle, beguile, bluff, con, cozen, delude, dupe, fake out, gull, hoodwink, take in hodgepodge [ 1 art agglomeration, assortment, collage, medley, mishmash, pastiche, potpourri homage ['h mid ] 1 n. expression of high regard: respect Homage to Catalonia commendation, eulogy, hymn, paean, panegyric, salutation, tribute, dithyramb disrespect homely [ ] n. ] a mixture of dissimilar ingredients; a jumble || the exhibit was a hodgepodge of mediocre art, bad art, and really bad

a hodgepodge of styles

1

adj.

not attractive or good-looking

homely truth hideous, unappealing, unattractive, uncomely, unsightly pulchritudinous, aesthetic, attractive, beautiful, comely, gorgeous, handsome, knockout, lovely, pretty, ravishing, seemly, sightly, stunning, taking, well-favored homily [ 1 n. ] an idea or expression that has been used by many people

a TV movie filled with the usual hokey homilies about people triumphing over life's adversities banality, bromide, chestnut, cliché, groaner, platitude, shibboleth homogenize [ 1 v. ] to make agree with a single established standard or model

plans to homogenize the science curriculum in public high schools throughout the state formalize, homogenize, normalize, regularize hone [ 1 ] v. to sharpen or smooth with a whetstone || honed his

honed the knife's blade to razor-like sharpness crossword-puzzle skills by reading the dictionary edge, grind, strop, whet blunt, dull hoodwink [ 1 vt. ] to take in by deceptive means; deceive

Don't let yourself be hoodwinked into buying things you don't need. beguile, con, delude, dupe, fool, hoax, humbug disabuse hortative [ 1 hovel [ 1 adj. ] n. a small, wretched, and often dirty house ] giving exhortation

cabin, camp, hooch, hut, hutch, hutment, shanty

Unit 5

HU B RI S HUSBAND

HUM B LE HUSK

HU MI L I TY HUSKY

HUMO R HYBRID

HURRI C ANE HYMN

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hubris [ 1 n.

] exaggerated pride or self-confidence

His failure was brought on by his hubris. humility humble [ 1 adj. ] marked by meekness or modesty in behavior, attitude, or spirit; not arrogant or prideful

a medical scientist who remained remarkably humble even after winning the Nobel Prize modest, unassuming, unpretentious, demure, down-to-earth arrogant, bumptious, conceited, egotistic, haughty, high-and-mighty, imperious, lordly, overweening, peremptory, pompous, presuming, presumptuous, pretentious, self-assertive, supercilious, superior, toplofty, uppish, uppity 2 adj. showing, expressing, or offered in a spirit of humility or unseemly submissiveness please accept my humble thanks base, humble, menial, servile, slavish humility [ 1 n. ] the absence of any feelings of being better than others

Haughtiness invites disaster; humility receives benefit. demureness, humbleness, lowliness, meekness, modesty arrogance, assumption, bumptiousness, hauteur, pomposity, presumption, superciliousness humor [ 1 n. ] something that is or is designed to be comical or amusing

The speech is full of wit and humor. comedy, comic, drollery, drollness, funniness, hilariousness pathos 2 v. to comply with the wishes or ideas of Parents need to know how to humor kids when they are upset. cater, gratify, indulge hurricane 1 [ n. ] a violent rotating storm or system of winds

The hurricane struck the coast early today. storm, typhoon calm 2 n. something resembling a hurricane especially in its turmoil economic news that unleashed a hurricane on the trading floor disturbance, furor, pandemonium, tumult, turmoil, uproar husband [ 1 vt. ] to use sparingly or economically

Husbanding precious resources was part of rural life. budget, conserve, economize dissipate, lavish, prodigalize, squander, waste husbandly adj. husk [ 1 ] n. a usually dry or membranous outer covering (as a pod or one composed husbandry n.

of bracts) of various seeds and fruits (as barley and corn) a grey squirrel nibbling on a peanut husk bark, chaff, hull, shell core, kernel 2 v. to remove the natural covering of —— the tedious task of husking coconuts bark, flay, hull, shell, shuck, skin husky [ 1 ] adj. hoarse or rough in quality

a voice husky with emotion coarse, grating, gravelly, harsh, rasping, rusty, scratchy, throaty mellifluous 2 adj. big and muscular a very husky young man, built like a football player beefy, burly, hefty, muscular, powerful, strapping, rugged dwarf hybrid 1 [ n. ] something of mixed origin or composition

a hybrid of medieval and Renaissance styles amalgam, bastard, compound, mixture, mule 2 adj. being offspring produced by parents of different races, breeds, species, or genera a hybrid rose called “American Beauty” crossbred, mongrel purebred hymn [ 1 ] n. a song of praise or joy

They sang a hymn of praise to God. eulogy, homage, hymn, ode, paean, panegyric, psalm, salutation, tribute dirge, elegy 2 v. to proclaim the glory of During the honeymoon following the inauguration, newspaper articles seemed to hymn the president's every move. bless, carol, celebrate, emblazon, exalt, extol, glorify, laud, magnify, resound blame, censure, reprehend, reprobate

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Unit 6

HYPERBOLE IDYLL

HYPNOTIC IGNITE

HYPOCRITICAL IGNOMINY

ICONOCLAST ILLITERACY

IDOLATRIZE ILLUMINATI

hyperbole [ 1 n.

] a figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect

The debate was carried on with increasing rhetorical hyperbole. coloring, embellishment, embroidering, exaggeration, magnification, overstatement understatement hypnotic 1 [ adj. ] tending to cause sleep

Her eyes soon grew heavy from the hypnotic rhythm of the train's wheels. drowsy, narcotic, opiate, sleepy, slumberous, soporific stimulating hypocritical [ 1 from her. artificial, backhanded, feigned, mealy-mouthed, phony, pretended, unctuous artless, candid, genuine, honest, sincere, undesigning, unfeigned hypocrite n. iconoclast [ 1 n. ] a person who does not conform to generally accepted standards or customs adj. ] not being or expressing what one appears to be or express refreshing

It's hypocritical to say mean things behind someone's back, and then to act nice when you want something

He was an iconoclast who refused to be bound by tradition. bohemian, deviant, heretic, maverick, non-conformer conformer, conformist iconoclastic adj. idolatrize 1 [ v. ] admires intensely and often blindly

Some teenagers idolatrized Hitler more than their own parents. adore, adulate, canonize, deify, dote, worship abhor, abominate, detest, dislike, hate, loathe idolatry n.

idyll [ 1

] n. a carefree episode or experience a summer idyll on the coast of the Mediterranean frisk, frolic, gambol, revel, lark

ignite

[ 1 vt.

] to cause to burn; to set fire to 60

The bombs ignited a fire which destroyed some 60 houses. enkindle, fire, inflame, kindle, light, torch douse, extinguish, quench, put out 2 vt. to arouse the passions of The insults ignited my anger. arouse, incite, instigate, pique, spark, stimulate, stir appease, assuage, calm, conciliate, mollify, pacify, placate, propitiate, soothe ignominy [ 1 n. ] the state of having lost the esteem of others

He spent the remainder of his life in ignominy after being involved in a bribery scandal. discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, infamy, obloquy, odium, opprobrium, reproach, shame glory, honor ignominious adj. illiteracy [ 1 n. ] the condition of being unable to read and write esteem, respect

a nationwide campaign against illiteracy ignorance learning, literacy illiterate adj. illuminati [ 1 n. ] persons who claim to be unusually enlightened

clerisy, intellectual, intelligentsia, literati fool, dolt, dullard, idiot, simpleton 2 n. individuals carefully selected as being the best of a class a book launching party to which only New York's cultural illuminati were invited aristocracy, elite, upper crust

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Unit 7

ILLUMINATE IMMACULATE

ILLUSORY IMMANENT

IMBIBE IMMATERIAL

IMBROGLIO IMMATURE

IMITATION IMMEMORIAL

illuminate 1

[ vt.

] to make luminous or shining

to illuminate with a spotlight bathe, beacon, emblaze, illume, illumine, irradiate, lighten blacken, darken, obfuscate 2 vt. to make plain or understandable illuminates what the role of government is in Keynesian Economics. Roosevel

clarify, clear, construe, demonstrate, demystify, elucidate, explicate, expound, illustrate, interpret obscure 3 vt. to provide (someone) with moral or spiritual understanding how man is illuminated by a higher spirit edify, educate, enlighten, inspire, nurture confuse, perplex, puzzle illumination n. illusory [ 1 adj. ] produced by, based on, or having the nature of an illusion

the illusory definition of nationhood chimerical, fanciful, fantastic, fictional, fictitious, imaginary, suppositious, supposititious, unreal factual illusion n. imbibe[ 1 v. ] to take in (something liquid) through small openings

Plants can imbibe water through their roots. drink, guzzle, hoist, quaff, sip, sponge urinate imbroglio[ 1 n. ] an intricate or complicated situation

What investor would willingly become involved in this imbroglio? complexity, complication, embarrassment, entanglement, involvement, misunderstanding, quandary 2 n. an often noisy or angry expression of differing opinions an imbroglio involving some big names in the entertainment industry altercation, controversy, disagreement, dispute, fight, quarrel, squabble, wrangle

harmony imitation 1 [ n. ] something that is made to look exactly like something else

usually wore imitations of her costly jewels clone, copy, dupe, duplication, facsimile, mock, reduplication, replica, replication, reproduction archetype, original, prototype imitating adj. immaculate [ 1 adj. ] free from dirt or stain; free from any trace of the coarse or indecent

an immaculate soul antiseptic, chaste, clean, decent, modest, pristine, pure, spotless, stainless, virgin coarse, indecent, obscene, vulgar sullied 2 adj. being entirely without fault or flaw an immaculate rendering of the Queen of the Night’s aria absolute, faultless, flawless, impeccable, indefectible, irreproachable, perfect, seamless, unblemished amiss, defective, faulty, flawed, imperfect immanent [ 1 adj. ] being a part of the innermost nature of a person or thing , besmirched, dirty, filthy, foul, spotted, stained,

Beauty is not something imposed but something immanent. constitutional, essential, inborn, inbred, indigenous, ingrained, innate, integral, intrinsic, natural adventitious, extrinsic, extraneous immaterial [ 1 adj. ] not composed of matter —— ethereal, formless, incorporeal, insubstantial, nonmaterial, spiritual bodily, corporeal, material, physical, substantial 2 adj. of no importance or relevance While undoubtedly upsetting, that story is immaterial to the question of why you are late. extraneous, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelevant applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, pertinent, relevant crucial, important, significant

It is only possible to study immaterial forces like gravity by observing their effects on the physical world.

immature 1

[ adj.

] lacking complete growth, differentiation, or development

immature frogs are called “tadpoles” adolescent, juvenile, youngish, youthful 2 adj. lacking in adult experience or maturity Many high school students are still too immature to foresee the consequences of their actions.

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green, inexperienced, puerile, raw, unfledged, unripe adult, experienced, mature, ripe immemorial [ 1 adj. ] dating or surviving from the distant past

a modern version of an immemorial myth aged, age-old, antediluvian, antique, dateless, hoary, old, venerable contemporary, modern recent

Unit 8

IMMUNE IMMURE IMPECUNIOUS IMPEDE

IMMUTABLE IMPENDING

IMPASSIVE IMPENETRABL

IMPECCABLE IMPENITENT

immune 1

[ adj.

] of, relating to, or having resistance to infection

The blood test will tell whether you are immune to the disease. resistant susceptible, vulnerable 2 adj. not affected by a given influence immune to persuasion insusceptible, unaffected, unresponsive ductile, pliable, pliant, yielding 3 adj. not subject to an obligation imposed on others immune from taxation exempt, free liable, responsible immunity n. immure 1 [ v. ] to confine within or as if within walls GRE enfranchise, free, liberate ] not capable of changing or being changed

immure oneself for GRE discharge, release immutable [ 1 adj.

bastille, confine, constrain, incarcerate, intern, jail, imprison

One of the immutable laws of television is that low ratings inevitably lead to cancellation. constant, fixed, inalterable, inflexible, invariable, unalterable, unchangeable alterable, changeable, elastic, flexible, mutable, variable

immutability n. impassive 1 [ adj. ] giving no sign of feeling or emotion

She remained impassive as the officers informed her of her son's death. affectless, apathetic, cold-blooded, deadpan, emotionless, numb, phlegmatic, stoic, undemonstrative demonstrative, emotional, fervent, fervid, impassioned, passionate, vehement impeccable 1 [ ] free from sin, guilt or blame

adj.

the belief that there can be no such thing as an impeccable soul blameless, clear, guiltless, inculpable, pure, sinless guilty, sinful 2 adj. free from fault or blame She had impeccable taste in clothes. absolute, faultless, flawless, immaculate, indefectible, irreproachable, perfect, seamless, unblemished amiss, defective, faulty, flawed, imperfect impecunious [ 1 adj. ] having very little or no money

They were so impecunious that they couldn't afford to give one another even token Christmas gifts. beggared, destitute, impoverished, indigent, necessitous, needy, penniless, penurious, threadbare affluent, flush, opulent, rich, wealthy impede 1 [ v. ] to interfere with or slow the progress of

Storms at sea impeded our expedition. clog, embarrass, encumber, fetter, hinder, inhibit, obstruct, retard, shackle, stymie, trammel aid, assist, facilitate, help impediment n. impending 1 [ adj. ] being soon to appear or take place

an impending celebration of the 100th anniversary of the college's founding approaching, coming, imminent, nearing, pending, proximate, upcoming, around the corner late, recent impenetrable 1 adj. [ ] impossible to get through or into distant, remote

The ancient temple was surrounded by vast stretches of impenetrable jungle. impassable, impermeable, impervious, impregnable passable, penetrable, permeable, pervious 2 adj. incapable of being comprehended

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The textbook's language is completely impenetrable, at least to me. arcane, cryptic, enigmatic, incomprehensible, inscrutable, unfathomable, ungraspable, unintelligible fathomable, intelligible, understandable impenitent [ 1 adj. ] not feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

remain impenitent about her criminal past remorseless, regretless, shameless, unashamed, unrepentant contrite, regretful, remorseful, rueful, penitent

Unit 9

IMPERATIVE IMPERVIOUS

IMPERIAL IMPERIOUS IMPETUOUS IMPIOUS

IMPERTINENT IMPERTURBABLE IMPLACABLE IMPLEMENT

imperative 1

[ n.

] a statement of what to do that must be obeyed by those concerned

a secretary of defense who was fond of issuing harshly worded imperatives command, decree, dictate, direction, directive, instruction, order, word 2 adj. forcing one's compliance or participation by or as if by law requests that grew more and more imperative compulsory, forced, involuntary, obligatory, peremptory, required optional 3 adj. voluntary needing immediate attention

an imperative need for medical supplies in the earthquake-ravaged country clamant, compelling, critical, crying, emergent, exigent, imperious, importunate, pressing, urgent noncritical, unimportant 4 adj. impossible to do without Proper equipment is imperative for the success of this chemical experiment. indispensable, necessary, necessitous, requisite, vital dispensable, inessential, needless, unnecessary imperial [ 1 adj. or empress Imperial College London kingly, queenly, regal, royal ] of, relating to, or suggestive of an empire or a sovereign, especially an emperor

2

adj.

large and impressive in size, grandeur, extent, or conception

envisioned an imperial city that would rival the capitals of Europe for beauty and magnificence august, epic, glorious, grand, imposing, magnificent, monumental, noble, splendid common, humble, inferior, low imperious 1 [ adj. ] fond of ordering people around

an imperious little boy who liked to tell the other scouts what to do authoritarian, autocratic, despotic, dictatorial, domineering, masterful, tyrannical 2 adj. arrogantly domineering or overbearing an imperious movie star who thinks she's some sort of goddess arrogant, bumptious, haughty, lofty, lordly, peremptory, pompous, presumptuous, supercilious, superior humble, lowly, modest 3 adj. intensely compelling As war casualties mounted, the need for trained nurses became imperious. clamant, compelling, critical, crying, dire, emergent, exigent, imperative, importunate, pressing, urgent noncritical, unimportant impertinent [ 1 adj. ] not having a clear decisive relevance to the matter in hand

Your résumé needlessly lists extracurricular experiences that are impertinent to the PhD program for which you are applying. extraneous, immaterial, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelevant germane, pertinent, relevant 2 adj. crucial, important, significant given to or characterized by insolent rudeness

I don't like strangers who ask impertinent questions. audacious, bold, brash, brassbound, brassy, brazen, impudent, insolent meek, mousy, retiring, shy, timid 3 adj. showing a lack of manners or consideration for others impertinent salesmen who telephone people during the dinner hour discourteous, disrespectful, inconsiderate, rude, thoughtless civil, courteous, genteel, gracious, mannerly, polite imperturbable 1 —— collected, composed, cool, disimpassioned, nonchalant, unflappable, unruffled choleric, touchy impervious [ 1 adj. ] not allowing entrance or passage adj. [ ] marked by extreme calm, impassivity, and steadiness considerate

The chef was absolutely imperturbable—even when the kitchen caught on fire.

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The material for this coat is supposed to be impervious to rain. impassable, impenetrable, impermeable, impregnable passable, penetrable, permeable, pervious 2 adj. not capable of being damaged or harmed a carpet impervious to rough treatment bulletproof, imperishable, indestructible, inextinguishable, invulnerable delicate, sensitive, vulnerable 3 adj. not capable of being affected or disturbed These sailors are impervious to fear. immune, insusceptible, unaffected, unresponsive ductile, pliable, pliant, yielding impetuous 1 [ adj. ] marked by impulsive vehemence or passion

He is young and impetuous. ardent, hasty, headlong, impassioned, impulsive, passionate, rash, vehement cautious, circumspect, wary 2 adj. marked by force and violence of movement or action an impetuous wind abrupt, hasty, hurried, precipitate, precipitous, rushing, sudden, violent calm, halcyon, placid, quiet impetus n. impious 1 [ adj. ] lacking reverence for holy or sacred matters

made impious remarks about the church blasphemous, irreverent, profane, sacrilegious pious impiety n. implacable 1 persuasion adamant, dogged, headstrong, intransigent, mulish, obdurate, pertinacious, stubborn, unyielding acquiescent 2 adj. an implacable enemy determined, grim, relentless, unappeasable placable implement [ 1 n. ] a device used in the performance of a task compliant, flexible, pliable, pliant, yielding not capable of being appeased, significantly changed, or mitigated [ adj. ] sticking to an opinion, purpose, or course of action in spite of reason, arguments, or reverent

gardening implements such as hoes, spades, and pruners apparatus, device, instrument, tool, utensil 2 v. to put into practical effect; carry out implement the new online application procedures

administer, apply, effect, enforce, execute, invoke, perform cancel, repeal, rescind, revoke implementation n.

Unit 10

MPLODE IMPRECISE

IMPOSING IMPROMPTU

IMPORTUNE IMPROVISE

IMPOSTOR IMPRUDENT

IMPOTENT IMPUDENT

implode [ 1 v.

] to collapse inward violently

The flask imploded during the vacuum distilling. buckle, founder, tumble, yield explode imposing 1 [ adj. ] impressive in size, bearing, dignity, or grandeur

The corporation's imposing headquarters were designed by one of the nation's cutting-edge architects. august, epic, glorious, grand, imperial, magnificent, monumental, noble, splendid common, humble, inferior, low importune [ ]

1 vt. to make a request to (someone) in an earnest or urgent manner beggars importuning passers-by appeal,beseech, besiege, conjure, entreat, impetrate, implore, petition, plead, pray, solicit, supplicate demand impostor [ 1 n. ] one that assumes false identity or title for the purpose of deception

The man who claimed to be a prince turned out to be an impostor. charlatan, fake, fraud, hoaxer, mountebank, phony, pretender, quack, sham impotent [ 1 adj. ] unable to produce fruit or offspring

Most mules are impotent. barren, fruitless, infertile, unfruitful fecund, fertile, fruitful, productive 2 adj. lacking in power, strength, or vigor an impotent ruler who was just a figurehead hamstrung, handcuffed, helpless, impuissant, paralyzed, weak

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mighty, potent, powerful, puissant, strong imprecise [ 1 adj. ] not precise

incomplete and imprecise satellite data approximate, inaccurate, loose, squishy accurate, exact, precise, veracious imprecision n. impromptu 1 2 n. adj. [ ] something, such as a speech, that is made or done extemporaneously composedwithout previous preparation

improvisation, extemporization Our dinner guest thanked us with an impromptu song. ad-lib, extemporary, improvised, offhand, unplanned, unpremeditated, unprepared, unrehearsed considered, planned, premeditated, prepared, rehearsed improvise 1 [ v. ] to invent, compose, or perform with little or no preparation

Since the award was a complete surprise, I improvised an acceptance speech. ad-lib, extemporize plan, premeditate imprudent [ 1 adj. ] lacking discretion, wisdom, or good judgment

an imprudent investment ha made many years ago impolitic, inadvisable, indelicate, injudicious, tactless, undiplomatic, unwise advisable, politic, prudent, tactical, wise impudent [ 1 adj. ] marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or disregard of others

Some children were well behaved, while others were impudent. audacious, barefaced, bold, brash, brazen, impertinent, insolent, shameless courteous, genteel, mannerly, polite, proper impudencen.

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2006 10 GRE Verbal720 GRE


Quantitatve800 AW5.5

Unit 1

IMPUGN INANIMATE

IMPUISSANCE INAUGURATE

INADVERTENT INCANDESCENT

INALIENABLE INANE INCANTATION INCARNATE

impugn 1

[ v.

] to attack as false or questionable; challenge in argument

impugn a political opponent's character attack, assail, contradict, contravene, cross, disaffirm, deny, gainsay, negate, negative, traverse advocate, back, support, uphold impuissance 1 n. [ ] lack of power or effectivenes authenticate

In spite of their impuissance the group remains highly active. impotence, powerlessness, weakness clout, potency, power, puissance impuissant adj. inadvertent [ 1 adj. ] happening by chance

an inadvertent encounter with a rattlesnake casual, fluky, incidental, unintentional, unplanned, unpremeditated, unwitting calculated, deliberate, intended, intentional, planned, premeditated 2 adj. marked by unintentional lack of care The military has said it was an inadvertent error. careless, feckless, heedless, irreflective, thoughtless, uncaring advertent, careful, heedful, mindful inalienable [ 1 adj. ] cannot be transferred to another or others

inalienable rights of the citizen untransferable alienable

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inane [ 1

] adj. lacking significance, meaning, or point

inane comments empty, insubstantial, pointless, senseless meaningful, significant inanimate [ 1 adj. ] not having the qualities associated with active, living organisms deep, profound

He thinks that inanimate objects have a life of their own. dead, lifeless, insensible, insentient, senseless, unfeeling animate, living inaugurate [ 1 vt. ] to induct into an office by a formal ceremony

A new leader will be inaugurated soon. induct, initiate, install, instate, invest, seat abdicate, resign 2 vt. to cause to begin, especially officially or formally inaugurate a new immigration policy begin, commence, establish, institute, introduce, launch, open, plant, start cease, close, end, terminate inauguration n. incandescent [ 1 adj. ] strikingly bright, radiant, or clear

incandescent light bulbs beaming, brilliant, dazzling, effulgent, glowing, lucent, luminous, lustrous, radiant, refulgent, shining dim, dull, lackluster 2 adj. characterized by glowing zeal It makes me incandescent with fury. ardent, demonstrative, emotional, fervid, impassioned, passionate, torrid, vehement cold, cool, dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional incantation [ 1 n. ] a spoken word or set of words believed to have magic power

Hovering over the sick child, the witch doctor muttered mysterious incantations. abracadabra, bewitchment, charm, conjuration, enchantment, glamour, hex, invocation incarnate 1 [ adj. ] invested with bodily nature and form

He referred to her as devil incarnate. embodied, materialized, personified, typified 2 v. to constitute an embodiment or type of the general view that Hitler incarnated extreme egotism epitomize, incorporate, manifest, materialize, personalize, personify, substantiate, symbolize

disembody incarnation n.

Unit 2

INCENDIARY INCHOATE

INCENSE INCINERATE

INCEPTION INCIPIENT

INCESSANT INCH INCITE INCLEMENT

incendiary [ 1 n.

] a person who stirs up public feelings especially of discontent

behind-the-scenes incendiaries who were intending to overthrow the government demagogue, exciter, firebrand, fomenter, inciter, instigator, kindler, provocateur 2 adj. tending to inflame an incendiary speech agitational, instigative, provocative, seditious conciliatory, pacific incense 1 [ n. ] a sweet or pleasant smell

the heavenly incense of spring flowers aroma, balm, bouquet, fragrancy, perfume, redolence, scent, spice fetor, malodor, reek, stench, stink 2 vt. to cause to be extremely angry This proposal will certainly incense female activists. aggravate, enrage, exasperate,inflame, infuriate, ire, madden, outrage, rankle, rile, roil delight, gratify, please inception 1 [ n. ] an act, process, or instance of beginning appease, conciliate, mollify, pacify, placate, propitiate, soothe

This seemed like a good program at its inception, but it isn't working out as planned. beginning, birth, commencement, dawn, genesis, kickoff, launch, nascence, onset, outset, start, threshold close, conclusion, end, termination,omega inceptive adj. incessant [ 1 adj. ] continuing or following without interruption

The incessant noise from an outside repair crew was a real distraction during the test. ceaseless, continual, nonstop, perpetual, running, unbroken, unceasing, uninterrupted, unremitting

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interrupted inch [ 1 ] n.

discontinuous, intermittent

a very small distance or degree Inch by inch, we're making progress toward our

give them aninch, and they'll take a mile fund-raising goal. ace, hairbreadth, skip, neck, step 2 v.

to move or cause to move slowly or by small degrees

The car inched carefully across the snow-covered bridge. crawl, creak, creep, limp, plod, slouch, snail dart, fleet, flit, scurry inchoate 1 [ adj. ] in an initial or early stage

inchoate feelings of affection for a man aborning, beginning, inceptive, incipient, initial, nascent adult, full-blown, full-fledged, mature, ripe 2 adj. imperfectly formed or developed a vague, inchoate notion amorphous, formless, shapeless, undeveloped, unformed, unshaped incinerate 1 [ vi. ] to cause to burn to ashes moribund

The government is trying to stop farmers incinerating their own waste. burn, carbonize douse, extinguish, quench, put out incineration n. incipient [ 1 adj. ] beginning to come into being or to become apparent

an incipient economic recovery aborning, beginning, inceptive, inchoate,initial, nascent adult, full-blown, full-fledged, mature, ripe incite [ 1 vt. ] to provoke and urge on moribund

inciting workers to strike arouse, abet, foment, instigate, pick, provoke, raise, stir dampen, deter, discourage, dishearten, dissuade inclement [ 1 adj. ] lacking mildness

inclement weather conditions bleak, harsh, severe, stormy, tempestuous bright, clear, cloudless, fair, sunny, sunshiny, unclouded

2

adj.

showing no clemency; unmerciful

bitter, brutal, intemperate, rigorous charitable, clement, lenient, merciful inclemency n.

Unit 3

INCOGITANT

INCONGRUENT

INCONSEQUENTIAL

INCONTROVERTIBLE

INCORRIGIBLE

INCRIMINATE

INCUBATE

INCULPATE

INCURSION

INDELIBLE

incogitant [ 1 adj.

] thoughtless; inconsiderate

an incogitant litterbug discourteous, disrespectful, ill-mannered, impertinent, inconsiderate, rude, thoughtless, ungracious civil, considerate, courteous, genteel, gracious, thoughtful incongruent [ 1 adj. ] not conforming to the circumstances or requirements of a situation

Two triangles are incongruent. conflicting, discordant, discrepant, dissonant, incompatible, incongruous, inconsonant congruent, congruous, consistent inconsequential [ 1 adj. ] not using or following good reasoning

an inconsequential line of argument fallacious, illogical, invalid, irrational, unreasonable, unsound, weak logical, rational, reasonable, sound, valid, well-founded, well-grounded 2 adj. of no significance That's an inconsequential problem compared to the other issues. fiddling, frivolous, inconsiderable, insignificant, minor, minute, negligible, nugatory, petty, slight, trivial consequential, eventful, important, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, weighty incontrovertible [ 1 adj. incontrovertible facts certain, inarguable, incontestable, indisputable, indubitable, positive, sure, undeniable, unquestionable arguable, controversial, debatable, disputable, problematic, questionable, refutable incontrovertibility n. incorrigible [ ] ] not open to question

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1

adj.

incapable of being corrected or amended

an incorrigible criminal deserving death penalty incurable, irrecoverable, irredeemable, irremediable, irretrievable, unrecoverable, unredeemable curable, reclaimable, recoverable, redeemable, remediable, retrievable, savable 2 adj. difficult or impossible to control or manage an incorrigible, spoiled child headstrong, intractable, obstinate, refractory, stubborn, unmanageable, unruly, willful compliant, docile, manageable, obedient, submissive, tractable incriminate [ 1 vt. ] to accuse of a crime or other wrongful act

incriminate innocent people charge, criminate ,impeach, indict absolve, acquit, exculpate, exonerate, vindicate incubate 1 [ vt. ] to cover and warm eggs as the young inside develop

The hen incubated her eggs for two weeks. brood, hatch, sit 2 vt. to cause or aid the development of Hopefully, these youthful visits to the museum will incubate an enduring love of art. advance, cultivate, encourage, forward, further, nourish, nurse, nurture, promote check, discourage, frustrate, hinder, impede, inhibit, obstruct, retard, shackle incubator n. inculpate 1 [ vt. ] incriminate incubation n.

charge, criminate, inculpate, indict absolve, acquit, exculpate, exonerate, vindicate incursion 1 [ n. ] a hostile entrance into a territory

homes damaged by the incursion of floodwater foray, inroad, invasion, irruption, raid retreat, withdrawal indelible [ 1 adj. indelible ink ineffaceable, ineradicable, inerasable, ingrained eradicable, erasable, removable, washable 2 adj. not easily forgotten most indelible experiences impressive, memorable, unforgettable forgettable ] impossible to remove, erase, or wash away

Unit 4

INDEMNITY INDISPENSABLE

INDICT INDIFFERENT INDOCTRINATE INDOLENT

INDIGENOUS INDUCEMENT

INDIGENT INDULGENT

indemnity [ 1 n.

] compensation for damage, loss, or injury suffered

The widow now lives on a pension and an indemnity from her late husband's company. compensation, indemnification, quittance, recompense, redress, remuneration, reparation, requital indict [ 1 vt. ] to accuse of wrongdoing; charge

indict the mayor for fraud and embezzlement. charge, criminate, impeach, incriminate absolve, acquit, exculpate, exonerate, vindicate indifferent[ 1 adj. ] marked by impartiality

They believed their art teacher could offer an indifferent judgment on their works' merits. disinterested, equal, impartial, just, nonpartisan, objective, unbiased, unprejudiced biased, one-sided, partial, prejudiced 2 adj. an indifferent but drinkable cup of coffee average, common, fair, intermediate, mediocre, medium, moderate, ordinary, passable, so-so exceptional, extraordinary 3 adj. indifferent about the result of CET-4 aloof, apathetic, detached, incurious, nonchalant, numb, pococurante, remote, unconcerned, uninterested attentive, concerned, interested indifference n. indigenous [ 1 adj. ] originating and living or occurring naturally in an area or environment inferior, poor marked by a lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern for something unjust of average to below average quality

the culture of the indigenous people of that country aboriginal, endemic, native exotic, extraneous, foreign 2 adj. nonnative being a part of the innermost nature of a person or thing

The drive to create is indigenous to humanity. constitutional, essential, immanent, inborn, inbred, ingrained, innate, integral, intrinsic, natural

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adventitious, extrinsic indigent [ 1 adj. ]

acquired, studied

lacking money or material possessions

indigent people who require some outside assistance beggared, destitute, impecunious, impoverished, necessitous, needy, penniless, penurious, threadbare affluent, opulent, rich, wealthy indigence n. indispensable [ 1 adj. ] impossible to do without

She was becoming indispensible to him. critical, crucial, imperative, necessary, necessitous, needed, required, requisite, vital dispensable indoctrinate [ 1 vt. ] to instruct especially in fundamentals or rudiments redundant, superfluous, surplus

indoctrinate students with the notion of egalitarianism educate, instruct, lesson, teach, train, tutor learn, study indolent [ 1 adj. ] averse to activity, effort, or movement

The sweltering afternoon made us indolent. lazy, idle, shiftless, slothful, sluggish diligent, industrious indolence n. inducement [ 1 n. ] a motive or consideration that leads one to action

offered an expensive watch as an inducement to ratify the proposal goad, impulse, incentive, motive, spur, stimulus deterrent 2 n. the act of reasoning or pleading with someone to accept a belief or course of action He gave up smoking only after a prolonged inducement by all the other family members. conversion, convincing, persuading, suasion induce v. indulgent [ 1 adj. ] showing, characterized by, or given to indulgence

indulgent aristocrats decadent, forbearing, lenient, luxurious, tolerant, sybaritic ascetic indulgence n. draconian

Unit 5

INDURATE INERT

INDUSTRIOUS INEVITABLE

INEFFABLE INEXORABLE

INELUCTABLE INFAMOUS

INEPT INFATUATE

indurate [ 1 adj.

] having or showing a lack of sympathy or tender feelings

an indurate heart that admits no love or mercy affectless, callous, heartless, inhumane, merciless, obdurate, pitiless, ruthless, unsparing, cold-blooded charitable, compassionate, humane, kindhearted, merciful, tender 2 vt. to become physically firm or solid Great heat indurates clay. concrete, congeal, firm, freeze, set, solidify liquefy 3 vt. or exposure Such a brutal upbringing could only callous his soul and indurate his heart to the suffering of others. fortify, inure, season, steel, strengthen, toughen enfeeble, weaken, undermine industrious [ 1 adj. ] constantly, regularly, or habitually occupied, diligent soften to make able to withstand physical hardship, strain,

The industrious PhD spends all his summer holiday in the laboratory. assiduous, busy, diligent, sedulous indolent, lazy, slothful industriousness n. ineffable [ 1 adj. ] incapable of being expressed

ineffable ecstasy indefinable, indescribable, inexpressible, unspeakable, unutterable communicable ineffability n. ineluctable [ 1 adj. ] not to be avoided, changed, or resisted expressible

Although death is an ineluctable fate for any and every individual organism, it lays the foundation of the metabolism that perpetuates the planetary ecosystem. certain, inescapable, inevasible, inevitable, unavoidable

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avoidable, evadable ineluctability n. inept [ 1 ] adj.

uncertain, unsure

displaying a lack of judgment, sense, or reason

an inept and irresponsible remark on his paper absurd, foolish, fatuous, preposterous, stupid, witless, unwise judicious, prudent sagacious, sapient, smart, wise 2 adj. not appropriate for a particular occasion or situation amiss, graceless, improper, inapposite, infelicitous, malapropos, perverse, unseemly, unsuitable appropriate, becoming, felicitous, fitting, genteel, proper, seemly, suitable 3 adj. generally incompetent a hopelessly inept defense attorney incapable, inexpert, unfitted, unskillful, unqualified capable, competent ineptitude n. inert [ 1 ] adj. sluggish in action or motion; deficient in active properties inert ingredients in drugs dead, dormant, lethargic, idle, inactive, passive, torpid active, dynamic inertia n. inevitable [ 1 adj. ] incapable of being avoided or evaded passionate proficient, masterful

The impact of the scandal on the election was inevitable. certain, ineluctable, inescapable, inevasible, sure, unalterable, unavoidable evitable, avoidable inevitability n. inexorable [ 1 adj. ] not to be persuaded, moved, or stopped uncertain, unsure

the seemingly inexorable rise in unemployment inflexible, adamant, obdurate, relentless, rigid, unyielding flexible inexorably adv. infamous [ 1 adj. ] having an extremely and deservedly bad reputation yielding

an infamous city for smuggling and prostitution notorious, opprobrious distinguished, esteemed, prestigious, reputable infamy n. infatuate [ ]

1

vt.

to inspire with unreasoning love or attachment

a naïve girl infatuated by cajolery allure, captivate, bewitch, enchant, fascinate disgust infatuation n.

Unit 6

INFERNO INFELICITOUS

INFILTRATE INFLUX

INFINITE INFUSE

INFIRM INFURIATE

INFLAME INGENIOUS

inferno [ 1 n.

] an intense fire

A raging inferno posed a serious threat to the downwind villages. conflagration, holocaust 2 n. a place or a state that resembles or suggests hell the inferno of war hell, underworld paradise, heaven, nirvana infiltrate [ 1 vt. ] to enter or take up positions in gradually or surreptitiously, as for purposes of

espionage or takeover The intelligence staff had been infiltrated by spies. creep, insinuate, penetrate, sneak, slip abscond infiltration n. infinite [ 1 adj. ] having no boundaries or limits

the idea of an infinite universe endless, boundless, limitless, immeasurable, unfathomable finite infinity n. infirm [ 1 adj. ] weak in body, especially from old age or disease bounded, circumscribed, confined, definite, limited, restricted

her aging, infirm husband debilitated, effete, enervated, feeble, frail, languid, sapped, unsubstantial hale, mighty, powerful, rugged, stalwart, stout, strong

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2

adj.

lacking firmness of will, character, or purpose

She has little patience with the “infirm of purpose”. faltering, irresolute, vacillating, wavering resolute inflame [ 1 v. ] to set on fire

A carelessly tossed cigarette inflamed the papers in the trash can. enflame, enkindle, fire, ignite, kindle, light, torch douse, extinguish, quench, put out 2 v. to make more violent Retaliation served only to inflame the feud. aggravate, enrage, exacerbate, intensify, ire, irritate, provoke, rile, vex assuage, mitigate, mollify, pacify, placate, subdue infelicitous [ 1 adj. ] not happy; unfortunate

an infelicitous moment hapless, ill-fated, luckless, unfortunate, unhappy happy 2 adj. not appropriate or well-timed made a very infelicitous remark inappropriate, indecorous, inept, malapropos, unfit, unseemly apt, appropriate, becoming, proper infelicity n. influx [ 1 n. ] a coming in

They anticipated an influx of tourists next month. affluence, flux, income, inflow, inpouring, inrush exodus infuse [ 1 vt. ] to fill or cause to be filled with something outflow, outpouring

New members infused enthusiasm into the club. endue, imbue, implant, ingrain, instill, permeate, suffuse, steep extract 2 vt. inspire, animate a sense of purpose that infuses scientific researchers animate, exalt, motivate, stimulate infusion n. infuriate [ 1 vt. ] to make furious

be infuriated by the deliberate insults

aggravate, enrage, exasperate, incense, ire, madden, umbrage appease, assuage, pacify, placate, propitiate infuriated adj. ingenious [ 1 adj. or execution Ingenious designers soon came up with a solution to the battery problem. artful, clever, imaginative, innovative, inventive, original awkward uncreative, unimaginative ] marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception delight, gratify, please

Unit 7

INGENUITY INHERENT

INGENUOUS INIMICAL

INGEST INIMITABLE

INGRAINED INIQUITY

INGRATIATING INITIATE

ingenuity [ 1 n.

] inventive skill or imagination

There is little ingenuity in his articles. creativeness, innovativeness, inventiveness, originality banality, cliché ingenuous ingenuous [ 1 adj. ] lacking in cunning, guile, or worldliness

Photographs captured the ingenuous smiles of young children at play. artless, innocent, guileless, naïve, simple, unaffected, unpretending, unsophisticated artful, cunning, sly 2 adj. assuming, hypocritical openly straightforward or frank sophisticated, worldly

her ingenuous thirst for knowledge candid, frank, open, plain, unconcealed ambiguous, equivocal, evasive ingest [ 1 vt. ] to take into the body by the mouth for digestion or absorption

claims that the average person ingests considerably more calories than is necessary or desirable eat, consume, devour, intake evacuate, expel vomit

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ingestion n. ingrained [ 1 adj. ] forming a part of the essence or inmost being; firmly established

ingrained prejudice against foreigners constitutional, immanent, inborn, indigenous, inherent, innate, intrinsic adventitious ingrain ingratiating [ 1 adj. ] capable of winning favor extraneous, extrinsic

They adopted the orphan who had a most ingratiating smile. disarming, endearing, insinuating, winsome disagreeable 2 adj. intended or adopted in order to gain favor an repulsive ingratiating smile adulatory, deferential, fawning, flattering, toady ingratiate v. inherent [ 1 adj. ] involved in the constitution or essential character of something

a disposition inherent in human nature constitutional, elemental, essential, inborn, ingrained, innate, intrinsic adventitious inherently adv. inimical [ 1 adj. ] reflecting or indicating hostility extraneous, extrinsic

a cold, inimical voice antagonistic, hostile, opposing, unfriendly amiable, amicable, friendly, hospitable 2 adj. amenable opposed to one's interests —— counter, disadvantageous, negative, prejudicial, unfavorable advantageous, favorable, positive, supportive, well-disposed inimitable [ 1 adj. her own inimitable style incomparable, matchless, peerless, unique, unparalleled commonplace, ordinary inimitability n. iniquity [ ] ] not capable of being imitated

Laws were designed to enhance national security but some regard as inimical to cherished freedoms.

1 our society.

n.

gross immorality or injustice

The use of illegal narcotics is not only a destroyer of personal health but also an iniquity that undermines corruption, depravity, debauchery, evil, infamy, sin, unfairness, wickedness integrity, rectitude initiate [ 1 vt. ] to cause or facilitate the beginning of virtue disinterestedness

a chain reaction initiated by UV irradiation begin, start, commence, inaugurate, introduce, launch terminate 2 n. a person who is undergoing or has undergone an initiation apprentice, beginner, novice, rookie, tyro veteran initiative

Unit 8

INKLING INSENSITIVE

INNOCUOUS INSENTIENT

INNOVATIVE INSIGHT

INQUISITIVE INSIPID

INSENSIBLE INSOLENT

inkling [ 1 n.

] a slight indication or suggestion

They hadn't given us an inkling of what was going to happen. clue, cue, hint 2 n. a slight knowledge or vague notion not have even the faintest inkling of what the project was all about glimmer insight innocuous [ 1 adj. ] producing no injury

The government enacted a more strict regulation on innocuous preservatives. anodyne, benign, harmless, inoffensive, nontoxic, safe damaging, detrimental, harmful, injurious, noxious, pernicious 2 adj. not likely to give offense or to arouse strong feelings or hostility He made an innocuous remark to avoid conflict. bland, inoffensive, insipid, neutral, sapless provoking

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innovative [ 1 adj.

] characterized by, tending to, or introducing innovations

an innovative macro-economic strategy creative, ingenious, inventive, original conservative, hidebound innovation n. inquisitive [ 1 adj. ] inordinately or improperly curious about the affairs of others

big sunglasses to frustrate inquisitive journalists curious, inquiring, investigative, prying indifferent , unconcerned, uninterested inquisitiveness n. insensible [ 1 adj. ] having lost consciousness, especially temporarily incurious

The security guard was knocked insensible by a sudden blow. anesthetic, insensate, senseless, unfeeling, unconscious conscious 2 adj. not emotionally responsive insensible to workers’ requests apathetic, bloodless, callous, dull, impassive, indifferent, nonchalant, phlegmatic concerned 3 adj. lacking in refinement or good taste She married an insensible brute upon whom the niceties of life were completely lost. crass, crude, incult, lowbred, tasteless, uncouth, uncultivated, uncultured, unpolished, unrefined, vulgar civilized, cultivated, cultured, genteel, polished, refined, smooth, tasteful insensitive [ 1 adj. ] lacking tact

so insensitive as to laugh at someone in pain gauche, impolite, insensible, tactless considerate 2 adj. not responsive or susceptible insensitive to either criticism or commendation anesthetized, dead, numb, senseless, unfeeling sensitive, tender insentient [ 1 adj. ] lacking perception, consciousness, or animation

He refused to believe that the universe as we know it evolved from the random interactions of insentient particles of matter. impassive, insensate, insensible, senseless, unresponsive perceiving, sensible, sensitive 2 adj. not having or showing a deep understanding of something

an insentient therapist who failed to see what the teenager's real problem was impercipient, unwise discerning, insightful insight [ 1 n. understanding an insight into the global-scale environmental problems discernment, insight, perception, sagacity, sapience glimmer, inkling insightful insipid [ 1 adj. ] lacking flavor or zest; not tasty adj. ] an instance of apprehending the true nature of a thing, especially through intuitive sagacious, sage, sapient

a rather insipid soup flat, flavorless, mild, sapless, savorless, tasteless piquant 2 adj. lacking in qualities that interest, stimulate, or challenge an insipid story of the prince and the princess banal, bland, driveling, prosaic, tedious, uninteresting, vapid enchanting insolent [ 1 adj. ] audaciously rude or disrespectful

an insolent child with no respect or regard for anyone arrogant, audacious, bold, haughty, supercilious, impertinent, impudent courteous, polite insolence n. respectful meek, mousy, timid

Unit 9

INSOUCIANT INSUBORDINATE

INSTATE INSULAR

INSTIGATE INSULATE

INSTILL INSURGENT

INSTITUTE INTANGIBLE

insouciant [ 1 adj.

] free from concern, worry, or anxiety

an insouciant shrug carefree, casual, indifferent, nonchalant, unconcerned anxious, careworn insouciance n. concerned, worried

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instate [ 1 vt.

] to set or establish in a rank or office

The new Secretary of the Treasury was instated on Monday. appoint, designate, inaugurate, induct, install, nominate dismiss, oust instigate [ 1 vt. ] to goad or urge forward; to stir up

This incident is instigated by a small group of people with ulterior motives. abet, arouse, excite, foment, goad, incite, inflame, provoke, stir assuage, allay, mitigate, mollify, pacify, soothe instigation n. instill [ 1 v. ] to cause to enter drop by drop

instill medication into the infected eye inject extract 2 v. to impart gradually instill a sense of responsibility to the young breed, enroot, implant, inculcate, infix, infuse, ingrain, plant, sow remove instillation n. institute [ 1 vt. ] to establish, organize, and set in operation

institute a new department begin, constitute, create, found, inaugurate, launch, start, set up abrogate, efface, rescind 2 n. a research institute association, institution, society institution n. insubordinate [ 1 adj. ] not submissiveto authority close, shut phase out an organization for the promotion of a cause

Insubordinate soldiers are court-martialed. balky, contumacious, intractable, mutinous, recalcitrant, rebellious, refractory amenable, docile, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable insular [ 1 adj. ] being, having, or reflecting a narrow provincial viewpoint

the insular thinking of peasant communities confined, local, narrow, parochial, provincial, regional, restricted

cosmopolitan, ecumenical insulate [ 1 vt. ]

catholic

receptive

to place in a detached situation

greenhouse gas that insulates ground infrared radiation block, insolate, quarantine, seclude, segregate, separate, sequester connect, link, unite insulation n. insurgent [ 1 n. ] one who breaks with or opposes constituted authority or the established order integrate

Insurgents armed with assault rifles and grenades ambushed a US convoy, resulting in heavy casualties. rebel, anarchist, antagonist, malcontent, mutineer insurgency n. intangible [ 1 adj. ] incapable of being perceived by the senses

intangible value of a good reputation impalpable, imperceptible, imponderable, inappreciable, indiscernible, insensible, invisible corporeal palpable, tactile, tangible, touchable

Unit 10

INTEGRAL INTER

INTEGRITY INTERCESSOR

INTELLIGIBLE INTERDICT

INTEMPERATE INTERIM

INTENSIFY INTERLOCK

integral [ 1 adj.

] essential to completeness

an integral part of the undergraduate curriculum critical, essential, indispensable, necessary, requisite, vital redundant, superfluous, surplus 2 adj. not lacking any part or member that properly belongs to it the belief that athletics are essential to an integral life comprehensive, entire, full, grand, intact, perfect, plenary, total, whole imperfect, incomplete integrity [ 1 n. ] steadfast adherence to a strict moral or ethical code, devotion to telling the truth partial

After a thorough investigation into “Climategate”, the panel concluded that the integrity of scientific community is still sound.

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conscience, honesty, incorruptibility, rectitude, righteousness, scrupulousness baseness 2 n. deceit, deceitfulness, dishonesty, lying, mendacity, untruthfulness the quality or condition of being whole or undivided

trying to maintain the integrity of the falling empire completeness, entireness, perfection, wholeness intelligible [ 1 adj. ] capable of being understood

military codenames intelligible only to those high-rank commanding officers accessible, apprehensible, comprehensible, fathomable, lucid, understandable abstruse, recondite, inscrutable, insensible intelligibility n. intemperate [ 1 adj. ] not temperate or moderate

The tone of the article is very intemperate. excessive, extreme, immoderate, inordinate, overindulgent, unrestrained equable trammeled intensify [ 1 vt. ] to make intense or more intensive bridled, checked, constrained, controlled, curbed, governed, hampered, hindered,

Both companies intensified their efforts to win the contract. accentuate, aggravate, amplify, deepen, enhance, magnify, redouble, strengthen abate, assuage, attenuate, mitigate, moderate intensity n. inter [ 1 vt. ] to place in a grave or tomb The infamous terrorist leader Bin Laden was interred at sea. bury, entomb, inhume dig, disinter, excavate, exhume, unearth intercessor [ 1 n. ] one that mediates

attend the meeting as the intercessor broker, buffer, conciliator, intermediate, mediator, peacemaker flame-fanner intercession n. interdict [ 1 vt. ] to forbid in a usually formal or authoritative manner

Though not interdicted by law, such an action is morally wrong. ban, forbid, prohibit, proscribe

authorize 2 vt.

allow, permit, suffer

approve, endorse, ratify, sanction

to stop, seize, or interrupt while in progress or on course

Federal agents are able to interdict only a small percentage of the narcotic shipments into the country. bar, block, check, hinder, intercept, impede, obstruct expedite interdiction n. interim [ 1 break. continuation, continuity 2 adj. serving in a position for the time being an interim government to maintain social stability acting, provisional, temporary eternal, permanent interlock [ 1 vi. ] to become united or joined closely, as by hooking or dovetailing n. ] an interval of time between one event, process, or period and another 30 breach, break, gap, interruption, interval, interlude, parenthesis

Richard Wagner’s operas usually require an interim of more than 30 minutes for performers to have a

The branches of the trees interlock to form a natural archway. associate, connect, join, link, unite sunder interlocking adj.

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List 14
“ ” —— 2009 10 Verbal 710 Quantitative 800

Unit 1

INTERMINABLE INTIMIDATE

INTERMITTENT INTOXICANT

INTERREGNUM INTRANSIGENT

INTERROGATE INTREPID

INTIMATE INTRIGUE

interminable

[

]

1 adj. having or seeming to have no end A large audience fell asleep during the interminable sermon. continual, ceaseless, endless, everlasting, perpetual completed intermittent [ ]

1 adj. coming and going at intervals, not continuous intermittent rain in June episodic, erratic, occasional, periodical, recurrent, recurring constant, continuous, incessant, unceasing 2 adj. lacking in steadiness or regularity of occurrence The husband’s intermittent employment put the family in a difficult position financially. aperiodic, casual, catchy, discontinuous, irregular, occasional, spasmodic, sporadic, unsteady habitual periodic, regular, repeated interregnum [ ]

1 n. break in continuity The democratic regime proved to be a short-lived interregnum between dictatorships. breach, break, gap, interim, interruption, interval, interlude, parenthesis continuation, continuity interrogate [ ]

1 vt. to question formally and systematically interrogate the prisoner of war for valuable intelligence ask, grill, inquire, milk, question answer, reply, respond interrogation n.

intimate

[

]

1 adj. marked by very close association, contact, or familiarity intimate friends since childhood familiar, close, confidential distant, remote 2 adj. not known or meant to be known by the general populace They broke up after she shared intimate information with all 500 of her closest friends. 500 confidential, esoteric, nonpublic, secret open, public 3 n. a person who has a strong liking for and trust in another Usually quite aloof in public, he's actually quite relaxed with his intimates. acquaintance, amigo, comrade, confidant, friend, insider, mate stranger enemy, foe 4 v. to communicate delicately and indirectly intimate a wish to leave allude, connote, hint, imply, indicate, infer, suggest articulate intimidate [ ]

1 vt. to make timid or fearful, frighten refused to be intimidated by the manager browbeat, bully, coerce, cow, frighten, hector, terrify blandish, cajole, coax intimidation n. intoxicant [ ] an agent that intoxicates, especially an alcoholic beverage

1 n. alcohol, liquor, stimulant refresher intoxicating adj. intransigent [ ]

1 adj. characterized by refusal to compromise or to abandon an extreme position an intransigent attitude adamant, headstrong, intractable, obstinate, pertinacious, stubborn, uncompromising, unyielding compliant, pliable tractable, yielding intransigence n. intrepid [ ]

1 adj. characterized by resolute fearlessness, fortitude, and endurance an intrepid explorer audacious, brave, bold, courageous, dauntless, fearless, gallant, valiant, valorous apprehensive cowardly, craven, gutless, pusillanimous, timorous intrepidity n.

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intrigue

[

]

1 n. a secret plan for accomplishing evil or unlawful ends The intrigue was quickly discovered, and the would-be assassins were arrested. conspiracy, design, intrigue, machination, scheme 2 vt. to arouse the interest, desire, or curiosity of The children are apparently intrigued by the tale. appeal, attract, enthrall, entice, excite, fascinate, interest, occupy ennui, pall intriguing adj.

Unit 2

INTRINSIC INVEIGH

INTUITIVE INVEIGLE

INUNDATE INVENTORY

INURE INVETERATE

INVECTIVE INVIDIOUS

intrinsic [

]

1 adj. of or relating to the essential nature of a thing the intrinsic worth of a gem congenial, constitutional, immanent, inborn, inherent, innate, native, natural adventitious, extraneous, extrinsic intuitive [ ]

1 adj. knowing or perceiving by intuition The twins have an intuitive awareness of each other's feelings. instinctive acquired intuition n. inundate [ ]

1 vt. to cover with or as if with flood inundated with trash e-mails avalanche, deluge, drown, engulf, overflow, overwhelm, submerge drain inundation n. inure [ ]

1 vt. to accustom to accept something undesirable children inured to violence accustom, familiarize, habituate inured adj.

2 vt. to make able to withstand physical hardship, strain, or exposure The hardship of army training inured her to the rigors of desert warfare. fortify, indurate, season, steel, strengthen, toughen enfeeble, soften, weaken, undermine invective [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or characterized by insult or abuse invective comments on female activists abusive, opprobrious, scurrile, scurrilous, truculent, vitriolic, vituperative adulatory, flattery complimentary inveigh [ ]

1 vi. to protest or complain bitterly or vehemently inveighed against the bank industry gripe, grouse, object, protest, remonstrate, repine support delight, rejoice inveigle [ ]

1 vt. to win over by coaxing, flattery, or artful talk inveigle consumers into buying the item allure, bait, decoy, entice, entrap, seduce, tempt demand inveigling adj. inventory [ 1 n. ] a detailed, itemized list, report, or record of things in one's possession, especially a

periodic survey of all goods and materials in stock The dealership has an unusually large inventory of pre-owned vehicles. budget, pool, repertoire, reservoir, stock 2 n. a short statement of the main points They decided to offer the public an informative inventory of everything that is known about the virus at this time. abstract, brief, epitome, outline, résumé, summarization, synopsis inveterate [ ]

1 adj. firmly established by long persistence the inveterate tendency to overlook the obvious chronic, entrenched, ingrained, rooted, settled, hard-cored adventitious invidious[ ]

1 adj. tending to cause discontent, animosity, or envy the invidious task of arbitration abhorrent, detestable, obnoxious, odious, repugnant, repellent agreeable, gratifying, pleasant

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2 adj. having or showing mean resentment of another's possessions or advantages Inevitably, his remarkable success attracted the invidious attention of the other sales representatives. covetous, envious, jaundiced, jealous, resentful, green-eyed

Unit 3

INVIGORATE IRIDESCENT

INVINCIBLE INVOKE IRASCIBLE IRATE IRK IRONCLAD IRRADICABLE IRREDUCIBLE

invigorate

[

]

1 vt. to impart vigor, strength, or vitality to news that invigorates the public animate, energize, fortify, reinforce, strengthen, vitalize dampen, deaden, debilitate, emaciate, sap demoralize invigorated adj. invincible [ ]

1 adj. incapable of being conquered, overcome, or subdued The soccer team proved to be invincible. bulletproof, impregnable, invulnerable, unbeatable, unconquerable conquerable surmountable vulnerable invincibility n. invoke [ ]

1 vt. to put into effect or operation New train timetable has been invoked. enforce, effect, execute, implement, perform suspend 2 vt. to be the cause of (a situation, action, or state of mind) We should be prepared for the possibility that any solution may invoke another set of problems. beget, bring, catalyze, cause, create, engender, generate, induce, produce, result irascible [ ]

1 adj. marked by hot temper and easily provoked anger The new boss is so irascible that several employees have resigned. choleric, irritable, peevish, petulant affable irate [ ]

1 adj. extremely angry an irate taxpayer aggravated, apoplectic, choleric, enraged, exasperated, infuriated, ireful, mad, wrathful calm, halcyon delighted, pleased iridescent [ ]

1 adj. displaying a play of lustrous colors like those of the rainbow an iridescent soap bubble nacreous, opalescent, pearlescent monochromatic iridescence n. irk [ ] 1 n. something that is a source of irritation One of the prof's major irks is a cell phone that rings during a lecture. aggravation, bother, exasperation, frustration, headache, irritant, nuisance, vexation 2 v. to be irritating, wearisome, or vexing to She irked her friends by chewing her gum loudly during the movie. annoy, bother, fret, gall, provoke, ruffle, vex appease, assuage, pacify, placate, propitiate, soothe irksome adj. ironclad [ ]

1 adj. so firm or secure as to be unbreakable pride on their ironclad fleet firm, invulnerable, secure, sound, tenacious, tough fragile irradicable [ ]

1 adj. impossible to uproot or destroy Smoking has become an irradicable bad habit for him. entrenched, ineradicable, ingrained, inveterate, rooted eradicable irreducible [ ]

1 adj. incapable of being factored into polynomials of lower degree with coefficients in some given field (as the rational numbers) or integral domain (as the integers) irreducible integrals factorable

Unit 4

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IRRIGATE JAPE

IRRITATE JARGON

ISSUE JARRING

JABBER JAUNDICE

JADED JAUNTY

irrigate

[

]

1 vt. to supply (dry land) with water by means of ditches, pipes, or streams; water artificially irrigate crops periodically water 2 vt. to flush (a body part) with a stream of liquid (as in removing a foreign body or medicating) irrigate the wound flush, rinse, wash irrigation n. irritate [ ]

1 vt. to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in His rude interruptions really irritated her. aggravate, annoy, exasperate, gall, inflame, nettle, peeve, provoke, rile, roil appease, assuage, pacify, placate, propitiate, soothe irritant n. issue [ ]

1 n. a matter that is in dispute between two or more parties focused on economic and political issues nut, problem, question 2 vi. to produce and release for distribution in printed form plans to issue a monthly newsletter print 3 vi. to go, come, or flow out strange sound issued from the abandoned house discharge, emit, exude, release, vent withdraw jabber [ ]

1 vi. to talk rapidly, indistinctly, or unintelligibly monkeys jabbering at each other in their cages babble, blabber, drivel, gabble, gibber, jabber, mumbo jumbo speak slowly jaded [ ]

1 adj. depleted in strength, energy, or freshness After that long bar exam, I'm too jaded for anything but a nap. drained, exhausted, fatigued, prostrate, spent, wearied, worn-out 2 adj. having one's patience, interest, or pleasure exhausted Even jaded sci-fi fans are finding this new space adventure fresh and exciting. bored, tired, wearied, fed up

absorbed, engaged, engrossed, interested, intrigued, rapt 1 v. to say or do something jokingly or mockingly The characters in Oscar Wilde's plays jape with a sophistication that is rarely encountered in real life. jest, quip, wisecrack, banter, chaff, gag, jive, jolly, josh revere jargon [ ]

1 n. the specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group medical jargon that the layman cannot understand argot, cant, dialect, jive, lingo, patois jarring [ ]

1 adj. harsh or discordant the final chord of that song is too jarring for me astounding, blindsiding, jolting, startling, stunning melodious 2 adj. causing a strong emotional reaction because of unexpectedness the jarring news that major financial institutions were on the verge of collapse amazing, astonishing, astounding, blindsiding, dumbfounding, flabbergasting, jaw-dropping, jolting, shocking, startling, stunning jaundice [ ]

1 n. to affect with the negativity or bitterness of jaundice; bias the jaundice in the eyes of the two feuding neighbors animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, gall, hostility, rancor amity jaunty [ ]

1 adj. sprightly in manner or appearance: lively a jaunty stroll animate, brisk, energetic, frisky, perky, racy, spirited, vivacious staid, dead, inactive, inanimate, lackadaisical, languid, languishing, leaden, limp, listless, spiritless, vapid

Unit 5

JEJUNE JINGOIST

JEST JITTER

JEOPARDY JOCULAR

JETTISON JOCUND

JIBE JOG

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jape [ jejune[

] n]

1 adj. not interesting; dull jejune lectures arid, drab, dreary, leaden, monotonous, ponderous, tedious, weary absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting, thought provoking 2 adj. having or showing the annoying qualities (as silliness) associated with children an essay filled with jejune, simplistic opinions about international politics adolescent, immature, infantile, juvenile, kiddish, puerile adult, grown-up, mature jest [ ] 1 n. a frivolous mood or manner spoken in jest butt, derision, mockery solemnity, solemn utterance jeopardy [ ]

1 n. risk of loss or injury; peril or danger the city's firefighters routinely put their lives in jeopardy distress, endangerment, imperilment, peril safeness, safety, secureness, security jettison [ ]

1 vt. to cast overboard or off a ship jettisoning wastes discard, dump, junk, scrap, throwing away keep, retain jibe [ ] 1 vi. to be in accord: agree Your figures jibe with mine. accord, cohere, conform, correspond, harmonize, tally conflict [ n. ] extreme chauvinism or nationalism marked

jingoist 1

especially by a belligerent foreign policy jingoists who cry for war chauvinist, nationalist, superpatriot, war hawk dove, pacifist, peacenik jitters [ ]

1 n. a sense of panic or extreme nervousness she suffered pre-wedding jitters

butterflies, dither, jimjams, nerves, shakes, shivers, willies aplomb, calm, composure, equanimity, imperturbability, self-possession, tranquility jocular [ ]

1 adj. characterized by joking, playful a jocular man who could make the most serious people laugh blithesome, festive, gleeful, jocund, jovial, mirthful lachrymose, saturnine dour, dreary, morose, serious jocund [ ]

1 adj. sprightly and lighthearted in disposition, character, or quality old friends engaged in jocund teasing blithesome, jocose, jocular, jolly, jovial, mirthful, sunny lachrymose, saturnine dour, dreary, morose, serious jog [ ] 1 n. a movement, pace, or instance of jogging (as for exercise) 2 vi. to rouse or stimulate an old photo that might jog your memory arouse, excite, incite, instigate, pique, remind, stimulate, stir allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe

Unit 6

JOLT JUGGERNAUT

JOT KEN

JOVIAL KIDNAP

JUBILANT KINDLE

JUDICIOUS KINDRED

jolt

[

] 1 vi. to move or dislodge with a sudden, hard blow 2 v. to cause an unpleasant surprise for The sneak terrorist attack jolted the country out of its indolence and indifference. appall, floor, shake up

jot

[

] 1 vt . to write briefly or hurriedly jot down an address log, mark, put down, register, report, set down, take down, write down

jovial

[ 1 adj.

] markedly good-humored especially as evidenced by jollity and conviviality

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a jovial host blithesome, festive, gay, gleeful, jocular, jocund, jolly, mirthful lachrymose, saturnine dour, dreary, morose, serious jubilant [ ]

1 adj. exultingly joyful The nominee delivered a jubilant speech before the cheering crowd. exulting, glorying, rejoicing, triumphant lachrymose, saturnine dour, dreary, morose, serious judicious [ ]

1 adj. having or exhibiting sound judgment; prudent a judicious choice intelligent, judgmatic, prudent, tactical, wise daft, imprudent, inadvisable, inexpedient, indiscrete, impolitic, unwise juggernaut [ ] an overwhelming, advancing force that crushes

1 n. everything in its path the juggernaut of industrialization steamroller ken [ ]

1 n. the range of vision abstract words that are beyond the ken of children sight 2 vt. to know (a person or thing) appreciate, apprehend, cognize, comprehend, grasp, perceive, savvy, understand misapprehend, misconceive, misinterpret, misperceive, misunderstand kidnap [ ]

1 vt. to seize and detain by unlawful force or fraud and often with a demand for ransom the child was kidnapped and held for ransom abduct release, set free kindle [ ]

1 vt. to build or fuel (a fire); to set fire to; ignite kindle interest enkindle, ignite, inflame, torch douse, extinguish, quench, put out, snuff out kindred [ ]

1 adj. having a similar or related origin, nature, or character finally found people who were kindred spirits when she joined the hiking club

agreeable, amicable, compatible, congenial, frictionless, unanimous, united disagreeable, discordant, disharmonious, disunited, incompatible, inharmonious, uncongenial

Unit 7

KNACK LABILE

KNEAD LABORIOUS

KNIT LABYRINTH

KNOTTY LACERATE

KUDOS LACKLUSTER

knack

[

]

1 n. a clever trick or stratagem; a clever way of doing something She's tried every knack in Cupid's book to get her guy to marry her. artifice, device, gambit, ploy, scheme, sleight, stratagem foolishness knead [ ]

1 vt. to make or shape by or as if by folding, pressing, and stretching with the hands knead dough kneading a painful calf muscle massage, manipulate, mould, squeeze, stroke knit [ ] 1 vt. to form by interlacing yarn or thread in a series of connected loops with needles She knitted him a sweater for Christmas. braid, plait, weave ravel 2 vt. to join closely; unite securely Sport knits the whole family close together. bind, bond, combine, connect, fasten, join, link, meld, merge, tie, secure, unite disassociate, disconnect, disjoin, divide, sever, split, sunder knotty [ 1 ] adj. marked by or full of knots especially: so full of difficulties and

complications as to be likely to defy solution The candidates cautiously gave their views on an array of knotty issues. baroque, byzantine, complicated, convoluted, intricate, involved, labyrinthine, sophisticated, tangled easy, effortless, plain, simple kudos 1 [ n. ] fame and renown resulting from an act or achievement

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Employees enjoy the kudos that the job brings as much as the financial rewards. credit, distinction, homage, honor, laurels infamy, notoriety 2 n. acclaim or praise for exceptional achievement The attorney did pro bono work because it was the right thing to do, and not for any future kudos that it might bring. acclaim, accolade, applause, credit, distinction, homage, honor, laud, laurels belittlement, denigration, deprecation, derogation, diminishment, disparagement labile [ ]

1 adj. continually undergoing chemical, physical, or biological change; unstable labile mineral an emotionally labile person capricious, fluctuating, fluid, inconstant, mercurial, temperamental, unsettled, unsteady, variable, volatile constant, immutable, invariable, stable, stationary, steady laborious [ ]

1 adj. hard-working; industrious The volunteers have been commendably laborious in their cleanup of the beach. He was gentle and kindly, living a laborious life in his Paris flat. active, assiduous, bustling, diligent, engaged, industrious, occupied, sedulous idle, inactive, indolent, inert, slothful 2 adj. marked by or requiring long, hard work the laborious task of cleaning up the oil spill arduous, challenging, demanding, difficult, exacting, formidable, grueling, heavy, labored, rigorous, rough, rugged, severe, strenuous, sweaty, toilsome, tough easy, effortless, facile, light, mindless, simple, undemanding labyrinthine [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, resembling, or constituting a labyrinth; extremely complex or tortuous in structure The labyrinthine political situation of Middle East left us totally befuddled. baroque, byzantine, complicate, complicated, convoluted, intricate, involved, knotty, sophisticated, tangled easy, effortless, plain, simple lacerate [ ]

1 vt. to cause deep emotional pain to; distress He was born into a family already lacerated with tensions and divisions. afflict, distress, harrow, hurt, rend, torment, torture, wound allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe lackluster 1 [ adj. ] lacking brightness, luster, or vitality

lackluster hair dim, dull, flat, lusterless burnished, glistening, glossy, lustrous, polished, shiny, sleek

Unit 8

LACONIC LAMPOON

LACHRYMOSE LANGUID

LAMBASTE LANGUISH

LAMENT LANGUOR

LAMENTABLE LANK

laconic 1

[ adj.

] using or involving the use of a minimum of words:

concise to the point of seeming rude or mysterious His mentor’s comment tends to be laconic but very much to the point. apothegmatic, brief, capsule, compact, compendious, curt, pithy, succinct, summary, telegraphic, terse circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy, wordy lachrymose [ ]

1 adj. tending to cause tears, mournful The lachrymose mourners at the funeral required a steady supply of tissues. doleful, lamentable, lugubrious, melancholy, mournful, tearful, teary, weepy, woeful cheerful, delighted, jocund, jovial lambaste [ ]

1 vt. to scold sharply; berate Critics lambasted his performance. assail, baste, belabor, berate, castigate, excoriate, reprimand, reproach, scathe, slam, upbraid, vituperate carol, extol, glorify, hymn, laud, magnify, praise , lament [ ]

1 n. a composition expressing one's grief over a loss her lament for her grandmother dirge, elegy, requiem 2 n. an expression of dissatisfaction, pain, or resentment the career woman's lament that there aren't any good men left carp, complaint, fuss, grievance, gripe, grouch, grouse, grumble, moan, murmur 3 vi. to express sorrow or regret; mourn lament an innocent death bemoan, deplore, grieve, moan, mourn, wail delight, exult, joy, rejoice

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lamentable

[

]

1 adj. inspiring or deserving of lament or regret; deplorable or pitiable; mournful The lamentable cries of the women for their lost sons were heard throughout the village. deplorable, distressful, grievous, heartbreaking,, lugubrious, plaintive, plangent, sorrowful, woeful cheerful, delighted, jocund, jovial lampoon [ n]

1 n a harsh satire usually directed against an individual a lampoon of the movie business at the time burlesque, caricature, farce, mockery, parody, ridicule, spoof, travesty eulogy, ode, paean languid [ ]

1 adj. lacking energy or vitality; weak be languid for weeks after surgery debilitated, effete, enervated, feeble, frail, infirm, lackadaisical, spiritless, debilitated, sapped, enfeebled animated, energetic, vehement, vivacious mighty, powerful, stalwart, stout, strong languish [ ]

1 vi. to be or become feeble, weak, or enervated languishing during the prolonged heat wave decay, droop, emaciate, fade, fail, flag, sag, wither burgeon, flourish, thrive, prosper languor [ ]

1 n. physical or mental inertness He enjoyed the languor brought on by a hot summer afternoon. collapse, exhaustion, frazzle, lassitude, listlessness, stupor, torpor, prostration verve, vim,animation,vitality 2 n. weakness or weariness of body or mind The tropical heat sapped our strength, leaving us in a state of unaccustomed languor. debilitation, enervation, enfeeblement, fragility, infirmity robustness, strength, vivacity lank [ ]

1 adj. long, straight, and limp; not stiff in structure a woman with long, lank hair emaciated, lean, slender, svelte, tenuous, thin fat, fleshy, gross, obese 2 adj. not stiff in structure Right after a shower, her lank hair hung down to her shoulders. droopy, flaccid, floppy, lank, yielding inflexible, rigid, stiff, sturdy, tense resilient

Unit 9

LAPSE LATITUDE

LARGESSE LAUDATORY

LASH LAVISH

LASSITUDE L E AV E N

LATENT LEER

lapse

[

]

1 n. a slight error typically due to forgetfulness or inattention a lapse in table manner blunder, fumble, gaffe, miscue, oversight, peccadillo 2 v. to come to an end The contract will lapse at the end of the year. cease, conclude, die, end, expire, finish, stop, terminate continue, persist, hang on largesse [ ]

1 n. something given to someone without expectation of a return The alumna's huge bequest was an unexpected largess. bestowal, donation, giveaway, present 2 n. liberality in giving or willingness to give be noted for his largesse bountifulness, generosity, munificence, openhandedness, philanthropy miserliness, parsimony, penury, stinginess lash [ ]

1 n. a hard strike with a part of the body or an instrument suddenly felt the lash of her drunken husband's hand on her cheek bang, bash, bat, beat, clap, hit, knock, punch, slam, slap, smash, stinger, stroke, swat 2 v. to strike against with force or violence All night long a barrage of rain lashed the windows. baste, hammer, lace, lambaste, punch 3 vt. to bind with or as if with a line Secure the anchor by lashing it to the rail. unbind lassitude [ d]

1 n. a state or feeling of weariness, diminished energy, or listlessness Symptoms of anaemia include general fatigue and lassitude. collapse, exhaustion, frazzle, languor, listlessness, stupor, torpor, prostration verve, vim,animation,vitality latent [ ] present or potential but not evident or active He has a latent talent for acting that he hasn't had a chance to

1 adj. a latent infection

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express yet. dormant, fallow, inert, inoperative apparent, evident, manifest, obvious, plain latency n. latitude [ d]

active

1 n. freedom from normal restraints, limitations, or regulations Students are allowed considerable latitude in choosing courses. authorization, license, freedom, leeway, free hand limitation custody laudatory [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or expressing praise a laudatory review of the new play adulatory, commendatory, complimentary, extolling, eulogistic, panegyric derogatory, depreciatory, disparaging, pejorative laudable adj. lavish [ ]

1 adj. characterized by or produced with extravagance and profusion lavish buffet copious, exuberant, gushing, lush, luxuriant, opulent, profuse, riotous moderate, modest, reasonable, temperate 2 v. to give readily and in large quantities; to use up carelessly a great actor who lavished his talent in lousy movies blow, dissipate, fritter, misspend, squander, waste conserve leaven [ ]

1 vt. to mingle or permeate with some modifying, alleviating, or vivifying element He needs to leaven his speeches with more humor. imbue, infuse, ingrain, inoculate, inspire, permeate, steep, suffuse extract leer [ ] 1 vi. to cast a sidelong glance He gave her a leering look. squint gape, gaze, glare, goggle, stare

Unit 10

LEERY LETHAL

LEGACY LETHARGIC

LEGEND LEVELHEADED

LEGION LEVITY

LENIENT LIABILITY

leery [

]

1 adj. suspicious or distrustful; wary be leery of strangers dubious, distrustful, skeptical, suspicious, wary credulous legacy [ i]

1 n. something handed down from an ancestor or a predecessor or from the past the legacy of the ancient philosophers bequest, heritage, patrimony legend [ ]

1 n. a popular myth of recent origin Some ancient civilizations had legends about spirits that inhabited trees and rocks. fable, myth, mythos 2 n. an explanatory list of the symbols on a map or chart The legend in the science textbook indicated that the accompanying picture had been enlarged by 1000%. cutline legendary legion [ ]

adj.

1 n. a large body of men and women organized for land warfare joined the French Foreign Legion army, battalion, flock, herd, horde, mob, swarm, throng 2 adj. many, numerous The problems are legion. beaucoup, multifold, multitudinous, numerous few, lack in number lenient [ ]

1 adj. inclined not to be harsh or strict; merciful, generous, or indulgent the lenient sentences clement, gentle, merciful, mild, sparing, tender, tolerant harsh, merciless, severe, strict lenience n. lethal [ ]

1 adj. extremely harmful; devastating This dagger is lethal. launched a lethal attack baleful, deadly, deathly, fatal, mortal, murderous, pestilent, terminal, vital innocuous healthy, salubrious, wholesome

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lethargic

[

]

1 adj. of, relating to, or characterized by lethargy, sluggish a big nice meal always makes me feel lethargic and sleepy dull, inert, quiescent, sluggish, torpid dynamic, energetic, robust, vigorous active levelheaded [ ]

1 adj. characteristically self-composed and sensible a levelheaded assessment of the problem informed, justified, logical, rational, reasonable, sensible, sober, valid, well-founded foolish groundless, invalid, unfounded, unjustified, unsound levity [ ]

1 n. excessive or unseemly frivolity The teachers disapprove of any displays of levity during school assemblies. facetiousness, flightiness, flippancy, frivolousness, frothiness, silliness earnestness, gravity, seriousness, soberness, solemnity liability [ ]

1 n. the quality or state of being liable The company is trying to reduce its liability in this case. accountability, answerability, responsibility immunity 2 n. a feature of someone or something that creates difficulty for achieving success Their chief asset has now become a considerable liability. burden, debit, drawback, handicap, hurdle, incommodity, manacle, saddle, trammel advantage, asset, edge, plus

List 15
“ ” —— 2009 10 GRE Verbal 730 Quantitative800

Unit 1

LIBERALIST LIMP

LIBERTINE LIMPID

LICENTIOUS LINGER

LIKEN LISSOME

LIMBER LIST

liberal 1

[ adj.

] not bound by traditional ways or beliefs

parents who take a very liberal attitude toward letting their children stay out late nonconventional, nonorthodox, nontraditional, open-minded, progressive, radical conservative, conventional, hidebound, old-fashioned, stodgy, traditional 2 adj. marked by generosity a doctor who has been very liberal in dispensing low-cost care to patients who could not otherwise afford it charitable, munificent, unselfish, unsparing, unstinting closefisted, miserly, niggardly, parsimonious, stingy, tightfisted libertine 1 [ n. n] one who acts without moral restraint; a dissolute person

The legend of Don Juan depicts him as a playboy and libertine. backslider, debaucher, decadent, deviate, pervert, profligate ascetic licentious 1 industry concupiscent, horny, lascivious, lecherous, libidinous, lubricious, salacious, wanton frigid, undersex licentiousness liken [ 1 vt. ] to see, mention, or show as similar; compare n. [ adj. ] lacking legal or moral restraints ; having a strong sexual desire

a moralist who decried what she regarded as the licentious and corrupt culture of the entertainment

Life is often likened to a journey.

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analogize, bracket, equate, equalize contrast limber 1 [ adj. ] capable of being shaped: flexible

She shaped the basket out of limber branches. flexible, lissome, lithesome, pliable, pliant, supple inflexible, rigid, stiff, stiffened limp [ 1 ] adj. lacking firm texture, substance, or structure Her hair hung limp about her shoulders. droopy, flaccid, floppy, lank, yielding firm, stiff, sturdy, tense 2 adj. resilient lacking strength or firmness; weak or spiritless

The team's limp performance has many people calling for the head coach's resignation. enervated, lackadaisical, languid, languishing, languorous, spiritless ambitious, enterprising 3 vi. animated, energetic, motivated to move or proceed haltingly or unsteadily

The project limped along with half its previous funding. blunder, bumble, lumber, plod, struggle, stumble, trudge limpid 1 [ adj. ] characterized by transparent clearness

limpid streams crystal, clear, lucent, pellucid, transparent cloudy, murky, opaque, unclear, turbid 2 adj. free from emotional or mental agitation the limpid outlook of a man who is at peace with himself as he awaits death collected, composed, cool, level, peaceful, placid, possessed, sedate, serene, smooth, tranquil agitated, discomposed, disturbed, flustered, perturbed linger [ 1 vi. ] to proceed slowly; saunter

fans lingered outside the door crawl, creep, dally, dawdle, lag, loiter hurry, run, rush lingering lissome 1 [ adj. ] easily bent; supple adj.

Rattan is such a lissome material that it can be used for all manner of furniture and baskets. flexible, limber, lithe, pliable, pliant, supple

solid 2 adj.

inflexible, rigid, stiff, stiffened having the ability to move with ease; limber

a lissome ballerina agile, featly, feline, gracile, lithesome, nimble awkward, clumsy, graceless, ungainly list [ ] 1 v. to set or cause to be at an angle The sudden lift of the load on the deck listed the ship badly. angle, cant, heel, incline, pitch, slant, slope, tilt, tip erect

Unit 2

LITHE LOPSIDED

LOATH LOQUACIOUS

LOATHE LOUTISH

LOFTY LUBRICATE

LOLL LUCID

lithe

[ 1

] adj. characterized by easy flexibility and grace lithe dancers agile, featly, feline, gracile, lightsome, nimble awkward, clumsy, graceless, ungainly

2

adj.

easily bent or flexed

lithe branches flexible, limber, lithe, pliable, pliant, supple solid loath [ 1 ] adj. unwilling or reluctant; disinclined inflexible, rigid, stiff, stiffened

I was loath to accept the fact that he had been killed in a terrorist attack. disinclined, indisposed, reluctant, reticent eager loathe 1 [ ] vt. to dislike someone or something greatly; abhor disposed, inclined

I loathe having to do this. abhor, abominate, despise, detest, execrate adore, love loathsome lofty [ 1 ] adj. elevated in character and spirit, noble adj.

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lofty ideals chivalrous, elevated, greathearted, high-minded, magnanimous, sublime base, debased, ignominious, mean 2 adj. rising to a great height the ever-increasing lofty heights of the world's skyscrapers lofty mountains altitudinous, tall, towering low 3 adj. having a feeling of superiority that shows itself in an overbearing attitude She acts all lofty and superior just because she went to Stanford University. assumptive, bumptious, haughty, lordly, peremptory, pompous, presumptuous, supercilious, superior humble, lowly, modest loll [ ] 1 vi. to act or move in a lax, lazy, or indolent manner He lolled back in his comfortable chair. slouch, lounge 2 vi. to spend time doing nothing Some members of the decorating committee were hard at work, and others were just lolling about. dally, dawdle, drone, laze lopsided 1 [ adj. ] leaning to one side

The portrait in the foyer was lopsided. askew, aslant, crazy, listing, oblique, pitched, skewed, slanted, tipping, uneven even, level, straight 2 adj. lacking in balance, symmetry, or proportion a lopsided score of 4-0 The arrangement of the furniture was lopsided. asymmetric, disproportional, irregular, off-balance, unbalanced, unequal balanced loquacious 1 [ adj. symmetrical ] given to fluent or excessive talk

Sometimes the loquacious talk show host barely lets her guests get a word in. chatty, conservational, gabby, garrulous, talkative, voluble laconic, reserved, reticent, taciturn, uncommunicative loquaciousness, loquacity loutish 1 [ adj. ] having the characteristics of a lout; awkward, stupid, and boorish n.

a boy with a loutish air boorish, churlish, clumsy, crude, discourteous, uncouth, uncivilized, uncultured, unrefined

courteous, civilized, genteel, graceful, polished, refined, urbane lout lubricate 1 [ vt. n. ] to coat (something) with a slippery substance in order to reduce friction

lubricate the gears grease, oil, slick, smooth, wax lubricant lucid [ 1 ] adj. suffused with light n.

Those lucid bands that spread across the arctic sky are known as aurora borealis, or the northern lights. beaming, brilliant, dazzling, glowing, incandescent, lucent, luminous, lustrous, radiant, refulgent, splendid dim, dull, lackluster 2 adj. having full use of one's mind and control over one's actions decided to make out her will while she was still lucid balanced, clearheaded, normal, right, sane, stable brainsick, crazy, insane, lunatic, mad, maniac 3 adj. , easily understood The teaching assistant tried to make his instructions as lucid as possible so that everyone would understand what to do. apprehensible, clear, comprehensible, intelligible, palpable, patent, pellucid, plain, understandable ambiguous, enigmatic, equivocal, indistinct, obfuscated, obscure, unclear

Unit 3

LUG LUMINARY

LUGUBRIOUS LURCH

LULL LURK

LULLABY LUSH

LUMBER LUSTROUS

lug

[ 1

] vt. to cause to follow by applying steady force on lugged the lawn mower out into the backyard drag, draw, hale, pull, tow, tug drive, propel, push 2 vt. to carry laboriously I don't understand why he's always lugging all of his books around when his locker is right over there. bear, cart, convey, ferry, haul, lug, pack, tote, transport

lugubrious 1

[ adj.

] mournful, dismal, or gloomy, especially to an exaggerated or ludicrous

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degree his lugubrious tear-stained face deploring, doleful, dolorous, lamentable, melancholy, morose, plaintive, rueful, saturnine, sullen, woeful cheerful, delighted, jocund, jovial lull [ ] 1 n. a momentary halt in an activity the lull before the storm break, breath, interruption, recess 2 vt. to free from distress or disturbance The absence of attacks for such an extended period had lulled the nation into a false sense of security. allay, balm, becalm, compose, lullaby, quiet, salve, settle, soothe, still, tranquilize agitate, discompose, disquiet, disturb, perturb, upset, vex lullaby [ 1 n. ] a song to quiet children or lull them to sleep

sang a lullaby to the baby every night berceuse, cradlesong 2 vt. to free from distress or disturbance reclining peacefully on the deck, lullabied by the gentle motion of the ship allay, balm, becalm, compose, lull, quiet, salve, settle, soothe, still, tranquilize agitate, discompose, disquiet, disturb, perturb, upset, vex lumber 1 [ n. ] tree logs as prepared for human use

A huge amount of lumber will be needed to build the house. timber, wood 2 vi. to walk or move with heavy clumsiness The elephant lumbered through the jungle. flounder, plod, stumble, trudge glide, slide 3 vi. to place a weight or burden on lumber the expedition with unnecessary equipment and supplies burden, encumber, freight, lade, laden, saddle, weight disburden, discharge, disencumber, unlade, unload luminary [ 1 the gala. celebrity, eminence, figure, icon, notability, star, superstar nobody, nonentity n. ] a person who has achieved eminence in a specific field Luminaries from the worlds of sports, entertainment, and politics were at

Buddhist luminary

lurch

[ 1

] v. to move forward while swaying from side to side

The ship lurched in the storm. careen, dodder, falter, reel, stagger, stumble, teeter, totter, waddle progress smoothly lurk [ 1 ] vi. to lie in wait in a place of concealment especially for an evil purpose Dangers lurk in the path of wilderness. ambush, snake, steal appear, come out lush [ 1 ] adj. growing vigorously especially with luxuriant foliage lush grass booming, exuberant, flourishing, lively, luxuriant, rampant, thriving, verdant, vivacious blighted, faded, sere, withered 2 adj. producing abundantly His lush fields were the envy of neighboring farmers. cornucopian, fecund, fruitful, productive, prolific, rich barren, dead, infertile, sterile, unproductive 3 adj. appealing to the senses the lush sounds of the orchestra ambrosial, luscious, palatable, savory, sensuous, tasteful, tasty, voluptuous flat, flavorless, insipid, stale, tasteless lustrous 1 [ adj. ] having a shiny surface or finish march, stride, swagger

lustrous black hair brilliant, burnished, gleaming, glistening, glossy, polished, refulgent, rubbed, shining, sleek, splendid dim, dull, lackluster, lusterless

Unit 4

LUXURIOUS MAELSTROM

LYRIC MAGNIFICENT

MACABRE MALADROIT

MACERATE MALAISE

MACULATE MALCONTENT

luxurious 1

[ adj.

] showing obvious signs of wealth and comfort

The luxurious apartment was filled with the latest electronic gadgets and fine works of art. deluxe, lavish, luxuriant, luxury, opulent, palatial, plushy, silken, sumptuous

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ascetic, austere, spartan 2 adj. given to or marked by excessive gratification of one's desires squandered his family fortune in the relentless satisfaction of his luxurious tastes decadent, indulgent, overindulgent, self-indulgent, sybaritic abstemious, abstinent luxury lyric [ 1 ] n. a short musical composition for the human voice often with instrumental n.

accompaniment The guitarist improvised and sang a gentle lyric while playing. ballad, ditty, jingle, vocal 2 adj. having a pleasantly flowing quality suggestive of poetry or music The film's lyric photography really enhanced its romantic mood. euphonious, lyrical, mellifluous, mellow, melodious, musical, poetical prosaic, prose lyrics macabre 1 [ adj. n. ] suggesting the horror of death and decay; gruesome

Impressively, Plants vs. Zombies presented a supposedly macabre themeinsuch anenjoyableway. appalling, atrocious, dreadful, ghastly, gruesome, hideous, horrific, nightmarish, terrific agreeable, delightful, enjoyable, pleasant macerate 1 [ vt. ] to make soft by soaking or steeping in a liquid

macerate the sample in ethanol drench, drown, impregnate, saturate, sodden, sop, souse, steep wring maculate 1 [ v. dehydrate, desiccate, parch, sorch, sear ] to spot, blemish

Her reputation was maculated after the affair with a married man. besmirch, dot, dirty,soil, spot,stain clean, cleanse, purify, wash maculated maelstrom 1 [ n. adj. ] a powerful often violent whirlpool sucking in objects within a given radius

Their raft got caught in a maelstrom. gulf, vortex, whirlpool

2

n.

a violent or turbulent situation

the maelstrom of war chaos, disorder, pandemonium, tulmult, turmoil, upheaval, uproar calm magnificent 1 [ ] strikingly beautiful or impressive

adj.

a magnificent cathedral august, epic, glorious, grand, imperial, imposing, massive, monumental, noble, regal, splendid humble, unimpressive magnificence maladroit 1 [ adj. n. ] lacking or showing a lack of nimbleness in using one's hands

a maladroit movement awkward, bumbling, clumsy, fumbled, gauche, graceless, heavy-handed, inept, unhandy adroit,ambidexterous, deft, dexterous, handy malaise 1 [ n. ] a vague feeling of bodily discomfort, as at the beginning of an illness

He complained of depression, headaches and malaise. debility, decrepitude, disease, feebleness, infirmity, infirmness, sickliness, unhealthiness malcontent 1 n. [ ] one who is in active opposition to an established order or government

The chaos was caused by a handful of malcontents. complainer, faultfinder, grouch, rebel 2 adj. dissatisfied with the existing state of affairs The film follows three malcontent teenagers around Paris. discontented, discontent, disgruntled, displeased, dissatisfied, ungratified contented, fulfilled, gratified, pleased, satisfied

Unit 5

MALICIOUS MANDATORY

MALIGN MALINGER MALLEABLE MANGLE MANGY MANIA

MALODOROURS MANIFEST

malicious 1

[ adj.

] given to, marked by, or arising from malice; deliberately harmful

spread malicious gossips bad, cruel, despiteful, evil, malevolent, malign, mean, nasty, spiteful, vicious, virulent, wicked

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benevolent, benign, benignant, charitable, kind, kindly malign 1 of it Both parties to the divorce showed a malign desire to make each other's future life utterly miserable. bad, cruel, despiteful, evil, malevolent, malicious, mean, nasty, spiteful, vicious, virulent, wicked benevolent, benign, benignant, charitable, kind, kindly 2 vt. to utter injuriously misleading or false reports about: speak evil of the belief that it is possible to win an election without maligning anyone asperse, blacken, calumniate, defame, libel, smear, traduce, vilify acclaim, applaud, eulogize, extol, laud, praise malinger [ vi. goldbrick, shirk confront, face, meet malingerer n. malleable 1 rollers a malleable metal moldable, waxy 2 adj. capable of being altered or controlled by outside forces or influences The cult leader took advantage of the malleable, compliant personalities of his followers. ductile, elastic, fluid, modifiable, plastic, pliable, pliant, supple, variable adamant, intractable, recalcitrant, refractory, ungovernable, unmanageable, unruly malodorous [ 1 adj. ] having an unpleasant smell [ adj. ] capable of being extended or shaped by beating with a hammer or by the pressure of ] to pretend or exaggerate incapacity or illness (as to avoid duty or work) defend, vindicate [ adj. ] having or showing a desire to cause someone pain or suffering for the sheer enjoyment

He claims he's ill, but I think he's just malingering.

American musteline will eject amalodorous fluid when startled. fetid, foul, frowsy, funky, fusty, musty, noisome, rank, reeky, smelly, stinking, stinky ambrosial, aromatic, fragrant, perfumed, redolent, savory, scented, sweet malodorn. mandatory [ 1 adj. ] forcing one's compliance or participation GRE

GRE test is mandatory for all students, regardless of their nationality, who wish to apply for graduate schools in the United States. compulsory, forced, imperative, incumbent, involuntary, necessary, obligatory, peremptory, required

elective, optional, voluntary mangle 1 [ vt. ] to injure with deep disfiguring wounds by cutting, tearing, or crushing

His body was mangled beyond recognition. batter, deform, disfigure, distort, lacerate, mutilate, rend, wreck cure, heal, rehabilitate 2 vt. to ruin or spoil through ineptitude or ignorance The orchestra had completely mangled Bach’s music. blow, bumble, bungle, butcher, fumble , mar, mess, ruin, foul up, screw up mangy [ 1 adj. ] mean; contemptible

a mangy trick base, contemptible, debased, despicable, detestable, execrable, mean, sordid, squalid lofty, noble, upright, venerable, virtuous mania 1 [ n. ] an excessively intense enthusiasm, interest, or desire; a craze

a mania for neatness ardor, craze, enthusiasm, fervor, obsession, passion, preoccupation, prepossession, zeal apathy, indifference, nonchalance, torpor manic adj. manifest 1 [ adj. ] clearly apparent to the sight or understanding; obvious

He is a manifest poseur. apparent, clear, distinct, evident, lucid, obvious, palpable, patent, perspicuous, plain, transparent cryptic, enigmatic, indistinct, mysterious, obfuscated, obscure, unclear 2 v. to make evident or certain by showing or displaying His frustration is often manifested by a minor facial tic. bespeak, betray, demonstrate, display, evince, expose, reveal conceal, hide manifesto n.

Unit 6

MANIPULATE MARSH

MANNERED MARTINET

MANUMIT MARVEL

MANUSCRIPT MASQUERADE

MAR MASH

manipulate 1 vt.

[

] to move, arrange, operate, or control by the hands or by mechanical means, especially

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in a skillful manner manipulate a foreign language handle, finesse, manage bungle, fumble 2 vt. to influence or manage shrewdly or deviously He manipulated public opinion in his favor. machinate, maneuver manipulation mannered 1 [ adj. ] having an artificial or stilted character n.

a mannered speech affected, artificial, assumed, factitious, fake, feigned, pretended, pseudo, sham, spurious natural manumit 1 [ v. ] to release from slavery or bondage artless, genuine, unfeigned

Though he was an outspoken defender of liberty, this son of Virginia did not manumit his own slaves until he was on his deathbed. free, emancipate, enfranchise, liberate, loose, release, unbind, unchain, unshackle detain manuscript 1 n. [ enchain, enfetter, enslave ] a book, document, or other composition written by hand

beautiful Latin manuscript on the school's diplomas calligraphy, penmanship, script print, type, typewriting mar [ 1 ] n. something that spoils the appearance or completeness of a thing mars on the furniture blight, blotch, defect, deformity, disfigurement, fault, flaw, imperfection, mark, pockmark, scar 2 vt. to impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil an The once flatroad surface is now marred by numerous potholes. election marred by sexual scandal blemish, compromise, cripple, damage, deface, disfigure, harm, hurt, impair, injure, spoil, vitiate doctor, fix, mend, patch, renovate, repair marsh 1 [ n. ] an area of soft, wet, low-lying land adorn, beautify, bedeck, embellish, garnish

The marshes along the coast support a remarkable profusion of plants and animals. bog, fen, marshland, mire, moor, morass, quagmire, slough, swamp, wetland marshy martinet [ adj. ]

1

n.

a strict disciplinarian

He's a retired lieutenant and a bit of a martinet. disciplinarian, purist, stickler reprobate marvel 1 [ n. ] one that evokes surprise, admiration, or wonder

The robot is a marvel of modern engineering. flash, miracle, phenomenon, prodigy, splendor 2 v. to feel amazement or bewilderment at or about marvel at the tranquility of Chopin’s nocturne gape, gaze, goggle, wonder marvelous masquerade 1 n. [ adj. ] a display of emotion or behavior that is insincere or intended to deceive

Although she was deeply bored, she maintained a masquerade of polite interest as her guest droned on. facade, guise, mask, pretense, semblance, show, veil 2 v. to disguise oneself masquerade as a policeman act, disguise, pose, pretend betray, disclose, reveal, unmask mash [ 1 v. ] to cause to become a pulpy mass

mash potatoesbefore adding it to the mixture crush, grind, smash, squeeze agglomerate

Unit 7

MASTERY MAWKISH

MATRICULATE MEAGER

MAUDLIN MEAN

MAVEN MEANDER

MAVERICK MEASLY

mastery [ 1 n.

] possession or display of great skill or technique

She has mastery of several languages. deftness, dexterity, finesse, prowess, virtuosity amateurishness masterful adj.

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matriculate 1

[

] to admit or be admitted into a group, especially a college or university.

vt.

matriculate at Princeton admit, enroll, inscribe, recruit, register commence, graduate matriculation maudlin 1 [ adj. ] effusively or tearfully sentimental n. delist

Some naive students display an almost maudlin concern for the welfare of animals while ignoring basic social inequity. lachrymose, mawkish, mushy, overemotional, sentimental, tearful blithe,cheerful, jocund, jovial, jubilant maven 1 [ n. ] one who is experienced or knowledgeable: expert apathetic,impassive, indifferent

As an investment maven, he was doing well even when the market was doing poorly. ace, adept, connoisseur, expert, maestro, master, professional, proficient, virtuoso amateur, dabbler, dilettante maverick 1 [ n. ] a person who does not conform to generally accepted standards or customs

Some mavericks believe that both gravity and light are electromagnetic forces. bohemian, deviant, heretic, iconoclast, nonconformist conformer, conformist, conventionalist 2 adj. deviating from commonly accepted beliefs or practices a maverick view on marriage dissentient, dissenting, dissident, heterodox, iconoclastic, unorthodox conforming, conventional, orthodox mawkish 1 [ adj. ] excessively and objectionably sentimental

a mawkish love story lachrymose, maudlin, mushy, overemotional, sentimental, tearful blithe,cheerful, jocund, jovial, jubilant meager 1 [ adj. ] deficient in quantity, fullness, or extent; scanty apathetic, impassive, indifferent

meager cultural resources exiguous, niggardly, poor, scanty, scarce, skimpy, slender, slim, sparing, sparse, stingy abundant, ample, bountiful, copious, generous, liberal, plenteous, plentiful mean [ 1 ] adj. ignoble; base

a mean trick to play on a credulous person base, contemptible, despicable, detestable, dirty, dishonorable, execrable, ignominious, sordid lofty, noble, venerable, virtuous 2 adj. giving or sharing as little as possible a mean child who hoarded all her toys closefisted, mingy, miserly, niggardly, parsimonious, penurious, tightfisted, ungenerous generous, liberal, munificent 3 v. I mean to win this race. aim, aspire, calculate, contemplate, design, intend, meditate, plan 4 v. to serve or intend to convey, show, or indicate The national anthem means various things to various people. connote, denote, express, import, signify, spell meaningful meander 1 [ vi. adj. ] to move aimlessly and idly without fixed direction vagabonds meandering through life extravagant, lavish, prodigal, profligate, spendthrift to have in mind as a purpose or goal

meander along the river

amble, cruise, drift, float, ramble, roam, saunter,stroll, wander measly [ 1 adj. ] so small or unimportant as to warrant little or no attention

gave the parking attendant a measly tip inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, minute, paltry, peanut, petty, slight, trifling, trivial big, consequential, considerable, significant

Unit 8

MEASURED MEEK

MEDDLE MEET

MEDIATE MELLIFLUOU

MEDIOCRE MELODRAMATIC

MEDLEY MENACE

measured 1

[ adj.

] deliberated, calculated

a measured response to the terrorist attack advised, calculated, considered, knowing, reasoned, studied, thoughtful, weighed casual meddle 1 [ vi. ] to intrude into other people's affairs or business; interfere uncalculated, unconsidered, unstudied

Please stop meddling in my marriage. interfere, interlope, intermeddle, intrude, obtrude, poke, pry, snoop disregard, ignore, neglect, omit, overlook

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meddlesome mediate 1 [ vt. ]

adj.

to intervene between two or more disputants in order to bring about an agreement,

a settlement, or a compromise mediate a labor-management dispute conciliate, intercede, intermediate, interpose arouse, encourage, excite, foment, incite, inflame, instigate, pique, spark, stimulate, stir mediator mediocre 1 [ adj. n. ] moderate to inferior in quality; ordinary

Without a desire for success, life is at best mediocre. average, common, commonplace, fair, indifferent, medium, ordinary outstanding, excellent, exceptional, extraordinary, impressive, superior mediocrity medley [ 1 adj. ] an unorganized collection or mixture of various things n.

a medley of snack foods available on the buffet table agglomerate, collage, hodgepodge, jumble, montage, motley, muddle, salad, shuffle, variety, welter meek [ 1 ] adj. showing patience and humility; gentle

He was a meek, mild-mannered fellow. humble, modest, unassuming, unpretentious arrogant, bumptious, haughty, imperious, pompous, presumptuous, supercilious 2 adj. easily imposed on; submissive He may be self-effacing, but he certainly isn't meek. compliant, docile, manageable, obedient, submissive, tractable adamant, headstrong, intractable, obstinate, refractory, stubborn, unruly, unyielding meet [ 1 ] adj. precisely adapted to a particular situation, need, or circumstance: very proper

In this case, splitting the winnings of the contested lottery ticket seems like a meetsolution. applicable, appropriate, apt, becoming, befitting, felicitous, fitting, proper, right, suitable improper, inapplicable, inapposite, inappropriate, inapt, infelicitous, malapropos mellifluous 1 [ adj. ] smooth and sweet

a mellifluous voice dulcet, euphonious, mellifluent, mellow, melodious cacophonous, raspy melodramatic [ ]

1

adj.

exaggeratedly emotional or sentimental; histrionic

Our office drama queen yet again made the melodramatic declaration that she was contemplating suicide. dramatic, hammy, histrionic, mannered, pretentious, stagy nondramatic, nontheatrical menace [ ]

1 vt. to make a show of intention to harm; to place in danger Stockpiles of nuclear weapons that continue to menace the inhabitants of this planet. compromise, hazard, imperil, jeopardize, peril, risk, threaten rescue, save menacing adj.

Unit 9

MENDACIOUS MENTOR MERCENARY MESH MESMERIC METAMORPHOSE

MERCURIAL METAPHYSICAL

MERITED METEORIC

mendacious 1

[

] telling or containing lies

adj.

mendacious tales about his adventures dishonest, deceitful, fallacious, lying, spurious, untruthful authentic, honest, truthful, veracious mentor [ ]

1 n. a trusted counselor or guide not only an lecturer but also a spirit mentor advisor, coach, counselor, guide, instructor, teacher disciple, pupil apprentice 2 vt. to give advice and instruction regarding the course or process to be followed We're looking for volunteers to mentor students in career planning. coach, counsel, lead, pilot, shepherd, show, tutor comply, follow, observe mercenary [ 1 n. ] a professional soldier hired for service in a foreign army

hire a mercenary army to protect the VIP hack 2 adj. motivated solely by a desire for monetary or material gain Virtue flies from the heart of a mercenary man. acquisitive, avaricious, avid, covetous, grasping, greedy, moneygrubbing, rapacious benevolent, generous, liberal, philanthropic, munificent

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mercurial 1

[ adj.

] characterized by rapid and unpredictable changeableness of mood

his mercurial temperament capricious, changeful, fluctuating, fluid, mutable, temperamental, uncertain, variable, volatile certain, constant, immutable, invariable, settled, stable, steady, unvarying merited 1 [ adj. ] being what is called for by accepted standards of right and wrong The punishment, although harsh, was entirely merited.

a merited bonus

condign, deserved, due, fair, justified, right, warranted undeserved, undue mesh [ 1 ] v. to catch or hold as if in a net gratuitous, unjustified, unwarranted

Dolphins sometimes become meshed in fishnets. enmesh, ensnare, ensnarl, entoil, entrap, net, snare, tangle, trap disentangle, untangle mesmeric 1 [ adj. ] of, relating to, or induced by mesmerism

hynoptic awaking 2 adj. the mesmeric recital attractive, alluring, captivating, charming, drawing, enchanting, riveting disgusting, loathesome, repellent, repulsive mesmerism metamorphose 1 vt. [ n. ] to change into a different physical form especially by supernatural means mesmerize v. unappealing, unattractive attracting and holding interest as if by a spell

a science fiction story in which radiation metamorphoses people into giant bugs alchemize, transfigure, transform, transmute, transpose, transubstantiate remain metaphysical 1 adj. [ ] dealing with or expressing a quality or idea

a work that deals with such metaphysical questions as the very nature of knowledge conceptual, ideal, ideational, notional, theoretical concrete 2 adj. of, relating to, or being part of a reality beyond the observable physical universe a metaphysical world beyond the one in which we live ethereal, heavenly, otherworldly, paranormal, preternatural, transcendental, unearthly, unworldly

mundane meteoric 1 [ adj. ]

natural

similar to a meteor in speed, brilliance, or brevity

a meteoric rise to fame ephemeral, evanescent, fleeting, momentary, rapid, transient, transitory enduring, lasting, permanent, prolonged

Unit 10

METHODICAL MILK

METICULOUS METTLE MIME MIMIC

MIFF MINATORY

MIGRATORY MINCE

methodical 1

[ adj.

] arranged or proceeding in regular, systematic order

a methodical summary that included lists of points to memorize neat, orderly, organized, regular, systematic, systematized disorganized, haphazard, irregular, unsystematic meticulous 1 [ adj. ] marked by extreme or excessive care in the consideration or treatment of details

He was so meticulous about everything. careful, conscientious, exact, fussy, heedful, painstaking, punctilious, scrupulous careless, feckless, heedless, thoughtless mettle 1 [ n. ] vigor and strength of spirit or temperament

troops who showed their mettle in combat bravery, courage, dauntlessness, fortitude, guts, nerve, pluck, spirit, spunk, valor cowardice, cravenness, gutlessness, pusillanimity, spinelessness 2 n. staying quality: stamina Those trucks had proved their mettle in army transport. durability, endurance, stamina, persistence, resolution mettlesome miff [ 1 ] vt. to cause to become offended or annoyed be miffed by her son’s disobedience aggravate, annoy, enrage, exasperate, incense, infuriate, ire, madden, nettle, peeve, umbrage, vex appease, assuage, mollify, placate, propitiate delight, gratify, please adj.

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migratory 1

[ adj.

] having a way of life that involves moving from one region to another typically on a

seasonal basis migratory birds heading south for the winter migrant, mobile, nomad, nomadic, traveling nonmigrant, resident, sedentary milk [ 1 ] vt. to draw or coerce profit or advantage from illicitly or to an extreme degree The interrogators milked the arrested spy, but he was dry. milk the workers drain, exploit mime [ 1 v. ] to use (someone or something) as the model for one's speech, mannerisms, or behavior

miming a dog begging for food ape, copy, copycat, emulate, mimic, simulate mimic 1 [ adj. ] being such in appearance only and made with or manufactured from usually

cheaper materia Police were concerned that the mimic gun, although intended only as a toy, might be confused with the real thing in certain situations. artificial, bogus, factitious, fake, false, imitative, mock, sham, simulated, substitute, synthetic genuine, natural, real 2 v. to copy or exaggerate (someone or something) in order to make fun of The comedian was famous for mimicking the President's distinctive lisp. burlesque, caricature, do, imitate, mock, parody, send up, spoof, travesty 3 v. to use (someone or something) as the model for one's speech, mannerisms, or behavior began to learn their language by mimicking the sounds they made ape, copy, copycat, emulate, mimic, simulate mimicry minatory [ 1 adj. n. ] being or showing a sign of evil or calamity to come

The novel's protagonist is haunted by a minatory black specter. baleful, direful, doomy, foreboding, ill-boding, inauspicious, menacing, portentous, sinister, threatening unthreatening mince 1 [ vt. ] to cut or chop into very small pieces reassuring

I'll buy some lean meat and mince it myself. cut, dice, grind, hash 2 vi. to walk with very short steps or with exaggerated primness The bride minced through the cathedral.

stride

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List 16
“ ——
2006 10 GRE Verbal 700 Quantitative 800 Cornell University Ms. Financial Engineering



Unit 1

MINGLE MINUTIA

MINIMIZE MIRAGE

MINT MIRE

MINUSCULE MIRTH

MINUTE MISANTHROPIC

mingle [ 1 vi.

] to take part in social activities

mingling at a cocktail party associate, fraternize, socialize 2 vt. to mix so that the components become united mingle fact and fiction mingle the ingredients divide, separate, sunder minimize [ 1 vt. ] to reduce to the smallest possible amount, extent, size, or degree

mix, amalgamate, blend, commingle, immingle, intermix, merge

All striking forces are told to minimize civilian casualties. deprecate, diminish, discount, reduce inflate, magnify 2 vt. maximize to underestimate intentionally

minimize losses in our own company while maximize those of the rival underestimate, underrate, undervalue overestimate 3 vt. exaggerate to express scornfully one's low opinion of

Sore losers minimized the other team's victory. belittle, denigrate, deprecate, depreciate, derogate, diminish, disparage, trash, vilipend acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, laud, magnify, praise minimum adj. mint [ 1 ] n. an abundant amount, especially of money worth a mint bomb, boodle, bundle, fortune, pile, wad mite, modicum 2 adj. unmarred as if fresh from a mint

a second-handed laptop in mint condition intact, original, perfect, pristine, unmarred, virginal impaired, damaged miniscule [ 1 adj. ] very small stale

a miniscule progress atomic, infinitesimal, microscopic, miniature, minute, tiny colossal, elephantine, enormous, gargantuan, gigantic, huge, immense, mammoth, prodigious minute [ 1 adj. ] characterized by careful scrutiny and close examination

a minute description of the setting of the story circumstantial, elaborate, full, particular, particularized, thorough brief, compendious, concise, succinct, summary, terse 2 adj. very small or of small importance It is not sagacious to invest excessively in minute details. frivolous, incidental, inconsiderable, insignificant, little, minor, negligible, nugatory, slight, trifling, trivial consequential, critical, crucial, momentous, significant, vital, weighty minutes n. minutia [ 1 n. ] a minute or minor detail

plagued by minutiae triviality gist mirage [ 1 n. ] something illusory and unattainable like a mirage A peaceful

Reunion with her husband has become a mirage. solution proved to be a mirage. chimera, delusion, hallucination, illusion, phantom, vision reality mire [ 1 ] n.

a difficult, puzzling, or embarrassing situation from which there is no easy escape

stuck in a mire of emotional dependency dilemma, hole, impasse, jam, pickle, quagmire, rattrap, swamp 2 vt. to hamper or hold back as if by mire be mired in the past bog, broil, delay, detain, entangle, entrap, retard enfranchise, extricate, free, liberate, rescue mirth [ 1 n. ] gladness or gaiety as shown by or accompanied with laughter

a man of little mirth

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cheer, festivity, gaiety, glee, happiness, hilarity, jocundity, joviality, lightheartedness dejection, depression, desolation, despondence, doldrums, melancholy, oppression mirthful adj. misanthropic [ 1 adj. ] having or showing a deep distrust of human beings and their motives

a solitary and misanthropic artist antisocial, cynical, pessimistic philanthropic misanthrope n. uncynical

Unit 2

MISBEHAVING MISERLY

MISCHIEVOUS MISFORTUNE

MISCONTRUE MISGIVING

MISCREANT MISHAP

MISDEMEANOR MISREPRESENT

misbehaving [ adj.

] engaging in or marked by childish misbehavior

a new approach for disciplining a chronically misbehaving child annoying, devious, errant, impish, mischievous, naughty, playful, wicked decorous, urbane mischievous [ 1 adj. ] playful in a naughty or teasing way

The mischievous child broke the vase. annoying, devious, errant, impish, misbehaving, naughty, playful, wicked decorous, urbane 2 adj. causing harm or trouble mischievous rumors that defame him adverse, baleful, baneful, deleterious, detrimental, evil, hurtful, injurious, nocuous, noxious, pernicious beneficial misconstrue [ 1 vt. anodyne, benign, harmless, innocent, innocuous, inoffensive, safe ] to mistake the meaning of

An outsider might misconstrue the nature of the phenomenon. garble, misapprehend, misinterpret, misperceive, misread, misrepresent, mistake appreciate, apprehend, catch, comprehend, fathom, grasp, perceive, savvy, seize, understand miscreant [ 1 n. ] one who behaves criminally or viciously

robbed by a bunch of miscreants

brute, culprit, devil, felon, fiend, offender, rascal, reprobate, villain cavalier, chevalier misdemeanor [ 1 n. ] a crime less serious than a felony

charged with several misdemeanors infraction, infringement, offense, peccadillo, violation felony miserly [ 1 adj. ] marked by grasping meanness and penuriousness

a miserly couple devoid of social conscience and responsibility closefisted, mean, niggard, parsimonious, penurious, stingy, tightfisted lavish, prodigal, spendthrift, squandering miser n. misfortune [ 1 n. ] bad fortune or ill luck generous, liberal, munificent, openhanded

unable to grasp why he had been struck by such a misfortune adversity, calamity, cataclysm, catastrophe, disaster, ill, mischance, mishap, tragedy fortune, luck, serendipity misgiving [ 1 n. ] a feeling of doubt or suspicion especially concerning a future event

No one can dispel his misgiving. apprehension, distrust, doubt, dread, fear, foreboding, incertitude, skepticism, suspicion assurance, belief, certainty, certitude, confidence, conviction, sureness, surety, trust mishap [ 1 n. ] an unfortunate accident

Mishap followed wherever he went. adversity, calamity, cataclysm, catastrophe, disaster, ill, mischance, misfortune, tragedy fortune, luck, serendipity misrepresent [ 1 vt. misrepresent the facts belie, color, distort, falsify, garble, misinterpret, misrelate, misstate, pervert clarify, explain, illuminate, illustrate misrepresentation n. ] to give an incorrect or misleading representation of

Unit 3

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MITE MODICUM

MITIGATE MOLLIFY

MOBILE MOLLYCODDLE

MOCKERY MOLT

MODERATE MOMENTOUS

mite [ 1

] n. a very small object, creature, or particle, a very small sum of money I have only a mite left to buy lunch for the rest of the week. atom, bit, hint, iota, molecule, particle, pittance, trace boodle, bundle, fortune colossus

mitigate [ 1 vt.

] to make less severe or painful

powerful drugs that mitigate pains allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe aggravate, exacerbate, intensify mitigation n. mobile [ 1 adj. ] capable of moving or being moved

a mobile missile launcher motile, movable, portable, transportable immobile, immovable 2 adj. changeable in appearance, mood, or purpose a highly mobile face adaptable, fluid, inconstant, mercurial, mutable, protean, unstable, unsteady, variable, versatile fixed, steadfast, stable mobility n. mockery [ 1 n. ] scornfully contemptuous ridicule mobilize v.

Her deliberate mockery triggered a fierce fight. derision, joke, mock, ridicule, scoffing respect, reverence, veneration 2 n. a false, derisive, or impudent imitation arbitrary methods that make a mockery of justice burlesque, caricature, farce, parody, sham, travesty mock v. moderate [ 1 vt. ] to lessen the intensity or extremeness of

Sopranos and tenors moderates their voices to fit the size of the theater. abate, diminish, dwindle, ease, lessen, lower, modulate, subside, taper, temper, wane escalate, enhance, expand, heighten, intensify 2 adj. being within reasonable limits; not excessive or extreme

The new proposals regarding defense budget were met with only moderate enthusiasm. average, conservative, fair, intermediate, mediocre, modest, reasonable, temperate exorbitant, excessive immoderate modicum [ 1 n. adj. ] a small portion; a limited quantity extreme, radical

a modicum of food quota atom, iota, mite, molecule, particle abundance, affluence mollify [ 1 vt. ] to calm in temper or feeling

mollify the angry customer allay, alleviate, appease, assuage, conciliate, mitigate, placate, propitiate, soothe aggravate, enrage, exasperate, incense, inflame, infuriate, ire, rankle, vex mollification n. mollycoddle [ 1 vt. ] to treat with an excessive or absurd degree of indulgence and attention antagonize

mollycoddle his only grandson coddle, cosset, indulge, pamper, spoil abuse, ill-treat molt [ 1 ] vi. to shed hair, feathers, shell, horns, or an outer layer periodically Snakes molt as they grow, shedding the old skin and growing a larger new skin. exfoliate, exuviate, shed fledge momentous [ 1 adj. ] of utmost importance; of outstanding significance or consequence

Battle of Stalingrad is a momentous campaign in World War 2. consequential, considerable, crucial, eventful, important, monumental, pivotal, significant, vital, weighty inconsequential, negligible, slight, trifling, trivial

Unit 4

MOMENTUM

MONGREL

MONOCHROMATIC

MONOLOGUE

MONOTONOUS

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MONTAGE

MORATORIUM

MORBID

MORDANT

MORIBUND

momentum [ 1 n.

] impetus of a physical object in motion

Their luck began to pick up momentum. boost, encouragement, goad, impetus, incentive, incitation, instigation, motivation, spur, stimulus deterrent mongrel [ 1 adj. ] of mixed origin or character obstruction, resistance

homeless mongrel dogs on the streets crossbred, hybrid purebred monochromatic [ 1 adj. monochromatic filter colorless, monochrome chromatic, colorful, iridescent, motley, rainbow, variegated 2 adj. lacking variety, creativity, or excitement a monochromatic article eulogizing a hero arid, dreary, drudging, dull, jejune, monotonous, pedestrian, ponderous, stale, stodgy, tiresome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting monochromatism n. monologue [ 1 n. ] a dramatic sketch performed by one actor ] having or consisting of one color or hue

deliver a tedious monologue soliloquy, solo, speech dialogue monotonous [ 1 adj. ] uttered or sounded in one unvarying tone

a monotonous apathetic voice vociferous 2 adj. tediously uniform or unvarying a sparkle in the monotonous background arid, dreary, drudging, dull, jejune, monochromatic, pedestrian, ponderous, stale, stodgy, tiresome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting montage [ 1 n. ] an unorganized collection or mixture of various things

My memories of the childhood trip are a montage of the sights of two rivers, smells of hotpots, and sounds of light railway of Chongqing. agglomerate, collage, hodgepodge, medley, motley, salad, variety

moratorium [ 1 n.

] a suspension of activity

a moratorium on nuclear tests abeyance, delay, doldrums, dormancy, latency, quiescence, postponement, suspension resumption morbid [ 1 adj. ] affected with or induced by disease

exhibit a morbid fascination diseased, pathological verdant 2 adj. characterized by preoccupation with unwholesome thoughts or feelings read the account of the murder with a morbid interest brainsick, crazy, deranged, lunatic, psychotic hale, salubrious, wholesome morbidity n. mordant [ 1 adj. ] biting and caustic in thought, manner, or style

feel embarrassed about the mordant satire of the critics acerbic, acid, acrid, barbed, caustic, corrosive, pungent, sardonic, satiric, scalding, scathing, tart congenial, genial moribund [ 1 adj. ] approaching death; about to die

The nation’s banking industry was moribund. decadent, deteriorating, dying, expiring, fading beginning, nascent 2 adj. lively, thriving, vigorous, vital on the verge of becoming obsolete

Some social conventions have been rendered moribund in face of modernization. antiquated, archaic, dated, fossilized, moth-eaten, outdated, outworn, rusty fresh, new promising

Unit 5

MOROSE MOTIVATE

MOSAIC MOTLEY

MOSQUE MOTTLE

MOTH-EATEN MOTTO

MOTILE MOURNFUL

morose [

]

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1

adj.

having a sullen and gloomy disposition

morose job seekers who are inured to rejection bleak, chill, dark, depressed, dire, dour, gloomy, lugubrious, saturnine, solemn, sulky, sullen, surly bright, cheerful, festive, jovial, jocund, sanguine, lighthearted, rejoiced mosaic [ 1 n. ] an unorganized collection or mixture of various things

a mosaic of testimony from various witnesses agglomerate, collage, hodgepodge, jumble, montage, motley, muddle, salad, shuffle, variety, welter mosque [ 1 n. ] a building used for public worship by Muslim

a deadly suicide attack at the mosque cathedral, chapel, church, temple moth-eaten [ 1 adj. ] having passed its time of use or usefulness

dressed in a moth-eaten style antiquated, archaic, dated, fossilized, moribund, outdated, outworn, rusty fresh, new motile [ 1 adj. ] exhibiting or capable of movement promising

Aircraft carriers are recognized as a motile combat platform. mobile, movable, portable, transportable immobile motility n. motivate [ 1 vt. ] to provide with an incentive; move to action

questions that excite and motivate youth excite, galvanize, impel, innervate, provoke, rouse, stimulate discourage, dishearten motivation n. motley [ 1 adj. ] (especially of colors) having elements of great variety or incongruity motivated adj.

an arrangement of motley flowers assorted, chromatic, kaleidoscopic, heterogeneous, indiscriminate, magpie, piebald, variegated homogeneous, monochromatic, monotonous, unvaried mottle [ 1 vt. ] to mark with spots or blotches of different shades or colors

a black horse mottled with white blotch, dapple, dot, marble, splotch, spot, stain blanch

mottled adj. motto [ 1 n. ] a short expression of a guiding principle

“Semper fidelis” is the motto of US Marine Corps. catchword, doctrine, dogma, idiom, slogan mournful [ 1 adj. ] feeling or expressing sorrow or grief Mrs. Murphy fainted at the mournful news of her son’s death. Murphy aching, agonized, anguished, doleful, dolorous, grievous, lamentable, lugubrious, melancholy, sad, woeful cheerful, delighted, jocund, jovial, jubilant mournfulness n.

The mournful survivors of the disaster were faced with the grim task of burying the dead.

Unit 6

MOVEMENT MUNDANE

MUDDY MUNIFICENT

MUFFLER MURKY

MULISH MURMUR

MUMBLE MUTATE

movement [ 1 n.

] the act or process of moving

There appears to be some movement in the bush. action, motion, operation, shifting, stir motionlessness, stasis muddy [ 1 adj. ] not clean

got muddy after playing outside besmirched, dingy, draggled, dusty, filthy, foul, nasty, smudged, smutty, soiled, sordid, stained, sullied clean, immaculate, spotless, stainless, unsoiled, unstained, unsullied 2 adj. lacking in clarity or brightness a muddy recording cloudy, foul, murky, obscure, turbid clear 3 v. to make (something) unclear to the understanding That point is irrelevant and will just muddy the issue we're trying to resolve. becloud, befog, blur, cloud, fog, obfuscate clarify, illuminate

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muffle [ 1 vt.

] to wrap or pad in order to deaden the sound

close the window to muffle the outside noises attenuate, dampen, deaden, mute, soften, stifle, suppress amplify, enhance, magnify muffler n. mulish [ 1 adj. ] unreasonably and inflexibly obstinate

a mulish determination to act on his own adamant, headstrong, immovable, intractable, obstinate, pertinacious, perverse, refractory, stubborn flexible, pliable, pliant, yielding mulishly adv. mumble [ 1 v. ] to utter words in a low confused indistinct manner

He mumbled an apology reluctantly. grunt, murmur, mutter, whisper articulate, enunciate mundane [ 1 adj. ] of, relating to, or typical of this world

As for opera, I prefer mundane to religious themes. carnal, earthly, materialistic, secular, sensual, worldly spiritual 2 adj. ethereal relating to, characteristic of, or concerned with commonplaces

mundane concerns of day-to-day life common, ordinary, prosaic extraordinary munificent [ 1 adj. ] very liberal in giving

The university received a munificent foundation grant. bountiful, charitable, generous, liberal, openhanded, unsparing closefisted, mean, miserly, niggardly, parsimonious, penurious, stingy, tightfisted munificence n. murky [ 1 adj. ] being without light or without much light

I didn't like walking around the murky campground without a flashlight. black, caliginous, darkened, dim, gloomy, stygian bright, brightened, brilliant, illuminated, illumined, lucent, lucid, luminous 2 adj. lacking clarity or distinctness He felt lost in the murky bureaucratic rhetoric.

ambiguous, arcane, cloudy, equivocal, muddy, nebulous, obscure, occult, vague clear, limpid, pellucid, plain murmur [ 1 n. ] a low, indistinct, continuous sound

We could hear the murmur of the audience throughout the entire performance. grunt, mumble, mutter, undertone, whisper roar 2 v. to complain in low mumbling tones; grumble We could hear the murmur of the audience throughout the entire performance. carp, fuss, gripe, grizzle, grouch, grouse, grumble, moan, repine, whine crow, delight, rejoice mutate [ 1 v. ] to undergo or cause to undergo mutation X

Some chromosomes started to mutate after exposure to X-Ray. alter, change, fluctuate, modify, shift, transfigure, transform, vary remain mutation n. plateau, stabilize

Unit 7

MUTE NAÏVE

MUTTER NARCISSISM

MYOPIC NASCENT

MYRIAD NATTY

NADIR NAUSEATE

mute [ 1

] adj. deliberately refraining from speech

He always remained mute no matter how much we pleaded for an answer dumb, inarticulate, speechless, uncommunicative, voiceless, wordless communicative, expansive, loquacious, talkative 2 vt. to soften the tone, color, shade, or hue of mute a color attenuate, soften, subdue sharpen 3 vt. to soften or muffle the sound of dampen, deaden, muffle, stifle amplify, magnify muted adj.

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mutter [ 1 vi.

] to murmur complainingly or angrily

mutter about the difficult assignment carp, fuss, gripe, grizzle, grouch, grouse, grumble, moan, murmur, repine, whine crow, delight, rejoice myopic [ 1 adj. ] a lack of foresight or discernment

a myopic view on climate change shortsighted, narrow-minded far-sighted, foreseeing, improvident myopia n. myriad [ 1 adj. ] constituting a very large, indefinite number discerning

the myriad stars of a summer night innumerable, numerous, uncountable, untold few, scarce, scanty nadir [ 1 n. ] the lowest point countable, enumerable

the nadir on the curve base, bottom, foot acme, apex, climax, meridian, peak, pinnacle, summit, top, zenith naïve [ 1 ] adj. lacking worldly experience and understanding, simple and guileless

a child with a naïve charm artless, guileless, ingenuous, innocent, natural, simple, unaffected, unsophisticated sophisticated, worldly naivety n. narcissism [ 1 n. ] excessive love or admiration of oneself affected, artful, assuming, dishonest, dissembling, guileful

In his narcissism, he just assumed that everyone else wanted to hear the tiny details of his day. egocentricity, egotism, self-absorption self-hatred narcissistic adj. nascent [ 1 adj. ] coming or having recently come into existence

The rise of the nascent middle class catalyzed a new economic boom. beginning, emerging, inceptive, inchoate, incipient, initial, introductory

full-blown, full-fledged, mature, ripe nascence n. natty [ 1 ] adj.

moribund

trimly neat and tidy

a natty young woman dapper, smart, spruce frowsy, sloppy, slovenly nauseate [ 1 v. ] to feel or cause to feel loathing or disgust

The malodor of the rotten meat made us nauseate. disgust, repel, repulse, revolt, sicken delight nausea n.

Unit 8

NAUTICAL NEGATION

NAYSAY NEGLIGENT

NEBULOUS NEGOTIATE

NEEDY NEOPHYTE

NEFARIOUS NERVE

nautical [ 1 water adj.

] of, relating to, or characteristic of ships, shipping, sailors, or navigation on a body of

nautical mile marine, maritime, navigational aeronautic naysay [ 1 vt. ] to oppose, deny, or take a pessimistic or negative view of astronautic

decline, deny, deject, disallow, gainsay, oppose, refuse, reject accede, agree, concur, consent naysayer n. nebulous [ 1 adj. ] indistinct, vague

a nebulous description of the topic ambiguous, arcane, equivocal, hazy, indistinct, muddy, murky, obscure, occult, vague distinct nebula n. clear, definite, unambiguous, unequivocal

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needy [ 1 adj.

] being in need; impoverished, poor

As a child, she was extremely needy and had no self-confidence. destitute, impecunious, impoverished, indigent, penurious, poor, threadbare affluent, opulent, wealthy nefarious [ 1 adj. ] flagrantly wicked or impious

a nefarious scheme to assassinate the archbishop atrocious, degenerate, devious, evil, heinous, infamous, miscreant, vicious, villainous, wicked ethical, righteous, upright, virtuous negation [ 1 n. ] the opposite or absence of something regarded as actual, positive, or affirmative beneficial exemplary

issued specific negations of all of the charges against her contradiction, denegation, denial, gainsaying, rejection, repudiation acknowledgement, affirmation, avowal negative adj. negligent [ 1 adj. ] failing to give proper attention or care

negligent in taking care of the children careless, derelict, heedless, neglectful, remiss attentive, careful, cautious, heedful negligence n. negotiate [ 1 vi. ] to arrange or settle by discussion and mutual agreement

negotiate the term of truce arrange, bargain, concert, settle break down 2 walls. contrive, finesse, frame, machinate, maneuver, manipulate, mastermind, wangle negotiable adj. neophyte 1 [ n. ] a beginner or novice negotiation n. vi. plan out usually with subtle skill or care The prisoners negotiated their escape by using Morse code to tap messages to each other through the

a novice in the theater who had never even had a walk-on role abecedarian, apprentice, fledgling, freshman, novice, recruit, rookie, tyro veteran nerve [ 1 danger ] n. power of endurance or control; strength of mind to carry on in spite of

nerves of steel bravery, fortitude, guts, intrepidity, resolution, stamina cowardice, pusillanimity 2 vt. to give strength or courage to needs to nerve himself for the big game tomorrow animate, brace, cheer, embolden, encourage, inspirit, steel, strengthen appall nervy adj. discourage, dishearten

Unit 9

NETTLE NIL

NEUTRALIZE NIP

NICETY NITPICK

NEXUS NOCTURNAL

NIBBLE NOISOME

nettle [ 1

] vt. to arouse to sharp but transitory annoyance or anger

His pompous attitude nettled several people. aggravate, annoy, exasperate, inflame, infuriate, irritate, peeve, pique, provoke, roil, ruffle, vex appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate neutralize [ 1 vt. ] to cause (an acid or base) to undergo neutralization

industrial exhaust neutralized by lime acidify 2 vt. or effect influenced by the kind of propaganda that is difficult to neutralize annul, cancel, counteract, frustrate, negate, nullify activate, vitalize neutralization n. nicety [ 1 n. ] careful attention to details; delicate exactness to make inoperative or ineffective usually by means of an opposite force, influence,

There's a nicety of detail in his meticulously painted landscapes. accuracy, delicacy, exactness, fineness, precision, veracity coarseness, imprecision, inaccuracy, roughness 2 n. a fine point or distinction niceties of diplomatic protocol the niceties of table manner detail, particular, nuance, subtlety nexus [ ]

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1

n.

a means of connection

Correlativity does not sufficiently lead to causal nexus. bond, connection, link, tie 2 n. a thing or place that is of greatest importance to an activity or interest As the nexus for three great religions, Jerusalem has had a troubled as well as illustrious history. base, capital, center, core, focus, kernel, heart, hub, nucleus margin, periphery nibble [ 1 ] vt. to eat with small, quick bites or in small morsels

waves nibbling the shore bite, nip, peck, sip, tipple gobble nil [ ] 1 n. nothing; zero reduced to nil nothing, nonentity, nullity, zip existence nip [ 1 ] n. a very small amount I'll have just a nip of your sandwich. bit, hint, little, mite, ounce, snap, trace abundance, affluence, avalanche 2 vi. to sip (alcoholic liquor) in small amounts nibble, sip, tipple guzzle, quaff, swill nitpick [ 1 v. ] to criticize by nit-picking

a peevish critic always ready to quibble carp, cavil, fuss, niggle, quibble, pick nits nitpicker n. nocturnal [ 1 adj. ] of, relating to, or occurring in the night

a nocturnal raid nightly, nighttime daily, diurnal 2 adj. active at night a nocturnal predator nocturne n. noisome [ ]

1

adj.

noxious, harmful

noisome chemical fumes deleterious, detrimental, insalubrious, noxious, unhealthy, unwholesome beneficial 2 adj. noisome garbage fetid, foul, malodorous, smelly, stinky ambrosial, aromatic, fragrant, perfumed, redolent, savory, scented, sweet 3 adj. highly obnoxious or objectionable noisome habits of littering abhorrent, appalling, disgusting, hideous, loathsome, nauseating, offensive, repugnant, repulsive appealing, captivating, enchanting, fascinating agreeable, pleasant healthy, salubrious, wholesome offensive to the senses and especially to the sense of smell

Unit 10

NOMAD NONPLUS

NOMINAL NONCHALANT NONSENSE NOTCH

NONDESCRIPT NOVEL

NONENTITY NOXIOUS

nomad [ 1 adj./n.

] a member of a people who have no fixed residence but move from

place to place usually seasonally and within a well-defined territory after college she became quite the nomad, backpacking through Europe with no particular destination ambulant, fugitive, gallivanting, perambulatory, peripatetic, ranging, roaming, vagabond, vagrant, wandering, wayfaring settled nominal [ 1 adj. ] so small or unimportant as to warrant little or no attention

His involvement was nominal. inconsequential, inconsiderable, paltry, trifling, trivial big, consequential, considerable, important, material, significant 2 adj. existing or being something in name or form only nominal head of the party formal, paper, titular nonchalant [ 1 adj. ] having an air of easy unconcern or indifference

She was surprisingly nonchalant about winning the award. apathetic, disinterested, insensible, insouciant, perfunctory, unconcerned concerned, interested

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nondescript [ 1 adj.

] lacking distinctive or interesting qualities

Their performance was disappointingly nondescript. beige, characterless, featureless, indistinctive, vanilla conspicuous, remarkable, striking nonentity [ 1 n. ] a person or thing of little consequence or significance

she was so quiet she was almost a nonentity at the meeting cipher, half-pint, insignificancy, lightweight, nullity, snippersnapper, twerp, whippersnapper, zero, zilch mogul, big shot, big wheel, bigwig, eminence, figure, magnate, personage, somebody 2 n. a conception or image created by the imagination and having no objective reality the arctic circle is a nonentity—you won't see it on the way to the north pole chimera, conceit, daydream, delusion, fancy, figment, hallucination, illusion, phantasm, unreality, vision nonplus [ 1 vt. ] use to be at a loss as to what to say, think, or do: perplex

I was nonplussed by his openly expressed admiration of me. confound, confuse, discomfit, disconcert, discountenance, mortify, abash, faze, fluster nonsense [ 1 n. ] words or language having no meaning or conveying no intelligible ideas

Many of the words in the poem are nonsense. babble, blabber, drivel, prattle, mumbo jumbo notch [ 1 2 ] n. v. a V-shaped cut. Such a cut used for keeping a record to obtain (as a goal) through effort

unserrated a stunning performance that notched up a second Academy Award for the actor attain, bag, chalk up, clock up, gain, hit, log, make, rack up, ring up, score, win novel [ 1 ] adj. strikingly new, unusual, or different

a novel scheme to collect money original, unaccustomed, unfamiliar, unheard-of, unknown, unprecedented banal, timeworn, familiar, hackneyed, time-honored, tired, warmed-over noxious [ 1 adj. ] harmful to living things; injurious to health

noxious waste unwholesome, baneful, deleterious, detrimental, nocuous, pernicious, wicked beneficial, salubrious, anodyne, benign, harmless, hurtless, innocent, innocuous, inoffensive, safe

2

adj.

causing intense displeasure, disgust, or resentment

a noxious new breed of horror movie in which graphic depictions of torture are presented as entertainment abhorrent, abominable, appalling, awful, disgusting, distasteful, dreadful, foul, fulsome, gross, hideous, horrid, loathsome, nasty, nauseating, noisome, obnoxious, odious, repellent, repugnant, repulsive, revolting, scandalous

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List 17
“ ——
Verbal 790 Quantitative 800 ” UCLA PHD

Unit 1

NUANCE OBDURATE

NUDGE OBEDIENT

N U G AT O R Y OBEIS ANCE

NURTURE OBFUSCATE

O AT H OBLIG ATORY

nuance 1

[ n.

] a subtle distinction or variation

a poem of little depth and nuance patent difference, lack of subtlety, sharp distinction, patency nudge 1 2 action the car salesman nudged me into taking a test-drive encourage, exhort, goad, press, prod, prompt nugatory [ 1 adj. ] of little or no consequence; inconsequential [ vt. vt. ] to seek the attention of by a push of the elbow to try to persuade (someone) through earnest appeals to follow a course of

accidentally nudged me as he squeezed past

the book is entertaining, but its contributions to Shakespearean scholarship are nugatory incidental, inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, negligible, trifling, trivial consequential, eventful, important, major, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, unfrivolous, weighty nurture 1 [ vt. ] to supply with nourishment

nurtured her children through the winters with home-cooked soup withhold sustenance from 2 vt. to provide (someone) with moral or spiritual understanding he feels that his lifelong practice of reading the Bible daily has nurtured him in ways he cannot describe edify, illuminate, inspire impede, stunt, disregard

oath [ 1

] n. a solemn, formal declaration or promise to fulfill a pledge an oath to defend the nation pledge, troth, vow, word

obdurate 1

[ adj.

] resistant to persuasion or softening influences

She is known for her obdurate determination. adamant, hard-nosed, headstrong, inflexible, intransigent, pertinacious, stubborn, unbending, uncompromising, unrelenting, unyielding, willful acquiescent, agreeable, amenable, compliant, complying, flexible, pliable, pliant, relenting, yielding 2 backyard affectless, callous, compassionless, hard-hearted, heartless, indurate, inhuman, insensate, ironhearted, merciless, remorseless, ruthless, unsparing charitable, compassionate, humane, kindhearted, kindly, merciful, softhearted, sympathetic, tender, warmhearted obedient [ 1 adj. ] submissive to the restraint or command of authority adj. having or showing a lack of sympathy or tender feelings

the obdurate refusal of the crotchety old man to let the neighborhood kids retrieve their ball from his

that girl is so obedient that she does everything the first time she is asked amenable, compliant, submissive, tractable contumacious, imperial, balky, contrary, contumacious, defiant, disobedient, froward, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, noncompliant, obstreperous, rebel, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, restive, unamenable, ungovernable, unruly, untoward, wayward, willful obeisance 1 [ n. ] a movement of the body made in token of respect or submission

makes obeisance to her mentors obeisant impertinent, impudent, imperious obfuscate [ 1 vt. ] to make so confused or opaque as to be difficult to perceive or understand

obfuscate the reader becloud, befog, blur, cloud, fog, muddy demystify, elucidate, illuminate, clarify, explain clearly obfuscated lucid obligatory [ 1 adj. ] of the nature of an obligation; compulsory

obligatory military service

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compulsory, imperative, involuntary, peremptory, required discretionary, selective, elective, optional, voluntary 2 adj. used or heard so often as to be dull the obligatory cliff-hanger endings for season finales of TV shows banal, cliché, commonplace, hack, hackneyed, moth-eaten, musty, shopworn, stereotyped, threadbare, timeworn, trite, well-worn fresh, new, novel, original, unclichéd, unhackneyed

Unit 2

OBLIGING OBSCURE

OBLIQUE OBSEQUIOUS

OBLITERATE OBSESS

OBLIVIOUS OBLOQUY OBSTINATE OBSTREPEROUS

obliging [ 1 adj.

] willing to do favors

an obliging concierge used his pull to get us reservations at the town's hottest restaurant accommodative, friendly, indulgent oblique 1 [ adj. ] inclined or twisted to one side

gave the eavesdropper an oblique glance askew, cant, inclined, leaning, listing, slanted, sloping, tilted direct, even, level, straight obliterate [ 1 vt. ] to remove from existence

the March snowstorm obliterated our hopes for an early spring efface, eradicate, expunge, expurgate, exterminate, extirpate, wipe out oblivious [ 1 adj. ] lacking conscious awareness; not informed about or aware of something .

He seemed oblivious to the fact that he had hurt her. incognizant, insensible, unaware, unconscious, uninformed, unwitting

mindful, vigilant, acquainted, cognizant, conscious, conversant, grounded, informed, knowing, mindful, witting obloquy [ 1 n. ] abusively detractive language or utterance; calumny

she unleashed a torrent of obloquy on her opponent billingsgate, fulmination, invective, scurrility, vitriol, vituperation adulation 2 n. the state of having lost the esteem of others the accused murderer was condemned to live out his days in perpetual obloquy discredit, disesteem, dishonor, disrepute, ignominy, infamy, odium, opprobrium, reproach, shame esteem, honor, respect obscure 1 [ adj. ] not clearly understood or expressed; having an often intentionally veiled or

uncertain meaning a fantasy writer who likes to put lots of obscure references in her tales of wizards and warlocks ambiguous, arcane, enigmatic, equivocal, fuliginous, inscrutable, opaque explicit, manifest, clear, certain, accessible, nonambiguous, obvious, plain, unambiguous, unequivocal 2 adj. not prominent or famous

an obscure poet noteless, uncelebrated, unfamous, unknown, unrecognized, unsung legendary, celebrated, famed, famous, noted, notorious, prominent, renowned, well-known obscurity celebrity 3 v. to make dark, dim, or indistinct when it isn't obscured by smog, the view of the city from the observatory can be spectacular blear, blur, darken, dim, overshadow, shroud elucidate, brighten, illuminate, light up, lighten obsequious [ 1 adj. ] marked by or exhibiting a fawning attentiveness

She's constantly followed by obsequious assistants who will do anything. supercilious obsess [ 1 vt. ] to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of

The war obsesses her—she talks about nothing else. intense disgust obstinate 1 persuasion obstinate resistance to change adamant, headstrong, intransigent, stubborn, uncompromising, unyielding, willful acquiescent, agreeable, amenable, compliant, complying, flexible, pliable, pliant, relenting, yielding [ adj. ] perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or course in spite of reason, arguments, or

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2

adj.

not easily subdued, remedied, or removed || an obstinate headache ] stubbornly resistant to control; unruly; given to resisting authority or another's

obstinate fever obstreperous 1 control adj. [

the club's president was at his wits' end with obstreperous members who refused to cooperate balky, defiant, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory disciplined, amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable 2 adj. engaging in or marked by loud and insistent cries especially of protest

an obstreperous crowd protesting the government's immigration policy blatant, clamant, clamorous, squawking, vociferant

Unit 3

OBSTRUCT OFFBE AT

OBTUSE OFFH AND

OBVIATE OFFI CIO US

OCCULT OFFISH

ODIUM OFF-KEY

obstruct [ 1 activity of vt.

] to impede, retard, or interfere with; hinder; to create difficulty for the work or

He was charged with obstructing justice by lying to investigators. encumber, fetter, handicap, hinder, impede, inhibit, stymie, interfere with facilitate, abet, aid, assist 2 vt. to prevent passage through by filling with something an unobstructed view occlude clear, free, open up, unblock, unclog, unplug, unstop obtuse [ 1 adj. ] not having or showing an ability to absorb ideas readily ?

Are you being deliberately obtuse?

dumb, fatuous, mindless, oafish, opaque, senseless, unintelligent, vacuous insightful, apt, brainy, bright, brilliant, clever, fast, intelligent, keen, nimble, quick, quick-witted, sharp, sharp-witted, smart obviate [ ]

1

vt.

to anticipate and prevent (as a situation) or make unnecessary (as an action)

The new treatment obviates the need for surgery. avert, forestall, preclude, stave off, head off occult [ 1 ] adj. not easily apprehended or understood : abstruse, mysterious

an occult reference in the text that has puzzled scholars ambiguous, arcane, equivocal, inscrutable, opaque, impenetrable bare, manifest, patent, readily fathomable 2 v. to keep secret or shut off from view occulted their house from prying eyes by planting large trees around it || the actor's private life had long been occulted by a contrived public persona belie, blanket, cloak, conceal, cover, curtain, disguise, enshroud, mask, obscure, screen, shroud, suppress, veil, blot out, paper over bare, disclose, display, divulge, expose, reveal, show, uncloak, uncover, unmask, unveil odium [ 1 n. ] strong dislike, contempt, or aversion

time did nothing to diminish the odium in which the traitor lived out his days ignominy, infamy, obloquy, opprobrium esteem, honor, respect, hankering, infatuation offbeat [ 1 adj. ] noticeably different from what is generally found or experienced

this writer has an enjoyably offbeat sense of humor extraordinary, peculiar, queer, unaccustomed, uncommon, uncustomary, out-of-the-way conventional, bathetic, hackneyed, common, ordinary, plain, usual offhand 1 [ adj. ] without premeditation or preparation

couldn't give the figures offhand ad-lib, extemporary, impromptu, improvised, unplanned, unpremeditated, unrehearsed considered, planned, premeditated, prepared, rehearsed officious [ 1 adj. ] thrusting oneself where one is not welcome or invited

an officious little man who was always telling everyone else how to do their jobs interfering, intruding, meddlesome, obtrusive, presuming, prying, snoopy unobtrusive offish [ 1 ] adj. Inclined to be distant and reserved; aloof

consistently surly and offish with the would-be suitors who came calling

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aloof, detached, distant, remote, unbending, unsociable sociable, cordial, friendly, social, warm off-key 1 adj. being out of accord with what is considered normal or appropriate a high-flown, off-key speech by a newcomer

Unit 4

OMINOUS OPPORTUNE

OMNISCIENT OPPROBRIOUS

ONEROUS O R AT I O N

O PA Q U E ORIENT

OPINE O R I G I N AL

ominous [ 1 adj.

] of or being an omen, especially an evil one

an ominous threat of war baleful, foreboding, inauspicious, portentous, sinister, threatening, minatory auspicious, unthreatening omniscient [ 1 adj. ] possessed of universal or complete knowledge

an omniscient deity vacuous onerous [ 1 adj. ] requiring much time, effort, or careful attention

building the scale model of the frigate was an onerous task arduous, burdensome, challenging, exacting, grueling, taxing, toilsome requiring little effort, light, nondemanding, unchallenging, undemanding opaque [ 1 adj. ] impenetrable by light; neither transparent nor translucent

blurry, dim, misty, murky, obscure, shadowy, unclear diaphanous, transparent 2 adj. so obscure as to be unintelligible opaque prose ambiguous, arcane, enigmatic, equivocal, inscrutable, occult clear, accessible, obvious, plain, unambiguous, unequivocal opine [ 1 vt. ] to express opinions

You can opine about any subject you like.

comment, editorialize, note, observe, reflect, weigh in opportune [ 1 adj. ] suitable or convenient for a particular occurrence

an opportune moment seasonable, well-timed inconvenient, untimely, inappropriate, unseasonable opprobrious [ 1 adj. ] : expressing contemptuous reproach; scornful or abusive

opprobrious language scurrilous, vitriolic, vituperative, contumelious 2 adj. : bringing disgrace; shameful or infamous opprobrious conduct discreditable, disgraceful, dishonorable, ignominious, infamous, notorious, shameful, unrespectable irreproachable, honorable, reputable, respectable opprobrium good repute oration [ 1 n. ] a speech delivered in a high-flown or pompous manner

address, declamation, harangue, peroration orient [ 1 vt. ] to set or arrange in any determinate position especially in relation to

the points of the compass; to make familiar with or adjusted to facts, principles, or a situation orient students toward a career in medicine accustom, familiarize, initiate, introduce, orientate confuse original [ 1 adj. ] independent and creative in thought or action :inventive

The car has a highly original design. ingenious, innovative, inventive commonplace, banal, trite, familiar, hackneyed, time-honored, tired, warmed-over 2 adj. coming before all others in time or order the original plan had to be discarded when the situation changed drastically earliest, foremost, headmost, inaugural, initial, leadoff, maiden, pioneer, premier, virgin final, last, latter, terminal, ultimate

Unit 5

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ORTHODOX OSCILLATE OSSIFY OUST OUTGOING OUTLANDISH

OSTENTATIOUS OUTMANEUVER

OSTRACIZE OUTSET

orthodox 1

[ adj.

] following or agreeing with established form, custom, or rules

He believes in the benefits of both orthodox medicine and alternative medicine. ceremonial, conventional, regular, routine casual, freewheeling, informal, irregular, unceremonious, unconventional, unorthodox oscillate [ 1 2 ossify [ 1 vi. vi. v. ] to become hardened or conventional and opposed to change ] to swing backward and forward like a pendulum vary between opposing beliefs, feelings, or theories

remain static

a disease that ossifies the joints make pliant, transcend conventions, amenable to change ostentatious [ 1 display wears an ostentatious diamond ring on her finger flamboyant, flaring, flashy, splashy modest, artless, austere, unpretentious, conservative, quiet, understated, unflamboyant, unflashy adj. ] marked by or fond of conspicuous or vainglorious and sometimes pretentious

ostracize [ 1 vt.

] to exclude from a group

He was ostracized from the scientific community for many years because of his radical political beliefs. banish, bounce, chase, dismiss, expel, extrude, oust, boot out, cast out, run off, drum out, kick out, throw out, turf out take in, include, embrace, welcome oust [ 1 ] vt. to remove from a position of prominence or power (as a throne) be ousted from power deprive, displace, uncrown, unthrone instate, crown, enthrone, throne 2 v. to drive or force out she was ousted from her job after it was proven she'd been pilfering company supplies

banish, boot out, cast out, chase, dismiss, drum out, expel, extrude, kick out, throw out, turf out, turn out outgoing [ 1 adj. ] openly friendly and responsive: extroverted

a salesman whose aggressively outgoing personality could sometimes be overbearing companionable, extroverted, gregarious, sociable antisocial, introverted, nongregarious, reclusive, unsociable, unsocial outlandish [ 1 adj. ] strikingly out of the ordinary: bizarre

an outlandish costume bizarre, cranky, eccentric, erratic, offbeat, peculiar, remarkable conventional, familiar, nonexotic, nonglamorous, plain-Jane, unglamorous, unromantic outmaneuver [ 1 vt. ] to overcome (an opponent) by artful, clever maneuvering

outmaneuvered his congressional opponent outfox, outslick, outsmart, outthink, outwit yield outset [ 1 n. ] beginning, start

I wish you'd mentioned this problem at the outset. alpha, commencement, genesis, inception, incipience, nascence termination, close, conclusion, end, ending, omega

Unit 6

OUTWIT OXYMORON

OVERBEARING OVERLAP PAC I F Y PAD D I N G

OVERT PAE AN

OVERTURE PAI N S TAK I N G

outwit [ 1 v.

] to surpass in cleverness or cunning; outsmart

a plan to outwit their opponents at their own game outfox, outmaneuver, outslick, outsmart, outthink overbearing 1 [ ] domineering in manner; arrogant

adj.

Her husband's overbearing manner made her miserable. authoritative, despotic, dictatorial, imperious, masterful, peremptory

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meek, unassuming 2 adj. overwhelming in power or significance; predominant, coming before all others in importance the overbearing problem in our nation's schools capital, cardinal, central, chief, dominant, key, leading, master, number one, overmastering, overriding, paramount, predominant, preeminent, premier, primary, prior, sovereign, supreme overlap 1 [ vt. ] to occupy the same area in part

Baseball season overlaps football season in September. lap, overlay, overlie, overspread overt [ 1 adj. ] open and observable; not hidden, concealed, or secret

overt hostility shadowy overture 1 2 [ n. n. ] an introductory section or part, as of a poem; a prelude an instrumental composition intended especially as an introduction to an extended work,

preamble, preliminary, prologue, warm-up, curtain-raiser such as an opera or oratorio the parade down Main Street served as the overture for a weekend of fun and festivities coda oxymoron 1 [ n. ] a combination of contradictory or incongruous words ” || The phrase

The phrase “cruel kindness” is an oxymoron. “ “ pacify [ 1 vt. ] to ease the anger or agitation of ”

“Broadway rock musical” is an oxymoron. Broadway doesn't have the nerve to let the really hard stuff in the house.

pacify a crying child appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate incite, rankle, tantrum, vex, discompose, truculent padding 1 [ n. ] the representation of something in terms that go beyond the facts

that feature writer is sometimes guilty of padding, but he keeps it from getting out of hand caricature, coloring, elaboration, embellishment, embroidery, hyperbole, magnification, overstatement, stretching meiosis, understatement

paean 1

[ n.

] a joyous song or hymn of praise, tribute, thanksgiving, or triumph

her retirement party featured many paeans for her long years of service to the company accolade, citation, dithyramb, eulogium, eulogy, hymn, panegyric, tribute painstaking [ 1 adj. ] taking pains: expending, showing, or involving diligent care and effort

It took months of painstaking research to write the book. careful, conscientious, fussy, meticulous, scrupulous slipshod, cursory, careless

Unit 7

PAL ATAB LE PAL M Y

PAL ATI AL PAL PAB L E

PALL PA LT E R

PAL LI ATE PA LT R Y

PALLI D PAN

palatable 1

[ adj.

] giving pleasure or contentment to the mind or senses

I always associate the palatable aroma of roasting turkey with Thanksgiving. agreeable, blessed, congenial, delectable, delightful, delightsome, dreamy, dulcet, enjoyable, felicitous, grateful, gratifying, heavenly, jolly, luscious, pleasurable, satisfying, savory disagreeable, pleasureless, unpalatable, unpleasant, unwelcome palatial 1 [ adj. ] of the nature of a palace, as in spaciousness or ornateness

a palatial penthouse apartment deluxe, lavish, luxuriant, opulent, sumptuous ascetic, austere, humble, no-frills, spartan pall [ 1 ] vi. to lose in interest or attraction His humor began to pall on us. interest, intrigue palliate [ 1 v. ] to make less severe or intense; mitigate

palliative drug allay, alleviate, assuage, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe aggravate, exacerbate, worsen, increase intensity

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pallid [ 1

] adj. lacking in radiance or vitality; dull

The movie is a pallid version of the classic novel. piquant 2 adj. having an abnormally pale or wan complexion a pallid girl who looked as though she'd never seen the sun ashen, ashy, blanched, pasty, wan rubicund, blooming, florid, flush, full-blooded, glowing, ruddy, sanguine palmy [ 1 adj. ] marked by prosperity

the palmy days of the British drama flourishing, prosperous, thriving, booming, lush, roaring, halcyon failed, depressed, unprosperous, unsuccessful palpable [ 1 adj. ] capable of being touched or felt

a small but palpable lump in my neck touchable impalpable, intangible 2 adj. easily perceived; obvious a palpable difference apprehensible, detectable, discernible, distinguishable, sensible imperceptible, inappreciable, indistinguishable, insensible, undetectable palter [ 1 vi. ] to act insincerely or deceitfully

unwilling to palter over the price of the house chaffer, deal, dicker, haggle, horse-trade, negotiate, equivocate candor paltry 1 [ adj. ] lacking in importance or worth

used a paltry, underhanded scheme to get him fired inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, niggling, piddling, piffling, trivial significant, important, big, consequential, considerable, material 2 adj. arousing or deserving of one's loathing and disgust a paltry, underhanded scheme to get someone fired cheap, cruddy, deplorable, despicable, grubby, lame, lousy, mean, scummy, scurvy, sneaking, wretched admirable, commendable, creditable, laudable, meritorious, praiseworthy pan [ 1 ] v./n. a harsh criticism almost all the movie critics have panned this latest sequel in a tired series

blame, censure, condemn, denounce, dispraise, reprehend eulogize, extol, rave, laud, praise

Unit 8

PAN ACHE PARABLE

PANDEMIC PARADIGM

PANDEMONIUM PARADISE

PAN EGYRIC PARADOX

PANO RAMI C PARAGON

panache [ 1 n.

] dash or flamboyance in style and action

The BBC Symphony Orchestra played with great panache. BBC humility, unremarkable behavior, dullness pandemic [ 1 adj. ] widespread; general

pandemic malaria limited pandemonium [ 1 n. ] wild uproar or noise

Christmas morning at our house is always marked by pandemonium bluster, bustle, disturbance, furor, fuss, hubbub, moil, pother, ruckus, ruction, tumult, turmoil, uproar serene panegyric [ 1 n. ] a eulogistic oration or writing

wrote a panegyric on the centennial of the Nobel laureate's birth accolade, citation, commendation, dithyramb, eulogium, eulogy, hymn, paean anathema, denunciation, condemnation panoramic [ 1 adj. ] of an unobstructed or complete view of an area in every direction

a panorama of American history compendious, complete, comprehensive, cyclopedic, embracive, exhaustive, thorough, in-depth narrow parable 1 [ n. ] a story intended to teach a basic truth or moral about life

the parable in which the repentant sinner is compared to the returning prodigal son

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apologue, fable paradigm [ 1 n. ] one that serves as a pattern or model

He was the paradigm of the successful man. archetype, example, exemplar, ideal, model, pattern, paragon paradise 1 [ n. ] an often imaginary place or state of utter perfection and happiness

an idealist who trotted the globe looking for paradise bliss, empyrean, heaven, nirvana, utopia hell, inferno 2 n. a state of overwhelming usually pleasurable emotion that early stage of a romance when lovers are in paradise elation, euphoria, exhilaration, intoxication, rapture, rhapsody, transport dejection, depression, gloominess, melancholy paradox 1 [ n. ] a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to

common sense and yet is perhaps true The paradox is that fishermen would catch more fish if they fished less. dichotomy, incongruity paragon 1 [ n. ] a model of excellence or perfection of a kind; a peerless example

a paragon of good husband archetype, example, exemplar, ideal, model, pattern, paradigm 2 vt. to compare with; parallel paragon retreat with treachery assimilate, compare, equate, liken, match, parallel contrast

Unit 9

PARAMOUNT PARIAH

PARANOID PARITY

PARAPHRASE PARO D Y

PARCH PARO X YS M

PARENTHESIS PARRO T

paramount [ 1 adj.

] of chief concern or importance

The paramount goal is to restore the colonial-era house with complete historical accuracy.

cardinal, chief, key, leading, main, predominant, preeminent, primary, principal, supreme ancillary, secondary paranoid [ 1 adj. distrust of others a paranoid suspicion that the phone might be bugged distrustful, nervous, suspicious, unbelieving, worried credulous paranoia n. paraphrase 1 v. [ ] to express something (as a text or statement) in different words ] exhibiting or characterized by extreme and irrational fear or paltry, petty, trifling, trivial

Could you please paraphrase your diagnosis of my health condition, using simpler language? rephrase, restate, reword, translate quote parch [ 1 vi. ] to make extremely dry, especially by exposure to heat

parch a surface from exposure to sun dehydrate, desiccate, dry, scorch, sear douse, drench, hydrate, steep, wash, water, wet parenthesis 1 n. [ ] an interruption of continuity; an interval

a parenthesis in an otherwise solid marriage discontinuity, interim, interlude, intermission, interregnum, interruption, interstice, interval continuation, continuity pariah 1 [ n. ] one that is despised or rejected, outcast resumption

I felt like a pariah when I wore the wrong outfit to the dinner party. castaway, castoff, leper, reject respectable person parity [ 1 n. ] the quality or state of being equal or equivalent

to achieve parity with our commercial competitors coequality, coordinateness, equality, equivalency, par, sameness disparity, imparity, inequality parody [ 1 n. ] a literary or musical work in which the style of an author or work incommensurateness

is closely imitated for comic effect or in ridicule

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The Back Dormitory Boys specialize in parody of Backstreet Boys. burlesque, caricature, spoof, travesty 2 v. to copy or exaggerate (someone or something) in order to make fun of parodying a public figure's mannerisms imitate, mock, mimic paroxysm [ 1 n. ] a sudden outburst of emotion or action

a paroxysm of coughing burst, ebullition, eruption, explosion, flare, flash, flush, gush, outburst, storm 2 n. a violent disturbance (as of the political or social order) Darwin's introduction of the theory of evolution created paroxysms in both religion and science that are still being felt today. bouleversement, cataclysm, earthquake, hurricane, storm, tempest, tumult, upheaval, uproar parrot [ 1 vt. ] to repeat or imitate, especially without understanding

parrot others blindly copy, ditto, duplicate, echo, quote coin, create, devise, invent

Unit 10

PARRY PASTICHE

PARSIMONIOUS PARTITION

PARTIAL PATENT

PARTICULARIZE PATHOLOGICAL

PARTISAN PATINA

parry [ 1 vt.

] to evade especially by an adroit answer

He parried the embarrassing question with a clever reply. avoid, dodge, elude, eschew, evade, finesse, scape, shirk, shun confront, face, meet parsimonious [ 1 n. ] frugal to the point of stinginess embrace

the stereotype of the dour and parsimonious Scotsman closefisted, mean, mingy, miserly, niggardly, penurious, stinting, tight, tightfisted, uncharitable, ungenerous generous, liberal, munificent partial [ 1 ] adj. inclined to favor one party more than the other: biased dissolute, extravagant, prodigal, wasteful

He is partial to Maverick. biased, one-sided, partisan, prejudiced

disinterested, equitable, evenhanded, fair, impartial, neutral, objective, unbiased, unprejudiced 2 adj. lacking some necessary part a partial answer to the problem deficient, fragmental, fragmentary, half, halfway complete, entire, full, intact, integral, perfect, whole partially adv. particularize [ 1 vt. ] to go into or give details or particulars partiality n.

particularize the rules you must observe detail, specificate, specify abbreviate, abridge, condense, shorten partisan 1 [ n. ] one who follows the opinions or teachings of another

Partisans of the charismatic leader refuse to tolerate any criticism of him at all. acolyte, adherent, disciple, pupil, votary bellwether, leader 2 n. one who is intensely or excessively devoted to a cause a partisan of the revolution who was even willing to give her life for it crusader, fanatic, ideologue, zealot, true believer adversary, antagonist, opponent 3 adj. inclined to favor one side over another a shamelessly partisan news report biased, one-sided, partial, prejudiced disinterested, equitable, evenhanded, fair, impartial, neutral, objective, unbiased, unprejudiced pastiche 1 [ n. ] a literary, artistic, musical, or architectural work that imitates the style of previous

work, often with satirical intent a pastiche of Botticelli's Birth of Venus burlesque, caricature, imitation, parody, spoof, travesty original work 2 n. a pasticcio of incongruous parts; a hodgepodge a pastiche of dishes from many countries agglomerate, collage, hodgepodge, jumble, jungle, medley, montage, motley, salad, variety, welter partition 1 [ n. ] the act or process of dividing something into parts

the partition of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia bifurcation, breakup, cleavage, disunion, division, fractionalization, schism, scission, split, sundering unification, union

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patent [ 1 adj.

] readily visible or intelligible: obvious

Unfortunately, the patent flaw of the proposal did not deter the city council from putting it up for a vote. apparent, blatant, conspicuous, evident, flagrant, manifest, obvious, plain concealed, hidden, invisible pathological [ 1 adj. ] being such to a degree that is extreme, excessive, or markedly abnormal

She has a pathological fear of snakes. abnormal, aberrant, anomalous, morbid normal patina [ 1 n. ] a superficial covering or exterior natural

a superficial patina of knowledge façade, hull, skin, veneer essential quality 2 n. established character Although the winery is brand-new, it has been constructed and decorated to give it a patina of old-world quaintness. air, ambience, aroma, atmosphere, climate, flavor, halo, odor, smell, temper, vibration core, kernel an appearance or aura that is derived from association, habit, or

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List 18
“ GRE —— ” 2008 10 GRE Verbal 700

Unit 1

PATRICIAN PECK

PATRIOT PEDAGOGUE

PATRONIZE PEDANT

PAUCITY PREDESTINE

PAUNCHY PEDESTRIAN

patrician 1

[ n.

] a man or woman of high birth or social position

the rank of a patrician aristocrat, noble, blue blood plebeian 2 adj. of high birth, rank, or station came from a patrician family aristocratic, genteel, gentle, grand, great, highborn, highbred, upper-class, wellborn baseborn, common, humble, ignoble, low, lower-class, mean patriot [ 1 n. ] one who loves his or her country and supports its authority and interests a fanatical patriot loyalist, nationalist, partisan apostate, recreant, renegade, traitor, turncoat patriotism n. patronize 1 [ vt. ] provide aid or support for insurgent, mutineer, rebel

The USA PATRIOT Act has generated a great deal of controversy since its enactment.

a company that loyally patronizes the arts advocate, back, champion, endorse, support, uphold baffle, foil, frustrate, sabotage 2 v. to adopt an air of condescension toward : treat haughtily or coolly a director with an unpleasant habit of patronizing even his most gifted actors condescend patron n. paucity [ ]

1

n.

smallness of number; dearth

an extreme paucity of natural resources dearth, deficit, drought, inadequacy, insufficiency, lack, scantiness, scarcity, shortage, undersupply, want abundance, adequacy, amplitude, opulence, plenitude, sufficiency, wealth paunchy [ 1 adj. ] having a potbelly

a paunchy middle-aged man corpulent, fat, potbellied slender, slim, svelte, thin peck [ 1 ] n. a considerable amount

Now you're in a peck of trouble. abundance, bunch, bundle, dozen, mass, mountain, much, multiplicity, myriad, pile, plenitude, profusion, ton, volume, wealth bit, glimmer, handful, hint, little, mite, nip, ounce, peanuts, pittance, spot, sprinkle, trace 2 v. —— bite, nibble, sip, tipple devour, gobble, gorge, guzzle, quaff, swill pedagogue 1 n. [ ] a person whose occupation is to give formal instruction in a school to eat reluctantly and in small bites Fashion models never really eat: they just peck at small meals in expensive restaurants.

a boring pedagogue who is called “PPT reader” educator, instructor, preceptor, teacher disciple, pupil, student pedant [ 1 n. ] one who pays undue attention to book learning and formal rules

He is a perfect type of pedant. doctrinaire, dogmatist predestine [ 1 vt. ] to determine the fate of in advance

Our victory in the tournament was seemingly predestined. doom, fate, foredoom, foreordain, ordain, predestine, predetermine, preordain predestination n. pedestrian [ 1 n. ] a person traveling on foot

a lane reserved for pedestrians footer, walker rider 2 adj. causing weariness, restlessness, or lack of interest

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His style is so pedestrian that the book becomes a real bore. arid, dreary, dull, flat, jading, jejune, monochromatic, monotonous, stale, stodgy, tedious, wearisome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting

Unit 2

PEEP PEN

PEER PENALTY

PEEVE PENCHANT

PEJORATIVE PENITENT

PELLUCID PENSIVE

peep

[ 1

] n. a brief and sometimes furtive look

take a peep at the new neighbors gander, glance, glimpse, peek 2 n. a slight sound or utterance I haven't heard a peep out of the children for an hour. mumble, murmur, mutter, twitter, whisper clamor, noise, outcry, roar peer [ 1 ] n. a person who has equal standing with others stand out among peers coequal, compeer, coordinate, counterpart, equivalent, fellow, match, parallel inferior 2 v. superior to look narrowly or curiously;

peer at the variety of marine life in the aquarium's huge tank blink, gape, gawk, gaze, goggle, rubberneck, stare glance, glimpse peerless adj. peeve 1 [ ] vt. to disturb the peace of mind of (someone) especially by repeated disagreeable acts

be constantly peeved by his affected flattery aggravate, annoy, bother, exasperate, frost, gall, irk, nettle, pique, rile, ruffle, vex becalm, compose, lull, lullaby, quiet, salve, settle, soothe, still, tranquilize peevish adj. pejorative [ 1 adj. ] disparaging; belittling “ ”

I agree that I am ambitious, and I don't see it as a pejorative term.

belittling, contemptuous, degrading, deprecatory, depreciative, derogative, disdainful, disparaging, scornful commendatory, complimentary, laudatory pellucid [ 1 adj. ] admitting the passage of light

pellucid spring water crystal, crystalline, limpid, liquid, lucent, transparent opaque 2 adj. transparently clear in style or meaning Her poetry has a pellucid simplicity that betrays none of the sweat that went into writing it. apparent, distinct, evident, lucid, manifest, obvious, palpable, patent, perspicuous, plain, straightforward clouded, cryptic, enigmatic, indistinct, mysterious, obfuscated, obscure pen [ 1 ] n. a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody spent six years in a federal pen bastille, coop, jail, prison, stockade 2 v. to close or shut in by or as if by barriers remember to pen up the dogs when visitors come over box, encage, encase, envelop, fence, hedge, immure, include, wall release penalty [ 1 n. ] a punishment established by law or authority for a crime or offense enfranchise, free, liberate, set free

The maximum penalty is 7 years’ imprisonment. fine, forfeit, punishment, retribution honor, reward penalize v. penchant [ 1 n. ] a strong and continued inclination

a penchant for Champaign affection, bias, disposition, leaning, partiality, predilection, predisposition, proclivity, propensity, tendency aversion, disfavor, disinclination, dislike, distaste, loathing, repugnance, repulsion penitent 1 [ adj. ] feeling or expressing humble or regretful pain or sorrow for sins or offenses

a penitentbusinessman who had come to ask for forgiveness apologetic, compunctious, regretful, remorseful, repentant, rueful, sorry impenitent, remorseless, unapologetic, unrepentant pensive 1 [ adj. ] given to or marked by long, quiet and often musingly sadthinking

Rainy days often put her in a pensive mood.

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broody, cogitative, meditative, melancholy, musing, reflective, ruminant, ruminative, thoughtful mindless, thoughtless, unreflective

Unit 3

PENURY PERFIDY

PERAMBULATE PERFORATE

PERCEPTIBLE PERFUNCTORY

PEREMPTORY PERIMETER

PERFERVID PERIODICAL

penury [ 1 penury. n.

] extreme dearth; barrenness or insufficiency ——

Some have pessimistically regarded the higher education in China as an invisible and irresistible path to destitution, impecuniosity, impoverishment, indigence, neediness, poorness, poverty, want affluence, opulence, richness, wealth 2 n. extreme and often niggardly frugality They bitterly complained about their father's penury. closeness, miserliness, niggardliness, parsimony, penuriousness, stinginess, tightfistedness, tightness generosity, largesse, munificence, openhandedness, philanthropy penurious adj. perambulate 1 v. [ ] to travel over or through especially on foot for exercise or pleasure

We decided to lazily perambulate the entire length of the esplanade and enjoy the fresh air. amble, cross, go, navigate, pass, peregrinate, proceed, ramble, transit, travel, traverse perceptible 1 [ ] capable of being perceived especially by the senses

adj.

You should be able to note a perceptible temperature change when you add the second reagents. appreciable, apprehensible, detectable, discernible, distinguishable, palpable, sensible impalpable, imperceptible, inappreciable, indistinguishable, insensible, undetectable peremptory [ 1 adj. ] not allowing contradiction or refusal; imperative

a peremptory order from the general compulsory, forced, imperative, incumbent, involuntary, obligatory, required elective, optional, voluntary 2 to stand. adj. fond of ordering people around The peremptory secretary began telling the crowd of reporters and photographers exactly where they had

authoritarian, despotic, dictatorial, domineering, imperious, masterful, overbearing, tyrannical, tyrannous 3 adj. having a feeling of superiority that shows itself in an overbearing attitude She had such a peremptory approach to running the club that people started to avoid her. assumptive, bumptious, haughty, imperious, lofty, pompous, presumptuous, pretentious, supercilious humble, lowly, modest perfervid 1 [ adj. ] marked by overwrought or exaggerated emotion: excessively fervent

perfervid love letter ardent, demonstrative, emotional, fervid, feverish, impassioned, passionate, torrid, vehement, warm cold, cool, detached, dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional perfidy [ 1 n. ] an act or an instance of disloyalty

As loyalty unites lovers, so perfidy estranges friends. backstabbing, disloyalty, infidelity, sellout, treachery, unfaithfulness, double cross allegiance, devotion, faithfulness, fidelity, loyalty, staunchness, steadfastness perfidious adj. perforate 1 [ v. ] to make a hole through

to perforate with a pin bore, drill, hole, pierce, punch, puncture, riddle perfunctory [ 1 adj. ] characterized by routine or superficiality and often done merely as a duty

gave his usual perfunctory nod automatic, cursory, mechanical, superficial 2 adj. lacking in interest or enthusiasm She gave the list only a perfunctory glance. apathetic, casual, disinterested, incurious, indifferent, insouciant, nonchalant, pococurante, unconcerned concerned, interested perimeter [ 1 n. ] the line or relatively narrow space that marks the outer limit of something

soldiers guarding the perimeter of the camp borderline, bound, boundary, circumference, confines, edge, frame, fringe, margin, periphery, skirt, verge center, core, heart, kernel periodical [ 1 n. ] a publication that appears at regular intervals

subscribed to three new periodicals book, magazine, newspaper, paper, review, serial 2 adj. occurring or recurring at regular intervals periodical announcements from airline personnel concerning the delay

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continual, periodic, recurrent, recurring constant, continuous, incessant, unceasing

Unit 4

PERIPATETIC PERNICIOUS

PERIPHERAL PERORATION

PERISH PERPETUAL

PERMANENT PERSECUTE

PERMEABLE PERSEVERE

peripatetic 1

[ adj.

] walking about or from place to place

peripatetic preachers ambulant, errant, nomadic, perambulatory, peregrine, vagabond, wandering sedentary, settled peripheral [ 1 adj. ] related to, located in, or constituting an outer boundary or periphery

development in the peripheral areas of megacities circumferential, marginal central 2 adj. interior available to supply something extra when needed

The IT consultant suggested that we update the drivers for all of the computer's peripheral devices. IT accessorial, accessory, appurtenant, supplemental, supplementary chief, main, principal perish [ 1 vi. ] to become destroyed or ruined: cease to exist adapt or perish

thrive in calamity and perish in soft living decease, demise, die, end, expire, succumb, pass away breathe, live, survive permanent [ 1 adj. ]

continuing or enduring without fundamental or marked change; lasting forever

A temporary compromise has been accepted until a more permanent solution can be agreed upon. ceaseless, dateless, deathless, endless, eternal, immortal, perpetual, undying, unending ephemeral, evanescent, transient, transitory permanence n. permeable [ ] provisional, temporary

1

adj.

capable of being permeated or penetrated, especially by liquids or gases

a permeable fabric that allows your body heat to escape passable, penetrable, pervious, porous waterproof pernicious 1 [ adj. ] highly injurious or destructive impassable, impenetrable, impervious, impermeable

Business may be troublesome but idleness is pernicious. adverse, baleful, damaging, deleterious, detrimental, hurtful, injurious, mischievous, nocuous, noxious anodyne, benign, harmless, innocent, innocuous, inoffensive, safe peroration 1 [ n. ] the concluding part of a discourse and especially an oration

He summarized his main points in his peroration. coda, conclusion, denouement, epilogue, finale foreword, prelude, preface, prologue, overture 2 n. a usually formal discourse delivered to an audience a peroration celebrating the nation's long tradition of religious tolerance and pluralism address, declamation, harangue, oration, speech, talk perpetual [ 1 adj. ] continuing forever everlasting

perpetual motion machine ceaseless, dateless, deathless, endless, eternal, immortal, perpetual, undying, unending ephemeral, evanescent, transient, transitory perpetuate v. persecute 1 [ vt. ] to cause persistent suffering to provisional, temporary

people who were persecuted simply for practicing their religious faith agonize, anguish, curse, excruciate, harrow, plague, rack, torment, torture persecution n. persevere [ 1 vi. ] to persist in or remain constant to a purpose, idea, or task in the face of

obstacles or discouragement Although he was frustrated by the lack of financial resources and support, hepersevered in his scientific research. carry on, endure, persist renounce, succumb, surrender, yield perseverance n.

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Unit 5

PERSIFLAGE PERTAIN

PERSISTENCE PERTINACIOUS

PERSONABLE PERSPICACIOUS PERTINENT PERTURB

PERSPICUITY PERUSE

persiflage 1 know them.

[ n.

] good-natured teasing or exchanging of clever remarks

Their tongue-in-cheek persiflage is sometimes mistaken for an exchange of insults by people who don't backchat, badinage, chaff, jesting, joshing, raillery, repartee persistence 1 n. [ ] uninterrupted or lasting existence

The persistenceof the fever for a week caused me great worry. ceaselessness, continuance, continuity, durability, endurance, subsistence cessation, close, end, expiration, finish, stoppage, surcease, termination persistent adj. personable 1 [ ] pleasing in personality or appearance; attractive

adj.

apparently be attracted by a personable young man alluring, appealing, attractive, captivating, charismatic, charming, comely, enchanting, handsome, pretty grotesque, hideous, ugly perspicacious 1 adj. [ ] having or showing penetrating mental discernment; clear-sighted homely

an impartial and perspicacious judge astute, savvy, sharp, sharp-witted, shrewd, smart ignorant, oblivious, unknowing perspicacity n. perspicuity [ 1 n. ] the quality of being perspicuous; clearness and lucidity

The key of modern enterprise system is the prespicuity of property right. clarity, clearness, explicitness, lucidity, lucidness, perspicuousness obscureness, obscurity, unclarity pertain 1 [ v. ] to have a relation or connection; relate ambiguity

new evidence that pertains to the accident appertain, bear, concern, refer, relate

pertaining adj. pertinacious 1 adj. [ ] sticking to an opinion, purpose, or course of action in spite of reason,

arguments, or persuasion The pertinacious boy won’t stop crying unless his desire is satisfied. adamant, headstrong, implacable, inflexible, intransigent, mulish, obdurate, perverse, stubborn, willful compliant, flexible, pliable, pliant, yielding pertinent [ 1 adj. ] having a clear decisive relevance to the matter in hand

He impressed the jury with his concise, pertinent answers to the attorney's questions. applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, material, pointed, relative, relevant extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelevant, pointless pertinence n. perturb 1 [ vt. ] to trouble the mind of; to make uneasy

perturbed me enough to keep me awake that night agitate, ail, bother, discomfort, discompose, distress, unsettle, upset calm, compose, quiet, settle, soothe, tranquilize perturbation n. peruse 1 [ v. ] to read or examine, typically with great care

perused the manuscript to check for grammatical errors examine, scrutinize glance, glimpse, scan, skim

Unit 6

PERVADE PHENOMENAL

PESSIMISTIC PHILANTHROPIC

PETITION PHILISTINE

PETRIFY PHLEGMATIC

PETTY PIDDLING

pervade [ 1 vt.

] to be present throughout; permeate

The mixed smell of sawdust and glue pervaded the whole factory. the corruption that pervades every stratum of society interpenetrate, percolate, riddle, suffuse, transfuse

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pervasive adj. pessimistic 1 [ ] tending to stress the negative or unfavorable or to take the gloomiest possible view

adj.

With that pessimistic attitude, it's no wonder you're depressed. bearish, defeatist, despairing, downbeat, hopeless optimistic pessimism n. petition 1 [ n. ] a solemn supplication or request to a superior authority; an entreaty

a petition for divorce appeal, cry, entreaty, pleading, solicitation, supplication 2 v. to make a request, especially a formal written one She is petitioning to regain custody of the child. adjure, beseech, conjure, entreat, impetrate, implore, importune, plead, solicit, supplicate petitioner n. petrify [ 1 v. ] to cause to become stiff or stone-like; deaden

Pressure from family has petrified his once innovative mind. damp, dampen, deaden, devitalize, enervate, lobotomize, ossify brace, energize, enliven, invigorate, quicken, stimulate, vitalize, vivify petrification n. petty [ 1 ] adj. of small importance; trivial

play petty tricks inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, measly, minute, paltry, peanut, slight, trifling, trivial consequential, considerable, important, material, momentous, significant phenomenal [ 1 adj. ] being out of the ordinary;extraordinary; outstanding

the phenomenal growth that the suburb has experienced over the last decade especial, exceptional, extraordinary, peculiar, preternatural, rare, singular, uncommon, unusual common, normal, ordinary, typical philanthropic [ 1 adj. ] having or showing a concern for the welfare of others

the philanthropic aims of the organization altruistic, beneficent, benevolent, eleemosynary, good, humanitarian misanthropic philanthropist n. philistine [ ] selfish

1

n.

a person who is guided by materialism and is usually

disdainful of intellectual or artistic values The philistine's critics sometime limit artists’ imagine. lowbrow, materialist highbrow phlegmatic [ 1 adj. ] having or suggesting a calm, sluggish temperament; unemotional

a strangely phlegmatic response to what should have been happy news affectless, apathetic, cold-blooded, emotionless, impassible, numb, stoic, stolid demonstrative, emotional, fervent, fervid, impassioned, passionate, vehement piddling 1 [ adj. ] so trifling or trivial as to be beneath one's consideration

raised a piddling objection to the plan inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, measly, minute, paltry, peanut, slight, trifling, trivial consequential, considerable, important, material, momentous, significant

Unit 7

PIEBALD P I LO T

PIGMENT P I NE

PILFER P I NN ACLE

PILLAR P I NP OI NT

PILLORY P IQ U ANT

piebald 1

[ adj.

] of different colors

a piebald horse blotched, dappled, marbled, mottled, splotched, spotted monochromatic 2 adj. consisting of many things of different sorts his piebald ethnic background assorted, eclectic, heterogeneous, hybrid, magpie, mixed, motley, promiscuous, varied homogeneous pigment [ 1 n. ] a substance that imparts black or white or a color to other materials

natural red pigment colorant, dye, stain 2 vt. … to color with or as if with pigment pigmented silk paint, stain, tincture, tinge, tint

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blanch pilfer [ 1 ] v.

decolorize

to steal stealthily in small amounts

pilfer the commercial document appropriate, filch, hook, lift, pinch, purloin, steal, thieve pillar [ 1 n. ] a firm upright support for a superstructure

stone pillars that supported the hall column, pier, pilaster 2 n. something or someone to which one looks for support My father has been my pillar throughout this crisis. anchor, buttress, mainstay, reliance, standby pillory [ 1 vt. ] to expose to public contempt, ridicule, or scorn He

The candidate mercilessly pilloried his opponent. resigned after being pilloried by the press. abase, debase, degrade, denounce, humiliate, ridicule carol, eulogize, exalt, extol, laud pilot [ 1 n. ] one employed to steer a ship a jet pilot aviator, bellwether, captain, guide, helmsman, leader, navigator 2 adj. serving as a tentative model for future experiment or development They carried out a pilot study before the larger, more expensive project was started developmental, experimental, model, test, trial eventual, final, ultimate 3 vt. lead or conduct over a usually difficult course The lobbyists piloted the bill through the Senate. conduct, direct, guide, lead, route, show, steer follow pine [ 1 ] vi. to yearn intensely and persistently especially for something unattainable pine for a lost love ache, crave, dream, hunger, itch, long, lust, repine, thirst, yearn abhor, detest, loathe 2 vi. to lose vigor, health, or flesh (as through grief) Separated by their families, the lovers pined away. decline, dwindle, fade, flag, languish, waste pinnacle [ ]

1

n.

the highest point of development or achievement

a singer who has reached the pinnacle of career acme, apex, climax, culmination, meridian, peak, summit, top, zenith bottom, nadir pinpoint [ 1 adj. ] located, fixed, or directed with extreme precision

The commander demanded the pinpoint location of artillery fire. accurate, close, delicate, exact, fine, hairline, mathematical, precise, refined, rigorous coarse, cursory, rough 2 v. imprecise, inaccurate, inexact to locate, fix, determine, or identify with precision pinpoint the

pinpoint the target by tracking calls from his cellphone cause of failure determine, distinguish, locate, identify, recognize, spot estimate piquant [ 1 adj. ] pleasantly pungent or tart in taste

a piquant sauce peppery, poignant, salty, savory, spicy, zesty insipid, vapid, zestless 2 adj. appealingly provocative a piquant glance exciting, pungent, racy, stimulating flat, pallid

Unit 8

PIQUE PLACATE

PIRATE PLACEBO

PITHY PLAGIARIZE

PITILESS PLANGENT

PITTANCE PLASTIC

pique [ 1

] vt. to arouse anger or resentment in

She was greatly piqued when they refused her invitation. aggravate, annoy, exasperate, infuriate, irritate, peeve, provoke, rile, roil, ruffle, vex delight, gratify, rejoice 2 vt. to excite or arouse especially by a provocation, challenge, or rebuff radical remarks that pique their curiosity arouse, encourage, excite, fire, impassion, incite, instigate, move, stimulate, stir allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe

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pirate [ 1 vt.

] to take or make use of under a guise of authority but without actual right

a pirated version of the software arrogate, commandeer, convert, expropriate, preempt, press, seize, usurp 2 n. a robber on the high seas little boys dreaming of sailing as pirates corsair, freebooter, rover pithy [ 1 ] adj. precisely meaningful; forceful and brief

The professor gave a pithy introduction to this course. apothegmatic, brief, capsule, compact, compendious, concise, laconic, succinct, telegraphic, terse circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, rambling, prolix, verbose, windy, wordy pithiness n. pitiless [ 1 adj. ] devoid of or unmoved by pity

a pitiless humiliation affectless, callous, coldhearted, cruel, harsh, indurate, merciless charitable, clement, compassionate, humane, merciful, sympathetic, tender pittance [ 1 n. ] a small portion, amount, or allowance

The internship offers only a pittance for a salary, but it is a great opportunity to gain experience. bit, mite, modicum, peanuts, trace cornucopia, opulence placate [ 1 vt. ] to lessen the anger or agitation of boodle, bundle, fortune

The colonists implemented a new policy to placate local opposition appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, pacify, propitiate, tranquilize anger, enrage, foment, gall, incense, inflame, infuriate, peeve, rile placation n. placebo [ 1 another Candies are often adopted as the placebo for the dying patients. plagiarize [ 1 v. ] to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own n. ] something of no intrinsic remedial value that is used to appease or reassure

In scientific community, plagiarizing other’s paper is a felony. steal plagiarism n.

plangent [ 1 adj.

] having a loud reverberating sound

The camera man was stunned by the plangent roar of wild animals. blaring, blasting, clamorous, deafening, earsplitting, resonant, resounding, sonorous, thunderous, vibrant muffled, muted 2 adj. gentle, low, soft having an expressive and especially plaintive quality

a plangent song about a long-ago love doleful, dolorous, funeral, grieving, lamentable, lugubrious, plaintive, rueful, sorrowful, woeful agreeable, cheerful, delightful, enjoyable, jolly, pleasing plastic [ 1 adj. ] susceptible of being modified in form or nature

the plastic quality of modeling clay adaptable, ductile, flexible, malleable, pliable, pliant, resilient, supple inflexible, rigid, stiff 2 adj. lacking in natural or spontaneous quality There's usually a plastic cordiality at these corporate events. affected, assumed, bogus, factitious, fake, false, feigned, mock, phony, pretended, pseudo, spurious artless, genuine, natural, spontaneous, unaffected, uncontrived, unfeigned plasticity n.

Unit 9

PLATEAU PLETHORA

PLATITUDE PLIABLE

PLAUSIBLE PLIANT

PLEAT PLIGHT

PLENTITUDE PLODD

plateau [ 1 n.

] a usually extensive level land area raised sharply above adjacent land on at least one side

Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau highland, mesa, tableland, upland lowland 2 n. basin a relatively stable level, period, or state

reached a plateau of development equilibrium, stage, stasis platitude [ 1 significant n. ] a trite or banal remark or statement, especially one expressed as if it were original or

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the platitude of most political oratory banality, bromide, cliché, commonplace, homily, shibboleth, truism 2 n. lack of originality originality ] superficially fair, reasonable, or valuable but often specious triteness, staleness novelty plausible [ 1 adj.

a plausible argument believable, credible, likely, possible, presumable, probable paradoxical plausibility n. pleat [ 1 ] n./vt. fold implausible, improbable, incredible, unbelievable, unlikely

corrugate, crease, furrow, ruffle, wrinkle flatten, smooth plentitude [ 1 n. ] an ample amount or quantity; an abundance

a plentitude of lumber for the current housing market abundance, affluence, cornucopia, myriad, plenty, profusion, stack, wealth dearth, deficiency, inadequacy, insufficiency plethora [ 1 n. ] excess, superfluity mite, peanuts, pinch, pittance, trace

a plethora of advice and a paucity of assistance abundance, cornucopia, feast, overabundance, overflow, plentitude, profusion, surfeit, surplus dearth, inadequacy, insufficiency, paucity, scarcity, undersupply plethoric adj. pliable [ 1 adj. ] supple enough to bend freely or repeatedly without breaking

pliable optical fiber adaptable, ductile, flexible, limber, plastic, supple inflexible, rigid, stiff 2 adj. unbending easily influenced, persuaded, or swayed

He took advantage of the pliable mind of youth. compliant, docile, obedient, pliant, tractable, subdued contumacious, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly pliant [ 1 ] adj. easily bent or flexed

a pliant young tree adaptable, ductile, flexible, limber, plastic, supple inflexible, rigid, stiff unbending

2

adj.

yielding readily to influence or domination

She’s proud and stubborn, you know, under that pliant exterior. compliant, docile, obedient, pliant, tractable, subdued contumacious, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly plight [ 1 ] n. a situation, especially a bad or unfortunate one

He was in a plight, trying to decide whether or not to take the job. dilemma, jam, predicament, quandary plod [ v. tramp, trudge flit plodding adj. gambol ] to walk heavily or slowly The soldiers slowly plodded across the marsh.

Unit 10

PLUCK POLARIZE

P LU M B POLEMIC

PLUMMET POLISHED

PLUMP POLITIC

PLUNGE POMPOUS

pluck [ 1

] n. resourceful courage and daring in the face of difficulties

full of pluck backbone, courage, dauntlessness, grit, guts, resolution, spirit, spunk cowardice, coward, spinelessness 2 v. or a plectrum pluck the harp play plucky adj. plumb [ 1 vt. ] to measure the depth of (as a body of water) typically with a weighted line questions that plumb the depths of stupidity fathom 2 adj. exactly vertical perpendicular, upright, vertical to sound (the strings of an instrument) by pulling and releasing them with the fingers

We will plumb the bay to make sure it was deep enough for the huge vessel.

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horizontal 3 adj. having no exceptions or restrictions Such a movie is plumb trash and further evidence of the deterioration of popular culture. absolute, categorical, complete, consummate, definite, pure, sheer, thorough, utter, very doubtful, dubious, equivocal, questionable, uncertain 4 v. to examine closely or deeply plumbing the book's complexities explore, delve, inquire, investigate, probe plummet [ 1 v. ] to decline suddenly and steeply 0.5 qualified

Overall GPA plummeted 0.5 points. skyrocket, soar plump [ 1 adj. ] well-rounded and full in form

crash, decline, descend, dip, dive, fall, plunge, sink, tumble

In Tang Dynasty, being plump was a sign of ultimate beauty. chubby, fleshy, fat, gross, obese, rotund, round lean, slender, svelte, thin 2 vi. angular to give full support or praise

We will plump for any candidate who supports stem cell research. advocate, back, champion, endorse, patronize baffle, foil, frustrate, sabotage plunge [ 1 vi. ] to descend or dip suddenly

stock’s value plunged crash, decline, descend, dip, dive, fall, plummet, plunge, sink, tumble skyrocket, soar 2 vt. to cause to penetrate or enter quickly and forcibly into something plunged the dagger into his chest drive, stab, stick, thrust extract polarize [ 1 vt. ] to break up into opposing factions or groupings

The controversy has polarized voters into pro-abortion and anti-abortion groups. bifurcate, diverge, divide coalesce, unite polarization n. polemic [ ]

1

n.

a controversial argument

The polemic between science and religion has never ceased. contention, controversy, disagreement, disputation agreement polemical adj. polished [ 1 adj. experience He maintained a very polished tone in his correspondences. cultivated, cultured, genteel, refined, urbane gauche, rustic, philistine 2 adj. uncivilized, untutored having a shiny surface or finish ] showing a high degree of refinement and the assurance that comes from wide social

She could see her face reflected in the polished hood of the car. buffed, burnished, glistening, lustrous, rubbed, satiny, sleek dim, dull, flat, lusterless polish v. politic [ 1 adj. ] characterized by shrewdness in managing, contriving, or dealing

a politic secretary diplomatic, judicious, perspicacious, sagacious, tactful, wise tactless, unsophisticated 2 adj. suitable for bringing about a desired result under the circumstances It probably would not be politic to tell your boss that his latest idea is the worst thing you've ever heard. advisable, desirable, prudent, tactical imprudent, inadvisable, injudicious, unwise pompous [ 1 adj. ] excessively elevated or ornate

The candidate was given to windy rhetorical speeches. affected, bombastic, flowery, grandiloquent, magniloquent, rhetorical, sonorous homely 2 adj. having or exhibiting self-importance a pompous politician who insisted on boarding the plane first arrogant, egocentric, haughty, pontifical, presumptuous, supercilious humble, modest, unpretentious

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List 19
“ ——
Verbal 790 Quantitative 800 ” UCLA PHD

Unit 1

PONDERABLE PORTENTOUS

PONDEROUS POSEUR

PONTIFICATE PORE POSIT POSTULATE

POROUS POSTURE

ponderable [

]

1 adj. considerable enough to be weighed or assessed Climate change has exerted a ponderable influence on world politics. appreciable, perceptible, sensible inappreciable ponderous [ ]

1 adj. of very great weight a ponderous machine cumbersome, heavy, hefty, massive, onerous, weighty ethereal, gossamer, light, weightless 2 adj. oppressively or unpleasantly dull a ponderous sermon no one really cares dreary, dull, flat, elephantine, monotonous, insipid, vapid absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting pontificate [ ]

1 vi. to speak or express opinions in a pompous or dogmatic way pontificate to show a sense of superiority condescend pontification n. pontifical adj. pore [ ]

1 vi. to read or study attentively(usually used with over) The committee will probably pore over the results of the study for a long time before making their decision. cogitate, consider, contemplate, deliberate, meditate, perpend, ruminate, study, weigh, chew over flip, glance, leaf, riffle, skim porous [ 1 adj. ] admitting the passage of gas or liquid through pores or interstices

Lava rock has a porous structure which makes the material lightweight and highly moisture-retentive. passable, penetrable, permeable, pervious impassable, impenetrable, impermeable, impervious porosity n. portentous [ ]

1 adj. being or showing a sign of evil or calamity to come an eerie and portentous stillness baleful, direful, doomy, foreboding, inauspicious, menacing, minatory, ominous, sinister, ill-omened auspicious, propitious 2 adj. eliciting amazement or wonder The way in which he could bring together opposing forces was truly portentous. amazing, astonishing, astounding, fabulous, marvelous, miraculous, prodigious, wonderful common, commonplace, ordinary poseur [ ]

1 n. an affected or insincere person She is such a poseur and you will never know if she is really crying or pretending. grandstander, poser posit [ ]

1 vt. to assume or affirm the existence of The committee posited that he was qualified for the election. assume, postulate, presuppose, premise, presume falsify postulate [ ]

1 n. something taken as being true or factual and used as a starting point for a course of action or reasoning One of the postulates that the true agnostic rejects is the assumption that it is even possible for us to know whether God exists. —— premise, presumption, presupposition, supposition conclusion 2 v. to assume or claim as true, existent, or necessary postulate a causal relationship assume, conjecture, hypothesize, posit, presuppose, premise, presume, suppose belie, disprove, falsify postulation n. posture [ ]

1 n. a general way of holding the body A good upright posture will prevent backaches. attitude, carriage, poise, stance, station 2 vi. to assume an artificial or pretended attitude postured to impress

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attitudinize, feign, grandstand, masquerade, pose, pretend posturer n.

Unit 2

POTABLE PRAIRIE

POTENTATE PRATE

POTENTIATE POUT PREACH PRECARIOUS

PRACTITIONER PRECEDENT

potable [

]

1 n. a beverage, especially an alcoholic beverage Potables are offered at bar counter for free. beverage, drink, juice, liquor, spirits non-intoxicant, soft drink 2 adj. suitable for drinking Price of the potable water has soared. drinkable, edible undrinkable potentate [ ]

1 n. one who has the power and position to rule over others a son of a potentate authority, autocrat, monarch, ruler, sovereign figurehead potentiate [ ]

1 vt. to make effective or active, or more effective or more active additives to potentiate the drug activate, energize, enhance, intensify, stir, wake, vitalize deactivate abate, attenuate, dwindle, lessen, moderate, reduce pout [ ]

1 vi. to show displeasure, especially by thrusting out the lips or wearing a sullen expression She pouted and didn't say a word to anyone all morning. grump, mope, sulk grin practitioner [ ]

1 n. one who practices a profession medical practitioner expert, expounder, guru, professional, specialist, virtuoso fledgling quack prairie [ ]

1 n. an extensive area of flat or rolling, predominantly treeless grassland Canadian Prairie grassland, meadow, plain, savanna prate [ ]

1 vi. to talk long and idly They have been prating on the phone for hours. babble, chat, chatter, converse, gabble, jabber, prattle, twitter prater n. preach [ ]

1 vi. to deliver a sermon a minister who loves to preach discourse, sermonize preacher n. precarious [ ]

1 adj. dangerously lacking in security or stability a precarious livelihood delicate, fragile, sensitive, touchy, unstable firm, stable safe, secure 2 adj. dependent on uncertain premises His entire argument relies on a precarious assumption. ambiguous, doubtful, dubious, equivocal, uncertain, unfounded indubitable, unambiguous, unequivocal, unquestionable precedent [ ]

1 n. an earlier occurrence of something similar There has not been any precedent so far. a landmark decision that set a legal precedent example, instance, model, paradigm, pattern, standard 2 adj. prior in time, order, arrangement, or significance Her violent behaviors may be explained by some precedent events in her troubled life. antecedent, anterior, former, preceding, previous, prior ensuing unprecedented adj.

Unit 3

PRECIPICE PRECURSOR

PRECIPITATE PRECIPITATION PREDECESSOR PREDILECTION

PRECIPITOUS PREEMINENT

PRECLUDE PREEMPT

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precipice [ ] 1 n. a very steep or overhanging place a precipice too steep to climb bluff, cliff, crag, escarpment, palisade ridge precipitous adj. precipitate [ ]

1 adj. acting or done with excessive or careless speed the army's precipitate withdrawal from the field of battle cursory, flying, headlong, hurried, overhasty, precipitous, rash, rushed deliberate leisurely, unhurried, unrushed 2 vt. to cause to happen, especially suddenly or prematurely to precipitate an international crisis accelerate, escalate, expedite, hasten, impel, speed, trigger check, encumber, enfetter, hamper, handicap, hinder, manacle, obstruct, retard, trammel precipitation n. precipitation [ 1 snow The storm brought several inches of precipitation. deposit, sediment 2 n. excited and often showy or disorderly speed I fear that I may have acted with some precipitation on this matter, so I would like to reconsider. haste, hastiness, hustle, precipitousness, rush deliberation precipitous [ ] n. ] something precipitated as a deposit on the earth of hail, mist, rain, sleet, or

1 adj. very steep, perpendicular, or overhanging in rise or fall a precipitous gorge abrupt, arduous, precipitate, sheer, steep flat, level 2 adj. acting or done with excessive or careless speed They soon regretted their precipitous actions in international affairs cursory, flying, headlong, hurried, overhasty, precipitate, rash, rushed deliberate leisurely, unhurried, unrushed preclude [ ]

1 vt. to make impossible, as by action taken in advance Age alone will not preclude him from standing as a candidate. avert, deter, forestall, obviate, prevent, stave off 2 vt. to exclude or prevent (someone) from a given condition or activity He refused to preclude the subject from discussion . bar, exclude, except enclose

preclusive adj. precursor [ ] 1 n. one that precedes and indicates the approach of another 18th-century lyric poets like Robert Burns were precursors of the Romantics. foregoer, forerunner, harbinger, herald, outrider sequela, successor descendant precursory adj. predecessor [ ]

1 n. a person who has previously occupied a position or office to which another has succeeded a political legacy left by his predecessor ancestor, antecedent, foregoer, forerunner, precursor successor descendant predilection [ ]

1 n. a partiality or disposition in favor of something a predilection for travel affection, affinity, bias, disposition, inclination, leaning, penchant, predisposition, propensity, tendency aversion, loathing, nausea, repugnance, repulsion, revulsion preeminent [ ]

1 adj. having paramount rank, dignity, or importance The writer's style is brilliant and his command of words, preeminent. distinguished, illustrious, incomparable, notable, outstanding, peerless, superb, supreme, unmatchable negligible, trivial preeminence n. preempt [ ]

1 vt. to appropriate, seize, or take for oneself before others The naughty children had preempted front-row seats that were reserved for the guests of honor. appropriate, arrogate, commandeer, convert, expropriate, preempt, press, seize, usurp 2 v. to replace with something considered to be of greater value or priority: take precedence over The special newscast preempted the usual television program. displace, replace, supersede, supplant preemptive adj.

Unit 4

PREEN PREFACE PREGNANT PREMEDITATE PREOCCUPATION PREPONDERANT PREPOSSESSING PREPOSTEROUS PRESAGE PRESCIENCE

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preen [

]

1 vt. to smooth or clean (feathers) with the beak or bill plume rumple 2 vt. to dress or groom (oneself) with elaborate care She always preen herself in an elaborate suit before going to the opera. groom, plume, primp 3 vt. to take pride or satisfaction in (oneself) He always preen himself on his ancestry. gloat, plume, pride efface preface [ ]

1 n. a preliminary statement or essay introducing a book that explains its scope, intention, or background and is usually written by the author An informal brunch served as a preface to the three-day conference. exordium, foreword, introduction, overture, preamble, prelude, prologue epilogue prefatory adj. pregnant [ ]

1 adj. weighty or significant; full of meaning the pregnant phrases of the Bible eloquent, meaningful, momentous, profound, revelatory, significant, suggestive inane 2 adj. containing a developing embryo, fetus, or unborn offspring within the body Being pregnant represents great news, but it comes with a lot of responsibilities. enceinte, expectant, expecting, gravid pregnancy n. premeditate [ ]

1 vi. to think, consider, or deliberate beforehand carefully premeditating each step of his plan deliberate, prearrange, prepare, preplan disregard, ignore, neglect, omit, overlook premeditation n. preoccupation [ ]

1 n. extreme or excessive concern with something He kept sinking back into gloomy preoccupation. absorption, engagement, engrossment, immersion apathy, indifference, nonchalance, unconcern preoccupied adj.

preponderant [ ] 1 adj. having superior weight, force, importance, or influence a preponderant misconception dominant, paramount, predominant, prevalent, overruling secondary, subsidiary preponderance n. prepossessing [ ]

1 adj. serving to impress favorably He was fascinated by her prepossessing appearance at first sight. alluring, attractive, appealing, captivating, charming, enchanting, pleasing, riveting abhorrent, appalling, disgusting, hideous, loathsome, repellent, repulsive unprepossessing adj. preposterous [ ]

1 adj. contrary to nature, reason, or common sense a preposterous conclusion of quantum mechanics absurd, asinine, fallacious, fatuous, lunatic, ludicrous, insane, irrational, unreasonable commonsensical reasonable, sensible presage [ ]

1 n. something believed to be a sign or warning of a future event The sight of the first robin is always a welcome presage of spring. augury, auspice, boding, foreboding, foreshadowing, portent, prefiguring 2 vt. to foretell or predict The incident may presage war. adumbrate, augur, forecast, foretell, portend, predict, prognosticate, prophesy prescience [ ]

1 n. knowledge of actions or events before they occur Most believers would probably agree that complete prescience is one of God's attributes. foresight, forethought, providence improvidence, myopia, shortsightedness

Unit 5

PRESCRIPTION PRESERVATIVE PRETERNATURAL PREVAIL

PRESTIGE PREVALENT

PRESUMPTUOUS PREVARICATE

PRETENSE PRIMORDIAL

prescription [

]

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1 n. something prescribed as a rule; especially an inherited or established way of thinking, feeling, or doing convention, custom, decree, law, regulation, rule prescribe v. preservative [ ]

1 n. an additive used to protect against decay, discoloration, or spoilage containing no chemical preservative preserve v. prestige [ ]

1 n. the level of respect at which one is regarded by others The prestige of the university has been irrevocably impaired by the plagiarism scandal. credit, fame, influence, reputation infamy prestigious adj. presumptuous [ ]

1 adj. overstepping due bounds (as of propriety or courtesy) Under such a circumstance his demand for attention was utterly presumptuous. audacious, bold, brash, impertinent, impudent, insolent, pompous, presuming courteous, decorous, genteel, gracious, urbane 2 adj. having a feeling of superiority that shows itself in an overbearing attitude The presumptuous doctor didn't even bother to explain to me the treatment that I would be receiving. assumptive, bumptious, cavalier, haughty, imperious, lofty, overweening, peremptory, supercilious humble, modest pretense [ ]

1 n. the act of pretending; a false appearance or action intended to deceive There is too much pretense in his piety. affectation, camouflage, deceit, disguise, imposture, mask, masquerade sincerity 2 n. an exaggerated sense of one's importance that shows itself in the making of excessive or unjustified claims assumption, hauteur, imperiousness, loftiness, lordliness, pomposity, superciliousness, superiority humility, modesty preternatural [ ]

1 adj. surpassing the normal or usual They exhibited preternatural courage in face of danger. aberrant, abnormal, anomalous, extraordinary, phenomenal, magical, miraculous, unearthly common, ordinary, prosaic prevail [ 1 vi. ] to be greater in strength or influence

a custom that still prevails conquer, dominate, overcome, reign, triumph yield lose prevailing adj. prevalent [ ]

1 adj. widely or commonly occurring, existing, accepted, or practiced The kinds of accidents are frequently seen in places where snowmobiles are prevalent. conventional, dominant, common, popular, predominant, preponderant, prevailing, rife absent, rare unusual prevalence n. prevaricate [ ]

1 vi. to stray from or evade the truth During the hearings the witness did his best to prevaricate. equivocate, fabricate, falsify, lie, palter prevarication n. primordial [ ]

1 adj. being or happening first in sequence of time primordial forms of life ancient, early, primal, primeval, primitive late, recent

Unit 6

PRIMP PROBITY

PRINCIPAL PRISTINE PRIVATION PROCLIVITY PROCRASTINATE

PROBE PROCURE

PROD

primp [

]

1 v. to dress, adorn, or arrange in a careful or finicky manner She primps for hours before a date. preen, dress up principal [ ]

1 adj. first, highest, or foremost in importance, rank, worth, or degree The region's principal city is getting hammered by a series of terrorist attacks. capital, cardinal, chief, dominant, grand, main, major, paramount, predominant, preeminent, primary secondary, subordinate pristine [ ]

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1 adj. remaining in a pure state; uncorrupted by civilization. remaining free from dirt or decay; clean a pristine forest immaculate, spotless, stainless, unsoiled, unstained, unsullied tainted, squalid, contaminated, besmirched ,corrupted by civilization privation [ ]

1 n. lack of what is needed for existence the constant privation of sleep was starting to affect his work deprivation, loss repletion probe [ ]

1 v./n. a penetrating or critical investigation probe into his background delving, disquisition, exploration, inquisition probity [ ]

1 n. faithfulness to high moral standards a person of indisputable probity should head the disciplinary panel honesty, integrity, rectitude, righteousness, uprightness unscrupulousness, shiftiness, baseness, dishonor, lowness proclivity [ ]

1 n. a natural propensity or inclination; predisposition showed artistic proclivities at an early age aptitude, disposition, leaning, partiality, penchant, predilection, propensity aversion, antipathy, disinclination procrastinate [ ]

1 vi. to put off doing something, especially out of habitual carelessness or laziness She procrastinated and missed the submission deadline. procure [ ] 1 vt. to get possession of procured the prisoner's release acquire, attain, garner, knock down, pull down, bring in relinquish, forfeit, lose prod [ ]

1 vt. to try to persuade (someone) through earnest appeals to follow a course of action The strike may prod the government into action. encourage, exhort, goad, nudge, prompt, spur, egg on rein

Unit 7

PRODIGAL PRODIGIOUS PROFANE PROFFER PROFICIENT PROFLIGATE PROFUNDITY PROFUSION PROHIBITIVE PROLIFERATE

prodigal [

]

1 adj. recklessly spendthrift prodigal outlays for her clothes extravagant, profligate, squandering, unthrifty, wasteful frugal, parsimonious, conserving, economical, economizing, penny-pinching, scrimping, skimping, thrifty prodigality penury, husbandry 2 n. someone who spends money freely or foolishly The million-dollar lottery winner was such a prodigal that his windfall was exhausted after only a few years. fritterer, high roller, profligate, spender, spendthrift, squanderer, waster, wastrel economizer, penny-pincher prodigious [ ]

1 adj. impressively great in size, force, or extent; enormous a prodigious supply of canned food kept in the basement colossal, elephantine, enormous, gigantic, titanic, tremendous slight prodigy n. 2 adj. causing wonder or astonishment stage magicians performing prodigious feats for rapt audiences amazing, astonishing, astounding, awesome, fabulous, miraculous, portentous, staggering, stunning, stupendous, sublime, surprising profane [ ]

1 v. to treat (something sacred) with abuse, irreverence, or contempt invading troops profaned the altar by playing poker on it defile, violate profaned unviolated, inviolable 2 v. to put to a bad or improper use profaned his considerable acting talents by appearing in some wretched movies abuse, misemploy, misuse, pervert, prostitute proffer [ 1 ] v./n. to offer for acceptance; tender

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proffered her assistance in helping the two sides reach a compromise extend, give, proffer, tender, trot out retain, withhold proficient [ ]

1 adj. having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning proficient in translating foreign languages accomplished, complete, expert, skilled, versed, virtuoso inept, incompetent, amateur, inexperienced, inexpert, jackleg, unprofessional, unseasoned, unskilled

profligate [

]

1 adj./n. recklessly wasteful; wildly extravagant leading a profligate life extravagant, high-rolling, spendthrift, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful parsimonious, provident, thrift, economical, frugal, conserving 2 n. someone who spends money freely or foolishly profligate who could not really afford the grand style he maintained at Monticello, Jefferson died deeply in debt fritterer, high roller, spender, spendthrift, squanderer, waster, wastrel economizer, penny-pincher 3 n. a person who has sunk below the normal moral standard a drunken profligate, he was given to wretched excess in every aspect of his life backslider, debauchee, debaucher, decadent, deviate, libertine, perv, pervert, profligate, rake, rakehell, rip profundity [ ]

1 n. something profound or abstruse His books are a mixture of playfulness and profundity. deepness, profoundness superficiality profusion [ ]

1 n. the state of being profuse; abundance snow falling in profusion abundance, mass, plentitude, scads, volume, wealth paucity profuse scanty 2 n. the quality or fact of being free or wasteful in the expenditure of money in giving gifts to his girlfriend, he was generous to the point of profusion extravagancy, lavishness, prodigality, wastefulness economy, frugality, penny-pinching prohibitive [ ]

1 adj. 2 adj. prohibitive prices

tending to prohibit or restrain so high or burdensome as to discourage purchase or use

proliferate [ ] 1 vi. to grow or multiply by rapidly producing new tissue, parts, cells, or offspring rumors about the accident proliferated on the Internet balloon, boom, build up, escalate, expand, mushroom, snowball decrease in amount, dwindle, contract, decrease, diminish, dwindle, lessen, recede, wane

Unit 8

PROLIX PROLOGUE PROLONG PROOFREAD PROMULGATE PROPAGATE PROPENSITY PROPHETIC PROPITIATE PROPITIOUS

prolix [

]

1 adj. tending to speak or write at excessive length habitually transforms brief anecdotes into prolix sagas that exhaust his listeners diffuse, garrulous, rambling, verbose, windy pithy, taciturn, terse, succinct, concise, extreme brief prologue [ ]

1 n. the preface or introduction to a literary work the burglary, which he committed while still a teen, was but a prologue to a wasted life of crime exordium, foreword, preamble, preface, prelude, proem, prolusion epilogue prolong [ ]

1 vt. to lengthen in extent, scope, or range Additives are used to prolong the shelf life of packaged food. elongate, lengthen, outstretch, protract, stretch, drag (out), draw out abbreviate, abridge, curtail, cut, cut back, shorten , truncate proofread [ ]

1 vt. to read (copy or proof) in order to find errors and mark corrections She proofread the paper carefully. promulgate [ ] 1 vt. to make known openly or publicly The law was promulgated in June 1988. 1988

6

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annunciate, declare, enunciate, proclaim, publicize, herald keep secret propagate [ ]

1 v. to cause to continue or increase by sexual or asexual reproduction the dams along the river are interfering with the salmon's ability to propagate breed, multiply, reproduce fail to multiply 2 vt. to cause to spread out and affect a greater number or greater area: extend the various ways in which churches can propagate the faith broadcast, circulate, disseminate check propensity [ ]

1 n. an often intense natural inclination or preference a neighbor who has an unfortunate propensity for snooping affinity, aptitude, bent, partiality, penchant, predilection, predisposition, proclivity aversion prophetic [ ] 1 adj. foretelling events predictive those lower-than-expected sales numbers were a prophetic indicator of the financial trouble the company would soon be in predictive propitiate [ ]

1 vt. to conciliate (an offended power); appease the temple was built to honor the gods in times of plenty and to propitiate them in times of trouble appease, assuage, conciliate, disarm, mollify, placate enrage, incense, inflame, infuriate, ire, madden, outrage, antagonize, arouse hostility propitious [ ]

1 adj. favorably disposed: pointing toward a happy outcome propitious sign auspicious, encouraging, fair, heartening, optimistic, promising, upbeat dim, discouraging, disheartening, futureless, hopeless, inauspicious, unfavorable, unpromising, unpropitious

Unit 9

PROPONENT PROPRIETY PROSELYTIZE PROSPECT

PROSAIC PROSCRIBE PROSECUTION PROSPEROUS PROSTRATE PROTEAN

proponent [

]

1 n. one who argues in support of something; an advocate a proponent of the use of electric-powered cars advocate, apostle, champion, expounder, espouser, friend, promoter, supporter, protagonist adversary, antagonist, opponent , detractor propriety [ ] 1 n. conformity to what is socially acceptable in conduct or speech When attending a wedding, there are certain proprieties that must be followed. decorum, form, etiquette impropriety, indecency, indecorum 2 n. the quality or state of being especially suitable or fitting I'm not sure about the propriety of serving champagne in these glasses. appositeness, aptness, felicity, fitness, properness, rightness, seemliness, suitability improperness, impropriety, inappositeness, inappropriateness, inaptness, infelicity, unseemliness, unsuitability, wrongness prosaic [ ]

unfitness,

1 adj. being of the type that is encountered in the normal course of events prosaic advice commonplace, everyday, routine, unexceptional, unremarkable, workaday abnormal, exceptional, extraordinary, odd, out-of-the-way, strange, exciting, preternatural, ingenious, imaginary proscribe [ ]

1 vt. to prohibit; forbid acts proscribed by law ban, enjoin, interdict, outlaw, prohibit sanction, permit, allow, let, suffer prosecution [ ]

1 n. the doing of an action oversaw the prosecution of the president's foreign policy accomplishment, achievement, discharge, enactment, execution, fulfillment, implementation, performance, perpetration, pursuance nonfulfillment, nonperformance proselytize [ ] 1 v. to persuade to change to one's religious faith The efforts of early missionaries to proselytize the Native Americans of Minnesota were largely unproductive. convert prospect [ ]

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1 vi. to go into or range over for purposes of discovery people had arrived in the valley to prospect it for gold hunt, probe, search, skirr 2 n. the act or state of looking forward to some occurrence The prospect of a quiet, restful Sunday ended when our basement flooded. anticipation, contemplation, expectancy prosperous [ 1 adj. ] marked by vigorous growth and well-being especially economically

The company had a prosperous year. booming, flourishing, halcyon, lush, palmy, roaring, thriving depressed, impecunious prostrate [ ] 1 adj./v. lying flat or at full length He was lying prostrate on the bed. debilitated, effete, enervated, enfeebled, languid, sapped erect, upright 2 adj./v. / to reduce to extreme weakness or incapacitation illness that prostrated an entire family debilitate, devitalize, enervate, enfeeble, etiolate, sap, tire fortify, strengthen, beef up protean [ ]

1 adj. displaying great diversity or variety; versatile He loved to show off his protean talent. . adaptable, universal, all-around static

Unit 10

PROTOCOL PROTRACT PROTRUDE PROTUBERANT PROVIDENTIAL PROVINCIAL PROVISIONAL PROVISORY

PROVIDENT PROVOKE

protocol [

] a code of correct conduct

1 n. a breach of protocol

protract [ ] 1 vt. to draw out or lengthen in time; prolong elongate, lengthen, prolong, stretch, drag out, draw out,

curtail, abridge, abbreviate, shorten, cut back protrude [ ] 1 vi. to jut out; project; bulge a handkerchief protruding from his breast pocket bulge, overhang, poke, project, stand out, stick out concave protuberant [ 1 adj. protuberant eyes depressed protuberance concavity provident [ ] ] thrusting out from a surrounding or adjacent surface often as a rounded mass

1 adj. frugal; economical it is possible to be provident without being miserly economical, sparing, thrifty, farsighted, provident, scrimping profligate 2 adj. having or showing awareness of and preparation for the future her provident measures kept us safe while we waited out the hurricane farseeing, farsighted, forehanded, foreseeing, forethoughtful, prescient, proactive, visionary half-baked, half-cocked, improvident, myopic, shortsighted providential [ ]

1 adj. happening as if through divine intervention a providential escape lucky, fluky, fortuitous unfortunate, mishap, hapless, ill-fated, ill-starred, luckless, star-crossed provincial [ ]

1 adj./n. limited in perspective; narrow and self-centered an artist who has been criticized for being provincial illiberal, insular, parochial, sectarian, narrow-minded ecumenical, broad-minded, catholic, cosmopolitan, liberal, open, open-minded, receptive, tolerant

provisional [

]

1 adj. provided or serving only for the time being; temporary he was appointed provisional executor of the industrialist's vast estate impermanent, interim, provisionary, short-term long-term, permanent provisory [ 1 adj. ] depending on a proviso; conditional; serving in a position for the time

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being a provisory permit to block off the street while movie scenes were being shot interim, provisional, provisionary, provisory unconditional, long-term, permanent provoke [ ]

1 vt. to incite to anger or resentment his teasing finally provoked her to anger arouse, excite, incite, instigate, pique, stimulate, stir, fire up 2 vt. to stir to action or feeling rankings that are sure to provoke an argument among film critics abet, ferment, foment, instigate, stir up, whip up

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List 20
“ ” ——
Verbal 750 AW 5.0 Georgia Institute of Technology

Unit 1

PROWESS PROWL PRUDE PRUNE PRY PSEUDONYM

PRUDENT PSYCHOLOGY

PRUDISH PUCKER

prowess [ 1 n.

] superior strength, courage, or daring, especially in battle

his prowess on the football field bravery, courageousness, daring, gallantry, guts, intrepidity timid, cowardice, cravenness, dastardliness, poltroonery, spinelessness prowl [ 1 ] vt. to roam through stealthily, as in search of prey or plunder

I prowled the shop looking for sales. prude [pru:d] 1 n. a person who is greatly

concerned with seemly behavior and morality especially regarding sexual matters the racy sitcom frequently satirizes exactly the sort of prude who would like to see the show taken off the air bluenose, moralist, puritan immoralist prudish [ 1 adj. ] marked by prudery 19

By the prudish standards of the 19th century, any depiction of the nude was scandalous. nice-nelly, prim, puritanical prudent [ 1 adj. ] marked by wisdom or judiciousness; wise

prudent advice advisable, desirable, judicious, politic, tactical, intelligent fool 2 adj. marked by circumspection

prune [ 1 2 n. vt.

] a plum dried or capable of drying without fermentation to cut off or remove dead or living parts or branches of (a plant, for example) to improve

shape or growth The students were asked to prune their essays. shave, shear, snip, trim pry [ 1 ] v. to look or inquire closely, curiously, or impertinently don't go prying into other people's business interlope, intermeddle, intrude, nose, obtrude, snoop pseudonym [ 1 L alias, nom de guerre psychology [ 1 2 n. n. ] the science that deals with mental processes and behavior subtle tactical action or argument used to manipulate or influence another n. ] a fictitious name

Mark Twain is the pseudonym of the American writer Samuel L. Clemens.

She studied psychology in college. He used poor psychology on his employer when trying to make the point.

pucker [ 1 vi.

] to become gathered, contracted, and wrinkled

pucker my lips

Unit 2

PUCKISH PUN

PUERILE PUNCTILIOUS

PUISSANCE PUNDIT

PULCHRITUDE PUNGENT

PULVERIZE PUNY

puckish [ 1 adj.

] mischievous; impish

She had a puckish smile on her face. devilish, impish, prankish, rascally, waggish sober, grave, staid puerile [ ]

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1

adj.

immature; lacking in adult experience or maturity

puerile remarks adolescent, green, immature, puerile, unfledged, unformed, unripened adult, experienced, grown-up, mature, ripe, sagacious puissance [ 1 n. ] power; might

the president pledged to put the full puissance of the nation into the war effort force, might, potency, strength, vigor, sinew powerlessness, impotence, weakness pulchritude 1 n. [ ] great physical beauty and appeal

ugliness, homeliness, hideousness pulverize [ 1 vt. ] to bring to a complete end the physical soundness, existence, or usefulness of

Bits of pulverized rock filled the air. solidify, build, construct, erect, put up, raise, rear, set up pun [ 1 ] n. the usually humorous use of a word in such a way as to suggest two or more of its

meanings or the meaning of another word similar in sound He's a skillful pilot whose career has—no pun intended—really taken off. —— punctilious 1 [ —— ] strictly attentive to minute details of form in action or conduct.

adj.

decorous, proper, starchy, stilted remiss, slipshod, casual, easygoing, informal, laid-back, unceremonious pundit 1 [ n. ] a person who gives opinions in an authoritative manner usually through the

mass media the new laptop has gotten a thumbs-up from industry pundits savant, scholar pungent [ 1 adj. ] marked by the use of wit that is intended to cause hurt feelings

pungent language acerbic, acid, acrid, caustic, mordant, sardonic, scalding, scathing puny [ 1 ] adj. of inferior size, strength, or significance; weak

I wouldn't mess with him—he makes bodybuilders look puny in comparison. diminutive, dwarfish, slight, subnormal

——

enormous, considerable, grand, husky, king-size, outsize, overscale, substantial, whacking, whopping

Unit 3

PURITY Q U AC K

PURLIEU Q U AF F

PURLOIN Q U AI L

PURVEY Q U AL I F Y

P US I LL ANI MO US Q U AN D ARY

purity [ 1 pure n.

] the quality or state of being morally pure; the quality or state of being morally

struggling to live a life of purity while surrounded by wickedness chasteness, immaculacy, innocence, modesty impurity, unchasteness, unchastity impurity n. purist n. purlieu 1 showtime. 2 n. an adjoining region or space [pru:d] n. a place for spending time or for socializing 1-2 The restaurant, the preferred purlieu of the theatergoing crowd, is always packed an hour or two before haunt, purlieu, rendezvous, resort, stamping ground, stomping ground We stopped at one of the several pubs in the purlieus of the stadium. backyard, neighborhood, purlieus, vicinage, vicinity purloin [ 1 vt. ] to steal, often in a violation of trust

fearing that someone might attempt to purloin a copy of the script for the show's season finale appropriate, filch, pilfer, snitch, thieve purvey [ 1 v. ] to supply (food, for example); furnish.

a little shop purveying handmade merchandise

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pusillanimous [ 1 adj.

] lacking courage and resolution : marked by contemptible timidity

pusillanimous politicians who vote according to whichever way the political wind is blowing craven, dastardly, gutless, poltroon, recreant, spineless brave, courageous, daring, dauntless, doughty, gallant, gutsy, intrepid, lionhearted, stalwart, stout, stouthearted, valiant, valorous quack [ 1 n. ] a pretender to medical skill

don't bother to see that guy, as I've heard he's a quack with no actual training charlatan, fake, fraud, hoaxer, mountebank, phony honest practitioner quaff [ 1 ] vt. to drink (a beverage) heartily

He stopped at a bar and quaffed a few beers. draft, gulp, swig, swill quail [ 1 ] vi. to shrink back in fear; cower

She quailed at the thought of seeing him again. blench, cringe, recoil, shrink, wince become resolute, give bold qualify [ 1 vt. ] to reduce from a general to a particular or restricted form

qualified support qualified unreserved, absolute, categorical 2 function raising five children has qualified her to be an advice columnist on parenting equip, fit, prepare, ready, season, train quandary [ 1 n. ] a state of perplexity or doubt , . catch-22, double bind state of complete certainty v. to make competent (as by training, skill, or ability) for a particular office or

I've had two job offers, and I'm in a real quandary about/over which one to accept.

Unit 4

QUARANTINE QUARRY QUENCH QUERULOUS

QUASH QUIBBLE

Q U AV E R QUIESCENT

QUELL QUIXOTIC

quarantine [ 1 n.

] to isolate from normal relations or communication

The cows will be kept in quarantine for another two weeks. quarry [ 1 2 n. n. ] an open excavation or pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting an object of pursuit

a hunter relentlessly tracking his quarry chase predator quash [ 1 vt. ] to put a stop to (something) by the use of force

quash a rebellion repress, squelch, subdue, suppress, clamp down on, crack down on engender, foment quaver [ 1 vt. ] to speak in a quivering voice; utter a quivering sound

His voice quavered during the speech. temble trill quell [ 1 ] vt. to put down forcibly; suppress

quell riot quash, repress, squash, squelch, subdue, suppress, clamp down on, crack down on 2 vt. to pacify; quiet quell fears dumb, extinguish, hush, mute, settle foment, instigate, rouse, incite quench [ 1 vt. ] to put out (a fire, for example); extinguish.

We thoroughly quenched the campfire before we headed to bed. blanket, douse, put out, snuff out fire, ignite, inflame, kindle, light 2 v. to put a complete end to (a physical need or desire)

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this lemonade really quenches my thirst assuage, quench, sate, satiate, slake querulous [ 1 adj. ] habitually complaining

a querulous voice crabby, cranky, grouchy, grumpy forbearing, long-suffering, patient, stoic, tolerant, uncomplaining quibble [ 1 War II carp, cavil, fuss, niggle, nitpick 2 n. a minor objection or criticism My only quibble about the trip was that it rained a lot. quiescent [ 1 adj. ] being quiet, still, or at rest; inactive vi. ] to find fault or criticize for petty reasons; cavil

she spent the entire evening quibbling about the historical inaccuracies in the television series on World

a group of quiescent loungers dull, inert, lethargic, sluggish, torpid rambunctious, tumultuous, active, restlessly active quixotic [ 1 reality She had quixotic dreams about the future. impractical, ideal, romantic, starry, utopian, visionary clear-eyed, clear-sighted adj. ] having or marked by a tendency to be guided more by ideals than by

Unit 5

Q U O TA RAFFISH

QUOTIDIAN RAFFLE

RABBLE RAGE

RABID RAGGED

RACY RAIL

quota [ 1 n.

] a proportional part or share

The department set new sales quotas in May. allowance, portion, proportion unlimited number

quotidian [ 1 adj.

] everyday; commonplace

plagued by a quotidian coughing commonplace, everyday, frequent, ordinary, routine, ubiquitous remarkable, striking, extraordinary, unusual, rare, infrequent, seldom rabble [ 1 n. ] a disorganized or disorderly crowd of people

the crown prince was reminded that even the rabble deserved his attention and compassion ragtag and bobtail, riffraff, scum, rag, trash, unwashed rabid [ 1 ] adj. extremely zealous or enthusiastic; fanatical

soccer fans whose rabid enthusiasm makes them go berserk when their team wins delirious, ferocious, feverish, fierce, frantic, frenetic, violent logical, detached racy [ 1 ] adj. vigorous; lively vivid writing and a racy plot that keeps readers turning the pages animate, brisk, frisky, jaunty, perky, spirited, vivacious tame, dead, inactive, inanimate, lackadaisical, languid, languorous, leaden, lifeless, limp, listless, spiritless, vapid raffish [ 1 ] adj. marked by or suggestive of flashy vulgarity or crudeness

the dowager cringed at the thought of raffish tourists tromping all over her Persian rugs crass, lowbred, uncouth, uncultivated, uncultured, unpolished, unrefined, vulgar civilized, cultivated, cultured, genteel, polished, refined, ultrarefined, well-bred raffle [ 1 n. ] discarded or useless material

The front lawn was littered with the raffle that the workers had left behind. chaff, deadwood, debris, dreck, dross, effluvium, litter, offal, offscouring, refuse, riffraff, rubbish, scrap, spilth rage [ 1 ] n./v. violent and uncontrolled anger Her rages rarely last more than a few minutes. agitation, deliriousness, delirium, distraction, furor, hysteria, rampage

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ragged 1

[ adj.

] dressed in tattered or threadbare clothes

A ragged coat may cover an honest man. raggedy, ragtag, tattered, tatterdemalion, shabby kempt, neat, trim 2 adj. not having a level or smooth surface She cut herself on the ragged edge of the tin can's lid. broken, bumpy, coarse, irregular, jagged, lumpy, pebbly, rough, roughened, rugged, scraggy even, flat, level, plane rail [ 1 ] vi. to revile or scold in harsh, insolent, or abusive language We could hear the cook in the kitchen railing against his assistant and wondered if we'd ever get our food. baste, berate, castigate, chastise, hammer, lambaste, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, upbraid accredit, applaud, commend, eulogize, extol, laud, praise raillery n. smooth

Unit 6

RAKISH RANDOM

RAMBLE RAMBUNCTIOUS RANKLE RANT

RAMSHACKLE R APACIOUS

RANCOR RAPPORT

rakish 1

[ adj.

] having or showing lowered moral character or standards; dissolute

He wore his hat at a rakish angle. debased, debauched, demoralized, depraved, dissolute, libertine, perverse, perverted, reprobate good, moral, pure, righteous, virtuous rake n. ramble 1 [ vi. ] to move aimlessly from place to place rambling around Beijing for a week to talk at length without sticking to a topic or getting to uncorrupted

rambling under the starlight 2 a point vi.

amble, cruise, drift, float, meander, perambulate, roam, saunter, stroll, traipse, wander

rambling on about dating, homework, movies, and the local football team blather, chat, chatter, drivel, maunder, patter, prattle rambunctious [ ]

1 and quiet.

adj.

being rough or noisy in a high-spirited way

That beach is often taken over by packs of rambunctious young people, so don't go there expecting peace boisterous, clamorous, raucous, riotous, rowdy, tumultuous, turbulent orderly ramshackle [ 1 adj. ] appearing ready to collapse; rickety calm, noiseless, peaceful, placid, quiet, serene, silent, soundless, tranquil

a ramshackle cabin in the woods rickety, shaky, tottering concrete, firm, solid, sturdy rancor [ 1 n. ] a bitter deep-seated ill will stable

A good man terminates a friendship without rancor. animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, bitterness, gall, grudge, hostility, jaundice amity, harmony, goodwill, rapport, rapprochement random [ 1 adj. ] lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern friendship

We received several answers and picked one at random. aimless, arbitrary, desultory, erratic, haphazard, scattered, slapdash, stray methodical, orderly, organized, regular, systematic, systematized randomly adv. rankle 1 [ vt. ] to cause anger, irritation, or deep bitterness randomize v.

It rankles me when some schools can't even afford paper and pencils for the students. aggravate, enrage, exasperate, incense, inflame, infuriate, ire, madden, rile, roil delight, gratify, please rant [ 1 ] n. a long angry speech or scolding After complaining about the hotel’s lousy service, the woman went off on another rant about the condition of her room. castigation, diatribe, harangue, lambasting, philippic, reprimand, reproach, vituperation encomium, eulogy, panegyric, rhapsody, tribute 2 vi. to speak or write in a noisy, angry or violent manner The old expert ranted that nobody paid any attention to his opinion. bluster, fulminate, huff, rave, roar, spout grumble, murmur, mutter rapacious 1 [ adj. ] having a huge appetite appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate

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The manager at the buffet restaurant was apparently astonished by a team of rapacious professional basketball players. edacious, esurient,gluttonous, greedy, ravenous, voracious 2 adj. excessively grasping or covetous Some companies is rapacious and hardly looking for the long-term value. acquisitive, avaricious, avid, coveting, covetous, grasping, mercenary, moneygrubbing content, sated, satiated, satisfied rapaciousness n. rapport [ 1 Year. amity,communion, concord, fellowship, harmony, rapprochement animosity, antagonism, antipathy, bitterness, enmity, hostility, jaundice, rancor n. ] a friendly relationship marked by ready communication and mutual understanding

His good rapport with his students was one of the reasons why the school board named him Teacher of the

Unit 7

RAPPROCHEMENT RASPY RATIFY

RAPSCALLION RAPT RATIOCINATION

RASH RATION

RAREFY RATIONL

rapprochement [ 1 n.

] establishment of or state of having cordial relations

an era of rapprochement betweenChina and Russia amity,communion, concord, fellowship, harmony, rapport animosity, antagonism, antipathy, bitterness, enmity, hostility, jaundice, rancor rapscallion 1 n. [ ] a mean, evil, or unprincipled person

an unsafe place frequented by drunkards and rapscallions brute, devil, evildoer, fiend, knave, miscreant, rascal, reprobate, rogue, savage, scamp, varlet, wretch saint rapt [ 1 ] adj. experiencing or marked by overwhelming usually pleasurable emotion a rock band that still attracts rapt crowds elated, elevated, enraptured, entranced, euphoric, exhilarated, intoxicated, rapturous, rhapsodic crestfallen, dejected, depressed 2 shell. adj. doleful, gloomy, melancholy, mournful, woeful deeply absorbed; engrossed cavalier, chevalier

With a mixture of delight and awe, the rapt children stared at the chick in the incubator breaking out of its

absorbed, concentrated, deep, engrossed, enthralled, focused, immersed, intent, observant absent, abstracted, distracted, inattentive apathetic, disinterested, unconcerned

rash [ 1

] adj. marked by or proceeding from undue haste or lack of deliberation or caution That was too rash a move: for now you've lost your bishop and probably the whole chess game. cursory, gadarene, headlong, hurried, overhasty, precipitate, precipitous, rushed deliberate rashly adv. leisurely, unhurried, unrushed

rarefy [ 1 vt.

] to make rare, thin, porous, or less dense: to expand without the addition of matter

rarefy the air attenuate, dilute, thin concentrate, condense rarefaction n. raspy [ 1 ] adj. harsh and dry in sound

The dying man was speaking in a raspy and barely discernible voice. cacophonous, coarse, croaky, harsh, grating, gravelly, gruff, husky, rasping, rusty, scratchy, throaty mellifluous, sweet 2 adj. gentle, soft, tender easily irritated or annoyed

Overwork tends to make him raspy. choleric, fiery, grouchy, irascible, peevish, pettish, petulant, prickly, ratty, testy agreeable, amiable, good-natured, good-tempered, well-disposed ratify [ 1 vt. ] to give official acceptance of as satisfactory ——

Lincoln's home state of Illinois was the first to ratify the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which provided for the abolition of slavery.

accredit, approbate, authorize, certify, endorse, finalize, formalize, pass, sanction, validate, warrant decline, deny, disallow, disapprove, negative, reject, veto ratification n. ratiocination 1 n. [ ] the thought processes that have been established as leading to valid solutions to problems

As an expert in ratiocination, the detective Sherlock Holmes has few rivals. deduction, intellection, reason, reasoning, sense ration [ ]

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1

n.

an amount allotted or made available especially from a limited supply

The meat ration was down to one pound per person per week. allotment, allowance, apportionment, portion, provision, quota, share 2 vt. to give as a share or portion The region has had to ration water during times of drought. allocate, allot, allow, apportion, assign, distribute, lot keep, retain, withhold rational [ 1 adj. ] consistent with or based on reason; logical

He insisted there was a rational explanation for the strange creaking noises and that there were no such things as ghosts. analytic, coherent, consequent, logical, reasonable, sensible, sound, valid, well-founded, well-grounded illogical, incoherent, inconsequent, invalid, irrational, unreasonable, unsound, weak 2 adj. based on sound reasoning or information Betting all of your savings on the lottery is not a rational move. commonsensical, firm, informed, just, justified, levelheaded, sober, solid groundless, unfounded, unjustified rationalize v.

Unit 8

R AV E REACTIONARY

R AV E L REAM

R AV I S H REAP

RAZE REASSURE

REACT REBUFF

rave

[ 1

] vi. to make an exaggerated display of affection or enthusiasm Critics raved about the new play. drool, effuse, enthuse, fuss, rhapsodize, slobber blame, censure, condemn, criticize, denounce, pan, reprehend

2

vi.

to talk irrationally and wildly in or as if in delirium

a man standing outside the city hall,raving like a lunatic about his tax bill bluster, fulminate, huff, rant, roar, spout grumble, murmur, mutter ravel [ 1 ] vt. to separate the various strands of

Since the sweater is too small, you could ravel the yarnout and make something else with it.

disentangle, extricate, unbraid, unsnarl, untwine, unweave braid, knit, plait, weave 2 vt. to clarify by separating the aspects of clarify, clear, elucidate, untangle, unravel complex, complicate, entangle, perplex, sophisticate, snarl, tangle 3 vt. to tangle or complicate a ravelled story complex, complicate, entangle, perplex, sophisticate, snarl, tangle clarify, clear, elucidate, untangle, unravel ravish 1 [ vt. ] to overcome with emotion (as wonder or delight)

I was completely ravished by those marvelous pictures taken by HST. captivate, enchant, enrapture, enthrall, rapture, transport disenchant, sober ravishing adj. raze [ 1 ] vt. to destroy completely by or as if by knocking down or breaking to pieces An entire city Excavators were began to raze old school building. block razed by a terrible fire. annihilate, decimate, demolish, devastate, level, nuke, pulverize, ruin, smash, vaporize, wreck, tear down build, construct, erect, raise, rear, set up razor n. react [ 1 ] vt. to act or behave in response (as to a stimulus or influence)

didn't know how to react to the cheers of the crowd answer, reply, respond reaction n. reactionary [ 1 adj. reactant n. ] characterized by reaction, especially opposition to progress or

liberalism; extremely conservative reactionary rulers brassbound, conservative, die-hard, hidebound, traditionalistic, ultraconservative liberal ream [ 1 ] v. to criticize (someone) severely or angrily especially for personal failings progressive radical, aggressive

You are so going to get reamed out when the boss learns that you wrecked the company car. baste, berate, castigate, chastise, hammer, lambaste, rail, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, upbraid accredit, applaud, commend, eulogize, extol, laud, praise

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reap

[ 1

] v. to collect (a crop or natural resource) or to receive as return for effort She reaped large profits from her patents. As you sow, so shall you reap.

acquire, attain, capture, harvest, gain, garner, obtain, procure, secure plant, seed, sow reaper n. reassure 1 [ vt. ] to restore to confidence forfeit, lose

I tried to reassure her that the dog would come back home by nightfall. assure, cheer, console, solace, soothe distress, torment, torture, trouble reassurance n. rebuff [ 1 a date. decline, deny, refuse, reject, repudiate, repulse, snub, spurn accept approve welcome vt. ] to reject or criticize sharply She rebuffed him when he asked her for

rebuffed an invitation from her colleagues

Unit 9

RECALCITRANT RECKLESS

RECANT RECLUSE

RECESSIVE RECOIL

RECIDIVATE RECONCILE

RECIPROCATE RECONDITE

recalcitrant [ 1 adj.

] marked by stubborn resistance to and defiance of authority or guidance The manager worried that the recalcitrant employee would try to

a recalcitrant teenager undermine his authority.

balky, contumacious, defiant, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, refractory, unruly amenable, compliant, conformable, docile, governable, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable recalcitrance n. recant [ 1 vt. ] to withdraw or repudiate (a statement or belief) formally and publicly

The man has refused after torture to recant his heresy.

abjure, abnegate, forswear, renege, renounce, repeal, repudiate, retract, withdraw adhere, insist, maintain, stick recantation n. recessive 1 [ adj. ] of, relating to, or designating an allele that does not

produce a characteristic effect when present with a dominant allele a recessive disease dominant 2 adj. not comfortable around people For such a recessive genius, the most comfortable thing is working alone in his lab. backward, bashful, coy, demure, diffident, introverted, modest, retiring, self-effacing, sheepish, withdrawn extroverted, immodest, outgoing recession n. recidivate 1 [ vi. ] to return to a previous pattern of behavior, especially to return to gregarious, sociable

criminal habits The suspect has recidivated for several times. regress, relapse, retrogress, revert habilitate, reclaim, redeem, regenerate, rehabilitate recidivism n. reciprocate 1 vi. [ ] to move forward and backward alternately recidivist n.

According to Marx’s economic principle, the average price of a certain product should be reciprocating over its value. fluctuate, oscillate, sway, swing, vacillate 2 vt. to return in kind or degree reciprocated the favor by driving their neighbor to the airport recompense, repay, requite, retaliate, return owe reciprocal adj. reckless 1 [ adj. ] careless of consequences; foolishly adventurous or bold

His reckless driving accounted for the accident. audacious, bold, brash, brassy, brazen, careless, daredevil, rash, madcap, temerarious careful, cautious, circumspect, guarded, heedful, prudent, wary recluse 1 [ n. ] a person who lives away from others

He was sick of cities and crowds, so he decided to go live by himself in the woods as a recluse. anchorite, eremite, hermit, isolate, solitary

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2

adj.

marked by withdrawal from society My

a recluse poet who left a large amount of literature legacies neihgbor is so recluse that I only see him about once a year. cloistered, hermetic, secluded, secluse, seclusive, sequestered gregarious, social reclusive adj. recoil [ 1 vi. ] to shrink back, as under pressure or in fear or repugnance She recoiled from his touch.

recoil from the snake confront, meet reconcile 1 [ vt. ]

blench, cringe, flinch,quail, shrink, squinch, wince

to restore to friendship or harmony

Historians have never been able to reconcile the two eyewitness accounts of the battle. accommodate, attune, conciliate, conform, coordinate, harmonize, key disharmonize reconciliation n. recondite 1 [ adj. ] difficult or impossible for one of ordinary understanding or knowledge to estrange

comprehend I think Quantum Mechanics and Random Process arethe two most recondite courses in our curriculum this semester. abstruse, arcane, deep, enigmatic, esoteric, hermetic, occult, profound facile, shallow, superficial easy, simple

Unit 10

RECONNOITER RECUPERATE

RECONSTITUTE REDOLENT

RECONVENE REDOUBTABLE

RECTITUDE RECUMBENT REDUNDANT REEL

reconnoiter [ 1 vt.

] to make a preliminary inspection of, especially in order to gather military information

The wide utilization of unmanned aerial vehicles makes it much less risky to reconnoiter a certain area. probe,scout, survey reconnaissance n.

reconstitute [ 1 vt. especiallyby adding water

] to constitute again or anew; to restore to a former condition, Slowly Jewish communities ravaged by Nazi Germany were

reconstitute dried coffee powder reconstituted and life began anew.

reconstruct, reorder, reorganize, reshuffle, retool annihilate, decimate, demolish, devastate, level, nuke, pulverize, ruin, smash, vaporize, wreck reconstitution n. reconvene 1 v. [ ] to gather, call together, or summon again, especially for a formal meeting

The leaders will reconvene tomorrow. reassemble adjourn, suspend rectitude [ 1 n. ] the quality or state of being straight; moral integrity

The principal encouraged the graduates to go on to live lives of rectitude. honesty, integrity, probity, righteousness, scrupulousness, uprightness, virtue, virtuousness badness, evil, immorality, iniquity, sin, villainy, wickedness recumbent [ 1 adj. ] lying down, especially in a position of comfort or rest

lying recumbent on the floor decumbent, procumbent, prone, prostrate, reclining, supine erect, upright recuperate 1 [ vi. ] to recover health or strength

He is gradually recuperating from a serious back injury. convalesce, heal, rally, recoup, recover, rehabilitate deteriorate, flag, wane, weaken recuperative adj. redolent [ 1 adj. ] having or emitting fragrance die, expire, perish, pass away

be redolent with the aroma of baking bread ambrosial, aromatic, fragrant, perfumed, savory, scented, sweet unscented redolence n. redoubtable 1 [ ] worthy of respect or honor fetid, foul, malodorous, noisome, rancid, reeky, stinky

adj.

a surprising discovery by one of the most redoubtable figures in Egyptian archaeology

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bright, distinguished, illustrious, luminous, notable, noteworthy, outstanding, preeminent, prestigious average, inferior, mediocre 2 adj. arousing fear or awe His next opponent would be by far the most redoubtable adversary the young boxer had ever faced. direful, dreadful, fearsome, formidable, frightening, ghastly, horrifying, intimidating, scary, terrifying calming, comforting, consoling, lulling, pacifying, quieting, reassuring, relaxing, soothing redundant [ 1 adj. ] exceeding what is necessary or normal

This area is already chockablock with shopping malls; another one would be redundant. excess, extra, supererogatory, superfluous, supernumerary, surplus deficient, inadequate, insufficient, meager, niggardly, scant, scarce, short, sparse redundancy n. reel [ 1 ] vi. to be in a confused state as if from being twirled around His mind reeled My head reeled with the facts and figures. upon hearing the news that his employer had been indicted for fraud. spin, swirl, turn, whirl calm 2 vi. to move forward while swaying from side to side The drunkard reeled down the alley. careen, dodder, falter, lurch, stagger, stumble, teeter, totter, waddle

List 21
Unit 1

REFEREE REFUTE

REFINE REGENERATE

REFLECT REGIMEN

R E F R AC TO RY REGRESS

REFULGENT REHABILITATE

referee 1

[ n.

] a person who impartially decides or resolves a dispute or controversy

served as the unofficial referee in disputes over the family business adjudicator, arbiter, arbitrator, judge, umpire 2 vt. to give an opinion about (something at issue or in dispute) Their father usually ends up refereeing any disputes concerning use of the big TV. adjudge, adjudicate, arbitrate, decide, determine, settle consult refine [ 1 vt. ] to free (as metal, sugar, or oil) from impurities or unwanted material

Oil is refined so as to remove naturally occurring impurities. filter, garble, purify, winnow adulterate, contaminate, pollute 2 vt. to improve or perfect by pruning or polishing You’d better refine your backhand before the big tennis match if you want to throne. ameliorate, amend, better, enhance, enrich, help, meliorate, perfect, polish, upgrade deteriorate, worsen refined adj. reflect[ 1 vt. ] to prevent passage of and cause to change direction Mirrors indiscriminately reflect all visible lights. absorb 2 vt. to make manifest or apparent: show Where you come fromcould Her book clearly reflects her religious beliefs. be easily reflected in your accent. bespeak, betray, demonstrate, evince, manifest, reveal, show conceal, cover, hide, mask, obscure, occlude, veil 3 vi. to think seriously I reflected on my path as an undergraduate and my future as a PhD candidate. The color of an objective is largely determined by what light it reflects. refinery n.

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consider, cogitate, contemplate, deliberate, meditate, muse, ponder, ruminate, think reflective adj. refractory [ 1 adj. ] resisting control or authority

Refractory players will be ejected from the game. balky, contumacious, defiant, incompliant, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, refractory, unruly amenable, compliant, conformable, docile, governable, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable

refulgent [ 1 adj.

] shining radiantly; resplendent

Refulgent sunlight broke through the clouds, creating huge swaths of light in the valley below us. beaming, brilliant, dazzling, incandescent, lucid, luminous, lustrous, radiant, resplendent, splendid dim, dull, lackluster refulgence n. refute [ 1 vt. ] to declare not to be true

While the speak woman was publicly refuting rumors of a merger, behind the scenes the CEO was working to effect that very outcome. contradict, disaffirm, disavow, disclaim, disconfirm, deny, gainsay, negate, negative, reject, repudiate acknowledge, admit, avow, concede, confirm 2 vt. to prove wrong by argument or evidence: show to be false or erroneous 2004 The triumph of Chinese athlete Liu Xiang in the 2004 Olympics effectively refuted the views that Asians are physically inferior to others.

belie, confute, debunk, discredit, falsify, rebut, shoot down confirm, prove, validate, verify refutable adj. regenerate 1 [ vt. ] to bring back to life, practice, activity or a former condition of vigor The whole community was

The lizard is able to regenerate its tail. regenerated thanks to a government grant for repairing all the old buildings.

recharge, refresh, rejuvenate, rekindle, renew, restore, resurrect, resuscitate, revitalize, revivify degenerate, deteriorate, worsen 2 vi./vt. to make better in behavior or character Every time he made a mistake, he would promise to regenerate. habilitate, reclaim, redeem, rehabilitate regeneration n.

regimen 1

[ n.

] lawful control over the affairs of a political unit (as a nation)

A new party will have regimen over the nation and, hopefully, bring some much-needed change. administration, authority, governance, jurisdiction, regime regress 1 [ vi. ] to go back; move backward

To stand still is to regress. retrogress, return, revert advance, develop, evolve, progress 2 vi. to become worse or of less value The annual celebration has regressed to the point where it's nothing more than an excuse to get drunk. atrophy, crumble, decay, decline, degenerate, descend, deteriorate, ebb, retrograde, rot, sink, worsen ameliorate, improve, meliorate regressive adj. rehabilitate [ 1 vt. a healthy condition new policies in hopes of rehabilitating the national economy decided to undergo physical therapy to help rehabilitate her broken elbow. cure, fix, mend, rejuvenate, resuscitate, revitalize, revive, set up debilitate, enervate, enfeeble, weaken 2 vi./vt. relapse to make better in behavior or character She ] to restore to a former state (as of efficiency, good management, or solvency) or regression n.

an organization that rehabilitates criminals so they can reenter society habilitate, reclaim, redeem, regenerate rehabilitation n.

Unit 2

REHEARSAL RELAPSE

REIGN RELEASE

REIN REITERATE REJOICE RELENTLESS RELEVANT RELIGION

rehearsal [ 1 n.

] the act of practicing in preparation for a public performance

We made a few mistakes in rehearsal, but we were pretty sure that we'd be OK on opening night.

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practice, trial, dry run extemporization, impromptu, improvisation reign [ 1 ] n. the right or means to command or control others They accused him of carrying out a reign of terror. arm, authority, clutch, command, control, dominion, grip, hold, mastery, sway impotence, impotency, powerlessness 2 vi. to be predominant or prevalent Panic reigned as the fire spread. Chaos reigned in the classroom. dominate, domineer, prevail, predominate, rule rein [ 1 contractors. circumscription, confinement, limitation, stint 2 vi. to keep from exceeding a desirable degree or level (as of expression) A good man knows how to rein in his temper. bridle, check, constrain, contain, curb, govern, hold, inhibit, keep, measure, regulate, restrain, rule, tame liberate,loose, loosen,unleash reiterate [ 1 v. ] to say or state again I want to reiterate that under no circumstances are ] n. the act or practice of keeping something (as an activity) within certain boundaries The oversight committee called on the corporation to keep a much tighter rein on the activities of its

A healthy nation should be governed by the reign of law and not by the will of its chief executive.

Let me reiterate our stance. you to leave the house. chime, din, iterate, recapitulate, rehearse, repeat rejoice 1 [ vi. ] to feel joy or great delight

We rejoiced over our unexpected victory on the soccer field. crow, delight, exuberate, glory, jubilate, joy, kvell, triumph bemoan, bewail, deplore, grieve, lament, moan, mourn, regret, weep rejoiced adj. relapse 1 [ vi. ] to slip or fall back into a former worse state

The patient wondered whether his illness would relapse. recidivate, regress, retrogress, revert habilitate, reclaim, redeem, regenerate release 1 [ vt. ] to throw or give off convalesce, rehabilitate

We bought an air freshener that releases a pleasing scent into the room. cast, exhale, expel, irradiate, issue, vent absorb 2 vt. to set free from restraint, confinement, or servitude The government was asked to release the prisoners immediately. discharge, disenthrall, emancipate, enfranchise, liberate, loose, loosen, manumit, unchain, unfetter bind, confine, enchain, fetter, restrain 3 vt. to let go from office, service, or employment They released the workers who couldn't handle the new technology. bounce, cashier, dismiss, fire, remove, retire, sack, terminate employ, engage, hire relentless [ 1 adj. ] showing or promising no abatement of severity, intensity, strength, or pace

He was the most teacher enemy I have ever known. grim, inexorable, ironfisted, merciless, mortal, ruthless, unrelenting charitable, clement, merciful, lenient 2 adj. showing no signs of slackening or yielding in one's purpose The team's offense was relentless in trying to score. adamant, dogged, headstrong, mulish, obdurate, pertinacious, rigid, uncompromising, unyielding acquiescent, amenable, compliant, complying, flexible, pliable, pliant, relenting, yielding relevant [ 1 adj. ] having a bearing on or connection with the matter at hand

Make sure your answers during the interview are short and relevant. You need to bring all the relevant certificates with you. applicable, apposite, apropos, germane, material, pertinent, pointed, relative extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, inapplicable, inapposite, irrelevant, pointless relevance n. religion 1 [ n. ] a body of beliefs and practices regarding the supernatural and the worship of one or

more deities The Jewish religion has followers in many parts of the globe. credo, creed, cult, faith, persuasion 2 n. belief and trust in and loyalty to God Without his religion, he would not have been able to survive all the difficulties he has faced over the years. devotion, piety atheism, godlessness religious adj.

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Unit 3

RELINQUISH RELISH RELUCTANT REMISS REMODEL REMONSTRANCE REMORSE REMUNERATE REND RENEGADE

relinquish 1

[ vt.

] to give up (as a position of authority) formally

She relinquished his position to the company's vice president with very mixed feelings. abnegate, cede, renounce, resign, surrender inaugurate 2 duress The boy reluctantly relinquished the illegal fireworks to the police officer. The court ordered him to relinquish custody of his child. deliver, render, yield, turn in, turn over keep, retain, withhold relish [ 1 —— appetite, fancy, favor, fondness, like, love, partiality, preference, taste aversion, disfavor, disgust, dislike, distaste, hatred, loathing 2 n. the feeling experienced when one's wishes are met He ate the bowl of ice cream with relish. content, delectation, delight, enjoyment, gladness, gratification, happiness, satisfaction discontent, displeasure, dissatisfaction, unhappiness 3 vt. to take keen or zestful pleasure in He is so hungry that he will relish even plain food. adore, enjoy, like, love, rejoice, revel, savor abhor, abominate, detest, dislike, hate, loathe reluctant [ 1 CD averse, disinclined, indisposed, loath, unwilling willing reluctance n. disposed, inclined eager adj. ] feeling or showing aversion, hesitation, or unwillingness ] n. an appetite for something; a strong appreciation or liking vt. usurp to give (something) over to the control or possession of another usually under

She has great relish for early morning walks, which she takes nearly every day.

I'm reluctant to let him borrow my CDs since he never gives back anything I lend him.

remiss 1

[ adj.

] exhibiting carelessness or slackness

I would be remiss if I didn't tell you how much I appreciated the lovely gift. careless, derelict, disregardful, heedless, lax, lazy, neglectful, neglecting, slack attentive, careful, conscientious, meticulous, painstaking, scrupulous remodel [ 1 vt. ] to alter the structure of

We decided to remodel the warehouse into a museum displaying the products of the company. alter, modify, recast, redo, refashion, remake, revamp, revise, rework, vary fix, freeze, set, stabilize remonstrance 1 grievances She seems deaf to her son’s remonstrances. metro construction, many residents wrote letters of remonstrance to city officials. challenge, complaint, demur, difficulty, fuss, objection, protest, question, remonstration, stink acceptance, acquiescence, agreement, approval, assent, sanction remorse 1 [ n. ] moral anguish arising from repentance for past misdeeds; bitter regret Aggravated by the noisy n. [ ] an expression of protest, complaint, or reproof, especially a formal statement of

He felt a deep remorse for having neglected his family over the years. contriteness, contrition, penitence, regret, remorsefulness, repentance, rue, self-reproach, shame impenitence, remorselessness remorseful adj. remunerate [ 1 vt. ] to pay an equivalent to for a service, loss, or expense

He promptly remunerated the repair company for fixing the satellite TV. compensate, indemnify, recompense, recoup, redress, remedy, repay, requite remunerative adj. rend [ 1 ] vt. to tear or split apart or into pieces violently pain that rends the heart Wolves rend a game to pieces.

cleave, lacerate, ribbon, rip, rive, rupture, shred, split, tatter, tear associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, conjugate, connect, fuse, interfuse, join, link, unify renegade [ ]

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1

n.

one who rejects a religion, cause, allegiance, or group for another; a deserter

A band of renegades who had deserted their infantry units were making their way to Mexico. apostate, betrayer, defector, deserter, recreant, traitor, turncoat adherent, loyalist, partisan

Unit 4

RENOUNCE RENOVATE REPEL REPERTOIRE

REPARTEE REPATRIATE REPINE REPLETE REPOSE

REPEAL

renounce 1

[ vt.

] to give up, refuse, or resign usually by formal declaration

renounce his nationality abnegate, cede, relinquish, resign, surrender inaugurate 2 vt. usurp to refuse to follow, obey, or recognize any further

renounce the authority of the church forswear, recant, renege, repeal, repudiate, retract, withdraw adhere, stick renunciation n. renovate 1 [ vt. ] to restore to a former better state (as by cleaning, repairing, or rebuilding)

We will have to renovate the house extensively before we can move in. doctor, fix, patch, recondition, repair, revamp blemish, break, damage, deface, disfigure, harm, hurt, impair, injure, mar, ruin, vandalize, wreck 2 vt. to bring back to life, practice, activity or a former condition of vigor The church was renovated by a new ecumenical spirit. recharge, refresh, rejuvenate, rekindle, renew, restore, resurrect, resuscitate, revitalize, revivify degenerate, deteriorate, worsen repartee 1 [ n. ] a quick witty response

That repartee to the reporter's question drew laughs from the bystanders. comeback, riposte 2 n. good-natured teasing or exchanging of clever remarks Repartee is harder to do with text messaging. backchat, badinage, chaff, jesting, joshing, persiflage, raillery

repatriate [ 1 vt.

] to restore or return to the country of origin, allegiance, or citizenship

As soon as the war ends, the government will start to repatriate war refugees. banish, deport, expatriate repeal [ 1 vt. ] to rescind or annul by authoritative act In 1933, Congress passed the 21st Amendment which repealed the Prohibition Amendment of 1919, thus making the sale, distribution, and use of alcohol legal once again. 1933 1919 abort, abrogate, annul, cancel, disannul, invalidate, negate, null, nullify, rescind, revoke, vacate, void continue, keep 2 vt. enact, establish, legislate to refuse to follow, obey, or recognize any further

The company called the furniture store to repeal the order for six new desks.

If I find that you have been lying about this, I'll instantly repeal every promise I made to you. forswear, recant, renege, renounce, repudiate, retract, withdraw adhere, stick repel [ 1 ] vt. to fight against; resist

Self-discipline ensures that you can repel the things that induce you. I repelled the temptation to stay out late and call in sick the next day. buck, defy, fight, oppose, resist, withstand capitulate, submit, succumb, surrender, yield, give in 2 vt. to cause aversion in: disgust Evil odors always repel me. disgust, nauseate, repulse, revolt, sicken allure, attract, bewitch, captivate, charm, enchant, entice, fascinate, lure, seduce, tempt repelling adj. repertoire 1 [ n. ] the complete list or supply of skills, devices, or ingredients used

in a particular field, occupation, or practice The chef's repertoire of specialties seems to be limited, with several of the dishes appearing over and over again in slightly varied guises. budget, fund, inventory, pool, reservoir, stock repine [ 1 vi. ] to feel or express discontent or dejection

There is no use repining over a love that's been long lost. carp, complain, fuss, gripe, grouch, grouse, growl, grumble, inveigh, moan, murmur, mutter, wail, whine crow, delight, rejoice

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2

vi.

to long for something

During the deep cold of winter, I repine for warm tropical beaches. ache, covet, crave, desiderate, hunger, itch, long, lust, pine, salivate, thirst, want, wish, yearn abhor, abominate, detest, dislike, hate, loathe replete 1 [ adj. ] having one's appetite completely satisfied

Everyone is completely replete after the huge meal. sated, satiate, satiated, stuffed, surfeited empty, famished, hungry, starved, starving 2 specified a scholar replete with knowledge abounding, abundant, awash, flush, fraught, lousy, swarming, teeming, thick, thronging depleted, drained, exhausted repletion n. repose 1 [ n. ] a state of resting after exertion or strain deficient, incomplete, insufficient, short adj. possessing or covered with great numbers or amounts of something

The doctor ordered a period of repose for the patient suffering from insomnia. ease, leisure, relaxation exertion, labor, toil, work 2 n. a state of freedom from storm or disturbance We enjoyed the repose of a summer evening on a remote island. calmness, hush, peace, placidity, quietness, restfulness, serenity, still, tranquility commotion, pandemonium, tumult, turmoil, unrest, uproar 3 vi. to take a rest They have to repose on couches because all beds have been occupied. idle, loll, lounge, relax, rest drudge, hustle, moil, strive, struggle, sweat, travail 4 vt. to put (something) into the possession or safekeeping of another The Constitution reposes the power to declare war to Congress, and to that body alone. consign, delegate, deliver, entrust, leave, pass, transfer, transmit, vest, hand over, turn over, give over hold, keep, retain, withhold

Unit 5

REPREHEND

REPRESS

REPRIEVE

REPROACH

REPROBATE

REPROOF

REPROVE

REPUDIATE

REPUGNANT

REPULSE

reprehend 1

[ vt.

] to express one's unfavorable opinion of the worth or quality of

Without exception, book reviewers reprehended the novel's trite plot. berate, blame, castigate, censure, condemn, denounce, dispraise, fault, knock, lambaste, pan, upbraid extol, laud, praise reprehensible adj. repress 1 [ vt. ] to put down by force, usually before total control has been lost; quell

Military quickly repressed the rebellion in the city and restored order. crush, quash, quell, silence, squash, squelch, subdue, suppress foment, incite, instigate, provoke, stir 2 vt. to prevent the natural or normal expression, activity, or development of You can't repress your feelings forever, so tell her that you love her. bridle, check, curb, muffle, smother, stifle, strangle, swallow express, loose, release, take out, unleash, vent repression n. reprieve 1 [ vt. ] to postpone or cancel the punishment of

Fourteen people, waiting to be hanged for the murder of a former prime minister, have been reprieved absolve, acquit, amnesty, condone, excuse, forgive, pardon, remit, respite, spare penalize, punish 2 vt. to prevent (something) from being closed, destroyed, etc., for a period of time The library has been reprieved and will remain open for at least another year. deliver, rescue, save reproach [ 1 n. ] one that causes shame, rebuke or blame

a reproach to this entire school dishonor, opprobrium, reflection, spot, scandal, stain, stigma, taint credit, honor 2 vt. to express disapproval, criticism, or disappointment in (someone) reproached by their mother for untidiness admonish, berate, castigate, chide, condemn, denounce, lambaste, rebuke, reprimand, reprove, upbraid commend, eulogize, extol, laud, praise

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irreproachable adj. reprobate [ 1 n. ] a morally unprincipled person

The program rehabilitates reprobates and turns them into hard-working, law-abiding citizens. brute, devil, fiend, miscreant, rapscallion, rascal, villain saint 2 adj. morally corrupt He is a reprobate judge who could be bribed, and often with astonishing ease. debased, debauched, degraded, depraved, dissipated, dissolute, libertine, perverse, perverted, rakish good, moral, righteous, virtuous 3 vt. pure, uncorrupted to condemn strongly as unworthy, unacceptable, or evil

He reprobated his son's unconventional lifestyle. blame, criticize, censure, condemn, denounce, denunciate, reprehend commend, eulogize, extol, laud, praise 4 vt. to be unwilling to grant The government will most likely reprobate the request for parole. decline, disallow, disapprove, negative, nix, refuse, reject, reprobate, repudiate, withhold allow, concede, grant, let, permit, vouchsafe reproof [ 1 n. ] criticism for a fault, rebuke

The head teacher speaks in tones of gentle reproof. commination, condemnation, denunciation, excoriation, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, stricture commendation, eulogy, praise reprove [ 1 play better. admonish, blame, chide, criticize, reprimand, reproach lambaste 2 vt. commend, eulogize, extol, laud, praise to hold an unfavorable opinion of vt. ] to scold or correct usually gently or with kindly intent endorsement

My piano teacher often reproves me for slouching while playing, observing that good posture helps one

The older generation has always reproved the younger generation's taste in music. deprecate, discountenance, disesteem, disfavor, dislike, frown adore, approve, endorse, enjoy, favor, like repudiate [ 1 vt. : ] to declare not to be true

She repudiated the charge that she had lied on her résumé. contradict, disaffirm, disavow, disclaim, disconfirm, disown, gainsay, negate, negative, refute, reject acknowledge, admit, allow, avow, concede, confirm 2 vt. to show unwillingness to accept, do, engage in, or agree to

We didn't like the terms, so we repudiated the contract. balk, deselect, disapprove, negative, nix, refuse, reprobate, spurn accept, agree, approve repudiation n. repugnant [ 1 adj. ] arousing disgust or aversion

The idea of moving again became repugnant to her. abhorrent, abominable, awful, disgusting, distasteful, hideous, loathsome, noisome, obnoxious, repulsive innocuous, inoffensive 2 adj. agreeable, delightful, enjoyable, gratifying, pleasing not being in agreement or harmony

Technically speaking, it may not be a violation, but it is certainly repugnant to the spirit of the law. conflicting, discordant, incompatible, incongruous, inconsonant, inharmonious, mutually exclusive accordant, agreeing, compatible, concordant, conformable, congruent, congruous, consistent, consonant, harmonious repugnance n. repulse [ 1 vt. ] to rebuff or reject with rudeness, coldness, or denial

The scenes of violence in the film may repulse some viewers. disgust, nauseate, repel, revolt, sicken allure, attract, bewitch, captivate, charm, enchant, entice, fascinate, lure, seduce, tempt repulsion n.

Unit 6

REPUTE RESIDUE

REQUITE RESIGN

REQUISITE RESCIND RESERVED RESILIENCE RESOLUTE RESONANT

repute [ 1 n.

] a good reputation

Before his national bestseller, he was a writer of little repute. celebrity, fame, name, renown, reputation infamy, notoriety reputable adj. requite [ 1 vt. ] to make repayment or return for

requited her love with hatred

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indemnify, reciprocate, recompense, recoup, reimburse, remunerate, repay 2 vt. to punish in kind the wrongdoer responsible for —— The future writer would later requite the abuse he suffered at the hands of his classmates by creating scathing portraits of them in his novels. avenge, redress, retaliate, revenge absolve, condone, forgive, pardon requisite [ 1 n. ] something necessary, indispensable, or unavoidable

Calculus is a requisite for modern physics. condition, demand, necessity, need, requirement 2 adj. essential, necessary Oxygen is requisite for human to survive. critical, compulsory, imperative, indispensable, mandatory, necessary, obligatory, required, vital needless, unnecessary rescind [ 1 vt. ] to make void dispensable, optional

The government refused to rescind the order of curfew. abolish, abrogate, annul, cancel, invalidate, negate, null, nullify, recall, repeal, revoke, void establish, enact reserved [ 1 adj. ] restrained in words and actions continue, keep

too reserved to offer a spontaneous criticism closemouthed, constrained, laconic, reticent, restrained, silent, taciturn. communicative, expansive, talkative unreserved adj. residue [ 1 n. ] something that remains after a part is taken, separated, or designated garrulous, loquacious

In the race of nature, there is no residue left for the late. debris, remainder, remnant residual adj. resign [ 1 vt. ] to give up one's job or office

resigned her position at the university abnegate, cede, relinquish, renounce, surrender, step down assume, inaugurate resilience [ 1 n. ] the property of a material that enables it to resume its original shape or position after being usurp

bent, stretched, or compressed elasticity, flexibility, malleability, pliability

inelasticity n. 2 n. the ability to recover quickly from illness, change, or misfortune Her mental resilience helped her promptly walk out of the shadow of her father’s death. adaptability resilient adj. resolute [ 1 adj. t] marked by firm determination

We are glad to have such a resolute ally. bound, decided, faithful, resolved, unwavering faltering, hesitant, indecisive, irresolute, jittery, vacillating, wavering resolution n. resonant [ 1 adj. ] strong and deep in tone

A deep resonant voice rang out. consonant, orotund, plangent, resounding, reverberant, sonorous, vibrant faint, low, muffled, muted, smothered, soft, weak resonance n.

Unit 7

RESOURCEFUL RESPITE RESPIRE RESTIVE RESTLESS RESTRAIN

RESPLENDENT RESURGENCE

RESPONSIVE RESUSCITATE

resourceful [ 1 adj.

] able to act effectively or imaginatively, especially in difficult situations

a resourceful man capable of dealing with difficult situations able, adroit, competent, talented resourcefulness n. respite [ 1 n. ] an interval of rest or relief In the middle of each semester there came a short respite.

to toil without respite

break, lull, intermission, recess, pause, rest resumption respire [ 1 vi. ] to inhale and exhale air successively exertion, labor, toil, work

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unable to respire due to heart attack breathe, inhale smother, stifle, suffocate respiration n. resplendent [ 1 adj. ] shining brilliantly

Geography teacher showed us a picture of the resplendent aurora borealis. brilliant, glorious, gorgeous, grand, magnificent, splendid, sublime, superb dim, dull, lackluster resplendence n. responsive [ 1 adj. ] quick to respond or react appropriately or sympathetically

Children are often the most responsive members of the audience. prompt, sensible, sensitive, susceptible dispassionate responsiveness n. restive [ 1 adj. ] marked by impatience or uneasiness detached, indifferent

I spent a restive night worrying about the next day's exam. restless, nervy, uneasy, uptight imperturbable 2 adj. phlegmatic stubbornly resisting control

Tired soldiers grew restive. balky, contumacious, defiant, insubordinate, intractable, obstreperous, obstinate, perverse, recalcitrant, refractory amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable restiveness n. restless [ 1 adj. ] marked by or causing a lack of quiet, repose, or rest

The patient felt restless from pain. agitating, anxious, distressful, disturbing, fraught, restive, perturbed, uneasy, unquiet, unsettled halcyon, peaceful, serene, tranquil restrain [ 1 vt. ] to limit, restrict, or keep under control

The old lady restrained the child from picking the flowers. bridle, check, constrain, curb, inhibit, measure, prevent, refrain, withhold discharge, release restrained adj. resurgence [ ]

1

n.

a restoration to use, acceptance, activity, or vigor

Let’s witness the resurgence of classical school. reanimation, rebirth, regeneration, rejuvenation, renewal, resurrection, resuscitation, revitalization decay, degradation, deterioration, downfall, ebb, fall resurgent adj. resuscitate [ 1 vt. ] to restore consciousness, vigor, or life to

resuscitated by the kiss of the prince reanimate, recharge, refresh, rejuvenate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, revitalize, revive, revivify faint resuscitation n. resuscitated adj.

Unit 8

RETAINER RETORT

RETALIATE RETOUCH

RETARD RETRACT

RETINUE RETRENCH

RETICENT RETRIBUTION

retainer [ 1 n.

] a person attached or owing service to a household

Knights are dressed for battle by their retainers. menial, servant lord, master retaliate [ 1 vt. ] to pay back as an injury in kind

We swear to retaliate for our losses. avenge, redress, requite, revenge absolve, condone, forgive, pardon retaliation n. retard [ 1 vt. ] to cause to move or proceed slowly; delay or impede

Language barriers retarded their negotiating progress. bog, brake, decelerate, delay, detain, hamper, impede, mire, slacken accelerate, catalyze, expedite, hasten, precipitate retinue [ 1 n. ] a group of retainers or attendants

The premier inspected the factory with his retinue. associates, entourage, followers, posse, retainers

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leader reticent [ 1 adj. ] inclined to be silent or uncommunicative in speech

He was reticent about his plans. closemouthed, constrained, laconic, reserved, restrained, silent, taciturn communicative, expansive, talkative 2 adj. garrulous, loquacious slow to begin or proceed with a course of action because of doubts or uncertainty

Understandably, she's reticent about becoming involved with another religious sect. cagey, disinclined, dubious, indisposed, loath, reluctant willing retort [ 1 n. ] something spoken or written in reaction especially to a question, disposed, inclined eager

especially a quick, witty, or cutting reply She responded to the heckler with a scathing but hilarious retort that instantly won over the audience. comeback, rejoinder, repartee, reply, response, return, riposte inquiry, query, question retouch [ 1 v. ] to improve or change (a photographic negative or print)

She was retouching her painting before the deadline. ameliorate, enhance, furbish, meliorate, perfect, polish, refine, upgrade deteriorate, downgrade, worsen retract [ 1 vt. ] to take back

The newspaper had to retract its allegations against the mayor. abjure, abnegate, disavow, forswear, recall, recant, renounce, repeal, repudiate, withdraw tender retractable adj. retrench [ 1 vi. ] to curtail expenses adhere, stick

Declining business forced the company to retrench. economize, reduce, cut down enlarge, expand retrenchment n. retribution [ 1 n. ] the dispensing or receiving of reward or punishment especially in the hereafter

The neighborhood is being torn apart by an endless cycle of gang violence and retribution. avengement, payback, recompense, reparation, repayment, requital, retaliation, revenge, vengeance

retributive n.

Unit 9

RETROGRADE RETROSPECTIVE REVISE REVIVE REVOKE

REVELRY REVENGE REVOLT RIBALD

REVERE

retrograde [ 1 adj.

] moving or tending backward

This is a retrograde step and you will regret it. backward, receding, regressive, reversed, withdrawing progressive 2 v. to decline to a worse condition The Dark Ages is the period following the fall of the Roman Empire when Western civilization seriously retrograded. atrophy, crumble, decay, decline, degenerate, descend, deteriorate, ebb, regress, rot, sink, worsen ameliorate, improve, meliorate retrospective [ 1 adj. ] looking back on, contemplating, or directed to the past

a retrospective glance at my youth backward anticipatory revelry [ 1 n. ] noisy partying or merrymaking prospective

They were exhausted after the night of revelry. conviviality, festivity, gaiety, jollity, merriment, rejoicing, revel, whoopee gloom, grief, melancholy, misery, mournfulness, sorrow, woe revenge [ 1 n. ] an act or instance of retaliating in order to get even The bombing was in revenge for the assassination of their leader. avengement, payback, reprisal, requital, retaliation, retribution, vengeance forgiveness, pardon 2 vt. to avenge (as oneself) usually by retaliating in kind or degree He finally revenged the death of his brother. avenge, redress, requite, retaliate absolve, condone, forgive, pardon

Both sides were determined to get revenge for losses and showed little interest in ending the feud.

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revere [ 1 vt.

] to offer honor or respect to (someone) as a divine power In some cultures people revere their

He is revered for his valor. ancestors, even leaving food offerings for them. adore, deify, glorify, esteem, regard, respect, venerate, worship blaspheme, desecrate, profane, violate reverence n. revise [ 1 vt. ] reverent adj.

to look over again in order to correct or improve With the snow,

There are many problems involved in revising a dictionary. we'll need to revise our travel plans. amend, correct, emend, polish, redraft, refine, rework, upgrade discard revision n. revive 1 [ vi. ] to return to consciousness or life, become flourishing again

successfully revived him with artificial respiration come around faint, black out 2 v. become active or flourishing again The success of the movie has revived her career. reanimate, recharge, refresh, rejuvenate, rekindle, renew, resurrect, resuscitate, revitalize, revivify degenerate, deteriorate, worsen revival n. revoke [ 1 vt. ] to annul by recalling or taking back Around midnight, I usually need to revive myself with a cup of strong coffee.

to revoke a will abolish, abrogate, annul, cancel, invalidate, negate, null, nullify, recall, repeal, revoke, void establish, enact revocation n. revolt [ 1 vt. ] to fill with disgust or abhorrence continue, keep

The smell of seafood revolts him. disgust, nauseate, repel, repulse, sicken allure, attract, bewitch, captivate, charm, enchant, entice, fascinate, lure, seduce, tempt 2 vi. to renounce allegiance or subjection (as to a government) The revolted against the dictator by burning his palace. defy, insurrect, mutiny, oppose, rebel, resist obey, submit

revolter n. ribald [ 1 ] adj. characterized by or indulging in vulgar, lewd humor

entertained the guests with ribald jokes bawdy, blue, coarse, crude, dirty, filthy, gross, indecent, nasty, obscene, pornographic, profane, vulgar decent, proper, seemly

Unit 10

RICKETY RIDER RIDICULE RILE RIPEN RIOT RITE

RIFE RIVE

RIFT

rickety [ 1

] adj. lacking stability or firmness

The rickety coalition may break at any moment. insecure, precarious, shaky, unsound, unsteady, weak firm, sound, stable, sturdy rider [ 1 ] n. one that rides horseman, knight pedestrian, walker 2 n. a clause appended to a legislative bill to secure a usually distinct object addendum, appendix, attachment, supplement ridicule [ 1 vt. ] to make fun of The term “big bang theory” was originally

always ridiculed everything she said

coined to ridicule the belief that the universe was created by a giant explosion. deride, gibe, jape, jeer, lout, mock, taunt commend, praise ridiculous adj. rife [ 1 ] adj. possessing or covered with great numbers or amounts of something specified a video game rife with violence and abuse abounding, abundant, awash, flush, fraught, lousy, replete, swarming, teeming, thick, thronging deficient, incomplete, insufficient, short rift [ ]

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1

n.

a break in friendly relations

a rift between two once allied nations crack, fissure, fracture, schism reconciliation, rapprochement 2 vt. to cause to split open or break Hills were rifted by the earthquake. cleave, divide, rip, split, sunder, tear associate, coalesce, combine, conjugate, join, link rile [ 1 ] vt. to make agitated and angry The new work schedules riled the employees. aggravate, annoy, enrage, exasperate, grate, inflame, infuriate, irritate, nettle, peeve, pique, provoke, roil allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe ripen [ 1 v. ] to make or become ripe or riper

Age ripens a good wine. age, develop, grow, mature fade, flag, shrivel, wane, wilt, wither ripened adj. riot [ 1 ] n. public violence, tumult, or disorder Special police units equipped with riot shields quickly arrived at the airport. clamor, commotion, disorder, ferment, tumult, turmoil, upheaval, uproar serenity, tranquility rite [ 1 ] n. a prescribed form or manner governing the words or actions for a ceremony the marriage rites ceremony, form, observance, protocol, ritual, solemnity ritual n. rive [ 1 ] vt. to wrench open or tear apart or to pieces Lightning rived the tree. cleave, lacerate, render, ribbon, rip, rupture, shred, split, tatter, tear associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, conjugate, connect, fuse, interfuse, join, link, unify riven adj. order

List 22
Unit 1

RIVETING ROOKIE

RIVULET ROSTER

ROBUST ROSTRUM

ROIL ROUSE

ROISTERER R O YA LT Y

riveting [

]

1 adj. wholly absorbing or engrossing one's attention The riveting novel has, as previously expected, become a national best-seller. absorbing, arresting, engaging, engrossing, enthralling, fascinating, immersing, intriguing, involving insipid, vapid boring, dull, monotonous, tedious rivulet [ ]

1 n. a small stream Dream Rivulet Diary brook, brooklet, creek, streamlet robust [ ]

1 adj. full of health and strength a robust older man who still bicycles 10 miles a day 10 bouncing, dynamic, energetic, gingerly, hale, potent, strong, sound, vigorous, vital, wholesome delicate, frail, weak ailing, diseased, ill, sick, unfit, unhealthy, unsound robustness n. roil [ ]

1 vt. to stir up; disorder He roiled the brook with his wood stick. Financial markets have been roiled by the banking crisis. disarray, disorder, disrupt, disturb, mess, muddle, rile arrange, array, order, organize, regulate 2 vt. to displease or disturb Some of his roommate’s habits began to roil him. aggravate, enrage, exasperate, incense, inflame, infuriate, irritate, provoke, rile, vex delight, gratify, please roisterer [ ]

1 n. one who engages in merrymaking especially in honor of a special occasion the rowdy roisterers who fill the streets of New Orleans during Mardi Gras celebrator, merrymaker, partyer (also partier), partygoer, reveler killjoy

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rookie [ ] 1 n. recruit; novice The rookie replaced the injured regular at first base. apprentice, fledgling, freshman, greenhorn, neophyte, novice, recruit, tyro veteran roster [ ]

1 n. a roll or list of personnel the roster of subscribers to the journal catalog, checklist, list, menu, roll, schedule rostrum [ ]

1 n. a stage for public speaking He finally stood on the winner's rostrum. dais, lectern, podium, stage, stand, tribune rouse [ ]

1 v. to stir up He was roused to fury. agitate, excite, motivate, provoke, stimulate allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe 2 v. to cause to stop sleeping The piercing siren roused her from a deep sleep arouse, awake, awaken, waken lull royalty [ ]

1 n. regal character or bearing aristocracy, nobility 2 n. a payment to an author or composer for each copy of a work sold or to an inventor for each item sold under a patent charge KTV owners royalty fee KTV

Unit 2

RUBICUND RUMPLE

RUDIMENTARY RUN

RUE RUNIC

RUFFLE RUPTURE

RUMINATE RUSE

rubicund [ ] 1 adj. inclined to a healthy rosiness A rubicund complexion indicates good health. blooming, florid, flush, rosy, ruddy, sanguine ashen, pale, pallid, wan

rudimentary [ ] 1 adj. being in the earliest stages of development The equipment of these past empire-builders was rudimentary. incipient, nascent, primitive, primordial developed, full-blown, mature, ripe 2 adj. consisting in first principles: fundamental The dropout had only a rudimentary knowledge of science. basic, elemental, essential, fundamental, rudimental, underlying advanced, higher rue [ ] 1 n. the feeling of regret, remorse, or sorrow for With rue my heart is laden. contriteness, contrition, penitence, regret, remorse, remorsefulness, repentance impenitence, remorselessness rueful adj. ruffle [ ]

1 n. a strip of fabric gathered or pleated on one edge rumple, wrinkle ruffled adj. 2 vt. to destroy the smoothness or evenness of The acid ruffled the surface of the catalyst. abrade, chafe, erode, roughen, rub, wear glaze, smooth 3 vt. to disturb the peace of mind of (someone) especially by repeated disagreeable acts The stream of minor complaints finally ruffled him into snapping, “If you don’t like the way I’m doing it, do it yourself!” annoy, bother, chafe, frost, gall, grate, itch, nettle, peeve, persecute, pique, rasp, rile, vex allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe ruminate [ ]

1 vt. to go over in the mind repeatedly and often casually or slowly ruminated the reason past failures cogitate, contemplate, deliberate, meditate, perpend, ponder, weigh ignore, neglect, overlook ruminative adj. rumple [ ]

1 vt. to wrinkle or form into folds or creases The guest rumpled the antique bedspread by sitting on it. crinkle, crumple, ruffle, scrunch, wrinkle flatten, smooth preen 2 vt. to undo the proper order or arrangement of The aunt would invariably rumple the little boy's hair whenever she came to visit.

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disarray, disorder, disorganize, disrupt, disturb, mess, muddle, upset arrange, array, order, organize, regulate rumpled adj. run [ ] 1 n. an unbroken course of performances or showings The play had a long run. continuance, duration, persistence runic [ ]

1 adj. having some secret or mysterious meaning painstaking efforts to decipher the runic inscriptions arcane, enigmatic, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious, mystic, occult, uncanny comprehendible, fathomable rupture [ ]

1 v. to part by violence Jealousy ruptured our friendly relationship. breach, burst, disjoin, dissect, fracture, separate, split, sunder, tear associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, conjugate, connect, fuse, interfuse, join, link, unify ruse [ ]

1 n. a wily subterfuge This was a ruse to divide them. artifice, maneuver, stratagem, trick, wile

Unit 3

RUSTIC S ADDLE

RUSTLE SABOTAGE S AFEGUARD S AGE

SACCHARINE S ALIENT

SACRILEGE S ALUBRIOUS

rustic [

]

1 n. an awkward or simple person especially from a small town or the country a rustic who was awed by the prices that city dwellers had to pay bumpkin, churl, countryman, provincial, rube, yokel cosmopolitan, cosmopolite, sophisticate 2 adj. of, relating to, associated with, or typical of open areas with few buildings or people We went to a rustic area that is devoid of skyscrapers and shopping malls. bucolic, country, pastoral

urban 3 adj. lacking in social graces or polish clumsy, discourteous, gauche, impertinent, impolite, inelegant, rude, stiff graceful, polished, urbane rustically adv. rustle [ ]

1 v. to move or act energetically or with speed; to proceed or move quickly The little boy rustled around enthusiastically on the first morning of the trip. bolt, breeze, careen, career, hasten, hustle, jump, run, rush, scurry crawl, creep poke sabotage [ ]

1 n. treacherous action to defeat or hinder a cause or an endeavor; deliberate subversion sabotage of the project by government officials damage, impairment, subversion, undermining assistance 2 vt. to practice sabotage on He sabotaged his opponent's campaign with rumors. My ex-wife deliberately sabotages my access to the children. disrupt, foil, frustrate, obstruct, undermine assist, support advance, cultivate, forward, foster, further, nurture, promote saccharine [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or resembling that of sugar a powdery substance with a saccharine taste cloying, sugary bitter 2 adj. appealing to the emotions in an obvious and tiresome way The movie was funny, but it had a saccharine ending in which everyone lives happily ever after. —— fruity, maudlin, mawkish, mushy, sentimental, sugarcoated unsentimental sacrilege [ ]

1 n. desecration, profanation, misuse, or theft of something sacred To play Mozart's music on a kazoo is sacrilege. blasphemy, defilement, desecration, irreverence, impiety, profanation, violation adoration, glorification, respect, reverence sacrilegious adj. saddle [ ]

1 vt. to load or burden He has saddled himself with a houseful of impecunious relatives. burden, encumber, freight, lade, lumber, impose, inflict, tax, weight disburden, discharge, disencumber, unburden, unlade, unload

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safeguard [ ] 1 n. a technical contrivance to prevent accident legal safeguards against fraud aegis, caution, defense, fail-safe, guard, palladium, precaution, preventive, security 2 v. to make safe: protect sheepdogs safeguard the flock from attacks by wolves bulwark, cover, defend, fence, fend, guard, keep, protect, screen, secure, shield, ward assail, assault, attack sage [ ]

1 n. one (as a profound philosopher) distinguished for wisdom The young prince made a pilgrimage to the sage, hoping to learn the meaning of life. expert, illuminati, master, mentor, savant, scholar dolt, fool, idiot, simpleton sagacious adj. sagacity n. salient [ ]

1 adj. standing out conspicuously The most salient feature of the book is its papyrus cover. conspicuous, noticeable, outstanding, prominent, remarkable, striking inconspicuous, unnoticeable salience n. salubrious [ ]

1 adj. favorable to or promoting health or well-being Every year I go to Kunming to enjoy its cool and salubrious climate. good, healthy, restorative, salutary, tonic, wholesome debilitating, deleterious, noxious, virulent

Unit 4

SALUTARY SALUTATION SANCTIMONIOUS SANCTION

SALVAGE SANCTUARY

SALVE SAND

S ANCITIFY SANGUINE

salutary [

]

1 adj. beneficial, promoting health a salutary warning good, healthy, restorative, salubrious, tonic, wholesome debilitating, deleterious, noxious, virulent

2 adj. promoting or contributing to personal or social well-being The low interest rates should have a salutary effect on business. advantageous, benefic, beneficent, benignant, favorable, friendly, helpful, kindly, profitable bad, disadvantageous, unfavorable, unfriendly, unhelpful, unprofitable salutation [ ]

1 n. a polite expression of greeting or goodwill The veteran stepped forward, raising his hand in salutation. greeting, regards, salute farewell, bon voyage 2 n. a formal expression praise The speaker introduced the evening's honored guest with a lavish salutation. accolade, citation, commendation, eulogium, eulogy, homage, hymn, paean, panegyric, tribute salute v. salvage [ ]

1 v. to save from loss or destruction salvaged the torpedoed vessel rescue, retrieve, save abandon, desert, forsake salvageable adj. salve [ ]

1 v. quiet, assuage The company give him a raise in salary to salve his feelings. allay, balm, becalm, compose, lull, lullaby, quiet, settle, soothe, still, tranquilize agitate, discompose, disquiet, disturb, perturb, upset, vex sanctify [ ]

1 vt. to make holy The Constitution sanctified the rights of the people. consecrate, hallow desecrate, profane sanctification n. sanctimonious [ ]

1 adj. hypocritically pious or devout a sickening sanctimonious smile canting, deceiving, hypocritical devout, religious, pious sanction [ ]

1 v. to make valid or binding usually by a formal procedure (as ratification) The President sanctioned covert operations. The administration will sanction almost any field trip with educational value. accredit, approbate, authorize, certify, confirm, finalize, formalize, license, ratify, warrant interdict, prohibit, proscribe decline, deny, disallow, disapprove, negative, reject, veto

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2 n. an economic or military coercive measure adopted usually by several nations in concert for forcing a nation violating international law to desist or yield to adjudication Another trade sanction is in effect. penalty, punishment sanctuary [ ]

1 n. a place of refuge and protection In earlier times a criminal could use a church as a sanctuary. asylum, cover, harbor, haven, port, refuge, shelter sand [ ] 1 vt. to make smooth by friction Be sure to sand before you paint the shelf. buff, file, hone, rasp, rub

sanguine [ ] 1 adj. having or showing a mind free from doubt I'm reasonably sanguine about the adoption of the latest proposal. assured, confident, doubtless, implicit, positive doubtful, dubious, uncertain, unsure 2 adj. having a healthy reddish skin tone a baby with a sanguine complexion is more likely to leave the hospital early than a sickly-looking one blooming, florid, flush, glowing, rosy, rubicund ashy, doughy, livid, lurid, mealy, pale, pallid, pasty, peaky, sallow, wan

Unit 5

SANITARY SATE

SAP SATIATE

SAPIENT SATIRE

SARCASM SATIRIZE

SARTORIAL SATURATE

sanitary [ ] 1 adj. of or relating to health sanitary measures aseptic, germfree, hygienic, sterile noxious sap [ ] 1 vt. to weaken or exhaust the energy or vitality of Weeks of hard work had sapped hum and left him exhausted. debilitate, devitalize, enervate, enfeeble, etiolate, prostrate bolster, fortify, invigorate, beef up

2 n. active strength of body or mind a child full of sap and vivacity dynamism, energy, esprit, get-up-and-go, gusto, verve, vim, vitality lethargy, listlessness, sluggishness, torpidity sapient [ ]

1 adj. having or showing deep understanding and intelligent application of knowledge a man who is always good for valuable insights and some sapient advice discerning, insightful, perceptive, prudent, sagacious, sage foolish, unperceptive, unwise sarcasm [ ]

1 n. a sharp and often satirical or ironic utterance designed to cut or give pain a voice full of sarcasm affront, barb, indignity, offense, slap, slight, slur praise sartorial [ ] 1 adj. poor sartorial taste

of or relating to a tailor or tailored clothes

sate [seit] 1 vt. to glut; to satisfy (an appetite) fully The information sated her curiosity. cram, glut, stuff, surfeit, satiate starve satiate [ ]

1 v./adj. to satisfy fully or to excess A long drink of water satiated my thirst. replete, sate, stuff, surfeit tantalize satire [ ] 1 n. a literary work holding up human vices and follies to ridicule or scorn a satire about the music industry in which a handsome but untalented youth is turned into a rock star lampoon, pasquinade satirize [ ]

1 vt. to ridicule or attack by means of satire The movie satirizes contemporary life. saturate [ ] 1 v./adj. to wet thoroughly with liquid Saturate the sponge with water.

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bathe, douse, drench, soak, souse, bedraggle wring out

Unit 6

SATURNINE SCADS

SAUNTER SAVANT SCANT SCATHING

SAVORY SCHISM

SAVVY SCINTILLATE

saturnine [

]

1 adj. causing or marked by an atmosphere lacking in cheer The men awaiting interrogation by the police shared a saturnine silence. bleak, depressive, dismal, dreary, miserable, solemn jovial, bright, cheerful, comforting, cordial, festive, heartwarming, sunshiny 2 adj. having a sardonic aspect a saturnine smile genial saunter [ ] 1 vi. to travel by foot for exercise or pleasure sauntered slowly down the street amble, ramble, range, stroll, wander, perambulate savant [ ]

1 n. a person of learning a savant in the field of medical ethics pundit, scholar unlearned person savory [ ]

1 adj. appetizing to the taste or smell cedar is one of the most savory of all woods ambrosial, appetizing, dainty, palatable, scrumptious noisome, fetid, foul, malodorous, putrid, rancid, reeking, smelly, stenchy, stinky 2 adj. giving pleasure or contentment to the mind or senses having to fire someone was not a task that the manager found at all savory agreeable, blessed, congenial, delectable, delicious, delightful, dulcet, enjoyable, felicitous, grateful, gratifying, heavenly, jolly, luscious, palatable, pleasurable, satisfying, tasty, welcome disagreeable, pleasureless, unpalatable, unpleasant, unwelcome savvy [ 1 ] n. knowledge gained by actually doing or living through something

political savvy chops, expertise, proficiency, know-how simplicity, tactlessness, inexperience 2 v. to have a clear idea of The man growled, “Don't ever date my daughter again—you savvy?” appreciate, apprehend, assimilate, behold, catch on, cognize, compass, conceive, decipher, decode, discern, grasp, perceive, recognize, register, seize, tumble to miss 3 adj. having or showing a practical cleverness or judgment a particularly savvy investor, he was among the first to see the potential in tech stocks astute, canny, clear-eyed, clear-sighted, hard-boiled, hardheaded, heady, sharp, sharp-witted, smart unknowing scads [ ]

1 n. a large number or quantity scads of people showed up for the party abundance, plenitude, profusion, slew, spate, wealth paucity scant [ ] 1 adj. barely or scarcely sufficient jobs for teenagers were scant that summer exiguous, niggardly, scarce, sparse, stingy considerable, copious, voluminous, profuse, myriad scathing [ ] 1 adj. marked by the use of wit that is intended to cause hurt feelings a scathing review of the book acerbic, acid, acrid, pungent, scalding, snarky, tart polite, calm compliment schism [ ] 1 n. a lack of agreement or harmony a schism between political parties conflict, discordance, disharmony, dissidence, dissonance, disunion, friction, strife accord, agreement, concord, harmony, peace scintillate [ ] 1 vi. to emit sparks diamond ring scintillated in the sunlight gleam, glimmer, glisten, glister, luster, sparkle, winkle scintillating brilliantly lively, stimulating, or witty a scintillating conversation dull, foolly

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Unit 7

SCION SCOTCH

SCISSION SCOUR

SCOFF SCOWL

SCORCH SCRAPPY

SCORN SCRAP

scion [

]

1 n. descendant, child scion of a railroad empire ancestor scission [ ]

1 n. a division or split in a group or union: schism The scission of the labor union will compromise the workers' bargaining power bifurcation, cleavage, dissolution, division, partition, schism, sundering unification, union scoff [ ]

1 vt. to treat or address with derision: mock scoffed at the idea 2 v. to swallow or eat greedily scoffed dinner before running off to the basketball game cram, devour, glut, gorge, gormandize, gulp, ingurgitate, inhale, raven scorch [ ]

1 vt. to burn on the surface; to make dry scorching sun dehydrate, desiccate, parch, sear, singe dampen, hydrate, wash, water, wet scorn [ ] 1 vt. reject or dismiss as contemptible or unworthy They were scorned as fanatics. despise, disregard, flout, contemn, disdain, slight, look down (on or upon) adulate; venerate, honor, respect, revere [ ]

scotch

1 vt. to put an abrupt end to The prime minister scotched the rumors of her illness. hinder, thwart scour [ ] 1 vt. 2 vt. something

to clean, polish, or wash by scrubbing vigorously to look through (as a place) carefully or thoroughly in an effort to find or discover

the police scoured the city for the criminal comb, dig through, dredge, hunt through, rake, ransack, rifle, rummage, sort through, troll scowl [ ]

1 vi. to contract the brow in an expression of displeasure scowled down at the misbehaving child frown, pout, glare, gloom, glower, lower beam, grin, smile scrappy [ ]

1 adj. having an aggressive and determined spirit quarrelsome She was a scrappy girl despite—or, perhaps, because of—her small size. aggressive, assaultive, combative, militant, pugnacious, truculent nonaggressive, nonbelligerent, pacific, peaceful, unbelligerent, uncombative,, timorous

scrap [ ] 1 n. discarded or useless material The rest of this stuff is just scrap, so sweep it up and throw it away. chaff, debris, dreck, dross, dust, effluvium, junk, litter, offal, offscouring, raffle, refuse, riffraff, rubbish, waste 2 vt. to get rid of as useless or unwanted We've decided to scrap the first car. ditch, dump, jettison, junk, toss, throw away retrieve 3 v. to put an end to (something planned or previously agreed to) We scrapped our plans to go to Paris, and set out the next day for Prague. abandon, abort, drop, recall, repeal, rescind, revoke, call off, cry off continue, keep

Unit 8

SCRAWL S C UF F

SCRIBBLE S CU R R I L O U S

SCRUPULOUS S CU RV Y

SCRUTABLE S E AM Y

SCRUTINIZE S E CL U DE D

scrawl [ ] 1 vt. to write or draw awkwardly, hastily, or carelessly scrawled a quick note, stuck it in their mailbox, and hurried off scratch, squiggle

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write carefully scribble [ ] 1 vt. to cover with scribbles, doodles, or meaningless marks Students scribbled furiously as the teacher lectured. scratch, scrawl, squiggle scrupulous [ ] 1 adj. guided by or in accordance with one's sense of right and wrong; principled Less scrupulous companies find ways to evade the law. conscionable, ethical, honest, honorable, moral, principled cutthroat, dishonest, dishonorable, immoral, unconscionable, unethical, unjust, unprincipled 2 adj. taking, showing, or involving great care and effort The task requires scrupulous attention to detail. careful, conscientious, fussy, meticulous scrutable [ ] 1 adj. capable of being understood through study and observation; comprehensible. Her machinations and motives are all too scrutable to us who know her. accessible, apprehensible, comprehensible, fathomable, legible mysterious, incoherent, incomprehensible, inscrutable, insensible scrutinize [ aiz]

1 vt. to examine or observe with great care I closely scrutinized my opponent's every move. examine, review, scan, survey, plumb, check (out) casually glance, gloss over scuff [ ] 1 vt. to become scratched, chipped, or roughened by wear a countertop that won't scuff abrade, graze, scratch 2 v. to move heavily or clumsily The miners scuffed past in heavy boots. barge, clomp, clump, flog, flounder, lump, plod, pound, shamble, slog, slough, stamp, stomp, stumble, stump, tramp, tromp, trudge breeze, coast, glide, slide, whisk scurrilous [ ] 1 adj. given to the use of vulgar, coarse, or abusive language scurrilous attacks on the senator contumelious, invective, opprobrious, truculent, vitriolic, vituperative scurvy [ ]

1 adj. mean; contemptible She was beset by a whole scurvy swarm of con artists. deplorable, despicable, grubby, lousy, scummy, wretched

admirable, commendable, creditable, laudable, meritorious, praiseworthy seamy [ ]

1 adj. sordid; base the seamy side of urban life sordid, base decent and respectable secluded [ ]

1 adj. screened or hidden from view secluded monks cloistered, covert, isolated, remote, retired, sheltered

Unit 9

SECRETE SEEMLY

SEDATE SEGMENT

SEDENTARY SELF-ABASEMENT

SEDUCE SE DULOUS SELF-ABSORBED SEMINAL

secrete [

]

1 vt. to conceal in a hiding place; cache The police found the weapon secreted under the driver's seat of the getaway car. bury, cache, conceal, ensconce divulge, display, exhibit 2 vt. to generate and separate (a substance) from cells or bodily fluids absorb sedate [ ] 1 adj. free from emotional or mental agitation She remained sedate under pressure. collected, composed, self-possessed, serene, tranquil, undisturbed, unperturbed, unruffled agitated, discomposed, disturbed, flustered, perturbed, upset

sedentary [ ] 1 adj. a sedentary lifestyle migratory, peripatetic

not migratory: settled

seduce [ ] 1 vt. The other firm seduced him with a better offer. allure, decoy, entice, solicit, tempt, lead on

to attract or persuade to disobedience or disloyalty

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repulse, ward off sedulous [ ] 1 adj. involving or accomplished with careful perseverance a sedulous student assiduous, diligent, industrious, laborious, occupied, tied-up idle, inactive, unbusy, unemployed, unoccupied seemly [ ]

1 adv. following the established traditions of refined society and good taste a young lady of seemly appearance, robust health, and keen intelligence befitting, decent, decorous, genteel, respectable uncouth, ribald, indecorous, improper, inappropriate, indecent, indelicate, unbecoming, ungenteel, unseemly segment [ ] 1 vt./n. to separate into segments I think I lost one segment of this model kit. member, partition, portion, section self-abasement [ ] degradation or humiliation of oneself

1 n. self-asserting

self-absorbed 1 adj. absorbed in one's own thoughts, activities, or interests a self-absorbed man who seems utterly oblivious to the social problems of his own urban neighborhood narcissistic, self-centered, self-infatuated, self-obsessed, self-oriented, self-preoccupied self-forgetting, selfless, unselfish seminal [ ] 1 adj. containing or contributing the seeds of later development hampering further development 2 adj. of, relating to, or having the power to originate; creative a seminal novel derivative

Unit 10

SENSATION SEQUELA

SENSITIVE SEQUESTER

SENTINEL SERE

SEPULCHRAL SERENDIPITY

SEPTIC SERENE

sensation

[

]

1 n. a perception associated with stimulation of a sense organ or with a specific body condition We felt just the smallest sensation of warmth when we leaned against the radiator. anesthesia, numbness 2 n. a state of intense public interest and excitement the rookie hitting sensation of the American League flash, marvel, miracle, phenomenon, portent, prodigy, splendor unnoticed event sensitive [ ]

1 adj. susceptible to the attitudes, feelings, or circumstances of others he's very sensitive to the sun and will burn if he's outside for any amount of time susceptible, vulnerable, subject (to) numb sentinel [ ] 1 n. a person or group that watches over someone or something a lone sentinel kept watch over the fort custodian, guardian, keeper, lookout, minder, sentry, warden, watchman sepulchral [ ] 1 adj. causing or marked by an atmosphere lacking in cheer; funereal the decrepit mansion had a sepulchral tone that gave everybody a chill depressing, desolate, dismal, dreary, morose, sullen, tenebrous merry, bright, cheery, comforting, cordial, festive, heartwarming, sunshiny septic [ ] of, relating to, or causing putrefaction

1 adj. free of infection sequela [ 1 n. precursor ]

a secondary consequence or result

sequester [ ] 1 vt. to set apart: segregate sequester a jury insulate, seclude, segregate, separate, cut off permit to mingle, desegregate, integrate, reintegrate 2 vt. to cause to withdraw into seclusion She was sequestered in her room. sere [ ]

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1 adj. being dried and withered a sere region that can't support agriculture arid, droughty, thirsty, waterless lush, damp, dank, humid, moist, wet serendipity [ ] 1 n. ( ) the faculty of making fortunate discoveries by accident They found each other by pure serendipity. serene [ ]

1 adj. free from disturbing noise or uproar a serene vacation spot arcadian, calm, hushed, peaceful, placid, restful, still, tranquil boisterous, clamorous, clattery, deafening, raucous, roistering, romping, rowdy, tumultuous, unquiet, uproarious 2 adj. unaffected by disturbance; calm and unruffled a serene man who was everyone's source of support collected, composed, possessed, recollected, undisturbed, unperturbed, unruffled agitated, discomposed, disturbed, flustered, perturbed, unhinged, unstrung, upset serenity n. the quality or state of being serene havoc, pandemonium, tumult, bedlam, riot, furor

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List 23
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Verbal 700

Quantitative 800 AW 4.5

Unit 1

SERMON SEVERE

SERPENTINE SH ACKLE

SERRATE SH ADOW

SERRIED SH ALLOW

SERVILE SH AM

sermon 1

[ n.

] public speech usually by a member of the clergy for the purpose of giving moral

guidance or uplift sermon whose message was that we should love our neighbors as much as we love ourselves homily serpentine [ 1 adj. ] winding or turning one way and another

the country inn lies at the end of a rather serpentine road curved, curvy, devious, sinuous, tortuous, twisted, winding direct, straight, straightaway serrate 1 [ ] adj. notched or toothed on the edge

a serrate leaf without notches, smooth serried 1 [ adj. ] having little space between items or parts

Flowers came up every spring in their serried ranks. compact, dense widely separated, airy, loose, open, uncrowded servile 1 [ ] adj. meanly or cravenly submissive: abject

had always maintained a servile attitude around people with money base, humble, menial, slavish severe [ ]

1

adj.

given to exacting standards of discipline and self-restraint

a severe, uncompromising teacher austere, harsh, ramrod, rigid, rigorous, stern clement, forbearing, gentle, indulgent, lax, lenient, tolerant 2 adj. difficult to endure a severe winter that was among the coldest on record brutal, excruciating, grievous, onerous, oppressive, tough, trying easy, light, soft shackle 1 [ vt. ] to deprive of freedom especially of action by means of restrictions or handicaps

unwilling to shackle the dogs to the wall of the house chain, enchain, enfetter, fetter, gyve, handcuff, manacle, pinion, trammel loose, emancipate, unbind, unfetter, unshackle 2 v. to create difficulty for the work or activity of shackled by poverty and ignorance clog, cramp, encumber, fetter, hinder, impede, inhibit, interfere with, manacle, obstruct, short-circuit, stymie, tie up, trammel aid, assist, facilitate, help shadow [ 1 vt. ] to follow especially secretly: trail

shadowing the suspect to see what he was up to chase, course, pursue, trace, track, trail shadowy faintly perceptible: indistinct He had only a shadowy idea of what they wanted him to do. shallow 1 [ adj. ] having or showing a lack of depth of understanding or character

shallow generalizations facile, one-dimensional, skin-deep profound sham [ 1 ] n. the quality of deceitfulness; empty pretense

condemned the rigged election as a total sham debunk 2 v. to present a false appearance of shammed a most unconvincing limp just to get sympathy act, affect, bluff, counterfeit, dissemble, fake, simulate, pretend, profess, put on, pass for 3 adj. not genuine; fake street vendors selling sham designer handbags to gullible tourists bogus, forged, phony, spurious, unauthentic genuine, authentic, bona fide, real, unfaked

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Unit 2

SHIFTLESS SHRED

SHIPSHAPE SHIRK SHREWD SHRINK

SHOAL SHROUD

SHOPWORN SHRUG

shiftless 1

[ adj.

] lacking in ambition or incentive: lazy

shiftless spongers who never thought to do anything for themselves idle, indolent, slothful industrious shipshape [ 1 adj. ] marked by meticulous order and neatness

I like to keep my car shipshape. antiseptic, kempt, orderly, prim, uncluttered, well-groomed disheveled, disordered, disorderly, messy, sloven, unkempt, untidy shirk [ 1 ] vi. to get or keep away from (as a responsibility) through cleverness or trickery

shirk one’s duty avoid, dodge, elude, eschew, evade, shun, weasel out of shoal [ 1 ] adj. having little depth ; shallow.

shoal waters of the bay deep shopworn 1 [ adj. ] worn-out, as from overuse; trite

the shopworn suggestion to job applicants to “just be yourself” banal, cliché, commonplace, hackneyed, trite, well-worn new, fresh, novel, original, unclichéd, unhackneyed shred [ 1 n. ] a small amount; a particle

He struggled to retain a shred of his dignity. crumb, driblet, mite, scintilla, spark, speck, sprinkling, tad shrewd [ ]

1

adj.

having or showing a practical cleverness or judgment

He's shrewd about his investments. crafty, cunning, devious, sly, subtle, wily, astute, savvy, sharp foolish, naïve, unknowing 2 adj. causing intense discomfort to one's skin She pulled her coat tighter against the shrewd breeze whipping down the alley. biting, bitter, keen, penetrating, piercing, raw, sharp, stinging shrink [ 1 v. ] to become reduced in amount or value; dwindle:

His savings quickly shrank. compress, condense, constrict balloon, expand, snowball, swell 2 v. to draw back instinctively, as from something alarming; recoil shrinking back from the approaching flames blench, cringe, quail, recoil, squinch, wince 3 v. to show reluctance; hesitate: shrink from making such a sacrifice shroud [ 1 2 n. v. ] something that conceals, protects, or screens: to shut off from sight; screen

under a shroud of fog shrouded the fact that the child had been adopted belie, blanket, cloak, conceal, cover, curtain, disguise, mask, occult, screen, veil, blot out, paper over bare, disclose, display, divulge, expose, reveal, show shrug [ 1 v. ] to dismiss as of little importance

The administration was willing to shrug off the problem. disregard, gloss, ignore, minimize, overlook, overpass, slight, slur, wink attend, heed, mind 2 v. to rid oneself of (a garment) She shrugged off her coat and hung it up neatly. doff, douse, put off, take off don, put on

Unit 3

SHUN

SIDESTEP

SIGNAL

SIMPLETON

SIMULATE

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SIN

SINCERE

SINECURE

SINEW

SINGE

shun

[ 1

] vt. to avoid deliberately; keep away from

After his divorce he found himself being shunned by many of his former friends. avoid, dodge, duck, elude, eschew, evade, finesse, scape, shirk accept, embrace, welcome sidestep 1 [ vt. ] to avoid having to comply with (something) especially through cleverness pursue, seek

The eager enlistee sidestepped the regulations by lying about his age. beat, bypass, dodge, shortcut, skirt comply, follow, keep, obey, observe signal [ 1 adj. ] standing above others in rank, importance, or achievement a signal feat distinguished, illustrious, luminous, notable, noteworthy, outstanding, preeminent, prestigious, redoubtable average, inferior, mediocre 2 v. insignificant, minor, unimportant A lock on the to direct or notify by a movement or gesture

The Louisiana Purchase is cited by many historians as one of the most signal events in American history.

They signaled at me to come over to their table. suitcase might signal that there's something of value inside. beckon, flag, gesture, wave simpleton 1 [ n. ] a person lacking in common sense; a stupid person

His silly antics at office parties have earned him a reputation as a simpleton. airhead, dolt, donkey, dullard, fool, idiot, moron intellectual, sage, wit simulate 1 [ v. ] to have or take on the appearance, form, or sound of; imitate genius, prodigy

cosmetics that simulate a suntan act, affect, assume, counterfeit, dissemble, fake, imitate, pretend, profess, sham 2 v. to create a representation or model of (a physical system or particular situation) carrying out an experiment to simulate weightlessness sin [ 1 ] n. an action that is or is felt to be highly reprehensible; morally unacceptable It's a sin to waste food when people are starving.

bad, evildoing, ill, immorality, iniquity, villainy, wrong good, morality, right, virtue sinful adj. sincere 1 [ adj. ] being without hypocrisy or pretense; true

She offered a sincere apology for her angry outburst. artless, genuine, heartfelt, honest, ingenuous, innocent, natural, real, true, unaffected, unfeigned affected, artful, artificial, assuming, dissembling, fake, guileful, insincere, phony, pretentious

sinecure 1

[ n.

] an office or position that requires little or no work and that usually provides an income

a lucrative sinecure in a big law firm drudge, drudgery, moil, sweat, toil, travail sinew [ 1 n. ] vigorous strength; muscular power

Money is the sinew of love as well as war. energy, firepower, force, horsepower, might, muscle, potency, power, puissance, strength, vigor impotence, impotency, powerlessness, weakness singe [ 1 vt. ] to burn superficially or lightly The marshmallows

The iron is too hot, and you'll singe the nightdress. got a bit singed over the campfire, but we like them that way. char, scorch, sear incinerate

Unit 4

SINUOUS SKIRMISH

SIP SKIRT

SKELETON SLACK

SKEPTIC SLAKE

SKIMP SLANT

sinuous [ 1 adj.

] marked by a long series of irregular curves; not direct

The river flowed in a sinuous path through the lush valley. Thirty-year-old men are novel, rich in content and sinuous in plots. bending, curling, curved, curving, devious, serpentine, tortuous, twisted, winding, windy straight, straightaway

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sip

[ 1

] vt. to swallow in liquid form, especially in small quantities She sipped her coffee while she watched the sun rise. slowly sipping the hot soup gulp, guzzle, hoist, imbibe, quaff, swill vomit, throw up

skeleton 1

[ n.

] something forming a structural framework

Only the charred skeleton of the house remained after the fire. We saw a skeleton of the report before it was published. architecture, configuration, edifice, fabric, framework, framing, infrastructure, shell, structure skeptic 1 [ n. ] one who instinctively or habitually doubts, questions, or disagrees with assertions or

generally accepted conclusions You can either be a skeptic or not, but I believe it anyway. disbeliever, doubter, questioner, unbeliever dupe, gull, pigeon skeptical adj. skimp 1 [ adj. ] less plentiful than what is normal, necessary, or desirable skepticism n.

The dieter complained about skimp meals that were served at the fat farm. exiguous, meager, niggardly, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, skimpy, slender, slim, sparing, sparse, stingy abundant, ample, bountiful, copious, generous, liberal, plenteous, plentiful 2 vi. to give insufficient or barely sufficient attention or effort to or funds for We must skimp and save if we are going to afford a vacation this summer. pinch, save, scrimp, spare, stint dissipate, lavish, prodigalize, squander, waste skirmish 1 [ n. ] a minor or preliminary conflict or dispute

They had a skirmish over the rules before the debate began. altercation, controversy, disagreement, dispute, hassle, imbroglio, quarrel, spat, squabble, tiff, wrangle amity, concord, harmony, rapport, rapprochement skirt [ 1 ] n. the line or relatively narrow space that marks the outer limit of something an old shack on the skirts of the town borderline, boundary, circumference, compass, confines, edge, frame, fringe, margin, perimeter, periphery, verge center, core, kernel 2 vt. to go around or keep away from in order to avoid danger or discovery

skirted the construction zone environmental regulations. bypass, circumvent, detour, shortcut, sidestep pursue, seek slack [ 1 ] adj.

The new bill would make it harder for companies toskirt

not tightly fastened, tied, or stretched

The rope is too slack. insecure, lax, loosened, relaxed, slackened, unsecured taut, tense, tight 2 adj. failing to give proper care and attention This building contractor is known mainly for his firm's slack workmanship and slipshod construction. careless, derelict, disregardful, lax, lazy, neglectful, neglecting, negligent, remiss attentive, careful, conscientious watchful slake [ 1 ] vt. to satisfy (a craving); quench alert, heedful, mindful, observant, regardful, vigilant, wary,

Mountain climbing has largely slaked my desire for adventure. assuage, quench, sate, satiate, satisfy tantalize, tease slant [ 1 ] n. a way of looking at or thinking about something arouse, excite, pique, stimulate

an interesting slant on the problem of underage drinking angle, outlook, perspective, standpoint, viewpoint 2 adj. running in a slanting direction The computer keyboard has a slightly slant surface so that typing is more comfortable for the wrists. canted, graded, inclined, leaning, listing, oblique, pitched, raked, slanted, sloping, tilting perpendicular, plumb, vertical 3 vt. horizontal, level to change so much as to create a wrong impression or alter the meaning of

Reporters slanted the truth in order to push a political agenda. bend, color, distort, falsify, misinterpret, misrelate, misrepresent, misstate, pervert, twist, warp clarify, clear, elucidate, illuminate, illustrate

Unit 5

SLATE SLIPSHOD

SLEW SLOPPY

SLIGHT SLOTH

SLING SLOUCH

SLIPPERY SLOVENLY

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slate [ 1

] vt. to put (someone or something) on a list

You've been slated for a three o'clock interview. catalog, enroll, enter, index, inscribe, record, register, schedule delete, erase slew [ 1 ] n. a large amount or number donate a slew of books to the university library abundance,bundle, dozen, multiplicity, myriad, plentitude, profusion, scad, shipload, volume, wealth ace, bit, driblet, glimmer, handful, hint, mite, mouthful, nip, ounce, pittance, sprinkle, trace slight [ 1 ] adj. deficient in weight, importance

a slight comedy that did nothing to further her career fiddling, frivolous, inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, little, minor, minute, nugatory, trifling, trivial consequential, eventful, important, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, weighty 2 it. fragile, frail, negligible, outside, slim, small, tiny distinct 3 vt. to treat with disdain or indifference Those snobbish music critics slight any style of music that doesn't fit their personal taste. contemn, disdain, disrespect, snub, look down esteem, honor, respect, revere, venerate 4 vt. to fail to give proper attention to 20 She slighted several major authors in her survey of 20th-century fiction. bypass, disregard, forget, ignore, overlook, overpass, slur attend, heed, mind sling [ 1 ] vi. to send through the air especially with a quick forward motion of the arm adj. small in degree If you have even the slightest doubt, then don't do only a slight chance of success

slinging stones at the checkpoint cast, chuck, dash, fire, fling, heave, hurl, hurtle, launch, lob, loft, pelt, pitch, toss catch slippery [ 1 adj. ] causing or tending to cause something to slide or fall

The road is slippery after rain, so drive cautiously. greased, greasy, lubricated, oiled, slicked, slithery coarse, rough 2 adj. given to acting in secret and to concealing one's intentions

a bar where a lot of slippery characters were known to hang out furtive, shady, shifty, sly, sneaking, stealthy aboveboard 3 adj. not precise or fixed in meaning, elusive or tricky a slippery concept that we had trouble understanding ambiguous, elusive, equivocal, evasive, fugitive, obscure, unintelligible, vague apparent, clear, distinct, evident, manifest, obvious, palpable, patent, plain, unambiguous, unequivocal

slipshod 1 accuracy

[ adj.

] marked by carelessness or indifference to exactness, precision, and The hotel had always been run in a slipshod way.

a slipshod piece of research

botchy, careless, messy, slapdash, sloppy, slovenly, untidy fastidious, meticulous sloppy [ 1 ] adj. lacking neatness in dress or person accurate, exact, precise

a sloppy child who always seems to have spilled something on his clothes blowsy, dowdy, frowsy, slovenly, unkempt, untidy dapper, dashing, sharp, smart, spruce 2 adj. lacking in order, neatness, and often cleanliness dumped the papers in a sloppy pile on the desk chaotic, disarranged, disarrayed, disheveled, disorderly, jumbled, littered, rumpled, tousled, tumbled bandbox, crisp, kempt, neat, orderly, organized, shipshape, snug, tidy, trim sloth [ 1 ] n. disinclination to action or labor: indolence

Sloth is the mother of poverty. idleness, indolence, inertia, languor, laziness, lethargy, shiftlessness, sluggishness, torpor assiduity, diligence, industry slothful adj. slouch 1 [ n. ] a lazy person

is no slouch when it comes to cooking deadbeat, drone, idler, loafer, slug, sluggard doer, hummer, hustler, rustler 2 vt. to go or move slowly or reluctantly He slouched towards the church as if going to his own funeral. creep, drag, inch, limp, nose, ooze, plod, poke, snail fly, race, speed, whiz, zip

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slovenly [ 1 rockers. adj.

] lacking neatness in dress or person

For the sake of their image, the band members transformed themselves from clean-cut lads to slovenly blowsy, dowdy, frowsy, sloppy, unkempt, untidy dapper, dashing, neat, sharp, smart, spruce, trim

Unit 6

SLUGGARD SMARMY

SLUGGISH SMART

SLUMBER SMATTERING

SLUR SMIRK

SLY SMOTHER

sluggard [ 1 n.

] an habitually lazy person

The teacher tried to wake up the sluggards who were still sleeping at that late hour. deadbeat, drone, idler, loafer, slouch, slug doer, hummer, hustler, rustler sluggish 1 [ adj. ] markedly slow in movement, flow, or growth

The sluggish pace of the project is worrisome. crawling, creeping, dallying, dilatory, dragging, lagging, languid, leisurely, snaillike, tardy, unhurried bolting, brisk, fast, fleet, hasty, lightning, meteoric, quick, racing, rapid, rocketing, speedy, swift 2 adj. slow to respond (as to stimulation or treatment) Reptiles are naturally sluggish at low temperatures. dull, indolent, inert, lethargic, quiescent, sleepy, torpid active, animated, bouncing, dynamic, energetic, kinetic, spirited, vigorous, vital, vivacious slumber [ 1 vt. ] to be in a state of sleep

She slumbered for hours while the train rolled on. catnap, doze, nap, rest, sleep, snooze arouse, awake, waken slur [ 1 ] n. a mark of guilt or disgrace Your drunken behavior at the wedding has cast a slur on this family.

blot, brand, onus, smirch, smudge, spot, stigma, taint award, credit, glory, honor 2 vt. to pronounce indistinctly If you slur your words, the visa officer will have a hard time following you. mumble, murmur,mutter articulate, enunciate 3 v. to slide or slip over without due mention, consideration, or emphasis This documentary slurs over certain important facts as it offers a very biased case for a conspiracy theory. bypass, disregard, forget, ignore, overlook, overpass, slight attend, heed, mind sly [ 1 ] adj. clever or cunning, especially in the practice of deceit. The movie pairs a sly, dissembling ex-con with an upstanding, straight-arrow cop. beguiling, cagey, crafty, cunning, designing, devious, foxy, guileful, scheming, shrewd, subtle, tricky, wily artless, guileless, ingenuous, innocent, undesigning 2 adj. given to acting in secret and to concealing one's intentions took a sly look at the letter on the table furtive, shady, shifty, slippery, sneaking, stealthy aboveboard smarmy [ 1 adj. ] hypocritically, complacently, or effusively earnest

He is slightly smarmy and eager to impress. fulsome, oily, slick, soapy, unctuous artless, earnest, genuine, heartfelt, sincere, unaffected smart [ 1 ] adj. characterized by sharp quick thought

a smart child who could do well in school alert, brainy, bright, brilliant, clever, exceptional, fast, intelligent, keen, nimble, quick, sharp airheaded, brainless, doltish, dumb, fatuous, mindless, obtuse, senseless, simple, stupid, vacuous, witless 2 adj. being strikingly neat and trim in style or appearance

Dressed in their smart new uniforms, the cadets proudly paraded around the grounds of the military school. dapper, natty, neat, sharp, snappy, spruce, trim disheveled, frowsy, sloppy, slovenly, unkempt 3 vi. to suffer acutely, as from mental distress, wounded feelings, or remorse He is still smarting over criticism of his The injection only smarted for a moment. clumsy performance. ache, hurt, pain, suffer allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soothe

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smattering 1

[ n.

] superficialor piecemeal knowledge insight a small scattered number or amount

a smattering of Greek grammar erudition 2 n.

Only a smattering of spectators presented. ace, bit,driblet, glimmer, handful, hint, mite, mouthful, nip, ounce, pittance,sprinkle, trace abundance,bundle, dozen, multiplicity, myriad, plentitude, profusion, scad, shipload, slew, volume, wealth

smirk

[ 1 vi.

] to smile in an affected, often offensively self-satisfied manner

She tried not to smirk when they announced the winner. grin, simper cry, weep smother [ 1 vt. ] to be or cause to be killed by lack of breathable air groan, moan, sigh

Children should never be leftin cars alone because they could become trapped and smothered. asphyxiate, choke, smother, stifle, strangle, suffocate 2 vt. to refrain from openly showing or uttering Management smothered the true facts of the case. bridle, check, choke, control, curb, muffle, quash, quell, repress, squelch, suppress unleash, vent express He quickly smothered his inappropriate laughter at the funeral ceremony.

Unit 7

SMUG SNOBBISH

SMUGGLING SNUB

SNARE SOAK

SNARL SOBER

SNEER SODDEN

smug

[ 1

] adj. having too high an opinion of oneself

The winner was so smug that he lost the support of the crowd. complacent, egoistic, overweening, pompous, proud, self-satisfied, vain egoless, humble, modest 2 adj. being clean and in good order

The suburb's smug lawns and tree-lined streets bespeak a comfortable affluence. dapper, kempt, orderly, shipshape, spruce, tidy, trim, uncluttered, well-groomed disheveled, disordered, messy, slovenly, unkempt, untidy smuggling 1 n. [ ] secret importation or exportation contrary to the law and especially without paying

duties imposed by law He was arrested for smuggling drugs into the country. bootlegging, contraband snare [ 1 ] n. something that catches and holds caught in the snare of drug addiction entanglement, mesh, morass, net, noose, quagmire, quicksand, toil, trap 2 vt. to capture by or as if by use of a snare The car salesman They snared a rabbit earlier in the day. successfully snared three potential customers. catch, enmesh, ensnare, ensnarl, entrap, tangle disentangle snarl [ 1 ] v. to twist together into a usually confused mass The free, liberate

Someday you'll find that your lies are a snare from which you can't escape.

You'll be awfully sorry if you snarl your fishing line. new regulation has succeeded in nothing but snarling up rush-hour traffic throughout the city. entangle, ensnarl, interlace, intertwine, intertwist, interweave, knot, ravel, tangle disentangle, extricate, unravel, unsnarl, untwine, untwist 2 vi. to give vent to anger in surly language She snarled at me after I kept badgering her with questions. bark, fulminate, rant, roar, scream, shout, storm, vent calm sneer [ 1 ] vt. to speak in a scornful, contemptuous, or derisive manner

They would invariably sneer every time they passed the hapless nerds. deride, gibe, laugh, jeer, jibe, mock, ridicule esteem, honor, respect, revere, venerate snobbish 1 [ adj. ] being or characteristic of a person who has an offensive air of superiority

and tends to ignore or disdain anyone regarded as inferior I expected her to be snobbish but she was warm and friendly.

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aristocratic, bumptious, elitist, haughty, imperious, persnickety, pompous, presumptuous, supercilious egoless, humble, modest snub [ 1 ] v. to treat with contempt or neglect

The snob in town always snubbed anyone she thought was beneath her. contemn, disdain, disrespect, slight, look down esteem, honor, respect, revere, venerate soak [ 1 ] vt. to make thoroughly wet or saturated by or as if by placing in liquid We ran for home as soon as the rain started, but our clothes still ended up soaked. douse, drench, drown, impregnate, macerate, saturate, sodden, sop, souse, steep dehydrate, dry, desiccate sober [ 1 adj. ] marked by seriousness, gravity, or solemnity of conduct or character parch, sear, scorch wring

That downpour soaked my hair, and now I look like a sight.

She made a sober reply to what was only a teasing comment. Illness is a sober reminder of our mortality. earnest, grave, humorless, sedate, severe, sober, solemn, staid, weighty facetious, flip, flippant, humorous, jesting, jocular, joking, playful 2 adj. given to or marked by restraint in the satisfaction of one's appetites decided to live a sober life after bankruptcy abstentious, abstinent, continent, self-denying, temperate hedonistic, licentious, self-indulgent, sensual, sybaritic, voluptuary 3 adj. based on sound reasoning or information a sober assessment of the situation firm, informed, justified, levelheaded, logical, rational, reasonable, sensible, solid, valid, well-founded groundless, illogical, invalid, unfounded, uninformed, unjustified, unreasonable, unsound sodden 1 [ adj. ] containing, covered with, or thoroughly penetrated by water

We stripped off our sodden clothes and wrung them dry. awash, bathed, doused, drenched, logged, saturated, soaked, watered, waterlogged arid, dry 2 vt. to wet thoroughly with liquid Soldiers' boots were soddened by endless hours in muddy trenches. douse, drench, drown, impregnate, macerate, saturate, soak, sop, souse, steep dehydrate, dry, desiccate parch, sear, scorch wring

Unit 8

SOLACE SOLILOQUY

SOLDER SOLITUDE

SOLEMNITY SOLVENT

SOLICITOUS SOMATIC

SOLID SOMBER

solace 1

[ n.

] comfort in sorrow, misfortune, or distress

The kind words brought a little solace to the grieving widow. consolation, relief 2 vt. to comfort, cheer, or console, as in trouble or sorrow I did their my to solace those bereaved children. cheer, comfort, console, soothe agonize, distress, harrow, torment, torture, trouble solder [ 1 v. ] to join or unite The agreement soldered the factions

Wires are soldered onto the circuit board. into an alliance.

associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, conjugate, connect, couple, fuse, interfuse, join, link, marry, unify disassociate, disconnect, disjoin, divide, sever, split, sunder solemnity [ 1 n. ] the quality or condition of being solemn The coronation ceremony requires absolute solemnity. earnest, graveness, gravity, intentness, seriousness, sobriety, solemnness, staidness facetiousness, flightiness, flippancy, frivolity, frivolousness, levity, lightheartedness, play solicitous [ 1 adj. happiness of others The solicitous husband had already cleaned the house and cooked dinner by the time his wife returned home from work. attentive, considerate, kind heedless, inconsiderate, thoughtless, unthinking 2 adj. showing urgent desire or interest The family is solicitous to put this whole unfortunate affair behind them and to move on with their lives. agog, anxious, ardent, avid, desirous, eager, enthusiastic, greedy, hungry, keen, thirsty, voracious, wild apathetic, indifferent, uneager, unenthusiastic ] given to or made with heedful anticipation of the needs and

Solemnity is a trick of the body to hide the fault of the mind.

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solicitude n. solid [ 1 ] adj. having a consistency that does not easily yield to pressure

The ice cream is too solid to scoop right now. compact, hard, rigid, stiff, unyielding flabby, soft, spongy, squashy, squishy 2 adj. based on sound reasoning or information the only solid conclusion that the jury could have reached firm, informed, justified, levelheaded, logical, rational, reasonable, sensible, sober, valid, well-founded groundless, illogical, invalid, unfounded, uninformed, unjustified, unreasonable, unsound 3 adj. not showing weakness or uncertainty Some people see a solid handshake as a sign of strong character. forceful, hearty, iron, lusty, robust, stout, strong, sturdy, vigorous uncertain, weak solidify vt. soliloquy [ 1 n. ] a dramatic or literary form of discourse in which a character talks to himself

or herself or reveals his or her thoughts without addressing a listener A soliloquy always reveals the character’s thoughts and feeling. monologue chorus, ensemble solitude [ 1 n. ] the quality or state of being alone or remote from society She wished to work on her novel in solitude. aloneness, insulation, privacy, seclusion, segregation, separateness, sequestration, solitariness camaraderie, companionship, company, comradeship, fellowship, society solvent [ 1 adj. ] able to pay all legal debts

He sought the kind of solitude where his thoughts would be his only companions.

They're going to have to prove that the company is now solvent. bankrupt 2 n. a substance in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution Some organic solvents, such as benzene, pyridine, furan, are poisonous to human’s reproductive system. solute somatic 1 ” animal, bodily, carnal, corporal, corporeal, fleshly, material, physical [ adj. ] of the body, especially as distinguished from a body part, the mind, or the environment “

a somatic disorder that was once thought to be “all in the patient’s head”

mental, spiritual somber [ 1 adj. ]

nonmaterial, nonphysical

so shaded as to be dark and gloomy

The prison's somber interrogation room has the desired effect of striking fear and despair into the prisoner. black, caliginous, dark, dim, gloomy, lightless, murky, obscure, pitch-dark, rayless, stygian bright, brilliant, illuminated, lit, lightsome, lucent, lucid, luminous 2 adj. causing or marked by an atmosphere lacking in cheer Her death put us in a somber mood. depressing, dire, dismal, funereal, lugubrious, melancholy, miserable, morbid, morose, saturnine, sullen cheerful, delighted, festive, gay, jocund, jovial

Unit 9

SOMNOLENCE SOPHISTICATED

SONNET SOPORFIC

SOOTHE SORDID

SOP SOUND

SOPHISM SPARSE

somnolence [ 1 n.

] the quality or state of desiring or needing sleep

Somnolence is likely to be the most typical reaction to this novel. doziness, drowsiness insomnia, sleeplessness, wakefulness sonnet [ 1 n. ] a 14-line verse form usually having one of several conventional rhyme schemes

a sonnet that celebrates love doggerel soothe 1 [ vt. ] to bring comfort, solace, or reassurance to

There seemed to be no words sufficient to soothethe widow. cheer, comfort, console, solace agonize, distress, harrow, torment, torture, trouble 2 vt. to free from distress or disturbance He took her in his arms and soothed her. becalm, compose, lull, lullaby, quiet, quieten, salve, settle, still, tranquilize agitate, discompose, disquiet, disturb, perturb, upset, vex

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3

vt.

to make more bearable or less severe

Hot tea with honey will soothe a sore throat. abate, allay, alleviate, assuage, ease, mitigate, mollify, palliate, relieve, soften aggravate, exacerbate, intensify sop [ 1 ] n. something yielded to placate or soothe to provide with the salary raise as a sop balm, emollient, placebo,salve, unguent irritant, stimulant 2 or decision As a sop to the teachers' union for supporting his reelection campaign, the mayor promised to push for the abolition of the residency requirement. backhander, boodle, cumshaw, fix 3 vt. to wet thoroughly My book fell in the swimming pool and was thoroughly sopped before I could fish it out. douse, drench, drown, impregnate, macerate, saturate, soak, sodden, souse, steep dehydrate, dry, desiccate sophism [ 1 n. ] deceptive or fallacious argumentation parch, sear, scorch wring n. something given or promised in order to improperly influence a person's conduct

Political selection is more dependent on sophism and less on economic literacy. sophistry sophisticated 1 adj. [ ] having acquired worldly knowledge or refinement; lacking natural

simplicity or naiveté On the train I met a surprisingly sophisticated and widely traveled child. cosmopolitan, debonair, knowing, smart, suave, urbane, worldly guileless, ingenuous, innocent, naïve 2 adj. very complex or complicated a very sophisticated machine that is a marvel of modern design baroque, byzantine, complicated, convoluted, elaborate, intricate, involved, knotty, labyrinthine, tangled plain, simple sophistication n. soporific 1 [ n. ] a drug or other substance that induces sleep

Alcohol is a poor hypnotic because it disturbs sleep patterns, and so can worsen sleep disorders.

hypnotic stimulant 2 adj. causing or tending to cause sleep the This medication is soporific, so do not drive after taking it. soporific heat of summer narcotic, opiate, slumberous, somniferous, somnolent arousing, waking, invigorating, stimulating 3 adj. of, relating to, or marked by sleepiness or lethargy A big lunch always makes me soporific in the afternoon. dozy, drowsy, sleepy awake, conscious, wakeful sordid 1 [ adj. ] not clean alert sleepless, insomniac

I will not let my children grow up in such a sordid environment. besmirched, dirty, dusty, filthy, foul, grubby, muddy, nasty, smudged, soiled, stained, sullied, unclean clean, immaculate, spotless, stainless, unsoiled, unstained, unsullied 2 adj. marked by baseness or grossness Behind his generous donation were sordid motives. base, contemptible, despicable, detestable, dishonorable, execrable, ignominious, mean, vile, wretched honorable, lofty, noble, straight, upright, venerable, virtuous sound 1 distortion The bridge is structurally sound. bombproof, fast, firm, stalwart, strong, sturdy ramshackle 2 adj. rickety, unstable, unsteady free from injury or disease: exhibiting normal health [ adj. ] marked by the ability to withstand stress without structural damage or

The horse is getting old, but still perfectly sound. bouncing, fit, hale, healthy, hearty, robust, well, well-conditioned, wholesome ailing, diseased, ill, sick 3 adj. decrepit, enfeebled, feeble, infirm based on valid reasoning

Sound reasoning alone should tell you that the result is invalid. analytic, coherent, consequent, rational, reasonable, sensible, valid, well-founded, well-grounded illegitimate, illogical, incoherent, inconsequent, invalid, irrational, unreasonable, unsound, weak soundness n. sparse 1 [ adj. ] less plentiful than what is normal, necessary, or desirable

Many slopes are rock fields with sparse vegetation. exiguous, meager, niggardly, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, skimpy, slender, slim, sparing, stingy abundant, ample, bountiful, copious, generous, liberal, plenteous, plentiful

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Unit 10

SPARTAN SPECK

SPAT SPECTATOR

SPATE SPECTRUM

SPECIFIC SPECULATE

SPECIOUS SPENDTHRIFT

spartan 1

[ adj.

] marked by simplicity, frugality, or avoidance of luxury and comfort

Accommodations on the windjammer are spartan but clean and comfortable nevertheless. austere, plain, simple, stark deluxe, luxurious, plush spat [ 1 ] n. a brief petty quarrel or angry outburst They were typical sisters, Like any couple, they have their spats. spatting one minute, playing together the next. altercation, controversy, disagreement, dispute, imbroglio, quarrel, squabble, tiff, wrangle amity, concord, harmony, rapport, rapprochement spate [ 1 n. ] sudden flood

bath, deluge, flood, inundation, overflow, torrent drought 2 n. a large number or amount GRE a spate of books about GRE

abundance,bundle, dozen, multiplicity, myriad, plentitude, profusion, scad, shipload, slew, volume, wealth ace, bit, driblet, glimmer, handful, hint, mite, mouthful, nip, ounce, pittance, sprinkle, trace specific 1 [ adj. ] of a particular or exact sort

We need a specific type of pen to sign the diplomas. concrete, distinct, especial, peculiar, precise, special, unique general, generic, universal 2 adj. so clearly expressed as to leave no doubt about the meaning specific instructions regarding the interrogation of prisoners clear, definite, definitive, explicit, express, unambiguous, unequivocal, univocal ambiguous, equivocal, implicit, indefinite, inexplicit, unspecific, vague specious [ ]

1

adj.

having a false look of truth or genuineness

a specious argument that really does not stand up under close examination beguiling, deceitful, deceiving, deluding, delusive, delusory, fallacious, false, misleading aboveboard, forthright, straightforward speck 1 [ n. ] a very small amount: bit

She writes without even a speck of humor. ace, bit, driblet, glimmer, handful, hint, mite, mouthful, nip, ounce, pittance, sprinkle, trace abundance,bundle, dozen, multiplicity, myriad, plentitude, profusion, scad, shipload, slew, volume, wealth

spectator [ 1 n.

] one who looks on or watches The accident attracted a

join the organization as temporary spectator large crowd of spectators. bystander, observer, onlooker, viewer, watcher actor, performer, player spectrum [ 1 n. ]

a broad sequence or range of related qualities, ideas, or activities 20 A political spectrum is a way of

the whole spectrum of 20th-century thought political dimensions. diapason, gamut, scale, spread, stretch speculate 1 [ vt. ]

modeling different political positions by placing them upon one or more geometric axes symbolizing independent

to take to be true on the basis of insufficient evidence

I speculate that someone has been using this cabin as a trysting place. assume, conjecture, daresay, imagine, presume, speculate, suppose, surmise, suspect prove, substantiate, validate 2 vi. to buy or sell in expectation of profiting from market fluctuations speculating on the oil market spendthrift [ 1 n. ] a person who spends improvidently or wastefully

The spendthrift managed to blow all of his inheritance in a single year. fritterer, profligate, spender, squanderer, waster, wastrel economizer, penny-pincher 2 adj. hoarder, miser, niggard given to spending money freely or foolishly

Spendthrift consumers amassed a mountain of debt on their credit cards.

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extravagant, improvident, squandering, thriftless, unthrifty, wasteful conserving, economical, frugal, penny-pinching, provident, scrimping, skimping, thrifty

List 24
Unit 1

SPENT SPONTANEOUS

SPINDLY SPOOF

SPINY SPORADIC

SPLEEN SPRAWL

SPLICE SPRIGHTLY

spent [ 1

] adj. drained of energy or effectiveness

After all that exertion, we were completely spent. beaten, bleary, done, drained, enervate, exhausted, fatigued, jaded, prostrate, tired, wearied, worn-out active, energetic, invigorated, peppy, strengthened, strong, tireless, vitalized, weariless spindly [ 1 adj. ] frail or flimsy in appearance or structure

I prefer having rather spindly legs. gangling, gangly, lanky, spindling squat spiny [ 1 adj. ] bearingspines, prickles, or thorns

low spiny bushes of sage brambly, prickly, thorny even, flat, plane, smooth 2 adj. requiring exceptional skill or caution in performance or handling This promises to be a spiny problem to negotiate. catchy, delicate, difficult, knotty, problematic, sensitive, sticky, ticklish, thorny, tough, troublesome easy, effortless, manageable, painless, simple, straightforward, uncomplicated, undemanding spleen 1 [ n. ] feelings of anger or ill will often suppressed

She vented her spleen on her boyfriend and felt much better for having done so. angriness, choler, furor, fury, indignation, ire, madness, outrage, rage, wrath delight, pleasure splice 1 at the ends He taught me to edit and splice film. associate, coalesce, combine, conjoin, conjugate, connect, couple, fuse, interfuse, join, link, marry, unify disassociate, disconnect, disjoin, divide, sever, split, sunder [ vt. ] to unite (as two ropes) by interweaving the strands, or to join (as two pieces of film)

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spontaneous [ 1 adj.

] acting or activated without apparent thought or deliberation

Hugging a crying child is simply a spontaneous reaction. automatic, impulsive, instinctive, involuntary, mechanical, natural calculated, deliberate, intentional, planned, predetermined, premeditated, studied spoof [ 1 n. ] a work that imitates and exaggerates another work for comic effect

Many viewers thought that the spoof of a television newscast was the real thing. burlesque, caricature, mimicking, parody, travesty 2 v. to cause to believe what is untrue UFO The public was spoofed by a supposedly plausible report of a UFO encounter. beguile, cozen, delude, dupe, fool, hoax, misguide, misinform, mislead, trick disabuse, disenchant, disillusion, undeceive sporadic [ 1 adj. ] not often occurring or repeated

On the whole, situation has significantly improved with only sporadic disturbances. few, infrequent, occasional, odd, rare, scarce, seldom, uncommon frequent, habitual, repeated sprawl [ 1 vt. ] to grow, develop, or spread irregularly and without apparent design or plan

The city sprawls down the whole coast. ramble, scramble, straddle sprawling adj. sprightly [ 1 adj. ] full of spirit and vitality

He was deeply impressed by the sprightly Gypsy dance. active, airy, animated, brisk, energetic, frisky, gay, jaunty, kinetic, mettlesome, racy, spirited, vital, vivacious dead, inactive, inanimate, lackadaisical, languid, languishing, leaden, lifeless, listless, spiritless, vapid

Unit 2

SPUR SQUALL

SPURIOUS SQUANDER

SPURN SQUAT

SQUABBLE SQUINT

SQUALID SQUELCH

spur [ 1

] n. something that arouses action or activity The threat of losing its only sports franchise was the spur the city council needed to finally do something

about the rising crime rate. boost, catalyst, impetus, incentive, incitement, instigation, momentum, motivation, provocation, stimulus deterrent, disincentive 2 n. a structure that holds up or serves as a foundation for something else a weak wall that might need a spur brace, buttress, mount, prop, reinforcement, shore, underpinning 3 vt. to incite or stimulate Appreciation spurred his ambition. arouse, excite, exhort, goad, instigate, prod, stir, urge bridle, check, constrain, curb, deter, fetter, hamper, inhibit, manacle, shackle spurious [ 1 adj. ] lacking authenticity or validity in essence or origin; not genuine

In statistics, a spurious relationship is a mathematical relationship in which two events or variables have no direct causal connection, but it may be wrongly inferred that they do, due to either coincidence or the presence of a certain third, unseen factor. apocryphal, bogus, counterfeit, fake, forged, phony, sham authentic, bona fide, genuine, real spuriously adv. spurn [ 1 vt. ] to reject with disdain or contempt Fiercely independent, the elderly couple spurned all

spurned his recommendation offers of financial help.

decline, disapprove, negative, refuse, reject, reprobate, repudiate accede, accept, agree, approve, assent, consent, embrace spurned adj. squabble [ 1 n. ] a noisy quarrel, usually about a trivial matter

a brief squabble over what to do next altercation, argument, controversy, disagreement, dispute, imbroglio, quarrel, riff, spat, skirmish, wrangle harmony squalid [ 1 adj. ] dirty and wretched

The migrants have been living in squalid conditions. black, dirty, filthy, foul, impure, nasty, slipshod, slovenly, unclean clean, immaculate, spotless, unsoiled, unsullied 2 adj. morally repulsive

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the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal base, despicable, ignoble, scurvy, sordid, vile, wretched moral, noble squall [ 1 n. by rain or snow A snow squall is expected tonight. blizzard, hailstorm, snowstorm, tempest 2 vt. to scream or cry loudly and harshly The baby squalled in pain. cry, howl, screech, shout, shriek, shrill, squeal, thunder, yelp, yell murmur, mutter, whisper squander [ 1 vt. ] to cause (members of a group) to move widely apart ] a brief, sudden, violent windstorm, often accompanied

A single blast of the shotgun squandered the herd of deer. disband, dispel, disperse assemble, cluster, collect, concentrate, congregate, gather, ingather 2 vt. to spend wastefully or extravagantly He squandered his inheritance on women and gambling. blow, dissipate, fritter, lavish, misspend, waste conserve, husband squandering adj. squat [ 1 ] adj. being compact and broad in build and often short in stature

a squat but adroit craftsman chunky, dumpy, heavyset, squatty, stocky, stout, stubby, stumpy, thickset gangling, lanky squint [ 1 leer gaze, goggle squelch [ 1 vt. ] to put a stop to (something) by the use of force vt. ] to look or glance sideways

The driver squinted as the sun hit his windshield.

The authority tried to squelch the workers’ protest. crush, muffle, quell, repress, squash, subdue, suppress, crack down abet, aid, assist, back, help, support, prop up 2 vt. to put down or silence, as with a crushing retort His irritated glare squelched any other potential objectors. dumb, extinguish, mute, quiet, settle, still, shut up foment, incite, instigate, provoke, stir

squelcher n.

Unit 3

STABILIZE STATIC

STALWART STATURE

STAMINA STEADFAST

STAMMER STEALTH

STARTLE STEEP

stabilize [ 1 vt./vi.

] to make stable, steadfast, or firm; to become stable, steadfast, or fixed The

a policy that intended to stabilize the situation in Iraq country's population has stabilized at 3.2 million. ballast, poise, steady destabilize stability n. stalwart [ 1 adj. ] feeling or displaying no fear by temperament overthrow, overturn, subvert

the stalwart soldiers in the army of Alexander the Great, who willingly followed him to the ends of the known world bold, courageous, dauntless, fearless, gallant, intrepid, manful, stout, stouthearted, valiant, valorous cowardly, craven, fearful, gutless, nerveless, pusillanimous, spineless, spiritless, timorous 2 adj. marked by outstanding strength and vigor of body, mind, or spirit a lithe yet stalwart athlete a stalwart supporter of the UN delicate, feeble, frail, weak, wimpy stamina [ 1 n. ] physical or moral strength to resist or withstand illness, fatigue, or hardship

brawny, firm, muscular, rugged, sinewy, sound, stout, strong, sturdy

A marathon challenges a runner's stamina. endurance, tolerance frailty stammer [ 1 vi. ] to speak with involuntary pauses or repetitions

The frightened child started to stammer. falter, stutter articulate startle [ 1 vt. ] to frighten or surprise suddenly and usually not seriously

They were startled at the prohibitive price. amaze, astonish, astound, dumbfound, rock, scare, shock, stun, stupefy

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reassure startling adj. static [ 1 adj. ] characterized by a lack of movement, animation, or progression a static economy mobile, movable

Both your pictures are of static subjects. active, dynamic, lively, vibrant 2 adj. showing little change a static population inflexible, invariable, rigid, stiff, steadfast

inactive, fixed, immobile, immotile, immovable, inert, stable, stagnant, stationary, still

capricious, changeful, fluid, mercurial, temperamental, versatile, volatile stasis n. stature [ 1 n. ] natural height (as of a person) in an upright position

a man of surprisingly great stature altitude, elevation, inches 2 n. quality or status gained by growth, development, or achievement This club has grown in stature over the last 20 years. merit, quality, value, virtue, worth steadfast [ 1 adj. ] firm in belief, determination, or adherence

Her comrades remained steadfast despite brutal tortures. constant, dedicated, devoted, devout, loyal, pious, staunch, steady, true-blue disloyal, perfidious, recreant, traitorous, treacherous, unfaithful stealth [ 1 2 n. adj. ] the act or action of proceeding furtively, secretly, or imperceptibly intended not to attract attention

Both sides advanced by stealth. The SWAT team carried out a stealth raid on the house, which was believed to be harboring a terrorist cell. backstairs, clandestine, covert, furtive, private, sneak, stealthy, surreptitious, undercover, underground open, overt, public stealthy adj. steep [ 1 ] vt. to make thoroughly wet

steep the tea for five minutes drench, drown, impregnate, macerate, saturate, sodden, sop, souse desiccate, dry, parch, sear 2 adj. wring having an incline approaching the perpendicular

a very steep rock face that is nearly impossible to climb abrupt, precipitate, sheer

gradual 3 adj.

flat going beyond a normal or acceptable limit in degree or amount

We would like to hire him, but his salary demands are just too steep. exorbitant, extravagant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate, insane, lavish, overdue, overweening, plethoric, stiff moderate, modest, reasonable, temperate

Unit 4

STENCH STIFLE

STENTORIAN STIGMA

STERILE STINT

STICKLER STINGY

STIFF STIPPLE

stench [ 1 n.

] a strong, foul odor

We finally discovered the dead rat that was causing the stench in the living room. fetor, funk, malodor, reek, stink aroma, fragrance, perfume, scent stentorian [ 1 adj. ] extremely loud The professor's stentorian voice was enough to

an tenor with a stentorian voice keep even the drowsiest student awake.

blaring, blasting, clamorous, deafening, earsplitting, plangent, resounding, roaring, sonorous, thunderous gentle, low, soft sterile [ 1 adj. ] not productive or effective

a sterile land which used to be a forest barren, effete, fruitless, impotent, infertile verdant 2 adj. fat, fertile, fruitful free from live bacteria or other microorganisms

The hospitals in the war-torn city often lack necessary drugs and sterile surgical supplies. aseptic, germfree, hygienic insanitary, unhygienic sterilize v. stickler [ 1 n. ] one who insists on exactness or completeness in the observance contaminated, polluted

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of something a stickler for perfection a stickler for neatness disciplinarian, pedant, purist, martinet stiff [ 1 ] adj. lacking in suppleness or flexibility When I got out of bed this morning my back was a stiff cardboard packing box stiff as a board. immalleable, impliable, inflexible, petrified, rigid, unbending, unyielding flexible, floppy, pliable, pliant, supple, yielding 2 adj. lacking social grace and assurance She always felt stiff and ill-at-ease whenever she was introduced to her father's friends. clumsy, gauche, graceless, inelegant, rustic, stilted, uncomfortable, uneasy, wooden graceful, suave, urbane 3 adj. going beyond a normal or acceptable limit in degree or amount Don't you think that's a pretty stiff fine for such a minor infraction? exorbitant, extravagant, extreme, immoderate, inordinate, insane, lavish, overdue, overweening, plethoric, steep moderate, modest, reasonable, temperate 4 adj. requiring considerable physical or mental effort We'll have a stiff climb to actually reach the summit. arduous, challenging, difficult, formidable, grueling, laborious, strenuous, sweaty, testing, toilsome, tough easy, effortless, facile, light, mindless, simple, soft, undemanding stifle [ 1 ] vt. to keep in or hold back

to stifle free expression choke, muffle, mute, repress, smother, strangle, suffocate, suppress foment, incite, instigate, provoke, stir stifling adj. stigma [ 1 n. ] a mark of shame or discredit There's a social stigma attached to receiving welfare.

the stigma of cowardice

blemish, brand, onus, slur, smirch, smudge, spot, stain, taint award, credit, honor stint [ 1 ] vi. to be sparing or frugal They never stint with their praise. scrimp, skimp blow, dissipate, fritter, lavish, misspend, squander, waste fame, glory, renown, repute

stingy [ 1 adj.

] being unwilling or showing unwillingness to share with others

too stingy to tip the waiter closefisted, mean, mingy, miserly, niggardly, parsimonious, penurious, sparing, stinting, tightfisted bountiful, charitable, freehanded, generous, liberal, munificent, openhanded 2 adj. less plentiful than what is normal, necessary, or desirable Many people may consider this a rather stingy amount of food. exiguous, poor, scant, scanty, scarce, skimpy, sparse abundant, ample, bounteous, copious, plenteous, plentiful stinginess n. stipple [ 1 vt. ] to mark with small spots especially unevenly

They crossed a field stippled with purple lavender. blotch, dapple, dot, freckle, marble, mottle, speckle, splotch, sprinkle, spot

Unit 5

STIPULATE STOKE

STITCH STOIC

STOCK STOLID

STOCKADE STOMACH

STODGY STONEWALL

stipulate [ 1 vt.

] to specify or arrange in an agreement

Total disarmament was stipulated in the peace treaty. claim, designate, detail, particularize, qualify relinquish, surrender, yield, waive stipulation n. stitch [ 1 ] n. a sharp unpleasant sensation usually felt in some specific part of the body

He had to drop out of the race when the stitch in his side became too painful. ache, pang, prick, shoot, smart, sting, throe, tingle, twinge comfort, ease, easiness stock [ 1 ] n. the inventory of goods of a merchant or manufacturer

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This type of product is currently out of stock. inventory, pool, repertoire, reserve, reservoir 2 adj. commonly used or brought forward the stock answers to sensitive questions common, conventional, general, ordinary, prosaic, routine, standard, universal unique stockade [ 1 n. ] an enclosure or pen made with posts and stakes

a heavy stockade that protected the troops barricade, barrier, blockade, fence, wall 2 n. a place of confinement for persons held in lawful custody All POWs were kept in a remote stockade. bastille, coop, jail, pen, prison stodgy [ 1 adj. ] dull, unimaginative, and commonplace

The sitcom was offbeat and interesting in its first season, but has since become predictable and stodgy. arid, dreary, dull, flat, jading, jejune, monochromatic, monotonous, pedestrian, stale, tedious, wearisome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting 2 adj. extremely old-fashioned Without notice she received a letter from his stodgy father. conservative, hidebound, intolerant avant-guard stodginess n. stoke [ 1 vt. ] supply with fuel radical

She was stoking the furnace. fuel, rekindle 2 vt. to make greater in size, amount, or number stoke workers’ commitment to the company by raising their salaries aggrandize, amplify, augment, boost, enlarge, escalate, expand, extend, multiply, raise abate, decrease, diminish, downsize, dwindle, lessen, lower, minify, reduce, subtract stoic [ 1 ] adj. seemingly indifferent to or unaffected by pleasure or pain

stoic resignation in the face of hunger aloof, apathetic, detached, forbearing, indifferent, impassive, phlegmatic, stolid, tolerant, unemotional demonstrative, emotional, fervent, fervid, impassioned, passionate, vehement stolid [ 1 ] adj. having or revealing little emotion or sensibility

Her face showed nothing but stolid indifference. apathetic, catatonic, deadpan, emotionless, impassive, indifferent, numb, phlegmatic, stoic demonstrative, emotional, fervent, fervid, impassioned, passionate, vehement stolidity n. stomach [ 1 v. ] to bear without overt reaction or resentment

I can't stomach his bragging. abide, brook, countenance, endure, handle, stand, tolerate decline, refuse, reject, repudiate, spurn stonewall [ 1 v. ] to be uncooperative, obstructive, or evasive

lobbying efforts to stonewall passage of the legislation blockade, filibuster, hinder, impede, obstruct collaborate, cooperate

Unit 6

STOUTHEARTED STRAY

STRATAGEM STRENGTH

STRAIT STRIATE

STRAND STRICTURE

STRATIFY STRIDE

stouthearted [ 1 adj.

] having a stout heart or spirit

a stouthearted army officer who risked his life to save his men bold, brave, courageous, dauntless, fearless, gallant, intrepid, stalwart, stout, valiant, valorous cowardly, craven, fearful, gutless, nerveless, pusillanimous, spineless, spiritless, timorous stratagem [ 1 n. ] an artifice or trick in war for deceiving and outwitting the enemy

a stratagem to secure customer loyalty artifice, device, gambit, gimmick, intrigue, maneuver, ruse, scheme, trick, wile strait [ 1 n. ] a narrow channel joining two larger bodies of water

Thousands of vessels pass through the straits annually. channel, narrow, neck isthmus 2 n. a state of great suffering of body or mind in dire straits over the loss of her mother’s cherished necklace affliction, agony, anguish, excruciation, misery, pain, torment, torture, travail, tribulation, woe

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strand [ 1 n.

] a single filament, such as a fiber or thread, of a woven or braided material DNA to leave in a strange or an unfavorable place especially without funds or

a strand of DNA thread 2 v. means to depart

The convoy was stranded in the desert. abandon, desert, forsake, maroon, quit evacuate, reclaim, rescue stratify [ 1 vt. ] to divide into classes, castes, or social strata

Income distribution often stratifies a society. assort, categorize, classify, differentiate, distinguish, separate homogenize stratification n. stray [ 1 ] adj. lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern UFO commingle, mingle

No stray sighting of UFO’s has been rigorously analyzed by scientists. aimless, arbitrary, desultory, erratic, haphazard, scattered, slapdash methodical, orderly, organized, regular 2 vi. established limits to stray from the main road deviate, digress, err, wander strength [ 1 n. ] the ability to exert effort for the accomplishment of a task

systematic, systematized

to move away from a group, deviate from the correct course, or go beyond

We are facing an army of great strength. energy, force, might, potency, power, puissance, sinew, vigor impotence, impotency, powerlessness, weakness 2 n. the ability to withstand force or stress without being distorted, dislodged, or damaged This cheap shelve unit doesn't have the strength to hold all those books. firmness, soundness, sturdiness insecurity, instability, precariousness, shakiness, unstableness, unsteadiness strengthen vt. striate [ 1 vt. ] to mark with striations or striae

The inner surface of the bark is smooth, of a pale, yellowish brown and very finely striated.

furrow, streak, stripe striated adj. stricture [ 1 n. ] an adverse criticism

The reviewer made several strictures upon the author's style. censure, condemnation, denunciation, excoriation, obloquy, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, reproof commendation, eulogy stride [ 1 vi. ] to move with or as if with long steps

strode to the door and slammed it march, pace, parade mince

Unit 7

STRIDENT STUDIO

STRIKE STULTIFY

STRINGENT STUPOR

STRIP STUNT

STRUT S TURDY

strident [ 1 adj.

] characterized by harsh, insistent, and discordant sound

plagued by the strident noise grating, harsh, hoarse, jarring, rasping, raucous, squawky mellifluous stridence n. strike [ 1 n. ] the act or action of setting upon with force or violence harmonious

The first strike was directed at a munitions warehouse. aggression, assault, charge, offense, onset, onslaught, raid, rush 2 3 vt. vt. to form by stamping, printing, or punching to aim and usually deliver a blow, stroke, or thrust (as with the hand, a weapon, or a tool) build, fabricate, forge, form, make, mold, shape angrily stuck the security guard bat, beat, hammer, hit, knock, nail, punch, swat 4 vt. to take sudden, violent action against A rattlesnake strikes its prey with lightning speed. assail, beset, storm, set on 5 vt. to come into usually forceful contact with something One bullet-train struck the other one which had been forced to stop on a viaduct due to lightning strike, resulting in huge casualties.

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bang, bash, bump, collide, crash, impact, impinge, ram, slam, smash, swipe, thud striking adj. stringent [ 1 adj. ] tight, constricted

inflexible, rigid, taut lax, loose, slack 2 adj. marked by rigor, strictness, or severity especially with regard to rule or standard Its drug-testing procedures are the most stringent in the world. draconian, exacting, ironhanded, rigorous, severe, strict, uncompromising lenient strip [ 1 ] vt. to remove clothing, covering, or surface matter from Guards stripped and start to search the prisoners. denude, disrobe, doff, unclothe, undress dress, gown, robe strut [ 1 ] vi. to walk with a pompous and affected air A pompous general strutted off the parade ground. parade, prance, stalk, swagger 2 n. compression brace, buttress, column, girder, support, underpinning studio [ 1 n. ] the working place of a painter, sculptor, or photographer a structural element used to brace or strengthen a framework by resisting longitudinal bedeck

moved to a larger studio workshop stultify [ 1 influences The accident stultified his previous efforts. constipate, stagnate, stifle, trammel encourage, foster, nourish stultifying adj. stupor [ 1 n. ] a condition of greatly dulled or completely suspended sense or sensibility vt. ] to deprive of vitality and render futile especially by enfeebling or repressive

lapsed into an alcoholic stupor coma, dullness, languor, lethargy, lassitude, listlessness, torpidity, torpor alertness, vigilance stunt [ ] vigor, vim, vitality, vivacity

1

vt.

to hinder the normal growth, development, or progress of

The inhospitable climate had stunted all vegetation. check, curb, dwarf, suppress advance, boost, foster, nourish, nurture, promote sturdy [ 1 adj. ] marked by or reflecting physical strength or vigor; substantially made or built Remember to wear sturdy boots because we will be going

sturdy young athletes over sharp rocks and uneven terrain.

durable, firm, robust, rugged, stalwart, stout, strong, sound, tough, vigorous delicate, feeble, frail, weak, wimpy sturdiness n. rickety, unsound, unstable, unsteady

Unit 8

STYGIAN SUBLIME

STYMIE SUBLIMINAL

SUBDUE SUBMERGE

SUBJECT SUBMISSIVE

SUBJUGATE SUBORDINATE

stygian [ 1 adj.

] extremely dark, gloomy, or forbidding

the stygian blackness of the cave black, caliginous, dark, dim, gloomy, pitch-black bright, brilliant, illuminated, illumined, light, lightsome, lucent, lucid, luminous stymie [ 1 vt. ] to present an obstacle to

stymied by red tape encumber, fetter, handcuff, handicap, hinder, impede, inhibit, manacle, obstruct, shackle, trammel aid, assist, facilitate, help stymieing adj. subdue [ 1 vt. ] to conquer and bring into subjection; to bring under one's control by force of arms

subdued the native tribes after years of fighting conquer, defeat, squelch, subjugate, vanquish capitulate, surrender subdued adj. subject [ 1 possible. n. ] one that is placed under authority or control lose

Because of the tense situation in that country, British subjects were advised to return home as soon as

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citizen, national alien 2 adj. potentate contingent on or under the influence of some later action

The price of seafood is subject to weather conditions. affected, conditional, contingent, dependent, reliant, subordinate independent, unconditional subjugate [ 1 vt. ] to bring under control and governance as a subject

I would rather die than be subjugated. conquer, dominate, overpower, pacify, quash, squelch, subdue, vanquish capitulate, surrender 2 vt. enfetter, enslave, enthrall discharge, emancipate, enfranchise, liberate, manumit, release, unfetter subjugation n. sublime [ 1 adj. ] of high spiritual, moral, or intellectual worth lose to make subservient

the sublime virtue of having given all one's worldly goods to the poor chivalrous, elevated, gallant, greathearted, lofty, magnanimous, noble base, debased, degenerate, degraded, ignoble, low 2 adj. tending to inspire awe usually because of elevated quality (as of beauty, nobility, or grandeur) or transcendent excellence the sublime beauty of the canyon amazing, astonishing, astounding, awesome, fabulous, miraculous, portentous, prodigious, staggering, stunning, stupendous, wonderful common, ordinary sublimity n. subliminal [ 1 adj. ] below the threshold of conscious perception

subliminal advertising in movies concealed, hidden, subconscious apparent, clear, evident, manifest, obvious, patent submerge [ 1 vt. ] to put under water

The river burst its banks, submerging an entire village. dip, douse, drench, drown, immerse, inundate, sop, submerse emerge submerged adj. submissive [ 1 adj. ] submitting to others It's not in her nature to be submissive.

submissive employees

amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obeisant, obsequious, servile, subservient, tractable contumacious, defiant, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly submission n. subordinate [ 1 adj. ] belonging to a lower or inferior class or rank —— inferior, junior, lower, minor, secondary, subject, tributary greater, higher, major, primary, prime, senior, superior 2 vt. to bring under one's control by force of arms It is one of the lessons of history that more powerful civilizations often subordinate weaker ones. conquer, dominate, overpower, pacify, subdue, subject, subjugate, vanquish capitulate, surrender lose

His contention is that environment plays a subordinate role to heredity in determining what we become.

Unit 9

SUBSERVIENT SUBSTANTIATE

SUBSIDE SUBSTANTIVE

SUBSIDIARY SUBSIDY SUBSTANTIAL SUBTERFUGE SUBTLE SUBVERT

subservient [ 1 adj.

] obsequiously submissive

amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obeisant, obsequious, servile, submissive, tractable contumacious, defiant, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly subservience n. subside [ 1 vi. ] to tend downward As the noise of the The pain will subside

Local officials say the flood waters have subsided. siren subsided, I was able to fall back to sleep. in a couple of hours.

abate, decline, decrease, diminish, drop, dwindle, ebb, fall, lessen, moderate, recede, wane balloon, burgeon, escalate, expand, grow, increase, intensify, rise, snowball, soar, wax subsidence n. subsidiary [ 1 adj. ] of secondary importance

The river has several subsidiary streams. minor, secondary, subordinate, tributary capital, cardinal, central, chief, key, leading, main, paramount, predominant, primary, principal, supreme

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2

adj.

furnishing aid or support

Attached are subsidiary materials. accessory, auxiliary, contributory, supplemental, supporting, upholding subsidy [ 1 n. ] monetary assistance granted by a government to a person or group in support of

an enterprise regarded as being in the public interest a subsidy to manufacturers during the war allotment, allowance, appropriation, grant, subvention subsidize vt. substantial [ 1 adj. ] of, relating to, or having substance

a world of dreams, even less substantial than a rainbow corporeal, concrete, gross, material, objective, physical, tangible tenuous, vaporous 2 adj. made a substantial progress consequential, considerable, earthshaking, important, meaningful, momentous, significant, weighty inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, little, minor, negligible, slight, trifling, trivial substantiate [ 1 vt. ] to support with proof or evidence diaphanous, ethereal, immaterial considerable in importance, value, degree, amount, or extent

There is little scientific evidence to substantiate the claims. attest, authenticate, confirm, corroborate, justify, validate, verify controvert, disprove, rebut, refute substantiated adj. 2 vt to give material form to The artist's intense feelings are substantiated by his paintings' bold colors and broad brush strokes. embody, epitomize, externalize, incarnate, incorporate, manifest, materialize, personalize disembody substantiated adj. substantive [ 1 adj. ] of or relating to the essence or substance

The substantive information is their political stance. constitutional, elemental, essential, fundamental, substantial, vital inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, insubstantial, negligible, nominal subterfuge [ 1 n. ] deception by artifice or stratagem in order to conceal, escape, or evade

The spy obtained the documents by subterfuge. artifice, cheat, chicanery, deception, fraud, trickery, wile

subtle [ 1

] adj. (so slight as to be)difficult to understand or perceive

subtle differences in meaning between the words delicate, elusive, evasive, faint, fine, impalpable, intangible, nice, slight blatant, conspicuous, obvious, patent, plain 2 means used subtle methods of persuasion beguiling, crafty, cunning, cute, designing, devious, foxy, guileful, scheming, shrewd, sly, tricky, wily artless, guileless, ingenuous, innocent, undesigning subtlety n. subvert [ 1 vt. ] to overturn or overthrow from the foundation adj. open, public clever at attaining one's ends by indirect and often deceptive

an alleged plot to subvert the state overthrow, overturn, topple reinforce subversion n.

Unit 10

SUCCINCT SULLEN

SUCCOR SUMMARY

SUFFOCATE SUFFUSE SUMMIT SUMMON

SULK SUMPTUOUS

succinct [ 1 adj.

] characterized by clear, precise expression in few words

His speech is always succinct and perspicacious. apothegmatic, brief, compact, compendious, concise, laconic, pithy, summary, telegraphic, terse circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, long-, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy, wordy succinctness n. succor [ 1 vt. ] to go to the aid of

We see it as our duty to succor anyone in need. aid, assist, help, relieve, support suffocate [ 1 vt. ] to deprive of oxygen

The law requires the owner of a discarded refrigerator to remove its door so that a child won't get trapped inside and suffocate. asphyxiate, choke, smother, stifle, strangle suffocating adj.

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suffuse [ 1 vt.

] to spread through or over, as with liquid, color, or light

a room suffused with warm sunlight flush, fill, imbue, infuse, interpenetrate, percolate, pervade, transfuse suffusing adj. sulk [ 1 ] vi. to be sullenly aloof or withdrawn, as in silent resentment or protest He would sulk for hours whenever he didn’t get what he want. frown, grump, mope, pout crow, delight, exuberate, jubilate, rejoice, triumph sulky adj. sullen [ 1 ] adj. causing or marked by an atmosphere lacking in cheer sullen skies that

She remained sullen amid festivities alone. matched our mood on the day of the funeral

bleak, cheerless, dark, depressing, dire, gloomy, glum, gray, lugubrious, morose, saturnine, sulky, surly bright, cheerful, cheering, cordial, festive, gay lighthearted summary [ 1 n. ] an abstract, abridgment, or compendium especially of a preceding discourse

Many book reports choose to begin with a summary of the book. abstract, brief, epitome, outline, recapitulation, synopsis, summarization elaboration 2 adj. done or executed on the spot and without formality a summary trial and speedy execution drumhead prolonged, protracted summit [ 1 n. ] the highest point

the summit of his ambition acme, apex, climax, crescendo, crest, crown, culmination, meridian, peak, pinnacle, top, zenith bottom, nadir summon [ 1 vt. ] to call together

The general summoned all his troops before the operation. assemble, convene, convoke, muster, rally dismiss 2 vt. to command by service of a summons, especially to appear in court was summoned to answer charges

call, hail sumptuous [ 1 adj. ] extremely costly, rich, luxurious, or magnificent

The hotel claims to offer sumptuous furnishings and exquisitely prepared cuisine. deluxe, lavish, lush, luxurious, opulent, palatial, resplendent, splendid, superb ascetic, austere, humble, spartan

List 25
Unit 1

SUNDER SUPINE

SUPERCILIOUS SUPPLE

SUPERFICIAL SUPPLANT

SUPERFLUOUS SUPPLEMENT

SUPERIMPOSE SUPPLICATE

sunder [ ] 1 vt. to break apart or in two a city sundered by racial conflict disassociate, disconnect, disjoin, disunite, divide, part, rend, rive, separate, sever, unyoke bond, connect, join, link, unify, unite, yoke asunder adv. supercilious [ ]

1 adj. feeling or showing haughty disdain The aristocrat reacted to their breach of etiquette with a supercilious smile. arrogant, assumptive, bumptious, haughty, imperious, pompous, presumptuous, overbearing, superior humble, moderate, modest superficial [ ]

1 adj. lacking in depth, solidity, and comprehensiveness The official’s superficial report on the situation provoked wide blame on the Internet. cursory, facile, perfunctory, shallow, sketchy, skin-deep profound comprehensive, exhaustive superficiality n. superfluous [ ]

1 adj. exceeding what is sufficient or necessary a complicated algorithm that could filter all superfluous information excessive, extra, redundant, surplus deficient, inadequate, insufficient, scanty, scarce, short, skimpy, sparse superfluity n. superimpose [ sju:p r z]

1 v. to add as a distinct feature, element, or quality: superimposed her own interpretation when she retold the story supine [ ] showing lethargy, passivity, or blameworthy

1 adj. indifference

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a supine legislature that is afraid to take action inert passive dormant torpid vigilant supple [ ]

1 adj. readily bent; pliant supple limbs || a supple mind bendy, flexible, limber, lissome, lithe, pliable, pliant, lithesome inflexible, stiff, rigid suppleness n. supplant [ ]

1 vt. to usurp the place of, especially through intrigue or underhanded tactics Old traditions were fading away and being supplanted by modern ways. displace, displant, substitute, supersede, cut out supplement [ ]

1 n./v. something that serves to complete or make up for a deficiency in something else recommends taking a vitamin C supplement to prevent colds C addendum, addition, expansion, increment, proliferation, step-up supplicate [ ]

1 v. to make a request to (someone) in an earnest or urgent manner God is not just someone to be supplicated in times of trouble. beseech, conjure, entreat, impetrate, implore, solicit, plead to, appeal to demand

Unit 2

SUPPOSITION SURREPTITIOUS

SUPPRESS SURCHARGE SUSCEPTIBILITY SUSPEND

SURFEIT SUTURE

SURRENDER SVELTE

supposition [ ] 1 n. an opinion or judgment based on little or no evidence It's pure supposition on your part that there's something illegal going on next door. hypothesis, proposition, surmise,premise, presumption certainty suppress [ ] to inhibit the expression of (an impulse, for example); check

1 vt. suppress a smile

repress, smother, stifle, choke back, hold back stimulate 2 v. to put a stop to (something) by the use of force Nothing could suppress the rising tide of protest. clamp down on, crack down on, put down, quash, repress, silence, slap down, snuff out, squash, squelch, subdue surcharge [ ]

1 v./n. to charge (someone) too much for goods or services The airline has added a $30 fuel surcharge on all international flights. 30 gouge, soak, sting surfeit [ ]

1 v./n. to feed or supply to excess He surfeited himself with chocolate. overabundance, overage, overflow, plethora, redundancy, superfluity, surplus deficiency, deprivation, insufficient supply, famish, starve surrender [ ] 1 vt. to give (something) over to the control or possession of another usually under duress surrender a contractual right abnegate, cede, relinquish, renounce, resign appropriate 2 v. to give (oneself) over to something especially unrestrainedly surrendered himself to grief deliver, give up, indulge, yield surreptitious [ ]

1 adj. undertaken or done so as to escape being observed or known by others took a surreptitious glance at her knees backstairs, clandestine, covert, furtive, privy, underground, underhanded, behind-the-scenes barefaced, aboveboard, open, overt, public susceptibility [ ]

1 n. the quality or state of having little resistance to some outside agent A weak immune system causes increased susceptibility to disease. defenselessness, vulnerability, weakness immunity, invulnerability suspend [ ]

1 vi. to bring to a formal close for a period of time suspended the trial prorogue, recess invoke 2 vt. hang suspended a banner proclaiming the town's “Heritage Days” from the archway

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” erect, let fall ]

suture [

1 n./v. the process of joining two surfaces or edges together along a line by or as if by sewing The doctor cleaned, sutured, and bandaged the wound. incision, avulse svelte [ ]

1 adj. slender or graceful in figure or outline; slim. The svelte dancer seemed to float across the stage. bony, lean, skinny, slender, slim plump, corpulent, paunchy and awkward

Unit 3

SWAGGER SWINDLE

SWEAR SWELTERING SWERVE SWILL SYBARITE SYCOPHANT SYLLABUS SYLLOGISM

swagger [ ] 1 vi. to conduct oneself in an arrogant or superciliously pompous manner The young man confidently swaggered across the room. prance, sashay, stalk 2 v. boast, brag I would swagger if I'd won first place in the bowling tournament. brag, vapor, vaunt, gasconade swear [ ]

1 vi. to use profane or obscene language: curse no one is allowed to swear in this house blaspheme, curse, cuss accolade 2 v. to promise or pledge with a solemn oath; vow He swore his oath of allegiance to the queen. attest, depose, covenant, pledge, vow sweltering [ ] 1 adj. oppressively hot The air conditioning was broken, and it was sweltering in the room. boiling, scorching, searing, sultry, torrid, fiery algid, arctic, bone-chilling, freezing, frigid, frozen, glacial, ice-cold, iced, icy

swerve [

]

1 vi. to turn aside abruptly from a straight line or course The car swerved sharply to avoid the squirrel in the road. detour, deviate, diverge, sheer, swing, veer maintain direction, straighten swill [ ]

1 vt. to drink greedily, to eat greedily or to excess Considering the way she swills carbonated drinks, she ought to own stock in Pepsi company. gulp, quaff, swig sip swindle [ ]

1 vt. to cheat or defraud of money or property Hundreds of people were swindled out of their savings bilk, con, hustle, fiddle, gyp, bunco, flimflam sybarite [ ]

1 n. a person devoted to pleasure and luxury; a voluptuary The prince was remembered as a self-indulgent sybarite. debauchee, decadent, hedonist, sensualist spartan, ascetic sycophant [ ] 1 n. a servile self-seeking flatterer When her career was riding high, the self-deluded actress often mistook sycophants for true friends. fawner, flunky , lickspittle, toady, apple-polisher, bootlicker, brownnoser syllabus [ ] 1 n. of a text, lecture, or course of study Have you got next year’s syllabus?

an outline or a summary of the main points

syllogism [ ] 1 n. reasoning from the general to the specific; deduction The syllogism was at the core of traditional deductive reasoning, where facts are determined by combining existing statements, in contrast to inductive reasoning where facts are determined by repeated observations. syllogize v.

Unit 4

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SYMBIOSIS SYNOPSIS

SYMMETRY SYNTHESIS

SYNCHRONOUS SYNERGIC TACIT TACITURN TACKLE

SYNONYMOUS

symbiosis [ ] 1 n. the living together in more or less intimate association or close union of two dissimilar The bird lives in symbiosis with the hippopotamus. unrelated growth symmetry [ ]

1 n. balanced proportions The building has perfect symmetry. balance, coherence, consonance, proportion disproportion, asymmetry, discordance, disproportion, disunity, imbalance, incoherence, violence

synchronous [

]

1 adj having identical period and phase The synchronous arrival of a baby sister and loss of a beloved grandmother strongly affected the girl. coetaneous, coeval, coexistent, concurrent, contemporaneous, simultaneous occurring at different times, noncontemporaneous, out-of-phase synergic [ ]

1 adj. working together: cooperating synergic muscles antagonistic synonymous [ ]

1 adj. having the same or a similar meaning Paris has always been synonymous with elegance, luxury and style.

synopsis [

]

1 n. a brief outline or general view; an abstract or a summary. Just give me a synopsis of the movie. abstract, brief, digest, recapitulation, roundup, summarization, epitome synthesis [ ]

1 n. the combination of parts or elements so as to form a whole a philosophy that is a kind of synthesis of several schools of Western and Eastern thought admixture, alloy, amalgamation, compound, conflation, fusion, meld analysis, take apart tacit [ ] implied or indicated (as by an act or by silence) but not actually expressed

1 adj. tacit consent

implied, unexpressed, unspoken, unvoiced, wordless explicit, express, expressed, spoken, stated, voiced taciturn [ ]

1 adj. temperamentally disinclined to talk A taciturn man never initiates a conversation. laconic, reserved, reticent, tight-lipped, uncommunicative garrulous, loquacious, glib, expansive, prolix, voluble tackle [ ]

1 v. to start work on energetically Once I clean the kitchen, I think I'll tackle the bathroom. dive into, wade in

Unit 5

TACT TACTILE TACTLESS TALISMAN TAMPER TANGENT TANGIBLE TANGY

TAINT TANTALIZE

tact [

] 1 n. a keen sense of what to do or say in order to maintain good relations with others or avoid offense She talked to her neighbor with supreme tact. diplomacy clumsiness, insensitivity, tactlessness tactile [ ]

1 adj. perceptible by touch: tangible The thick brushstrokes give the painting a tactile quality. tactless [ ] 1 adj. bluntly inconsiderate or indiscreet. tactless comments graceless, ill-advised, imprudent, indelicate, injudicious, undiplomatic advisable, discreet, judicious, prudent, tactful, wise talisman [ ]

1 n. something worn or kept to bring good luck or keep away evil A pendant of white nephrite jade is often worn by Indians as a talisman to ward off heart disease. amulet, fetish, mascot, mojo, periapt, phylactery taint [ 1 ] vt. to affect slightly with something morally bad or undesirable

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A tendency toward conceitedness taints that athlete's status as a role model. blemish, darken, mar, spoil, tarnish, vitiate tainted pristine, unspoiled, wholesome, unadulterated tamper [ ]

1 vi. to handle thoughtlessly, ignorantly, or mischievously tamper with tradition diddle with, fiddle with, fool with, mess with 2 v. to tinker with rashly or foolishly Don't tamper with my feelings. tangent [ ] 1 n. / adj. tangent remarks excursive, digressive essential

diverging from an original purpose of course: irrelevant

tangible 1 adj. capable of being perceived palpable, touchable impalpable, intangible, unable to perceive 2 adj. possible to be treated as fact; real or concrete tangible evidence tangy [ ] 1 adj. having a powerfully stimulating odor or flavor a tangy sauce with a strong aftertaste pungent, strong bland, mild, smooth tantalize [ ]

1 vt. to excite (another) by exposing something desirable while keeping it out of reach He was tantalized by the possibility of earning a lot of money quickly. comfort, console, solace, alleviate, assuage, relieve, satiate

Unit 6

TANTAMOUNT TANTRUM TASTY TATTY TAUNT

TAPER TAUT

TARDY TAWDRY

TARNISH

tantamount [

]

1 adj. equivalent in value, significance, or effect a relationship tantamount to marriage incommensurate tantrum [ ] a fit of bad temper

1 n. had a tantrum blowup, explosion, fit pacification taper [ ]

1 vt. to become gradually narrower or thinner toward one end taper to a point abate, decline, diminish, dwindle, shrink, wane, drain away 2 v. to diminish or lessen gradually The storm finally tapered off. subside, die down, phase down, fall away, let up tardy [ ]

1 adj. moving slowly: sluggish He was tardy to work. crawling, creeping, dallying, dawdling, dilatory, dragging, lagging, languid, sluggish bolting, brisk, fleet, flying, meteoric, rocketing, scooting, scudding, scurrying, swift, whirling 2 adj. delayed beyond the expected or proper time a tardy arrival behind, belated, delinquent, overdue early, inopportune, precocious, premature, unseasonable, untimely tarnish [ ]

1 vt. to affect slightly with something morally bad or undesirable an arrest for shoplifting tarnished her reputation blemish, mar, stain, vitiate tasty [ ] 1 adj. giving pleasure or contentment to the mind or senses the tasty prospect of getting his revenge agreeable, delectable, delightful, satisfying, savory uninteresting, disagreeable, unpalatable, unpleasant, unwelcome tatty [ ]

1 adj. somewhat worn, shabby, or dilapidated a tatty shirt dilapidated, scruffy, seedy, sleazy, tatterdemalion, tatty, threadbare smart taunt [ ]

1 vt. to reproach or challenge in a mocking or insulting manner: jeer at The boys continually taunted each other.

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bait, hassle, haze, heckle, needle, ride taut [ ] 1 adj. not loose or flabby taut muscles lax, loose, slack 2 adj. kept in proper order or condition, kept in trim shape; neat and tidy a taunt ship kempt, orderly, shipshape, trim tawdry [ ]

1 adj. cheap and gaudy in appearance or quality; ignoble a tawdry attempt to smear his opponent meretricious, gaudy, flashy, garish exquisite

Unit 7

TAXING TEMERITY

TEDIOUS TEETER TEETOTALISM TELLING TEMPORIZE TEMPERATE TEMPESTUOUS

TENABLE

taxing [ ] 1 adj. requiring much time, effort, or careful attention The journey proved to be very taxing. arduous, burdensome, exacting, grueling, laborious, onerous, toilsome light, easy tedious [ ]

1 adj. tiresome because of length or dullness: boring a tedious public ceremony drab, dreary, jading, monotonous, stale, stodgy, stuffy, weary, drudging entertaining, absorbing, stimulating, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting teeter [ ] 1 vi. to move unsteadily: wobble She teetered down the street in her high heels. careen, dodder, lurch, reel stabilize … 2 v. to show uncertainty about the right course of action was teetering on the brink of making a decision about college balance, dither, falter, hang back, scruple, shilly-shally, stagger, vacillate, waver, wobble dive in, plunge in

teetotalism 1 n. the principle or practice of complete abstinence from alcoholic drinks intemperance telling [ ] 1 adj. effective, expressive the most telling evidence compelling, conclusive, convincing, forceful, persuasive, satisfying inconclusive, indecisive, ineffective, uncompelling, unconvincing, unpersuasive temerity [ ]

1 n. foolhardy disregard of danger; recklessness She was punished for his temerity. audacity, brashness, presumption, presumptuousness circumspection, cautious approach, pusillanimity temporize [ ]

1 v. to act evasively in order to gain time, avoid argument, or postpone a decision “Colonial officials . . . ordered to enforce unpopular enactments, tended to temporize, to find excuses for evasion”(J.H. Parry) (J.H. ) temperate [ ] 1 adj. avoiding extremes in behavior or expression rather temperate in his appraisal of the movie, calling it good but not great immoderate, extreme, frivolous 2 adj. given to or marked by restraint in the satisfaction of one's appetites a soft-spoken, serious-minded person of temperate habits abstentious, abstinent, continent, self-abnegating, self-denying, sober self-indulgent tempestuous [ ]

1 adj. marked by sudden or violent disturbance In terms of social change, the 1960s are generally considered the most tempestuous decade in recent American history. 20 60 cataclysmal, tumultuous, turbulent serene tenable [ ]

1 adj. capable of being held or defended; reasonable a tenable theory || a tenable outpost defendable, justifiable, maintainable, supportable, sustainable unjustified, unsound, specious, indefensible, fallacious

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Unit 8

TENACIOUS TENDENTIOUS TERMINOLOGY TERMINUS

TENDER TERROR

TENUOUS TEPID TERSE TESTIMONY

tenacious [

]

1 adj. persistent in maintaining something valued or habitual a tenacious advocate of civil rights dogged, insistent, persevering, pertinacious negotiable, vacillated 2 adj. tending to adhere to objects upon contact You'll have enough time getting those tenacious gum off of your wool sweater. adherent, adhesive, clingy, glutinous, tacky, viscid nonadhesive tendentious [ ]

1 adj. marked by a tendency in favor of a particular point of view: biased He made some extremely tendentious remarks. partial, distorting, subjective, biased unbiased, unprejudiced tender [ ]

1 vt. to offer formally tender a letter of resignation extend, proffer, trot out withdraw 2 adj. having or marked by sympathy and consideration for others an especially tender teacher who loves having kids with special educational needs in her class beneficent, benevolent, benignant, compassionate, softhearted atrocious, barbarous, bestial, brutal, callous, cruel, fiendish, inhuman, insensate, sadistic, savage, truculent, uncompassionate, vicious tenuous [ ] having little substance; flimsy

1 adj. a tenuous argument substantial tepid [ ]

1 adj. showing little or no interest or enthusiasm a tepid response || the tepid conservatism of the fifties lukewarm, halfhearted, uneager, unenthusiastic

ardent, ebullient, feverish, keen, passionate, wholehearted terminology [ ]

1 n. the special terms or expressions of a particular group or field the terminology favored by sportscasters || medical terminology that can be hard for the patient to understand argot, cant, dialect, jargon, jive, lingo, patois, patter, slang terminus [ ]

1 n. the final point; the end Stockholm is the terminus for the southbound train. outset, sustain terror [ ]

1 n. a state of intense fear Many civilians fled in terror. anxiety, dread, fearfulness, fright, horror, panic, trepidation terse [ ]

1 adj. brief and to the point; effectively concise dismissed me with a terse “no” compact, compendious, laconic, pithy, succinct circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, long-winded, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy, wordy testimony [ ]

1 n. firsthand authentication of a fact The jury heard 10 days of testimony. 10 attestation, confirmation, documentation, substantiation, testament, validation disproof

Unit 9

TESTY TETHER THEATRICAL THERAPEUTIC THORNY THREADBARE THRONG THWART TICKLISH TIFF

testy [

]

1 adj. easily annoyed: irritable That coworker would be easier to get along with if she weren't so testy all the time. choleric, irascible, peevish, perverse, pettish, petulant affable, good humor, unable to irritate, imperturbable, patient tether [ ]

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1 vt. to fasten or restrain by or as if by a tether They tethered the horses in the shade. detach, tear loose 2 n. the limit of one's strength or resources drought-stricken farmers at the end of their tether theatrical [ ] 1 adj. marked by exaggerated self-display and unnatural behavior assumed a theatrical pose dramatic, histrionic, melodramatic, stagy natural, understated, reserved, restraint therapeutic [ ]

1 adj. of or relating to the treatment of disease or disorders by remedial agents or methods Gentle exercise can be therapeutic for hospital patients. curative, healing, officinal, remedial, restorative thorny [ ]

1 adj. full of thorns Stay out of the thorny brambles unless you want a ton of scratches. smooth 2 adj. full of difficulties or controversial points : ticklish a thorny problem catchy, delicate, knotty, prickly, ticklish threadbare [ ]

1 adj. overused to the point of being worn out; hackneyed a novel filled with nothing but threadbare clichés banal, cliché, commonplace, hackney, shopworn, trite 2 adj. lacking money or material possessions never knew that she had so many threadbare relatives until she won the lottery beggared, destitute, down-and-out, famished, impecunious, impoverished, indigent, necessitous, needful, pauperized, penniless, penurious, poverty-stricken, skint affluent, deep-pocketed, flush, opulent, silk-stocking, wealthy, well-heeled, well-off, well-to-do 3 adj. worn or torn into or as if into rags I loved that threadbare shirt, but after 10 years of wear, it was time to throw it away. 10 frayed, raggedy, ratty, seedy, shabby, tattered, worn-out throng ] 1 vi./n. to crowd together in great numbers commuters thronging the MTR platform flock, mob, swarm ] vt. to oppose successfully [

thwart [ 1

She did all she could to thwart his plans. baffle, balk, checkmate, discomfit advance, cultivate, encourage, forward, foster, further, nurture, promote, support, aid, bolster, abet, foment, facilitate ticklish [ ]

1 adj. easily offended or upset; touchy ticklish about his baldness huffy, tetchy, thin-skinned imperturbable 2 adj. requiring exceptional skill or caution in performance or handling Trying to tell him that his zipper is down without embarrassing him will be a ticklish task. catchy, delicate, difficult, dodgy, knotty, prickly, problematic, sensitive, spiny, sticky, thorny, touchy, tough, tricksy tiff [ ] 1 n./v. a petty quarrel got into a little tiff about what color sheets to buy for their bed altercate, bicker, brabble, hassle, quarrel, quibble, row, scrap, spat, squabble

Unit 10

TIGHTFISTED TINKER

TIMEWORN TINT

TIMID TIMOROUS TINGE TIRADE TOADY

TONIC

tightfisted [

]

1 adj. close-fisted; stingy The company is pretty tightfisted when it comes to bonuses. mean, miserly, parsimonious, penurious, sparing, stinting bounteous, bountiful, charitable, freehanded, generous, liberal, munificent, openhanded, unsparing, unstinting timeworn [ ]

1 adj. hackneyed, stale timeworn jokes banal, cliché, commonplace, hackneyed, stereotyped, threadbare, trite fresh, new, novel, original, unclichéd, unhackneyed timid [ ]

1 adj. lacking in courage or self-confidence He gave her a timid smile. fainthearted, fearsome, scary, timorous, tremulous stalwart, adventurous, audacious, bold, daring, dashing, gutsy, venturous

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timorous [ ] 1 adj. of a timid disposition: fearful be as timorous as a rabbit timid, undaring, quailing, recoiling, scary, skittish stalwart, intrepid, adventurous, audacious, bold, daring, dashing, gutsy, venturous tinge [ ]

1 vt. to color with a slight shade or stain; tint just slightly tinge the frosting with yellow food coloring to give it a lemony look dye, pigment, stain, tincture, tint suffuse, decolorize tinker [ ]

1 vi. to handle thoughtlessly, ignorantly, or mischievously tinkering with the engine diddle with, fiddle with, fool with, mess with, toy with, twiddle with adjust, repair tint [ ] 1 v. apply a usually slight or pale coloration to tint with only one color dye, pigment, stain, tincture, tinge suffuse, decolorize tirade [ ]

1 n. a long angry or violent speech, usually of a censorious or denunciatory nature; a diatribe a tirade of angry protest harangue, diatribe, jeremiad, philippic, rant eulogy, encomium, panegyric, tribute toady [ ]

1 n./v. one who flatters in the hope of gaining favors He criticized that I was a toady. sycophant, groveler, flatterer tonic [ ]

1 adj. producing or stimulating physical, mental, or emotional vigor; beneficial to the health of body or mind tonic medicine medicinal, restorative, salubrious, salutary, salutiferous, sanative, wholesome insalubrious, noxious, unhealthful, unhealthy, unwholesome

List 26
Unit 1

TOPSY-TURVY TORTUOUS

TORPID TOUT

TORPOR TORRENTIAL TORRID TOY TRACTABLE TRANQUILITY

topsy-turvy [ 1 adj.

] lacking in order, neatness, and often cleanliness

He left his room topsy-turvy. disordered, chaotic, messy, anarchic, jumbled kempt, neat, orderly, organized, shipshape, tidy, trim, uncluttered, well-ordered torpid [ 1 adj. ] lacking in sensation or feeling

My tongue and throat remained torpid for a time following the endoscopy. asleep, benumbed, dead, insensitive, numbed, unfeeling feeling, sensible, sensitive 2 adj. slow to move or act a torpid sloth that refused to budge off its tree branch dull, inert, lethargic, quiescent, sleepy, sluggish, torpid active torpor [ 1 n. ] lack of interest or concern

After a lifetime of setbacks, defeats, and failures, he could only greet the latest bad news with a resigned fatalism and dull torpor. apathy, casualness, complacence, disinterestedness, disregard, incuriosity, insouciance, nonchalance concern, interest, regard 2 n. physical or mental inertness Following Thanksgiving dinner, we spent the rest of the day lounging about in a contented torpor. languor, lassitude, listlessness, stupor vigor, vim, vitality, vivacity torrential 1 adj. caused by or resulting from action of rapid streams a torrential rain trickling

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torrid [ 1

] adj. intensely hot

the dry, torrid summers in southern Arizona hot, scalding, scorching, sweltering arctic, bone-chilling, freezing, frigid, frozen, glacial, icy 2 adj. having or expressing great depth of feeling torrid love affair ardent, burning, fervid, flaming, glowing, impassioned, incandescent, intense, passionate, vehement dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional tortuous [ 1 adj. ] marked by devious or indirect tactics: crooked, tricky

a tortuous path bending, curling, curvy, devious, serpentine, sinuous, twisted, windy direct, straightforward tout [ 1 ] vt. to promote or praise energetically; publicize to tout victory in the war acclaim, laud, praise, ballyhoo, tout asperse, censure, denounce, berate, rate, revile, vituperate toy [ 1 ] vi. to handle thoughtlessly, ignorantly, or mischievously That microscope is a delicate instrument, not something to be toyed with. diddle with, fiddle with, fool with, mess with, monkey with, tinker with, twiddle with tractable [ 1 adj. ] readily giving in to the command or authority of another

a tractable horse obedient, amenable, docile, flexible, manageable, compliant, submissive, tame balky, contumacious, defiant, disobedient, incompliant, insubordinate, obstreperous, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, restive, unamenable, ungovernable, unruly, untoward, wayward, willful

tranquility [ 1 n.

] a state of freedom from storm or disturbance

enjoyed the tranquillity of the snow-covered field at dusk calm, quiet, silence, serenity bustle, commotion, hubbub, pandemonium, tumult, turmoil, unquietness, unrest, uproar

Unit 2

TRANSCEND TRANSFIGURE TRANSGRESS TRANSLUCENT TRANSPARENT TRAVAIL

TRANSIENT TRAVERSE

TRANSITORY TRAVESTY

transcend [ 1 vt.

] to rise above or go beyond the limits of

a person who believes that any true understanding of God transcends human intelligence break, outreach, outrun, overpass, overreach, overrun, overshoot, overstep, surpass transfigure [ 1 vt. ] to alter the outward appearance of; transform AutoCAD

transfigure the AutoCAD drawings with elegant symbols

alchemize, metamorphose, transform, transmute, transpose, transubstantiate, make over transgress [ 1 vt. ] to fail to keep; to commit an offense

don't even think about transgressing the drug laws of that Asian country, for punishments are severe and there's nothing that our government can do to intervene breach, break, contravene, fracture, infringe, offend, traduce follow, mind, obey, observe, comply with, conform to transient [ 1 adj. ] passing with time; transitory

transient pleasure transitory, ephemeral, evanescent, fleeting, temporary ceaseless, dateless, deathless, endless, enduring, eternal, everlasting, immortal, lasting, long-lived, permanent, perpetual, timeless, undying, unending transitory 1 [ adj. ] existing or lasting only a short time; short-lived or temporary

most of life’s joys are transitory transient, ephemeral, evanescent, fleeting, temporary ceaseless, dateless, deathless, endless, enduring, eternal, everlasting, immortal, lasting, long-lived, permanent, perpetual, timeless, undying, unending translucent [ 1 adj. translucent dewdrop transparent, limpid, pellucid, lucent, lucid, transpicuous ] permitting the passage of light: clear, transparent

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opaque transparent [ 1 adj. ] capable of transmitting light

translucent, limpid, pellucid, lucent, lucid, transpicuous cloudy, opaque 2 adj. not subject to misinterpretation or more than one interpretation His meaning in leaving the conversation is transparent: he doesn't want to talk about his combat experiences. obvious, clear, apparent, patent, understandable, apprehensible, comprehendible, fathomable ambiguous, clouded, cryptic, enigmatic, equivocal, indistinct, mysterious, obfuscated, obscure, unapparent, unclarified, unclear, unclouded travail [ 1 n./v. ] work, especially when arduous or involving painful effort || Labor Day is the day on which we recognize those men

writer’s literary travail

and women who daily travail with little appreciation or compensation. drudgery, fatigue, grind traverse [ 1 vt. ] to travel or pass across, over, or through

The spider traversed the wall from end to end. course, cover, cross, cut across, navigate, pass over, perambulate, peregrinate, proceed along, transit, travel travesty [ 1 n./v. ] an exaggerated or grotesque imitation, such as a parody of a literary work

a travesty of his classmate’s manner caricature, burlesque, parody, spoof, mock paragon

Unit 3

TREACHEROUS TRICKLE

TRENCHANT TRITE

TREPIDATION TRIVIAL

TRESPASS TRUANT

TRIBUTE TRUCE

treacherous [ 1 adj.

] marked by betrayal of fidelity, confidence, or trust

a treacherous ally faithless, disloyal, perfidious, recreant, traitorous, unfaithful, unloyal, betraying

constant, dedicated, devoted, staunch, down-the-line, faithful, fast, loyal, steadfast, steady, true trenchant [ 1 adj. ] keen, sharp

Even the most trenchant sword could not sever the bonds of loyalty between them. keen, sharp blunt, blunted, dull, obtuse 2 adj. vigorously effective and articulate trenchant criticisms incisive vague trepidation [ 1 n. ] the emotion experienced in the presence or threat of danger; apprehension

trepidation about starting a new career fear, fright, horror, apprehension boldness, bravery, dauntlessness, intrepidity trespass [ 1 vi. ] to commit an offense

I consider him to be trespassing against all of us when he trespasses against any one of us. transgress, invade, intrude withdraw, retreat tribute [ 1 n. ] a gift, payment, declaration, or other acknowledgment of gratitude, respect, or admiration

pay a high tribute to accolade, eulogy, encomium, panegyric, tribute denunciation, condemnation, criticism, censure, reproof, reprobation trickle [ 1 ] vi. to issue or fall in drops

Tears trickled down her cheeks. pour, roll, stream, gush trite [ 1 ] adj. hackneyed or boring from much use, not fresh or original “You win some, you lose some” is a trite expression. bathetic, cliché, hackneyed, threadbare, timeworn, banal fresh, new, novel, original, unclichéd, unhackneyed trivial [ 1 ] adj. of little worth or importance

why spend so much time on trivial decisions, like whether the cola should be regular or diet?

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inconsiderable, insignificant, minor, petty, inconsequential, paltry, trifling consequential, material, momentous, weighty, indispensable, substantive, grandiose, massive truant [ 1 ] adj./ n./ vi. shirking responsibility; one who shirks duty

play truant shirk, malinger, goldbrick, avoid, escape, evade, parry, sidestep, circumvent, fence, hedge, avert, elude, shun, skirt, dodge, bilk, eschew dutiful truce [ 1 ] n. a suspension of fighting especially of considerable duration by agreement of

opposing forces truce agreement armistice, cease-fire, peace

Unit 4

TRUCULENT TUMULT

TRUDGE TURBID

TRUMPET TURBULENT

TRUNCATE TURGID

TRUSS TURMOIL

truculent [ 1 adj.

] marked by harsh insulting language

a theater critic who was notorious for his titanically truculent reviews contumelious, invective, opprobrious, scurrilous, vitriolic, vituperative 2 adj. feeling or displaying eagerness to fight in an aggressively truculent manner belligerent, bellicose, combative, militant, aggressive, feisty nonaggressive, nonbelligerent, pacific, peaceable, peaceful, uncombative, uncontentious trudge [ 1 vi. ] to move heavily or clumsily

trudge over hill plod, lug, slog, flounder breeze, glide, slide, waltz, whisk, flit trumpet [ tr mpit] 1 v. to make known openly or publicly

The losing party lost no time in trumpeting allegations of election fraud. advertise, annunciate, blare, broadcast, declare, proclaim, promulgate, release, give out truncate [ 1 v. 11 abbreviate, abridge, curtail, retrench elongate, extend, lengthen, prolong, protract truss [ 1 ] v. to gather into a tight mass by means of a line or cord ] to shorten by or as if by cutting off

a truncated version of the 11 o'clock newscast followed the awards show, which ran over its time slot

After stuffing the turkey, the chef quickly trussed it so the forcemeat wouldn't fall out during roasting. band, bind unbind, untie tumult [ 1 n. ] a disorderly commotion or disturbance, a riot

His mind was in a tumult. disorder, disturbance, commotion, convulsion, ferment, turmoil, pandemonium, uproar quietude, quiescence, serenity, tranquility turbid [ 1 adj. ] deficient in clarity or purity

a turbid stream muddy, murky, obscure clear , limpid, lucid, pellucid, , crystalline turbulent [ 1 adj. ] marked by sudden or violent disturbance

a turbulent period in history cataclysmal, stormy, tempestuous, tumultuous 2 adj. marked by turmoil or disturbance especially of natural elements the turbulent rapids of the river were certainly daunting to those of us who were new to river rafting rough, rugged, stormy, tempestuous turgid [ 1 adj. ] excessively embellished in style or language

turgid prose flatulent, bombastic, pompous simple, austere, unadorned, undecorated, unembellished turmoil [ ]

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1

n.

a state or condition of extreme confusion, agitation, or commotion

My mind is in a turmoil. commotion, agitation, tumult, turbulence, disorder, ferment, clamor calm, ease, peace, peacefulness, quiet, tranquility, silence, serenity

Unit 5

T U R N C O AT UBIQUITOUS

TURPITUDE UNASSAILABLE

TWIG UNCANNY

TYPO UNCOUCH

TYRO UNCTUOUS

turncoat [ 1 n.

] one who switches to an opposing side or party; specifically: traitor

He was labeled as a turncoat. renegade, traitor, apostate, recreant, betrayer, quisling loyalist, partisan, adherent, supporter turpitude [ 1 n. ] inherent baseness: depravity

moral turpitude abjection, corruptness, debasement, debauchery, decadency, degeneration, degradation, demoralization, depravity, dissipatedness, dissoluteness, libertinism, perversion, rakishness probity twig [ 1 ] v. to have a clear idea of

It took me a while to twig the true nature of the relationship between the two women. appreciate, apprehend, cognize, compass, conceive, decipher, decode, dig, discern, perceive, recognize, savvy, seize, sense, tumble to, catch on to, make out typo [ 1 n. ] an error in typed or typeset material make one typo on the memo misprint, bug tyro [ 1 n. ] a beginner in learning: novice a tyro in the art of piano novice, apprentice, neophyte, rookie, amateur, dabbler, dilettante, fledgling, recruit old hand, old-timer, vet, expert, professional, veteran

ubiquitous [ 1 adj.

] being everywhere at the same time; often observed or encountered

The conflict between opposites is ubiquitous. omnipresent, universal, general, common extraordinary, infrequent, rare, seldom, uncommon, unfamiliar, unusual, unique, particular

unassailable 1 adj.

[

] not to be violated, criticized, or tampered with

an unassailable article undeniable, inviolable, sacrosanct , irrefutable, indisputable, unexceptionable, unimpeachable controversial uncanny [ 1 adj. laws of nature The silence was uncanny. magical, miraculous, phenomenal, preternatural, superhuman, supernormal, transcendent, transcendental, uncanny, unearthly ordinary, commonplace, normal uncouth 1 [ adj. ] lacking in refinement or good taste ] being so extraordinary or abnormal as to suggest powers which violate the

the movie's uncouth humor seemed to be purposely offensive crass, rude, discourteous, disgracious, ungraceful, crude, ill-bred, ill-mannered, uncivil, unrefined genteel, cultivated, cultured, polished, urbane, seemly unctuous [ 1 adj. ] overly or insincerely flattering

an unctuous appraisal of the musical talent shown by the boss's daughter adulatory, gushing, hagiographic, oily, oleaginous, soapy 2 adj. characterized by affected, exaggerated, or insincere earnestness an unctuous effort to appear religious to the voters artificial, backhanded, counterfeit, fake, feigned, hypocritical, phony, pretended artless, candid, genuine, heartfelt, honest, sincere, undesigning, unfeigned

Unit 6

UNDERDOG UNDERGIRD UNDERMINE UNDERSCORE UNDERSTUDY UNEXPECTIONABLE UNFLAPPABLE UNGAINLY

UNDERSTATE UNIMPEACHABLE

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underdog [ 1 n.

] a loser/ victim or predicted loser in a struggle or contest

She always supports for the underdog. loser, victim bully undergird [ 1 vt. ] to support or strengthen from beneath

facts and statistics undergird his commentary strengthen, support, fortify, reinforce, bear, bolster, brace, buttress, carry, stay, sustain, underpin, uphold, prop up, shore up undermine, weaken, debilitate, enfeeble, enervate undermine [ 1 vt. ] to weaken, injure, or impair, often by degrees or imperceptibly

undermine a fortress undermine, weaken, debilitate, enfeeble, enervate strengthen, support, fortify, reinforce underscore [ 1 vt. ] to emphasize; stress

underscore the value of education accentuate, italicize, stress, underline, bring out deemphasize, downplay understate [ 1 vt. ] to state or present with restraint especially for effect

understate a problem downplay vaunt, exaggerate, overstate understated adj. avoiding obvious emphasis or embellishment conservative, low-key, muted, repressed, restrained, sober, subdued, unflashy, unpretentious flamboyant, flaring, flashy, garish, gaudy, glitzy, ostentatious, splashy understudy [ 1 n. ] one who is prepared to act another's part or take over another's duties

be an understudy to sb deputy unexceptionable [ 1 adj. ] not open to objection or criticism, beyond reproach

unassailable, undeniable, irrefutable, indisputable, unexceptionable, unimpeachable assailable, controversial unflappable [ ]

1

adj.

not easily upset or excited

a unflappable general collected, composed, disimpassioned, imperturbable perturbable, shakable, disturbed, nervous ungainly [ 1 adj. ] having or showing an inability to move in a graceful manner

ungainly movements clumsy, awkward, blundering, maladroit coordinated, graceful, adroit, dexterous, lissome unimpeachable 1 adj. [ ] beyond doubt; unquestionable

An unimpeachable evidence unassailable, undeniable, irrefutable, indisputable, unexceptionable, unimpeachable assailable, controversial, open to question

Unit 7

UNKEMPT UNRULY

UNLETTERED UNTENABLE

UNPRETENTIOUS UNTOLD

UNPRODUCTIVE UNTOWARD

UNREQUITED UNWITTING

unkempt 1

[ adj.

] lacking in order, neatness, and often cleanliness

unkempt hotel rooms slovenly, slipshod, sloppy, unneat, untidy, topsy-turvy, jumbled bandbox, neat, orderly, organized, shipshape, tidy, trim, uncluttered, well-ordered unlettered 1 [ adj. ] not adept at reading and writing; deficient in the knowledge that can be

acquired from books. illiterate unlettered sector of society ignorant, illiterate, uneducated, untutored educated, knowledgeable, erudite, literate, schooled, well-informed, well-read unpretentious [ 1 adj. ] lacking pretension or affectation; modest

an unpretentious virtuoso demure, down-to-earth, lowly, meek, unassuming, humble, modest, unostentatious arrogant, bumptious, conceited, egotistic, fastuous, haughty, imperious, lordly, overweening, peremptory, pompous, presuming, presumptuous, self-asserting, supercilious, superior, toplofty, uppish, flamboyant,

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ostentatious 2 adj. free from any intent to deceive or impress others a simple and unpretentious account about growing up in the rural South artless, genuine, honest, ingenuous, innocent, naive, simple, sincere, true, unpretending affected, artful, artificial, assuming, dissembling, dissimulating, fake, guileful, insincere, phony

unproductive [ 1 adj.

] not productive; idle

her attempts to write a novel have been unproductive abortive, barren, fruitless, otiose, profitless, unavailing, unprofitable, unsuccessful, useless, vain deadly, effective, effectual, efficacious, efficient, potent, productive, profitable, successful, virtuous, telling

unrequited [ 1 adj. unrequited love unreciprocated

] not reciprocated or returned in kind

remunerative, gainful, lucrative, profitable unruly [ 1 adj. ] difficult or impossible to discipline, control, or rule.

an unruly child indocile, indomitable, intractable, recalcitrant, uncontrollable, undisciplined, ungovernable, unmanageable, insubordinate amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, submissive, tractable, subdued, mild, manageable, disciplined untenable [ 1 adj. ] not able to be defended

an untenable position assailable, controversial, open to question unassailable, undeniable, irrefutable, indisputable, unexceptionable, unimpeachable

untold [ 1 adj.

] too great or numerous to count

untold wealth incalculable, innumerable, countless, innumerous, uncountable, uncounted countable, enumerable, numberable, quantifiable, calculable untoward [ 1 adj. ] not favorable, unpropitious

an untoward incident unpropitious, unlucky, misfortunate, unfortunate

auspicious, propitious, favorable, fortunate 2 adj. given to resisting control or discipline by others a program for untoward teenagers that is designed to give them the kind of discipline that their parents were unable or unwilling to administer froward, headstrong, intractable, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly, wayward, willful controllable, governable, manageable, tractable unwitting [ 1 adj. ] not knowing, unaware

Please forgive my unwitting interruption of your conversation. unaware, ignorant acquainted, aware, cognizant, conscious, conversant, grounded, informed, knowing, mindful 2 adj. happening by chance; not intended

an unwitting mistake made in copying the material casual, chance, fluky, fortuitous, inadvertent, incidental, unintentional calculated, deliberate, intended, intentional, planned, premeditated, prepense

Unit 8

UNWONTED UTTER

UPBRAID VACCINATE

UPHOLD VACILLATE

URBANE VACUOUS

USURP VAGARY

unwonted [ 1 adj.

] not habitual or ordinary; unusual

honored for the unwonted courage he showed in battle uncommon, unordinary, unusual wonted, usual, routine, habitual, accustomed, customary upbraid 1 [ vt. ] to reproach severely

upbraid sb. with his ingratitude baste, scold, revile, berate, vituperate laud, extol, glorify, hymn, magnify, panegyrize, flatter, fawn, cringe, adulterate uphold [ 1 vt. ] to give support to

determined to uphold her views in the face of all challenges support, bolster, advocate, champion, endorse, espouse urbane [ ]

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1

adj.

notably polite or finished in manner

a gentlemanly and urbane host of elegant dinner parties debonair, civilized, genteel, cultivated, cultured, polished, refined, well-bred, courteous, gracious boorish, churlish, classless, clownish, loutish, uncouth usurp [ 1 vt. ] to seize and hold (the power or rights of another, for example) by force and without

legal authority usurp the throne arrogate, commandeer, convert, expropriate, pirate, preempt, press, seize, take over abdicate, crown utter [ 1 ] vt. to articulate (words); pronounce or speak She tried not to utter a sound as the doctor gave her a flu shot. articulate, bring out, enunciate, verbalize, vocalize 2 adj. complete; absolute; entire be at an utter loss what to do entire, total, stark, sheer, unqualified partial vaccinate [ 1 v. as diphtheria or typhus vaccinate sb. for smallpox immunize vacillate 1 children. hesitate, dither, waver, teeter, falter resolute, decide, dive in, plunge in 2 vi. to sway from one side to the other; oscillate oscillate, fluctuate equipoise vacuous [ 1 adj. ] marked by lack of ideas or intelligence [ vi. ] to waver in mind, will, or feeling: hesitate in choice of opinions or courses ] to inoculate with a vaccine in order to produce immunity to an infectious disease, such

Parents vacillate between saying no and yes, but actually neither response seems satisfactory to their

a movie that was derided for its vacuous dialogue airhead, brainless, dull, dumb, fatuous, foolish, inane, moronic, obtuse, simple, stupid, witless apt, bright, brilliant, clever, intelligent, keen, sharp, smart vacuity n. vagary [ 1 n. ] an erratic, unpredictable, or extravagant manifestation, action, or notion

Recently he had been prone to strange vagaries. caprice, fancy, freak, humor, vagrancy, whimsy

Unit 9

VAGUE VAPID

VALEDICTION VAPO RIZE

VALIANT VARIANCE

VALID VARI ENG ATED

VANQUISH VARNISH

vague [ 1

] adj. not clearly expressed

The diplomat gave as vague a reply as he could at the press conference. ambiguous, enigmatic, equivocal, indefinite, inexplicit, unclear clear, definite, express, explicit, specific 2 adj. lacking definite shape, form, or character the vague outline of a building through the dense fog dim, faint, foggy, hazy, indistinct, indistinguishable, misty, murky, nebulous, obscure, opaque pellucid valediction [ 1 n. ] an act of bidding farewell debut an address or statement of farewell or leave-taking

farewell, goodbye greeting 2 n.

a valediction given by the college president upon his retirement valedictory adj. valiant [ 1 adj. ] possessing or acting with bravery or boldness Despite their valiant efforts, they lost the game.

a valiant and moral knight

audacious, bold, brave, courageous, dauntless, fearless, gallant, intrepid, stalwart, stout, valorous cowardly, craven, gutless, nerveless, pusillanimous, spineless, timorous valiance n. valid [ 1 ] adj. logically correct

Only further experiments will show whether your theory is valid. Your argument isn't valid because you're taking what should be the conclusion and using it as a premise. analytic, coherent, consequent, rational, reasonable, sensible, sound, well-founded, well-grounded

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groundless, illegitimate, illogical, incoherent, inconsequent, invalid, irrational, unreasonable, unsound validity n. vanquish [ 1 vt. ] to defeat in a conflict or contest

vanquished his inner fear conquer, dominate, overpower, pacify, subdue, subject, subjugate, subordinate capitulate, succor, surrender, yield vapid [ 1 adj. ] lacking liveliness, animation, or interest

a song with vapid lyrics driveling, dull, flat, inane, insipid, jejune, sapless, tasteless absorbing, arresting, engaging, engrossing, enthralling, fascinating, immersing, intriguing, riveting

vaporize [ 1 vt. gasify condense 2 vt.

] to convert (as by the application of heat or by spraying) into vapor

to destroy by or as if by converting into vapor

The entire fleet was vaporized. annihilate, decimate, demolish, devastate, extinguish, nuke, pulverize, raze, ruin, smash, wreck build, construct, erect, establish, raise, rear vaporous adj. variance [ 1 n. ] a lack of agreement or harmony

Persistent variance within the band eventually caused it to break up. conflict, disaccord, discordance, disharmony, dissent, division, friction, schism, variation, war accord, agreement, concord, concordance, harmony, peace variant adj. variegated [ 1 adj. ] having discrete markings of different colors

variegated costumes of the dancers in the nightclub chromatic, kaleidoscopic, iridescent, motley, rainbow monochromatic variegation n. varnish [ 1 vt. ] to give a smooth and glossy finish to —— colorless

Don't sit on that chair - I've just varnished it. adorn, bedeck, bedizen, decorate, embellish, garnish, ornament

2

vt.

to cover or conceal (as something unpleasant) with something that gives

an attractive appearance She tried to varnish her mistakes. blanch, extenuate, gloss, palliate, sugarcoat, veneer bare, disclose, discover, divulge, expose, reveal, uncloak, uncover, unmask, unveil

Unit 10

VAULT V E N DO R

VAUNT V E NE E R

VEER VEHEMENT V E NE R AT E V E NI AL

VENAL V E NO M

vault [ 1

] vi. to propel oneself upward or forward into the air

The horse vaulted over the obstacle with ease. bound, hop, jump, leap, spring 2 vi. to accomplish something as if by leaping suddenly or vigorously She vaulted into a position of wealth. vaunt [ 1 vi. ] to speak boastfully

vaunted his country’s military might boast, brag, brandish, swagger belittle, deprecate, diminish, minimize, underrate, undervalue vaunting adj. veer [ 1 ] v. to change direction or course He veered the car abruptly to the right to avoid a collision. avert, deviate, deflect, divert, redirect, swerve, swing, wheel straighten vehement [ 1 adj. ] having or expressing great depth of feeling

a vehement defender of the rights of minorities ardent, demonstrative, emotional, fervid, impassioned, intense, passionate, perfervid, torrid cold, cool, dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional vehemence n. venal [ 1 ] adj. open to corrupt influence and especially bribery

a judge who is known for being venal and easily bought

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bribable, corruptible, dirty, purchasable incorruptible vendor [ 1 n. ] one that sells or vends scrupulous

We're thinking of making a deal with that other software vendor. broker, dealer, merchandiser, retailer, seller, trader buyer, consumer, purchaser veneer [ 1 n. ] a thin surface layer, as of finely grained wood, glued to a

base of inferior material cover, façade, mask center, core, kernel 2 vt. to cover over with a veneer; especially to conceal (as a defect of character) under a superficial and deceptive attractiveness blanch, extenuate, gloss, palliate, sugarcoat, varnish bare, disclose, discover, divulge, expose, reveal, uncloak, uncover, unmask, unveil venerate [ 1 vt. ] to regard with reverential respect or with admiring deference

She is venerated by the public as a saint. adore, deify, esteem, regard, respect, revere despise, disdain, disregard, flout, scorn veneration n. venial [ 1 adj. ] easily excused or forgiven

Taking the restaurant's menu as a souvenir seems like a venial offense. condonable, excusable, forgivable, pardonable, remissible, remittable heinous, indefensible, inexcusable, mortal, unforgivable, unpardonable venom [ 1 n. ] poisonous matter normally secreted by some animals as snakes, scorpions, or bees

an antidote to snake venom toxic, toxin antidote 2 n. the desire to cause pain for the satisfaction of doing harm She spoke of him with venom in her voice. despite, malevolence, maliciousness, malignance, malignity, meanness, nastiness, spite, viciousness comity, friendship, goodwill

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List 27
Unit 1

VERACIOUS VERSIMILAR

VERBATIM VERITABLE

VERBOSE VERDANT V E VERNACULAR VERSATILE

R I F Y VERSE

veracious [ ] 1 adj. being in the habit of telling the truth a veracious witness He has a reputation for being veracious, so people generally take his word for things. honest, truthful dishonest, lying, mendacious, prevaricating, untruthful 2 adj. precise, accurate a novel that presents a fairly veracious and unvarnished picture of the lives of affluent suburbanites accurate, exact, precise, proper, right, true false, improper, inaccurate, incorrect, inexact, untrue, wrong veracity n. verbatim [ ]

1 adv. in the exact words You can't just copy the encyclopedia article verbatim for your report - that's plagiarism. —— ad verbum, directly, exactly, word for word inaccurately, inexactly verbalism n. verbose [ ]

1 adj. containing more words than necessary a verbose orator She has a verbose writing style. circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, garrulous, long-winded, prolix, rambling, verbose, windy brief, compact, concise, pithy, succinct, terse verbosity n. verdant [ ] green with vegetation; covered with green growth

1 adj. verdant fields green, grown, leafy, luxuriant, overgrown barren, impoverished, infertile, leafless, sterile

verify [ ] 1 vt. to determine or test the truth or accuracy of, as by comparison, investigation, or reference We need to verify your passport. attest, authenticate, certify, corroborate, substantiate, support, validate, vindicate disprove, rebut, refute verified adj. verification n. verisimilar [ ]

1 adj. appearing to be true or real a verisimilar tale likely, plausible, probable implausible, incredible, unbelievable veritable [ ]

1 adj. being in fact the thing named and not false, unreal, or imaginary a veritable manuscript authentic, credible, genuine, real, true, unquestionable, bona fide bogus, counterfeit, fake, false, mock, phony, pseudo, sham, spurious vernacular [ ]

1 n. a nonstandard language or dialect of a place, region, or country phrases that occur in the common vernacular argot, cant, dialect, jargon, lingo, slang 2 adj. used in or suitable for speech and not formal writing writes essays in a very easy-to-read, vernacular style conversational, informal, nonliterary, vulgar bookish, formal, learned, literary

versatile [

]

1 adj. able to do many different kinds of things We have found a versatile baseball player who can play any position. adaptable, all-around, ambidextrous, protean, universal limited 2 adj. changing or fluctuating readily a versatile disposition capricious, changeable, fluid, inconstant, mercurial, skittish, temperamental, variable, volatile certain, changeless, constant, immutable, invariable, settled, stable, stationary, steady, unchangeable, unvarying verse [ ]

1 vt. to familiarize by close association, study, or experience well versed in the theater While in prison, he versed himself in the rights of the incarcerated.

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acquaint, familiarize, inform misinform, mislead 2 n. a composition using rhythm and often rhyme to create a lyrical effect composed a short verse for his father’s birthday ballad, lyric, poetry, song prose

Unit 2

VERTIGO VETERAN

VERVE VETO

VESSEL VEX

VESTIGE VIAB LE

VESTIGIAL V I C ARI O US

vertigo [ ] 1 n. a dizzy confused state of mind He had a dreadful attack of vertigo at the top of the tower. dizziness, giddiness sobriety verve [ ]

1 n. vitality, liveliness The instrumentalists played with skill and verve. animation, dynamism, energy, exuberance, liveliness, robustness, vibrancy, vigorousness, vim, vitality lethargy, listlessness, sluggishness, torpidity vessel [ ]

1 n. a tube or canal (as an artery) in which a body fluid is contained and conveyed or circulated blood vessel artery, vein 2 n. a watercraft bigger than a rowboat the largest military vessel afloat boat, cruiser, destroyer, ferry, ship, watercraft vestige [ ]

1 n. the smallest quantity or trace A few strange words carved on a stone were the only vestige of the lost civilization. the fossilized vestige of a dinosaur that traversed that muddy landscape millions of years ago echo, ghost, relic, remain, remnant, residual, shadow, trace vestigial adj. vestigial [ 1 adj. ] (of certain organs or parts of organisms) having attained a simple structure

and reduced size and function during the evolution of the species snake that has vestigial limbs incomplete, rudimentary, undeveloped adult, full-blown, full-fledged, matured, ripe, ripened veteran [ ]

1 n. one having knowledge or ability gained through long experience As a veteran of overseas travel, she offered us solid advice about planning our trip. doyen, expert, master, maven, warhorse beginner, colt, fledgling, freshman, greenhorn, neophyte, novice, recruit, rookie, tenderfoot, tyro 2 adj. having or showing exceptional knowledge, experience, or skill in a field of endeavor She is a veteran teacher who can mentor new teachers. accomplished, adept, consummate, experienced, masterful, professed, skilled, versed, virtuoso amateur, inexperienced, inexpert, unprofessional, unseasoned, unskilled, unskillful veto [ ]

1 n./vt. to forbid or prohibit authoritatively The President vetoed the bill. We wanted to do a cross-country trip, but our parents vetoed it. blackball, decline, disallow, disapprove, kill, negative, refuse, reject accredit, approbate, authorize, clear, confirm, finalize, formalize, ratify, sanction, warrant vex [ ] 1 vt. to bring trouble, distress, or agitation to vexed by her son's failure to clean his room aggravate, annoy, bother, exasperate, gall, grate, irk, nettle, peeve, rile appease, assuage, conciliate, mollify, placate, propitiate vexation n. viable [ ]

1 adj. capable of being done or carried out a viable solution to the problem achievable, attainable, doable, feasible, practicable, realizable, workable hopeless, impossible, impracticable, infeasible, unattainable, unviable, unworkable viability n. vicarious [ ]

1 adj. performed or suffered by one person as a substitute for another or to the benefit or advantage of another use Internet as a vicarious form of social life indirect, substitute, surrogate firsthand

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Unit 3

VICIOUS VIGOROUS

VICISSITUDE VILIFY

VICTIMIZE VIM

VIGILANT VINDICATE

VIGNETTE VINDICTIVE

vicious [ ] 1 adj. having or showing the desire to inflict severe pain and suffering on others vicious slander atrocious, barbaric, barbarous, brutal, butcherly, fiendish, heartless, inhumane, sadistic, savage, truculent benign, benignant, compassionate, humane, kind, kindhearted, merciful, sympathetic 2 adj. marked by violence or ferocity a vicious storm ripped through the region dreadful, excruciating, explosive, fearsome, ferocious, fierce, intensive, profound, vehement, violent light, moderate, soft viciousness n. vicissitude [ ]

1 n. natural change or mutation visible in nature or in human affairs vicissitude of daily life fluctuation, mutation, shift, variation uniformity vicissitudinous adj. victimize [ ]

1 vt. to subject to deception or fraud victimized by a confidence man with a slick story cheat, cozen, deceive, defraud, dupe, fool, hoax, swindle disabuse, disenchant, disillusion, undeceive vigilant [ ]

1 adj. alertly watchful especially to avoid danger Police warned the public to be vigilant and report anything suspicious. When traveling through the city, tourists should be extra vigilant. alert, attentive, awake, cautious, observant, sharp, watchful careless, heedless, inattentive, unmindful, unthinking, unwary vigilance n. vignette [ 1 ]

n. a vivid representation in words of someone or something The general's memoirs are filled with revealing vignettes of some of the war’s most compelling personalities. definition, delineation, depiction, picture, portrait, portraiture, portrayal, rendering, sketch

vigorous [ ] 1 adj. having active strength of body or mind He remains vigorous despite being over 80 years old. 80 brisk, dynamic, energetic, lively, robust, spirited, vital dull, lethargic, listless, sluggish, torpid 2 adj. able to withstand hardship, strain, or exposure vigorous and sturdy little sheep bred to live in mountainous regions hard, hardened, inured, rugged, stout, strong, sturdy, tough, toughened delicate, soft, tender, weak vigor n. vilify [ ]

1 vt. to utter slanderous and abusive statements against be vilified by the press because of her radical views asperse, blacken, calumniate, defame, libel, malign, smear, traduce acclaim, applaud, commend, praise vilification n. vim [ ] 1 n. robust energy and enthusiasm A little rest should give me back some of my vim. animation, bounce, dynamism, energy, liveliness, robustness, verve, vibrancy, vigorousness, vitality lethargy, listlessness, sluggishness, torpidity vindicate [ ]

1 vt. … … to free from allegation or blame The evidence would completely vindicate him. absolve, acquit, exculpate, exonerate incriminate 2 vt. to give evidence or testimony to the truth or factualness of Recent discoveries have generally vindicated the physicist's theories. attest, authenticate, certify, corroborate, substantiate, support, validate, verify disprove, rebut, refute vindictive [ ]

1 adj. disposed to seek revenge vindictive hatred for his brother avenging, resentful, retaliatory, revengeful, vengeful forgiving, merciful, relenting

Unit 4

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VIRTUOSO VISIONARY

VIRTUOUS VITALITY

VIRULENT VITIATE

VISCID VITRIOLIC

V I S CO US VITUPERATE

virtuoso [ ] 1 n. a person with masterly skill or technique in the arts a violin virtuoso adept, connoisseur, maestro, master, maven, proficient, wizard amateur, inexpert 2 adj. having or showing exceptional knowledge, experience, or skill in a field of endeavor The American virtuoso cellist Lynn Harrell joins the orchestra as soloist in Shostakovich’s technically challenging Cello Concerto No 2. accomplished, adept, consummate, experienced, masterful, professed, skilled, versed, veteran amateur, inexperienced, inexpert, unprofessional, unseasoned, unskilled, unskillful virtuosity n. virtuous [ ]

1 adj. having or showing virtue, especially moral excellence Virtuous behavior is its own reward. She felt that she had made a virtuous decision by donating the money to charity. decent, ethical, honest, honorable, moral, noble, righteous, straight, upright bad, evil, immoral, indecent, sinful, unethical, unrighteous, wicked, wrong virulent [ ]

1 adj. extremely poisonous or venomous virulent bacteria poisonous, toxic, venomous innocuous healthy, salubrious, wholesome 2 adj. marked by a rapid, severe, and destructive course a virulent look on her face cruel, malevolent, malicious, malignant, spiteful, vicious benevolent, benign, benignant, loving virulence n. viscid [ ]

1 adj. having a glutinous consistency viscid tree resin adherent, adhesive, clingy, gluey, glutinous, tenacious, viscous slick viscous [ ]

1 adj. viscid; sticky viscous syrup that takes forever to pour from a narrow-neck bottle

glutinous, syrup, viscid fluid, watery visionary [ ]

1 adj. having or marked by a tendency to be guided more by ideals than by reality a visionary plan for a manned flight to Mars idealistic, imaginary, impractical, quixotic, romantic, utopian pragmatic 2 adj. not real and existing only in the imagination claimed to have had visionary experiences of hell chimerical, dreamy, fabulous, fantastic, illusory, phantom, unreal actual, existent, existing, real 3 adj. having or marked by foresight and imagination a visionary and legendary leader farseeing, farsighted, forehanded, foreseeing, forethoughtful, prescient, proactive, provident improvident, myopic, shortsighted vitality [ ]

1 n. physical or mental vigor especially when highly developed Her vitality seemed to spread to everyone around her. animation, bounce, dynamism, energy, liveliness, robustness, verve, vibrancy, vigorousness, vim lethargy, listlessness, sluggishness, torpidity vitalize vt. vitiate [ ]

1 v. to reduce the value or impair the quality of Too many grammatical errors can vitiate the soundness of your writing, so double-check is recommended before submission. blemish, cripple, deface, degrade, deteriorate, flaw, harm, impair, mar, undermine doctor, fix, mend, patch, rebuild, recondition, reconstruct, renovate, repair, revamp 2 v. to debase in moral or aesthetic status Penchant for coarse language vitiates what is otherwise a refined literary style. abase, cheapen, corrupt, debauch, demean, demoralize, deprave, pervert, profane, prostitute, subvert elevate, ennoble, uplift vitiated adj. vitriolic [ ]

1 adj. bitterly scathing vitriolic criticism acerbic, acid, acrid, bitter, biting, caustic, corrosive, harsh, mordant, scalding, scathing, sharp, tart balmy, benign, bland, delicate, light, mellow, mild, nonabrasive, soft, soothing, tender vitriol n. vituperate [ ]

1 vt. to abuse or censure severely or abusively was vituperated for betraying his friends

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abuse, assail, belabor, berate, castigate, excoriate, lambaste, reprimand, scold, rail, revile, upbraid admire, commend, laud, praise vituperative adj.

Unit 5

VIVACIOUS VOLUMINOUS

VOCIFEROUS VOLUPTUOUS

VOLATILE VORACIOUS

VOLITION VOTARY

VOLUBLE VOUCH

vivacious [ ] 1 adj. lively in temper, conduct, or spirit a vivacious girl who became a successful sales rep active, animated, bouncing, brisk, energetic, frisky, kinetic, mettlesome, spirited, sprightly, vital, zippy dead, inactive, inanimate, languid, languorous, leaden, lifeless, listless, spiritless, vapid vivacity n. vociferous [ ]

1 adj. making, given to, or marked by noisy and vehement outcry Vociferous opponents of the bill protested angrily outside the Congress. blatant, boisterous, clamant, clamorous, obstreperous, strident, yowling reticent, taciturn serene, tranquil volatile [ ]

1 adj. characterized by or subject to rapid or unexpected change a boss of volatile moods The stock market can be very volatile. capricious, changeable, fluid, inconstant, mercurial, skittish, temperamental, variable, versatile certain, changeless, constant, immutable, invariable, settled, stable, stationary, steady, unchangeable, unvarying volatility n. volition [ ]

1 n. the act or power of making one's own choices or decisions beyond his volition or control choice, decision, discretion, will coercion, compulsion, constraint, duress, force, pressure voluble [ ]

1 adj. characterized by ready or rapid speech The voluble gadfly ruined the party. chatty, eloquent, garrulous, glib, loquacious, talkative, vocative reticent, taciturn laconic, reserved, succinct

volubility n. voluminous [ ] 1 adj. having great volume, fullness, size, or number trying to keep a track of voluminous academic database colossal, considerable, elephantine, enormous, gargantuan, gigantic, mammoth, numerous, oversize scanty, scarce dwarf, little, small, undersized voluptuous [ ]

1 adj. given to or spent in enjoyments of luxury, pleasure, or sensual gratifications They spent a long and voluptuous holiday in Venice. carnal, epicurean, luscious, lush, luxurious, indulgent, sensual, sensuous ascetic, spartan, self-denying voluptuary n. voracious [ ]

1 adj. having a huge appetite He has a voracious appetite. edacious, esurient, gluttonous, swinish abstemious, abstentious 2 adj. having or marked by an insatiable appetite for an activity or pursuit a voracious reader who locked himself up in the study acquisitive, avid, covetous, grasping, greedy, hungry, rapacious, ravenous, thirsty apathetic, indifferent, uneager, unenthusiastic voracity n. votary [ ]

1 n. a person who is fervently devoted, as to a leader or ideal; a faithful follower votaries of the religious leader acolyte, adherent, devotee, disciple, fan, fanatic, partisan, pupil, zealot bellwether, leader apostate, defector, renegade, traitor, turncoat vouch [ ]

1 vi. to declare (something) to be true or genuine; to give a guarantee willing to vouch for her integrity attest, avouch, guarantee, testify, warrant

Unit 6

VULGAR WAG

VULNERABLE WAN

WADDLE WANDERLUST

WAFFLE WANE

WAF T WA N T

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vulgar [ ] 1 adj. morally crude, undeveloped, or unregenerate He is a vulgar man but his music is quite divine. bawdy, coarse, crass, crude, dirty, filthy, gross, lowbred, indecent, nasty, obscene, ribald, rude, uncouth civilized, cultivated, cultured, genteel, polished, refined, urbane, well-bred 2 adj. used in or suitable for speech and not formal writing Latin was once the language of scholars, and English the vulgar language used by the common people. conversational, informal, nonliterary, unliterary, vernacular bookish, formal, learned, literary vulnerable [ ] The fort

1 adj. open to attack or damage The troops were deployed in a vulnerable position. was undefended and vulnerable. assailable, endangered, exposed, subject, susceptible guarded, protected, shielded invincible, invulnerable vulnerability n. waddle [ ]

1 vi. to walk with short steps that tilt the body from side to side The duck waddled back into the water. careen, dodder, reel, teeter, totter waddling adj. waffle [ ]

1 vi. to talk or write foolishly This lecturer will waffle on for hours. babble, blather, drivel, gabble, prattle articulate waft [ ] A feather wafted past us

1 vt. to float easily and gently, as on the air Heavenly aromas wafted from the kitchen. and settled on the grass. buoy, drift, glide, hang, hover, raft flounder, sink submerge wag [ ]

1 n. a humorous or droll person Some wag wrote a droll satire on the scandal. comedian, comic, droll, humorist, joker, wit 2 vt. to move to and fro or up and down especially with quick jerky motions The dog wagged its tail. swish, switch, waggle

wan [

] 1 adj. suggestive of poor health She looks a little wan after all that tiring work. ashen, ashy, blanched, livid, lurid, sickly, pale, pallid blooming, florid, flush, full-blooded, glowing, red, rosy, rubicund, ruddy, sanguine ]

wanderlust [

1 n. a very strong or irresistible impulse to travel His wanderlust would not allow him to stay long in one spot. wane [ ] 1 vi. to decrease in size, extent, or degree In the evening the storm finally waned.

The moon waxes and then wanes.

abate, decline, diminish, dwindle, ease, ebb, fall, lessen, lower, moderate, recede, shrink, subside, taper accumulate, balloon, burgeon, enlarge, escalate, expand, grow, increase, intensify, mushroom, rise, snowball, soar, wax waning adj. want [ ]

1 n. the condition or quality of lacking something usual or necessary There's a notable want of teachers in rural areas. absence, dearth, deficiency, drought, famine, inadequacy, insufficiency, lack, paucity, scarcity, shortage abundance, adequacy, amplitude, opulence, plenitude, plenty, sufficiency, wealth 2 vt. to have a strong desire for I want a new car so badly! She wanted more time to finish the test. ache, covet, crave, hunger, itch, long, lust, pine, repine, thirst, wish, yearn abhor, abominate, despise, detest, execrate, hate, loathe

Unit 7

WARMONGER WATERSHED

WARP WAX

WARRANT WAYLAY

WARY WELTER

WASTREL WHEEDLE

warmonger [ ] 1 n. one who urges or attempts to stir up war Fortunately, the warmongers met with overwhelming opposition. belligerent, hawk, jingoist, war hawk dove, pacifist warp [ ]

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1 vt. to turn from a correct or proper course avert, deflect, divert, veer straighten 2 vt. to twist (something) out of a natural or normal shape or condition The heat caused the wood to warp. deform, misshape, screw, torture 3 vt. to change so much as to create a wrong impression or alter the meaning of The faulty English translation really warps the meaning of the original Chinese text. distort, falsify, misinterpret, misrepresent, twist clarify, clear, explain, illuminate, illustrate warped adj. warrant [ ]

1 vt. to assume responsibility for the satisfactory quality or performance of The computer company unconditionally warrants all of its products for one full year. assure, avouch, guarantee, vouch 2 vt. to give official acceptance of as satisfactory The law warrants these measures. approbate, authorize, clear, confirm, finalize, formalize, ratify, sanction decline, deny, disallow, disapprove, negative, reject, veto warranted adj. warranty n. wary [ ]

1 adj. marked by keen caution, cunning, and watchfulness kept a wary eye out for signs of the enemy alert, cautious, chary, circumspect, conservative, guarded, heedful, vigilant, watchful careless, heedless, incautious, unguarded, unmindful, unwary wariness n. wastrel [ ]

1 n. one who expends resources foolishly and self-indulgently He ended up being a wastrel and a drunkard. fritterer, profligate, spender, spendthrift, squanderer, waster economizer, penny-pincher hoarder, miser, niggard watershed [ ]

1 n. a crucial dividing point: turning point a watershed moment in her life climax, corner, event, landmark, milestone wax [ 1 vi. planets wane 2 vt. to coat (something) with a slippery substance in order to reduce friction ] to increase in phase or intensity, used chiefly of the moon, other satellites, and inferior

wax the floor grease, oil, slick coarsen, rough, roughen 3 vi. to increase in size, numbers, strength, prosperity, or intensity The commitment of the young volunteers to the cause seems to wax. accelerate, accumulate, appreciate, balloon, boom, burgeon, enlarge, escalate, expand, proliferate, rise contract, decrease, diminish, dwindle, lessen, recede waxing adj. waylay [ ] We were

1 vt. to lie in wait for or attack from ambush Unsuspecting tourists are often waylaid by gangs. waylaid by a group of protestors with rocks. ambush, assault, lurk, surprise welter [ ]

1 n. a state of wild disorder There was a welter of pushing and shoving. would plunge the country into a welter of anarchy and endless civil war. disturbance, furor, hurricane, pandemonium, turmoil, turmoil, uproar, whirl calm, peace, tranquility order wheedle [ ]

The troop withdrawal

1 vt. to persuade or attempt to persuade by flattery or guile wheedled him into working for them She pleaded and wheedled, but I wouldn't be swayed. adulate, blandish, cajole, coax coerce, compel, demand, force, oblige, require

Unit 8

WHET WINCE

WHIFF WINDBAG

WHIMSICAL WINDY

WHOLESOME WINSOME

WICKED WIT

whet [ ] 1 vt. to sharpen by rubbing on or with something (as a stone) whetted the dagger with the grindstone edge, grind, hone, stone, strop blunt, dull

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whiff [ ] 1 n. a quick puff or slight gust especially of air, odor, gas, smoke, or spray A whiff of fresh air reinvigorated him. breath, puff blast 2 n. an almost imperceptible sign of something Even a whiff of appreciation for everything I've done for her would have been nice. Humanity is unregenerable and hates the language of conformity, since conformity has a whiff of the inhuman about it. (Anthony Burgess) flicker, glimmer, suggestion, touch, trace whimsical [ ]

1 adj. prone to sudden illogical changes of mind, ideas, or actions It’s hard to make plans with such a whimsical friend. capricious, fickle, freakish, mercurial, volatile resolute, unwavering whimsicality n. wholesome [ ]

1 adj. promoting mental, moral, or social health trying to eat a more wholesome diet healthy, restorative, salubrious, recuperative, tonic insalubrious, noxious, unhealthy, unwholesome wholesomeness n. wicked [ ]

1 adj. morally very bad a wicked urge to steal just for the sake of stealing dark, evil, immoral, iniquitous, nefarious, sinful, vicious, villainous decent, ethical, good, honest, honorable, moral, righteous, sublime, upright, virtuous wickedness n. wince [ ]

1 vi. to shrink back involuntarily as from pain winced at the horrible corpses blench, cringe, quail, quiver, recoil, shrink, tremble confront, face, meet challenge windbag [ ]

1 n. an exhaustively talkative person With a windbag like that, who needs a wind farm to meet our energy needs? babbler, conversationalist, gabbler, gasbag, prattler windy [ 1 ] adj. characterized by wearisome verbosity

a windy saleswoman who told us a lot more than we wanted to know about vacuum cleaners circuitous, circumlocutory, diffuse, garrulous, prolix, rambling, verbose compact, concise, crisp, pithy, succinct, terse winsome [ ]

1 adj. generally pleasing and engaging often because of a childlike charm and innocence fascinated by her winsome smile adorable, charming, disarming, enchanting, endearing, sweet, winning abhorrent, abominable, detestable, hateful, loathsome, odious winsomeness n. wit [ ] 1 n. the natural ability to perceive and understand lacked the wit to judge astuteness, brilliance, foxiness, intelligence, keenness, perspicacity, sagacity, sharpness, shrewdness brainlessness, dullness, fatuity, lunacy, silliness 2 n. a person of exceptional intelligence a man who fancied himself as a great wit illuminati, pundit, sage, savant, scholar dolt, fool, idiot, simpleton witty adj.

Unit 9

WITHDRAW WORLDLY

WITHER WORSHIP

WITHHOLD WRANGLE

WIZEN WRETCHED

WOBBLE W RY

withdraw [ ] 1 vi. to take back or away The army was forced to withdraw from the frontline. recede, retreat, fall back advance place, position, put withdrawal n. withdrawn adj. wither [ ] Amaranth

1 vi. to become dry and sapless Amaranth is a legendary flower that never withers. dry, fade, shrivel, wane, wilt, wizen revive bloom, flourish, prosper, thrive withering adj.

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withhold [ ] 1 vt. to refrain from granting, giving, or allowing withhold sensitive information decline, disallow, disapprove, detain, refuse, reject, reprobate, restrain, retain allow, concede, grant, permit wizen [ ]

1 vt. to become dry, shrunken, and wrinkled often as a result of aging or of failing vitality dry, mummify, shrivel, wither revive bloom, flourish, prosper, thrive 2 adj. , shriveled or dried up faded, withered blooming wobble [ ]

1 vi. to move or proceed with an irregular rocking or staggering motion or unsteadily and clumsily from side to side The drunk stood up, wobbled for a moment, and fell forward. rock, totter stabilize 2 vi. to show uncertainty about the right course of action We cannot tolerate the government wobbling at this critical time. falter, stagger, teeter, vacillate, waver worldly [ ]

1 adj. of this world rather than spiritual or religion affairs preoccupied with worldly concerns It is time you woke up and focused your thoughts on more worldly matters. carnal, corporeal, material, mundane mental, spiritual heavenly 2 adj. experienced in human affairs My little sister was worldly and sophisticated, quite unlike me. cosmopolitan, sophisticated ingenuous, innocent, naïve, unsophisticated worship [ ]

1 n. extravagant respect to an object of esteem the belief in swords and the worship of force adulation, adoration, deification, idolatry, reverence, veneration dislike, dismissal, disregard, hatred, loathing, scorn 2 v. to offer honor or respect to (someone) as a divine power The ancient Greeks worshipped many different gods.

adore, deify, glorify, revere, venerate blaspheme, desecrate, profane, violate wrangle [ ]

1 n. an often noisy or angry expression of differing opinions There was a bit of a wrangle over how much money to give the high school for its sports programs. altercation, controversy, disagreement, dispute, fight, imbroglio, quarrel, squabble harmony 2 vi. to quarrel noisily or angrily Local residents wrangled for hours about property taxes. altercate, argue, bicker, controvert, hassle, quibble, spat, tiff wrangler n. wretched [ ]

1 adj. very poor in quality or ability the wretched conditions of the refugee camp bad, coarse, inferior, low-grade, mediocre, miserable, poor, rubbishy, terrible, trashy excellent, fine, first-class, first-rate, good, high-grade, superior 2 adj. deeply afflicted, dejected, or distressed in body or mind She was wretched for weeks after breaking up with her boyfriend. blue, crestfallen, dejected, doleful, dolorous, gloomy, melancholy, mournful, rueful, sorrowful, woeful blissful, buoyant, cheerful, delighted, glad, happy, joyful, jubilant wretchedness n. wry [ ] 1 adj. abnormally twisted or bent to one side a wry smile bending, crooked, curving, devious common, normal, usual 2 adj. stubborn in adherence to wrong opinion or principles headstrong, obstinate, pertinacious, perverse, stubborn, wrongheaded amenable, compliant, complying, flexible, pliable, pliant, relenting, yielding

Unit 10

XENOPHOBE YOKE ZENITH ZEST

YOKEL

ZEAL

Z E AL O T

xenophobe [ ] 1 n. people of foreign origin

one unduly fearful of what is foreign and especially of

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But from what I know, no way could this thoroughly US-educated woman (from the age of 12) be a xenophobe. 12 xenomania xenophobia n. yoke [ ]

1 v. to become joined or linked yoked several ideas together to propose a novel theory chain, conjugate, hook, interconnect, join, link, unite disconnect, disjoin, dissever, disunite, separate, sunder, unchain, unlink, unyoke yokel [ ]

1 n. a naive or gullible inhabitant of a rural areaor small town a lame comedy about the misadventures of yokels in the big city bucolic, bumpkin, churl, provincial, rustic cosmopolitan zeal [ ]

1 n. enthusiastic devotion to a cause, ideal, or goal and tireless diligence in its furtherance preaches with fanatical zeal ardor, devotion, enthusiasm, fervidness, fervor, passion apathy, indifference, nonchalance, torpor, unconcern zealous adj. zealot [ ]

1 n. a zealous person; especially: a fanatical partisan a religious zealot calling for another Crusade activist, crusader, fanatic, partisan, red hot zealotry n. zenith [ ]

1 n. culminating point at the zenith of his power acme, apex, apogee, climax, crescendo, crest, peak, pinnacle, summit, top bottom, nadir zesty [ ]

1 adj. appealingly piquant or lively a zesty sauce peppery, piquant, pungent, salty, savory, spicy, zingy bland, insipid, vapid, zestless

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List 28*
Unit 1

R AV E N O U S NOURISH

SIMILE PLODDER

SHIFT MISAPPREHENSION

D AMN FEROCIOUS

N I R VA N A AFFIX

ravenous [ ] 1 adj. having a huge appetite He had moderated his ravenous appetite. edacious, esurient, gluttonous, greedy, rapacious, voracious content, sated, satiated, satisfied simile [ ]

ravenous for power

1 n. a figure of speech comparing two unlike things that is often introduced by like or as Even though both similes and metaphors are forms of comparison, similes indirectly compare the two ideas and allow them to remain distinct in spite of their similarities, whereas metaphors compare two things directly. For instance, a simile that compares a person with a bullet would go as follows: "Chris was a record-setting runner as fast as a speeding bullet." A metaphor might read something like, "When Chris ran, he was a speeding bullet racing along the track."

metaphor shift [ ]

1 vt. to change the place or position of She shifted the vase closer to the wall so that it wouldn't get knocked over. budge, dislocate, displace, disturb, relocate, remove, reposition, transfer, transpose anchor, fix, freeze, secure, set 2 vi. to pass from one form, state, or level to another She watched the aurora in fascination as its colors shifted from green to blue. fluctuate, mutate, snap, vary plateau, stabilize 3 vt. to give up (something) and take something else in return My father and I shifted seats just before takeoff so that I could sit by the window. commute, exchange, shift, substitute, swap, switch, trade damn [ ]

1 vt. to declare to be morally wrong or evil a cleric who damned gambling and strong drink anathematize, censure, decry, denounce, execrate, reprehend, reprobate bless, eulogize, exalt, extol, glorify, laud, praise 2 adv. to a great degree Let's have a damn good party. deadly, desperately, exceedingly, extremely, greatly, heavily, highly, incredibly, really, seriously, very little, negligibly, nominally, slightly, somewhat nirvana [ ]

1 n. a state of being disregardful or unconscious of one's surroundings, concerns, or obligations The spa experience was a week of pure nirvana. forgetfulness, obliviousness alertness, awareness, cognizance, consciousness 2 n. an often imaginary place or state of utter perfection and happiness They believe in a continuous cycle of births and deaths until the soul is perfected and achieves nirvana. empyrean, fantasyland, heaven, lotusland, utopia hell, inferno nourish [ ]

1 vt. to provide with food or other substances necessary for life and growth He willingly nourished a child that was not his own. breed, foster, nurse, nurture, raise, rear 2 vt. to help the growth or development of a friendship nourished by trust advance, cultivate, encourage, forward, further, incubate, promote discourage, frustrate, hinder, inhibit plodder [ ]

1 n. someone who moves slowly or more slowly than others The guide halted the tour group so that the plodders who had fallen behind could catch up. crawler, dallier, dawdler, dragger, laggard, lagger, lingerer, loiterer, snail, straggler speedster misapprehension [ ]

1 n. a failure to understand correctly tried to eliminate all misapprehensions about the planned riverfront development incomprehension, misconstruction, misconstruing, misimpression, misinterpretation, misknowledge, misreading, misunderstanding 2 n. a wrong judgement a common misapprehension about how our language functions miscalculation, misjudging, misjudgment, misstep, slip, slipup ferocious [ ]

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1 adj. marked by unrelenting intensity Ferocious heat wave kept people indoor. dreadful, excruciating, explosive, fearsome, fierce, intensive, profound, vehement, violent light, moderate, soft 2 adj. marked by bursts of destructive force or intense activity Ferocious forest fires threatened to destroy hundreds of homes in the scrubland. cyclonic, explosive, furious, paroxysmal, rabid, stormy, tempestuous, tumultuous, turbulent, volcanic nonviolent, peaceable, peaceful 3 adj. violently unfriendly or aggressive in disposition captured and slaughtered by the ferocious tribesmen feral, grim, savage, vicious gentle, mild, unaggressive ferocity n. affix [ ]

1 vt. to attach physically affix a stamp to a letter attach, bend, fix detach, undo, unfasten, unhook

Unit 2

ASYMMETRY OBSOLETE

EQUILIBRIUM DELEGATE PIOUS PEEL WIRETAP SURVEILLANCE

HIERARCHICAL PERCEPTIVE

asymmetry [

]

1 n. lack of balance or symmetry functional asymmetry of cerebral hemispheres disproportion, imbalance symmetry balance, proportion asymmetric adj. equilibrium [ ]

1 n. a condition in which opposing forces are equal to one another We must find an equilibrium between commercial development and conservation of our natural treasures. counterpoise, equilibration, equipoise, poise, stasis disequilibration, disequilibrium, imbalance, nonequilibrium, unbalance 2 n. evenness of emotions or temper That stunning insult left me speechless, and several minutes passed before I recovered my equilibrium.

aplomb, calmness, composure, countenance, imperturbability, placidity, repose, sangfroid, serenity, tranquillity agitation, discomposure, perturbation delegate [ ] 1 n. a person authorized to act as representative for another The real estate developer sent a delegate to the town meeting to represent his interests. the U.N. delegates from African countries agent, assignee, commissary, deputy, emissary, envoy, legate, minister, proxy, representative 2 vt. to put (something) into the possession or safekeeping of another The manager is reluctant to delegate authority to subordinates while abroad. commit, confide, consign, deliver, entrust, repose, transfer, transmit, vest, give over, hand over, turn over hold, keep, retain delegation n. pious [ ]

1 adj. marked by or showing reverence for deity and devotion to divine worship a pious woman who decided to become a nun devout, godly, religious, sainted, saintly antireligious, faithless, godless, impious, irreligious, ungodly, unholy 2 adj. firm in one's allegiance to someone or something a pious supporter of his school's athletic teams, during winning and losing seasons alike constant, dedicated, devoted, loyal, staunch, steadfast, steady, true disloyal, fickle, inconstant, perfidious, recreant, traitorous, treacherous, unfaithful hierarchical [ ]

1 adj. classified according to various criteria into successive levels or layers the traditional hierarchical system of military organization graded, graduated, ranked hierarchy n. obsolete [ ]

1 adj. no longer in use or no longer useful I was told my old printer is obsolete and I can't get replacement parts. an obsolete word antiquated, archaic, dated, fossilized, medieval, moribund, moth-eaten, outdated, outmoded, outworn, prehistoric, rusty contemporary, current, modern, recent peel [ ] 1 vt. to strip off an outer layer of She can peel apples with lightning speed. bark, flay, hull, husk, shell, shuck, skin, strip 2 vi. to take off one's clothes

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peeled off the wet clothes doff, douse, put off, shrug off, take off don, put on wiretap [ ]

1 n./vt. to tap a telephone or telegraph wire in order to get information This line is not clean asCIAmight have wiretapped it. eavesdrop, overhear, tap surveillance [ ]

1 n. close observation of a person or group, especially one under suspicion government surveillance of suspected terrorists oversight, supervision, watch perceptive [ ]

1 adj. able to sense slight impressions or differences Due to their ability to rotate their ears, cats are very perceptive when it comes to pinpointing the source of a sound. delicate, fine, keen,quick, sensitive, sharp dead, imperceptive, insensible, insensitive, numb 2 adj. having or showing deep understanding and intelligent application of knowledge A perceptive teacher was able to discover what was really troubling the youth. discerning, insightful, prudent, sagacious, sage, sapient brainless, dumb, foolish, idiotic, imbecile, moronic, silly, simple, slow, stupid, thoughtless, unintelligent, unwise, witless

Unit 3

RENEGE RI GMAROLE U N AV A I L I N G CACHET

IMPLICIT GRAFT

MARGIN AL FEISTY

P I V O TAL CASC ADE

renege

[

]

1 vt. to solemnly or formally reject or go back on (as something formerly adhered to) She refused to renege the principles by which she had always lived her life, even if it resulted in losing her business. abnegate, forswear, recant, renounce, repeal, repudiate, retract, withdraw adhere renegade n. rigmarole [ ]

1 n. language marked by abstractions, jargon, euphemisms, and circumlocutions; confused or meaningless talk The security guard gave me some kind of rigmarole about passes and authorizations. abracadabra, babble, drivel, gabble, gibber, jabber, nonsense, prattle implicit [ ]

1 adj. capable of being understood from something else though unexpressed The implicit agreement among members of the outing club is that everyone pays his or her own way on all trips. AA implied, unexpressed, unspoken, unvoiced, wordless explicit, expressed, spoken, stated, voiced 2 adj. being without doubt or reserve Members of the expedition must have implicit trust in their leaders. assured, clear, confident, doubtless, positive, sanguine, sure doubtful, dubious, uncertain, unsure marginal [ ]

1 adj. located at or near a border Marginal locations in the open-air market are a bit cheaper. frontier interior 2 adj. not of central importance regards violence as a marginal rather than a central problem inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, minor, minute, negligible, nugatory, slight, trifling, trivial consequential, eventful, important, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, weighty pivotal [ ]

1 adj. of the greatest possible importance The report was missing a pivotal piece of information. critical, crucial, decisive, key, vital inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, marginal, minor, minute, negligible, nugatory, slight, trifling, trivial unavailing [ ]

1 adj. producing no results an unavailing effort to avert a war abortive, barren, bootless, fruitless, ineffectual, unproductive, unprofitable, unsuccessful, useless, vain effective, effectual, efficacious, fruitful, potent, productive successful cachet [ ]

1 n. a mark or quality, as of distinction, individuality, or authenticity Federal courts have a certain cachet which state courts lack. credit, distinction, esteem, homage, kudos, prestige infamy, notoriety

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graft [ ] 1 vt. to implant (living tissue) surgically or as if surgically The top layer of skin has to be grafted onto the burns. old traditions onto the new ones implant, transplant feisty [ ]

graft

1 adj. having or showing a lively aggressiveness At 66, she was as feisty as ever. 66 aggressive, agonistic, assaultive, bellicose, belligerent, combative, contentious, disputatious, gladiatorial, militant, quarrelsome, truculent pacific, peaceful, peace-loving cascade [ ] 1 n. a steep usually small fall of water The river forms a series of cascades as it drops a total of 200 feet in elevation. 200 fall, waterfall cataract

Unit 4

DOMINEER F AV O R I T I S M

VILE POACH OVERWROUGHT

P A L P I T AT I O N SEQUEL FAD

P A L AV E R ARID

domineer [

]

1 vt. to exercise arbitrary or overbearing control Her husband and mother-in-law tyrannize her. tyrannize domineering adj. vile [ ]

1 adj. unpleasant to look at a truly vile combination of colors grotesque, hideous, homely, monstrous aesthetic, attractive, beautiful, comely, cute, fair, gorgeous, handsome, ravishing, seemly 2 adj. morally despicable or abhorrent Nothing is so vile as intellectual dishonesty. base, contemptible, despicable, detestable, dishonorable, execrable, ignominious, mean, nasty, paltry, sordid, wretched

honorable, lofty, noble, straight, upright, venerable, virtuous poach [ ]

1 vt. to cook in a liquid heated to the point that it gives off steam He poached an egg for breakfast. coddle, parboil, simmer, stew palpitation [ ]

1 n. a rhythmic expanding and contracting a palpitation of the blood vessels beat, beating, pulse, throb palaver [ ]

1 n. an exchange of views for the purpose of exploring a subject or deciding an issue seemingly endless palaver between the negotiating parties argument, colloquy, conference, consult, council, counsel, debate, dialogue, parley 2 vi. to talk profusely or idly Mothers were palavering and drinking coffee while watching their children play. babble, chatter, converse, gabble, jabber, prate, prattle, rattle, twitter favoritism [ ]

1 n. the showing of special favor Favoritism blinded the administrator to the benefits of the proposed system for distributing work. favor, one-sidedness, partiality, prejudice, tendentiousness impartiality, neutrality, objectivity, open-mindedness, unbiasedness overwrought [ ]

1 adj. being in a state of increased activity or agitation She became overwrought when she heard that her child was missing. agitated, excited, frenzied, heated, hectic, hyperactive, overactive calm, collected, composed, placid, serene, tranquil 2 adj. elaborately and often excessively decorated The author's prose is overwrought with purple passages and florid metaphors. baroque, bedizened, flamboyant, florid, fussy, gingerbreaded, ornate, overdecorated austere, plain, severe, stark, unadorned sequel [ ]

1 n. a result or consequence Higher prices are a logical sequel to higher costs for manufacturers. aftermath, conclusion, consequence, fate, fruit, outcome, product, result, sequence antecedent, causation, cause, occasion, reason fad [ ]

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1 n. a practice or interest that is very popular for a short time Once the fad for that kind of music had passed, nobody would have been caught dead listening to it. buzz, craze, enthusiasm, fashion, trend, vogue classic standard arid [ ]

1 adj. marked by little or no precipitation or humidity arid wastelands unfit for human habitation droughty, dry, sere, thirsty, waterless damp, dank, humid, moist, wet 2 adj. causing weariness, restlessness, or lack of interest arid wastelands unfit for human habitation dreary, dull, flat, humdrum, jading, jejune, monochromatic, monotonous, pedestrian, stale, stodgy, tedious, wearisome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting

Unit 5

AVOWAL DAMPEN

BACKFIRE DEBONAIR

BAFFLE CAREEN CONSTRICT FABULOUS HOBBLE PLUSH

avowal [ ] 1 n. a solemn and often public declaration of the truth or existence of something With jingoism rampant, the peace candidate felt compelled to make an avowal of his patriotism. affirmation, assertion, asseveration, avouchment, claim, declaration, insistence, profession disavowal backfire [ ]

1 vi. to have the reverse of the desired or expected effect My plan to throw her a surprise party backfired when she ended up sobbing that everyone had forgotten her birthday. boomerang succeed baffle [ ]

1 vt. to frustrate or check (a person) as by confusing or perplexing baffled by the language barrier balk, beat, check, discomfit, foil, frustrate, thwart advance, cultivate, encourage, forward, foster, further, nurture, promote 2 vt. to throw into a state of mental uncertainty

I was baffled by many of the scientific terms used in the article. befog, befuddle, bewilder, confound, discombobulate, disorient, maze, mystify, perplex, puzzle, vex clarify, elucidate baffling adj. careen [ ]

1 vi. to lurch or swerve while in motion He careened unsteadily to the couch after hitting his head. dodder, lurch, reel, sway, teeter, totter, waddle, wobble 2 vi. to rush headlong or carelessly Sounding its siren, an ambulance careened through the intersection. blast, bolt, bustle, career, dash, fly, hustle, rush, rustle, speed, whirl crawl, creep, lag, poke constrict [ ]

1 vt. to make smaller or narrower by or as if by binding or squeezing lives constricted by poverty Severe migraine can be treated with a drug which constricts the blood vessels. capsule, collapse, compact, condense, constringe, contract, narrow, squeeze, telescope decompress, expand, open, outspread, outstretch dampen [ ]

1 vt. to make or become slightly or moderately wet dampen a paper towel with water and use it to clean up the mess bedew, damp, douse , drench, impregnate, saturate, soak, souse, steep dehydrate, desiccate, dry, parch, scorch, sear 2 vt. to check or diminish the feeling, activity or vigor of Nothing could dampen their enthusiasm. The oppressive heat dampened our spirits. benumb, blunt, castrate, deaden, devitalize, enervate, geld, lobotomize, petrify brace, energize, enliven, invigorate, quicken, stimulate, vitalize, vivify debonair [ ]

1 adj. having or showing freedom from worries or troubles His debonair dismissal of my inquiry concerning his financial situation led me to believe that nothing was wrong. blithe, carefree, gay, insouciant, lighthearted, lightsome, slaphappy, unconcerned careworn 2 adj. having or showing very polished and worldly manners The debonair gentleman charmed all of the ladies in the room. civilized, graceful, polished, refined, smooth, sophisticated, suave, svelte, urbane boorish, churlish, loutish, uncouth clumsy, gauche, graceless fabulous [ ]

1 adj. based on, described in, or being a fable The city of Phoenix is named after a fabulous bird that every 500 years destroys itself with fire, only to rise again from its own ashes. 500

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fabled, legendary 2 adj. not real and existing only in the imagination a story of a fabulous land where the people know nothing of war and live together in perfect harmony chimerical, dreamy, illusory, phantom, unreal, visionary actual, existent, existing, real 3 adj. causing wonder or astonishment the fabulous endurance of a marathon runner amazing, astonishing, astounding, miraculous, portentous, prodigious, staggering, stunning, stupendous, sublime, wonderful common, ordinary 4 adj. extremely pleasing or successful We had a fabulous time on our vacation. awesome, divine, fantastic, heavenly, marvelous, noble, prime, splendid, superb, superior, terrific atrocious, awful, execrable, lousy, pathetic, poor, rotten, terrible, wretched hobble [ ]

1 vi. to walk or move along haltingly or with difficulty She picked up her cane and hobbled across the room. falter, halt, limp, stagger, totter stride 2 vt. to hamper the action or progress of We were hobbled by the snowstorm from getting out to do some Christmas shopping. encumber, fetter, handicap, hamper, hinder, impede, inhibit, manacle, obstruct, shackle, stymie, trammel aid, assist, facilitate plush [ ]

1 adj. having an abundance of some characteristic quality (as flavor) a plush, ripe wine concentrated, full, heady, lusty, muscular, potent, rich, robust, strong delicate, light, mild, thin, weak 2 adj. notably luxurious a plush castle filled with priceless art and antiques deluxe, lavish, luxuriant, luxurious, opulent, palatial, silken, sumptuous ascetic, austere, humble, spartan

Unit 6

RHETORICAL THICK-SKINNED TRIFLE WEATHER WILY ARABLE CONVENE DECADENT DEMOTION GLOWER

rhetorical [

]

1 adj. of or relating to words or language The next war that those two nations fight won't be rhetorical - it will be with bombs and bullets. —— lexical, linguistic, vocabular, wordy 2 adj. full of fine words and fancy expressionsbut mostly meaningless words and phrases You can skip over the rhetorical passages and still get the gist of the essay. The new governor delivered a long rhetorical speech about our state's bright future but laid out no specific programs for ensuring it. bombastic, flatulent, florid, fustian, gaseous, gassy, grandiloquent, oratorical, orotund, purple, windy prosaic plain, simple thick-skinned [ ]

1 adj. largely unaffected by the needs and feelings of other people She was so thick-skinned that she was clueless about the fact that the joke had hurt her friend's feelings. affectless, callous, cold-blooded, heartless, indurate, inhumane, insensitive, merciless, obdurate, ruthless charitable, compassionate, humane, kindhearted, merciful, sympathetic, tender, warmhearted trifle [ ]

1 n. something of little importance or value Let us not speak of trifles when our nation may be going to war. bagatelle, frippery, triviality 2 vi. to behave amorously without serious intent Do not trifle with me unless you mean to ask me to marry you. coquet, dally, flirt, frivol, toy trifling adj. weather [ ]

1 vt. to come through (something) safely We haveve weathered worse crises, and so we'll survive this one. They weathered a terrible storm while at sea. survive decease, die, expire, perish, succumb, pass away wily [ ]

1 adj. clever at attaining one's ends by indirect and often deceptive means He is an experienced and wily old statesman. His wily plan only rebounded on him. beguiling, cagey, crafty, cunning, devious, foxy, guileful, scheming, shrewd, slick, sly, subtle, tricky artless, guileless, ingenuous, innocent, undesigning arable [ ]

1 adj. fit for or used for the growing of crops explore the west for arable land

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cultivable, tillable barren, sterile, infertile, unfruitful, unproductive convene [ ]

1 vt. to bring together in assembly by or as if by command convened the members of the council for an emergency session assemble, call, convene, muster, summon disband, dispel, disperse, dissipate, dissolve, squander 2 vi. to come together in a body The students convened in the auditorium to hear the principal’saddress. cluster, collect, concenter, concentrate, conglomerate, congregate, converge, gather, meet, rendezvous convention n. decadent [ ]

1 adj. having or showing lowered moral character or standards Opponents of gambling casinos claim that gambling is a decadent form of entertainment. debased, debauched, degenerate, depraved, dissolute, perverse, perverted, reprobate, warped pure, uncorrupted 2 n. a person whose life is devoted to luxury and sensual pleasures a decadent who squandered her once considerable family fortune debauchee, hedonist, libertine, sensualist, sybarite, profligate ascetic 3 n. a person in a condition or process of mental or moral decay avant-garde artists who were scorned by the bourgeoisie as talentless decadents deviate saint demotion [ ]

1 n. the act or an instance of bringing to a lower grade or rank Anyone who objects will get a demotion. received a demotion from sergeant to corporal degradation, downgrading, reduction elevation, promotion glower [ ]

1 vi. to look or stare with sullen annoyance or anger Baseball fans glowering at their TVs as they watched their favorite team lose. He just glowered without speaking. glare, gloom, lower, scowl beam, grin, smile

Unit 7

GRIT INFRACTION MADCAP NOVICE OBSERVANT PLENITUDE REPLENISH STASIS TYCOON UMBRAGE

grit [

]

1 n. the strength of mind that enables a person to endure pain or hardship She was an athlete with true grit, continuing her training despite bad weather and an injury. backbone, constancy, fiber, grittiness, guts, intestinal fortitude, pluck, spunk cowardliness, cravenness, gutlessness, pusillanimity, spinelessness infraction [ ]

1 n. a failure to uphold the requirements of law, duty, or obligation Speeding is only a minor infraction, but vehicular homicide is a serious felony. breach, contravention, infringement, transgression, trespass, violation observance madcap [ ]

1 n. a person who seeks out very dangerous or foolhardy adventures with no apparent fear an incorrigible madcap who loves drag racing and white-water rafting daredevil, madman 2 adj. behaving or acting impulsively or rashly;foolishly adventurous or bold They switched from one madcap scheme to another. audacious, bold, brash, daredevil, overbold, overconfident, reckless, temerarious careful, cautious, circumspect, guarded, heedful, prudent, wary novice [ ]

1 n. a person new to a field or activity a novice chess player apprentice, colt, fledgling, freshman, greenhorn, neophyte, newcomer, recruit, rook, tenderfoot, tyro, virgin doyen, maven, veteran observant [ ]

1 adj. paying close attention usually for the purpose of anticipating approaching danger or opportunity Good reporters are keenly observant of everything around them. If you were more observant, you would perceive that something is troubling her deeply. alert, attentive, awake, cautious, sharp, vigilant, watchful

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careless, heedless, inattentive, unmindful, unthinking, unwary 2 adj. diligent in observing a law, custom, duty, or principle observant of the speed limit pious and religiously observant families law-abiding observance n. plenitude [ ]

1 n. an amount or supply more than sufficient to meet one's needs a region blessed with a plenitude of natural resources abundance, cornucopia, feast, plentitude, plethora, wealth deficiency, inadequacy, insufficiency, undersupply 2 n. a considerable amount She has gathered a plenitude of information on the topic. bunch, bundle, dozen, multiplicity, myriad, plateful, plenty, profusion, reams, scads, spate, stack, volume ace, bit, glimmer, handful, hint, mite, nip, ounce, pittance, speck, spot, trace replenish [ ]

1 vt. to fill or make complete again; add a new stock or supply to He went to replenish her glass. refill, reload consume, drain, empty, exhaust stasis [ ]

1 n. a condition of balance among various forces For the time being, the populations of the national park's predators and prey remain in stasis. Language is a primary element of culture,and stasis in the arts is tantamount to death. (Charles Marsh) —— counterpoise, equilibration, equilibrium, equipoise, poise disequilibration, disequilibrium, imbalance, nonequilibrium, unbalance tycoon [ ]

1 n. a person of rank, power, or influence in a particular field an oil tycoon who's widely considered the most powerful man in the county The automobile tycoon is on the verge of bankruptcy. baron, captain, king, lion, lord, magnate, mogul, monarch, prince nobody, nothing, zero umbrage [ ]

1 n. the feeling of being offended or resentful after a slight or indignity He would take umbrage at the slightest suggestion of disrespect. dudgeon, huff, miff, offense, peeve, resentment contentment, delight, gratification, happiness, pleasure

Unit 8

WILT BORE

AGAPE BUMBLE

ANNEX BAFFLING BEWITCHING CAREFREE CHAPERONE CHARISMA

wilt [

] 1 vi. to become limp or flaccid The plants wilted after I forgot to water them for three whole days. flag, hang, loll, sag, swag 2 vi. to feel or exhibit the effects of fatigue or exhaustion She had wilted a bit after walking around the hot and humid city. His brain wilted from hitherto unprecedented weariness. decay, droop, emaciate, fade, fail, lag, languish, sink, waste, wither convalesce, rally, rebound, recover, recuperate

agape

[

]

1 adj. having or showing signs of eagerly awaiting something At the sound of the sleigh bells the children were all agape, waiting for Santa to appear. agog, anticipant, anticipatory apathetic, indifferent, unconcerned, uninterested annex [ ]

1 n. a building added on to a larger one or an auxiliary building situated near a main one The new annex that will serve as the permanent home for the school library. addition, extension, penthouse 2 vt. to join (something) to a mass, quantity, or number so as to bring about an overall increase plans to annex the supply room so as to make the classroom bigger adjoin, affix, append, attach, subjoin, tack abate, deduct, remove, subtract 3 vt. to incorporate (a country or other territory) within the domain of a state Rome annexed the Nabatean kingdom in 106 AD. 106 acquire, appropriate, arrogate, expropriate, seize, take over lose baffling [ ]

1 adj. making great mental demands; hard to comprehend or solve I was constantly ill, with a baffling array of symptoms. befuddling, bewildering, confounding, confusing, enigmatic, puzzling, perplexing apparent, distinct, evident, lucid, manifest, obvious, patent, pellucid, perspicuous, plain, transparent

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bewitching [ ] 1 adj. having an often mysterious or magical power to attract bewitching woman who has never lacked for suitors alluring, appealing, attractive, captivating, charismatic, enchanting, engaging, entrancing, glamorous, luring, magnetic, seductive repellent, repelling, repugnant, repulsive, revolting bore [ ] 1 n. one that causes boredom For once, the graduation speaker wasn't a real bore. drip, droner, snoozer, yawner 2 vt. to make weary by being dull, repetitive, or tedious The professor's lifeless and unimaginative teaching style bored the students to death. jade, pall, tire, weary absorb, engage, engross, enthrall, fascinate, grip, interest, intrigue boring adj. boredom n. bumble [ ]

1 vi. to speak rapidly, inarticulately, and usually unintelligibly Overcome with stage fright, I could only bumble through the speech. babble, drivel, drool, gabble, gibber, jabber, prattle, sputter articulate, enunciate, pronounce 2 vi. to move, act, or proceed clumsily I sort of bumbled through the dance number, hoping that it would soon end. blunder, flounder, limp, lumber, plod, struggle, stumble, trudge coast, drift, glide, sail, slide carefree [ ]

1 adj. free from care as having no worries or troubles passengers on a luxury cruise ship enjoying a carefree vacation carefree college students on spring break blithe, debonair, gay, insouciant, lighthearted, lightsome, slaphappy, unconcerned careworn chaperone [ ]

1 vt. to go along with in order to provide assistance, protection, or companionship Three parents will chaperone the students on the school trip. accompany, attend, companion, company, convoy, escort, squire abandon, desert, ditch, dump, forsake charisma [ ] The candidate was lacking in charisma.

1 n. a special magnetic charm or appeal a movie star with unique charisma

allure, appeal, attractiveness, captivation, enchantment, fascination, glamor, seductiveness, witchery repulsion, repulsiveness charismatic adj.

Unit 9

CONFLAGRATION CROW DASHING DATED DEPENDABLE DEPLORABLE DIKE ESCORT FELONY GRUMBLE

conflagration [ ] 1 n. a large destructive fire All the stock was destroyed in a warehouse conflagration. holocaust, inferno 2 n. a state of armed violent struggle between states, nations, or groups What began as a skirmish over disputed territory erupted into a conflagration that swept the continent. conflict, war, warfare peace truce crow [ ]

1 vi. to feel or express joy or triumph Being the home of the new Super Bowl champs was the first thing that city residents had to crow about in a very long time. delight, exuberate, glory, jubilate, joy, rejoice, triumph bemoan, bewail, grieve, lament, weep 2 vi. to praise or express pride in one's own possessions, qualities, or accomplishments often to excess He is already crowing over his victory. blow, brag, swagger, vapor, vaunt dashing [ ]

1 adj. inclined or willing to take risks the dashing heroes in stories about the American West adventurous, audacious, daring, emboldened, enterprising, gutsy, nerved, nervy, venturous cowardly, craven, pusillanimous, timid, timorous dated [ ]

1 adj. having passed its time of use or usefulness; out-of-date His jokes are awfully dated, referring to things that happened years ago. antiquated, archaic, fossilized, medieval, moribund, moth-eaten, obsolete, outdated, outmoded, outworn,

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prehistoric, rusty contemporary, current, modern, recent dependable [ ] 1 adj. capable of being depended on a dependable source of income He was a good friend and a dependable companion. calculable, reliable, responsible, safe, secure, solid, trustable, trustworthy undependable, unreliable, unsafe, untrustworthy deplorable [ ]

1 adj. worthy of severe condemnation or reproach We will not tolerate such deplorable behavior in a house of worship. despicable, dirty, grubby, lousy, mean, nasty, paltry, scurvy, wretched admirable, commendable, creditable, laudable, meritorious, praiseworthy 2 adj. of a kind to cause great distress Many of them work under deplorable conditions. distressful, distressing, grievous, heartbreaking, heartrending, lamentable, tragic, unfortunate, woeful dike [ ]

1 n. a bank usually of earth constructed to control or confine water An elaborate system of dikes was built to protect the lowlands from the relentless onslaught of the sea. dam, embankment, levee 2 n. a long narrow channel dug in the earth Water flowed along the dike to the small pond. ditch, gutter, trench escort [ ]

1 n. a person or group of persons accompanying another to give protection or as a courtesy The mayor served as the First Lady's escort for her tour of the city. attendant, companion, guard, guide 2 vt. to go along with in order to provide assistance, protection, or companionship Asenior student from the college escorted my parents and me on our tour of the campus. a VIP escorted by an army of bodyguards and journalists accompany, attend, chaperone, companion, company, convoy, squire abandon, desert, ditch, dump, forsake felony [ ]

1 n. one of several grave crimes, such as murder, rape, or burglary, punishable by a more stringent sentence than that given for a misdemeanor a felony punishable by life imprisonment crime misdemeanor, peccadillo

grumble

[

]

1 vi. to complain in a surly manner; mutter discontentedly The governed will always find something to grumble about. (Crane Brinton) —— carp, croak, fuss, gripe, grouch, grouse, grump, moan, murmur, mutter, repine crow, delight, rejoice

Unit 10

HECKLE RAMPANT

LAG LANCE REMNANT

MAGNITUDE RESIDUAL

MANEUVER SCREEN SCRIMP

heckle

[

]

1 vt. to harass and try to disconcert with questions, challenges, or gibes a controversial player who was constantly heckled by the fans Several protesters were heckling the speaker at the rally. badger, bait, hassle, haze, hector, needle, ride, taunt lag [ ] 1 adj. following all others of the same kind in order or time We're now in the lag end of the project. bottommost, closing, concluding, final, hindmost, last, latest, rearmost, terminal, terminating, ultimate beginning, earliest, first, foremost, inaugural, initial, maiden, opening, original, pioneer, primary 2 vi. to proceed or develop with comparative slowness The tired puppy was lagging behind the rest of the pack. crawl, creep, dally, dawdle, dillydally, linger, loiter, mope, poke, tarry blast, bolt, bustle, careen, career, dash, fly, hustle, rush, rustle, speed, whirl 3 vi. to lose bodily strength or vigor During the fourth quarter the whole team seemed to lag. decay, droop, emaciate, fade, fail, languish, sink, waste, wilt, wither convalesce, rally, rebound, recover, recuperate lagging n. lance [ ]

1 n. a weapon with a long straight handle and sharp head or blade The lance struck squarely on the knight's shield, knocking him from his horse. javelin, pike, shaft, spear 2 vt. to penetrate or hold (something) with a pointed object Doctors used to lance infected sores, so that they could drain clean. gore, harpoon, jab, pierce, puncture, spike, stab, stick

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lancer n. magnitude [ ] 1 n. greatness in significance or influence The magnitude of the issue is severely underestimated. account, consequence, importance, moment, momentousness, significance, weight, weightiness insignificance, littleness, puniness, slightness, smallness, triviality 2 n. greatness in size or extent The mountain's sheer magnitude usually leaves tourists speechless. enormousness, giantism, gigantism, hugeness, immenseness, massiveness, prodigiousness, vastness diminutiveness, minuteness, tininess maneuver [ ]

1 vt. to guide with adroitness and design or to bring about or secure as a result of skillful management They maneuvered him into signing the contract. The host maneuvered the conversation so as to avoid the touchy subject of her divorce. contrive, finagle, finesse, frame, machinate, manipulate, mastermind, negotiate, wangle botch, bungle, fumble, mishandle, muff, scamp, mess up rampant [ ]

1 adj. growing thickly and vigorously a rampant growth of weeds in the neglected yard lush, luxuriant, prosperous, weedy sparse 2 adj. occurring without restraint and frequently, widely, or menacingly Mayor promised to put a stop to the rampant crime that plagued the city. rampant corruption in city government abandoned, intemperate, runaway, unbounded, unbridled, unchecked, uncontrolled, unhampered, unhindered, unrestrained bridled, checked, constrained, controlled, curbed, governed, hampered, hindered, restrained, temperate

remnant [

] The shop is selling remnants of cloth at half price.

1 n. something left over a remnant of his past glory debris, remainder, remains, residue, vestige residual [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or characteristic of a residue residual radiation from nuclear tests leftover, remaining, vestigial comprehensive, entire, full, integral, total, whole screen 1 [ n. ] something that shelters, protects, or hides

The target will be difficult to reach as it is behind a screen of anti-aircraft batteries. Please keep away from the screen door. aegis, ammunition, armor, cover, guard, protection, safeguard, security, shield, wall, ward 2 vt. to drive danger or attack away from Gunships were called in to help screen the troops from further attacks. defend, fence, fend, forfend, protect, secure assail, assault, attack 3 vt. to keep secret or shut off from view Bushes screened the swimming pool from passersby on the street. belie, cloak, conceal, curtain, disguise, enshroud, mask, obscure, occult, shroud, veil disclose, expose, reveal, uncloak, uncover, unmask, unveil scrimp [ ]

1 vi. to avoid unnecessary waste or expense They had to scrimp and save for years in order to be able to afford a house. conserve, economize, husband, pinch, save, skimp, spare dissipate, lavish, squander, waste

List 29*
Unit 1

WILLY-NILLY FO R AG E

ADJUDICATE ILLUSTRI OUS

BELLIGERENCE CANNY MON ARCH PLE BEI AN

DISENCHANT SQUE AMISH

willy-nilly [ ] 1 adv. whether desired or not After her boss fell sick, she willy-nilly found herself directing the project. helplessly, inescapably, inevitably, perforce, unavoidably 2 adj. without order or plan willy-nilly taxing laws aimless, arbitrary, desultory, erratic, haphazard, scattered, slapdash, stray methodical, orderly, organized, regular, systematic adjudicate [ ]

1 vt. to hear and settlea case, dispute or conflict When my wife and I asked the salesclerk to adjudicate our disagreement, she agreed with me that the white shoes looked better. adjudge, arbitrate, decide, determine, judge, referee, settle, umpire belligerence [ ]

1 n. an aggressive or truculent attitude, atmosphere, or disposition Among the Native American tribes of the colonial period, the Iroquois were known for their belligerence. aggressiveness, assaultiveness, bellicosity, combativeness, contentiousness, disputatiousness, feistiness, militance, pugnacity, quarrelsomeness, scrappiness, truculence pacifism canny [ ] 1 adj. careful and shrewd, especially where one's own interests are concerned He is a canny card player who is good at psyching out his opponents. astute, clever, hardheaded, heady, knowing, savvy, sharp, shrewd, smart ignorant, unknowing foolish, idiotic, imbecile, moronic, silly, thoughtless, witless disenchant [ ]

1 vt. to free from illusion If you thought that you could pass this course without doing any work, let me be the first to disenchant you.

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disabuse, undeceive beguile, cozen, delude, dupe, fool, gull, hoax, hoodwink, misguide, misinform, mislead forage [ ]

1 vi. to make a search went foraging for change for the parking meter chase, hunt, pursue, quest, rummage, search ignore, neglect conceal, hide forager n. illustrious [ ]

1 adj. well known and very distinguished the most illustrious scientists of the century distinguished, luminous, noble, notable, noteworthy, outstanding, preeminent, prestigious, redoubtable, signal average, inferior, mediocre monarch [ ] 1 n. one who rules over a people with a sole, supreme, and usually hereditary authority The ruling monarch of Britain at that time was Queen Elizabeth I. autocrat, lord, potentate, ruler, sovereign 2 n. a person of rank, power, or influence in a particular field the reigning monarchs of the recording industry baron, captain, king, lion, lord, magnate, mogul, prince, tycoon nobody, nothing, zero monarchy n. plebeian [ ]

1 adj. belonging to the class of people of low social or economic rank a man who rose to greatness but never forgot his plebeian past baseborn, common, humble, inferior, lowborn, lumpen, mean, prole, proletarian, unwashed, vulgar aristocratic, genteel, gentle, highborn, highbred, lofty, noble, partrician, wellborn squeamish [ ]

1 adj. affected with nausea the rolling of the ship made the young sailor squeamish ill, nauseated, qualmish, queasy, queer, queerish, sick, sickish healthy, well

Unit 2

WREST CALIBRATE

COMPLACENT COMMISERATE

IMPOSTER INCUMBENT NULLIFICATION BEHOOVE

SPLINTER COARSE

wrest [

]

1 vt. to pull, force, or move by violent wringing or twisting movements wrest the lid off this pickle jar twist, wrench, wring 2 vt. to gain with difficulty by or as if by force, violence, or determined labor farmers who were used to wresting a living from the barren land scrape, scrounge, squeeze complacent [ ]

1 adj. feeling or showing an often excessive or unjustified satisfaction and pleasure in one's status, possessions, or attainments a complacent junior accountant who was certain of her indispensability to the company assured, consequential, egoistic, overweening, pompous, prideful, proud, smug, vain, vainglorious egoless, humble, modest, uncomplacent 2 adj. having or showing a lack of interest or concern We can't afford to be complacent about rural illiteracy rates. apathetic, casual, disinterested, insouciant, nonchalant, perfunctory, pococurante, unconcerned attentive, concerned, heedful, interested, mindful complacency n. imposter [ ]

1 n. one that assumes false identity or title for the purpose of deception The man who claimed to be my townsman turned out to be an impostor. charlatan, fake, fraud, hoaxer, humbug, mountebank, phony, pretender, quack, quacksalver, ringer, sham incumbent [ ]

1 adj. imposed as an obligation or duty It is incumbent upon individuals to sacrifice for their country when it is in danger. It is incumbent upon the press to act not in its own best interests, but in society's best interests. compulsory, forced, imperative, incumbent, involuntary, necessary, obligatory, peremptory, required elective, optional, voluntary splinter [ ]

1 n. a sharp, slender piece, as of wood, bone, glass, or metal, split or broken off from a main body She got a splinter from the unfinished wall.

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chip, flake, sliver, spall, splint chunk, slab 2 vt. to split or break into sharp, slender pieces splintered the carrots into little sticks slice calibrate [ ]

1 vt. to check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument) We need to calibrate the sextants navigation. adjust, align, gauge, graduate, measure calibration n. commiserate [ ]

1 vi. to feel or express sympathy commiserated over their failure We commiserated with him but there was little we could do to make the situation better. ache, bleed, compassionate, condole, sympathize, yearn nullification [ ]

1 n. the doing away with something by formal action the nullification of a treaty abolishment, abrogation, annulment, cancellation, invalidation, negation, repeal, rescindment, voiding enactment, legislation establishment, founding, institution behoove [ ]

1 vt. to be necessary, proper or advantageous for It behooves you at least to try. befit, beseem, fit, serve, suite coarse [ ]

1 adj. not having a level or smooth surface the coarse surface of the sandpaper broken, bumpy, irregular, jagged, lumpy, pebbly, ragged, rough, roughened, rugged, scraggy even, flat, level, plane smooth 2 adj. harsh, raucous, or rough in tone a coarse laugh from the living room croaking, croaky, grating, gravel, gruff, husky, rasping, raspy, rusty, scratchy, throaty gentle, gliding, golden, liquid, mellifluent, mellifluous, mellow, soothing, sweet, tender 3 adj. lacking in delicacy or refinement They don't know how to behave, and are coarse and insulting. crass, crude, gross, incult, lowbred, raffish, rude, uncouth, uncultivated, unpolished, unrefined, vulgar civilized, cultivated, cultured, genteel, polished, refined, smooth, tasteful 4 adj. of low, common, or inferior quality coarse imitations of quality merchandise execrable, inferior, lousy, mediocre, miserable, rotten, rubbishy, shoddy, sleazy, terrible, trashy, wretched excellent, fine, superior

Unit 3

DEFRAY BUSTLE

IMPERISHABLE CANONIZE

MACHINATION E N D E AV O R

ONSET AUTOMATIC FITFUL OAF

defray [

]

1 vt. to undertake the payment of The government has committed billions toward defraying the costs of the war. I don’t have sufficient fund to defray the expense. disburse, expend, pay acquire, earn, gain, garner, procure, realize, secure, win charge imperishable [ ]

1 adj. impossible to destroy; not subject to decay Energy is imperishable. inextinguishable destructible, extinguishable, perishable 2 adj. enduring or occurring forever My memories are within me, imperishable. ageless, continuing, eternal, everlasting, immortal, lasting, perennial, perpetual, timeless, undying emphemeral, evanescent, fleeting, transient, transitory machination [ ]

1 n. a scheming or crafty action or artful design intended to accomplish some usually evil end The incredibly complicated machination to assassinate the president inevitably failed. conspiracy, design, intrigue, plot, scheme onset [ ]

1 n. attack, assault withstand the onset of the army aggression, assault, charge, offense, onslaught, raid, rush, strike defense 2 n. the point at which something begins If you take enough vitamin C at the onset of a cold, you'll probably recover faster. C alpha, baseline, commencement, dawn, genesis, inception, kickoff, launch, nascence, outset, threshold close, conclusion, end, ending, omega, termination automatic 1 [ adj. ] acting or operating in a manner essentially independent of external influence

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or control Will your next car be a manual or an automatic? subwaysare equipped with automatic screen doors. automated, robotic, self-acting, self-operating, self-regulating manual 2 adj. acting or done spontaneously or unconsciously Carl’s automatic use of the brakes narrowly averted a collision. impulsive, instinctive, involuntary, mechanic, mechanical, natural, spontaneous calculated, deliberate, intentional, planned, predetermined, premeditated, studied automatically adv. bustle [ ]

Modern

1 n. noisy, energetic, and often obtrusive activity the hustle and bustle of the big city I couldn't concentrate in all the bustle of the student lounge. bluster, coil, disturbance, furor, hurricane, pandemonium, stir, storm, tumult, turmoil, uproar, welter, whirl calm, hush, peace, quiet, rest, stillness, tranquillity order 2 vi. to move briskly and often ostentatiously the hostess bustled about, taking care of last-minute preparations for the party. blast, bolt, careen, career, dash, fly, hustle, rush, rustle, speed, whirl crawl, creep, lag, poke canonize [ ]

1 vt. to love or admire too much a singing star so canonized by his fans that they refuse to believe anything bad about him adore, adulate, canonize, dote, worship abhor, abominate, belittle, despise, detest, disdain, dislike, disparage, hate, loathe 2 vt. to assign a high status or value to Some movie buffs canonized David Fincher as today’s most preeminent director. aggrandize, deify, dignify, elevate, ennoble, enshrine, ensky, enthrone, glorify, magnify abase, degrade, demean, humble, humiliate endeavor [ ]

1 n. a conscientious or concerted effort toward an end We hope that this latest endeavor will yield much information about the atmosphere of the planet. attempt, essay, striving, struggle, trial, undertaking 2 vt. to devote serious and sustained effort endeavor to improve the quality of life in the inner city They endeavored to create a government that truly serves its people. assay, drudge, hustle, moil, plod, slave, strain, strive, sweat, seek, toil, travail, tug drop, quit fitful [ ]

1 adj. having an erratic or intermittent character He drifted off into a fitful sleep. aperiodic, casual, discontinuous, episodic, erratic, intermittent, irregular, occasional, sporadic, unsteady constant, continuous, incessant periodic, regular, repeated oaf [ ] 1 n. a stupid person Anyone who took him for an oaf and tried to cheat him would be in for a nasty surprise. airhead, dolt, dope, dullard, dumbhead, fool, idiot, imbecile, moron, simpleton brain, intellectual, sage, wit genius, prodigy

Unit 4

RETENTIVE PEDAGOGOCAL

SECEDE PERILOUS

GLACI AL POINTER

GLIDE AFFLICTION

MONOPOLIZE DISHEARTEN

retentive

[

]

1 adj. having the ability or capacity to retain knowledge or information with ease Her retentive memory helped her sail through the history test. absentminded, forgetful, oblivious retentiveness n. secede [ ]

1 vi. to withdraw from an organization (as a religious communion or political party or federation) They threatened to secede from the coalition. demit, disaffiliate, quit, withdraw enlist, enroll, join, sign up glacial [ ]

1 adj. extremely cold The air from the sea felt glacial. algid, arctic, bitter, chilling, coldish, cool, freezing, frigid, frosty, gelid, icy, nippy, numbing, polar, snappy ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fervid, molten, roasting, scalding, scorching, searing, sultry, sweltering, torrid 2 adj. devoid of warmth and cordiality The Duchess gave him a glacial look and moved on. antiseptic, apathetic, brittle, chilly, cold-blooded, frozen, indifferent, unfriendly, unsympathetic, wintry cordial, friendly, genial, hearty, sympathetic, warm, warm-blooded, warmhearted glide [ ]

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1 vt. to move or proceedsmoothly, continuously, and effortlessly swans gliding over the lake looking for a college course that he could just glide through bowl, breeze, brush, coast, cruise, drift, roll, sail, skim, slide, slip, stream, sweep, whisk flounder, struggle monopolize [ ] To their surprise is was

1 vt. to have complete control over They are virtually monopolizing the market. the vice president who monopolized the conversation. control, dominate, govern, reign, rule, sew up monopoly n. pedagogical [ ]

1 adj. of, relating to, or befitting a teacher or education I have no brow of such a pedagogical tone. preceptorial pupilary perilous [ ]

1 adj. involving potential loss or injury perilous journey through hostile territory dangerous, grave, grievous, hazardous, jeopardizing, menacing, risky, serious, threatening, venturesome harmless, innocent, innocuous, safe, unthreatening pointer [ ] —

1 n. a scale indicator on a watch, balance, or other measuring instrument The pointer on my bathroom scale must be stuck - I know I lost weight. — hand, index, indicator, needle 2 n. a useful suggestion or hintusually from an expert Here are a few pointers to help you make a choice. advice, hint, lead, recommendation, tip affliction [ ]

1 n. a state of great suffering of body or mind She listened with deep affliction as her daughter told her about the latest trouble she was in. agony, anguish, dolor, excruciation, grief, hurt, misery, pain, rack, torment, torture, travail, tribulation, woe bliss, cheer, delight, ecstasy, elation, euphoria, exhilaration, exuberance, exultation, felicity, joy, jubilation, pleasure, rapture dishearten [ ]

1 vt. to cause to lose spirit or morale We were greatly disheartened by the news that our grandmother was seriously ill. chill, daunt, demoralize, discourage, dismay, dispirit, frustrate, unnerve embolden, encourage, hearten, nerve, steel

Unit 5

DISJUNCTIVE TOPSY-TURVY

FEATURELESS WAYWARD

FROSTY BACKSLIDE

SACROSANCT BEHOLDEN

SHIFTY BEIGE

disjunctive [ ] 1 adj. marked by breaks or disunity a disjunctive narrative sequence conjunctive,connective disjunction n. featureless [ ]

1 adj. lacking distinguishing characteristics or features the featureless landscape of the steppe beige, characterless, faceless, indistinctive, neutral, noncommital, vanilla diagnostic, discriminating, distinct, distinctive, distinguishing, identifying, peculiar, typical frosty [ ]

1 adj. having a low or subnormal temperature a frosty autumn that was a sign of the brutal winter that followed algid, arctic, bitter, chilling, coldish, cool, freezing, frigid, gelid, glacial, icy, nippy, numbing, polar, snappy ardent, blazing, burning, fervent, fervid, molten, roasting, scalding, scorching, searing, sultry, sweltering, torrid 2 adj. lacking in friendliness or warmth of feeling She gave the telemarketer on the phone a frosty “No, thank you” and hung up. antiseptic, apathetic, brittle, chilly, cold-blooded, frozen, indifferent, unfriendly, unsympathetic, wintry cordial, friendly, genial, hearty, sympathetic, warm, warm-blooded, warmhearted sacrosanct [ ]

1 adj. most sacred or holy The teacher's book of grades is sacrosanct, and someone could be expelled for changing anything in it. hallowed, holy, inviolable, sacred, unassailable, untouchable blasphemous, irreverent, profane, sacrilegious shifty [ 1 ] adj. having, displaying, or suggestive of deceitful character

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shifty practices such as turning back the odometers on used cars He had a shifty face so I won’t trust him. crooked, deceitful, deceptive, duplicitous, fraudulent, guileful, rogue, shady, sharp, underhanded aboveboard, honest, straight topsy-turvy [ ]

1 adj. lacking in order, neatness, and often cleanliness; totally disordered The office is still topsy-turvy even though we moved in months ago. turning our ordered life topsy-turvy chaotic, confused, disarranged, disarrayed, disheveled, disorderly, jumbled, messed, rumpled, sloppy, unkempt, untidy bandbox, crisp, kempt, neat, orderly, organized, shipshape, tidy, trim, well-ordered wayward [ ] 1 adj. following one's own capricious, wanton, or depraved inclinations had always been the most wayward of their three children wayward children with a history of behavioral problems balky, contrary, contumacious, defiant, intractable, obstreperous, rebellious, recalcitrant, refractory, unruly amenable, biddable, compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, ruly, submissive, tractable

backslide

[

]

1 vi. to revert to a worse condition Keep these things in mind to help prevent you from backsliding. degenerate, lapse, recidivate, relapse, retrograde, retrogress advance, progress beholden [ ]

1 adj. owing something, such as gratitude, to another Not wanting to be beholden to anyone, he insisted on paying his own way. indebted, obligated, obliged beige [ ]

1 adj. lacking distinction Some food critics have dismissed that chef's version of French cuisine as beige and boring. characterless, faceless, featureless, indistinctive, neutral, noncommital, vanilla diagnostic, discriminating, distinct, distinctive, distinguishing, identifying, peculiar, typical

Unit 6

ILL-BRED

MENIAL

PECULIARITY

PREMEDITATE

WANTING

IDIOSYNCRASY

AUGUST

COY

DEMOTE

STAUNCH

ill-bred [ ] 1 adj. badly brought up or showing bad upbringing: impolite Only an ill-bred, conceited person would demand that everyone cater to their whims. discourteous, disrespectful, impertinent, impolite, inconsiderate, rude, uncivil, ungracious, unmannerly civil, considerate, courteous, genteel, gracious, mannerly, polite, urbane, well-bred menial [ ]

1 n. a servant, especially a domestic servant Immigrants to that country faced fierce prejudice and could expect to find work only as menials. domestic, retainer, steward lord, master, mistress 2 adj. showing, expressing, or offered in a spirit of humility or unseemly submissiveness low-paid menial jobs such as cleaning the street base, humble, lowly, servile, slavish, subservient arrogant, haughty, imperious, lordly, supercilious, superior peculiarity [ ]

1 n. a distinguishing characteristic It is a peculiarity of the house that there is no front door. attribute, character, criterion, diagnostic, differentia, feature, fingerprint, hallmark, mark, note, particularity, quality, specific, trait premeditate [ ]

1 vt. to think about and revolve in the mind beforehand carefully premeditating each step of his plan of campaign forethink, precogitate, predetermine disregard, ignore, overlook, slight premeditated adj. wanting [ ]

1 adj. not present or in evidence Grass is almost entirely wanting in that arid wasteland. absent, lacking, missing, nonexistent existent, present 2 adj. not being up to standards or expectations He examined her work and found it wanting. We tried her cooking and found it to be very wanting. deficient, dissatisfactory, ill, inferior, lousy, paltry, poor, unacceptable, unsatisfactory, wretched acceptable, adequate, passable, tolerable satisfactory idiosyncrasy [ 1 n. ] an odd or peculiar habit

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His only idiosyncrasy is his inveterate wearing of sneakers, even with business suits. —— crotchet, eccentricity, individualism, mannerism, oddity, peculiarity, quirk, singularity, trick, twist conformity, sameness august [ ]

1 adj. having or showing a formal and serious or reserved manner Unsurprisingly, the head of the bank is an august white-haired gentleman. distinguished, imposing, portly, solemn, staid, stately flighty, frivolous, giddy, goofy, silly, undignified 2 adj. large and impressive in size, grandeur, extent, or conception an august golden anniversary celebration for the company baronial, epic, grandiose, imperial, magnificent, majestic, massive, monumental, noble, regal, splendid common, humble, mediocre, ordinary, unimposing, unimpressive coy [ ] 1 adj. affectedly and usually flirtatiously shy or modest Not wanting him to know that she was interested in him, she acted very coy at the dance. coquettish, demure, kittenish 2 adj. tending to avoid people and social situations She was modest without being coy. backward, bashful, diffident, introverted, modest, recessive, retiring, sheepish, shy, withdrawn extroverted, immodest, outgoing demote [ ]

1 vt. to reduce to a lower grade or rank The court-martial’s decision was to demote the officer responsible for the failed mission. break, bust, degrade, disrate, downgrade, reduce advance, elevate, promote, raise demotion n. staunch [ ]

1 adj. steadfast in loyalty or principle a staunch believer in the democratic system No matter what happens I will be your staunchest supporters. constant, dedicated, devoted, devout, faithful, fast, loyal, pious, steadfast, steady, true, true-blue disloyal, inconstant, perfidious, recreant, traitorous, treacherous fickle

Unit 7

AT R O P H Y GROGGY

IDLE SPLUTTER ACQUISITIVE AGONIZE

VOUCHS AFE ALIENATE

DEADLOCK ANACHRONISTIC

atrophy [ ] 1 vi. to waste away; wither or deteriorate The years following the closing of the last textile mill, the town atrophied. crumble, decay, decline, degenerate, descend, devolve, ebb, regress, retrograde, rot, sink, worsen ameliorate, improve, meliorate idle [ ] 1 adj. not turned to normal or appropriate use The car was idle for two weeks while they went on vacation. dead, dormant, fallow, free, inert, inoperative, latent, unused, vacant active, alive, employed, functioning, operative, running, working 2 adj. shiftless, lazy an idle employee who always seems to be either on break or at lunch indolent, lazy, shiftless, slothful diligent, industrious 3 vi. to pass (time) without working or while avoiding work idle the afternoon away dally, dillydally, drone, laze, loaf, loll, lounge drudge, grind, hustle, labor, moil, plod, slave, sweat, toil, travail, work idlly adv. splutter [ ]

1 vi. to speak hastily and incoherently, as when confused or angry They begin to splutter and move restlessly about if they feel time is slipping away without some return. babble, drivel, gabble, gibber, jabber, sputter, stammer, stutter articulate, enunciate, pronounce vouchsafe [ ]

1 vt. to grant or furnish often in a gracious or condescending manner refused to vouchsafe an explanation accord, award, grant, vest withhold recant, retract, withdraw deadlock [ ]

1 n. a state of inaction or neutralization resulting from the opposition of equally powerful uncompromising persons or factions The deadlock was broken with a key compromise. gridlock, halt, impasse, logjam, stalemate, standoff, standstill 2 vt. to bring or come to a deadlock expedite

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groggy [ ] 1 adj. weak and unsteady on the feet or in action She was feeling a bit groggy when I saw her. rickety, rocky,shaky, unbalanced, unsound, unstable, unsteady, wobbly balanced, stable, steady, sound 2 adj. not able to think or move normally because of being tired, sick, etc. I'm still a little groggy from my nap. The medicine sometimes makes patients groggy. dazed, dopey, muddleheaded, muzzy, punch-drunk, punchy, stupefied, zonked, zonked-out clearheaded, unconfused acquisitive [ ]

1 adj. strongly desirous of acquiring and possessing Acquisitive developers are trying to tear down the ancient temple and build a shopping mall instead. avaricious, avid, coveting, covetous, grabby, grasping, mercenary, moneygrubbing, rapacious benevolent, generous, liberal, philanthropic, munificent agonize [ ]

1 vt. to cause to suffer agony She got into more trouble, further agonizing her poor mother. bedevil, beset, besiege, curse, excruciate, harrow, persecute, plague, rack, torment, torture comfort, console, solace, soothe 2 vi. to suffer agony, torture, or anguish She agonized for days over the moral issues involved. anguish, bleed, hurt, mourn, sorrow, suffer cheer, crow, delight, exult, joy, rejoice alienate 1 existed His heartless treatment of their mother during the divorce proceeding has completely alienated the two children. alien, disaffect, disgruntle, sour reconcile 2 vt. to convey or transfer (as property or a right) usually by a specific act rather than the due course of law A landowner has a right to alienate his right of ownership - in other words, he can sell the land if he wants to. —— assign, cede, convey, deed, make over expropriate unalienable adj. anachronistic [ ] [ vt. ] to make unfriendly, hostile, or indifferent especially where attachment formerly

1 adj. chronologically misplaced Despite the occasional anachronistic word or concept, he has a good feel for the period.

anachronic,anachronous accurate

Unit 8

ANTED ATE ARBITR ARY BOGUS BRANDISH CHERISHED COUNTERPRODUCTIVE DEFLECT ERRONEOUS FANCIFUL FLEETING

antedate [ ] 1 vt. to be of an earlier date than The church antedates the village itself. cavemen by millions of years. antecede, forego, predate, preexist follow, postdate, succeed arbitrary [ ]

Dinosaurs antedate

1 adj. having or showing a tendency to force one's will on others without any regard to fairness or necessity an arbitrary piano teacher who makes all her students do the same exercises over and over again dictatorial, imperious, peremptory, willful 2 adj. exercising power or authority without interference by others a nation with no tradition of democracy, only a long history of arbitrary rulers autocratic, czarist, despotic, monocratic, tyrannic, tyrannous limited democratic republican 3 adj. lacking a definite plan, purpose, or pattern The order of the names of the 10 semifinalists is entirely arbitrary. aimless, desultory, erratic, haphazard, scattered, slapdash, stray, willy-nilly methodical, orderly, organized, regular, systematic, systematized bogus [ ]

1 adj. being such in appearance only and made or manufactured with the intention of committing fraud The evidence turned out to be completely bogus and the suspect may be innocent. counterfeit, fake, false, forged, inauthentic, phony , queer, sham, snide, spurious, unauthentic authentic, genuine, real, unfaked, bona fide

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2 adj. lacking in natural or spontaneous quality There was often a lot of bogus conviviality at the company’s parties. affected, assumed, contrived, factitious, feigned, plastic, pretended, pseudo, simulated, unnatural artless, natural, spontaneous, unaffected, uncontrived, unfeigned, unforced brandish [ ]

1 vt. to shake or wave (as a weapon) menacingly I could see that the suspect was brandishing a knife and was in no way inclined to surrender. shake, swing, wave drop cherished [ ]

1 adj. granted special treatment or attention a cherished heirloom that has been in the family for generations He described the picture with his wife as his most cherished possession. beloved, dear, favored, favorite, fond, loved, pet, precious, special, sweet abhorred, abominated, despised, detested, disdained, disliked, execrated, hated, loathed counterproductive [ ]

1 adj. not producing or tending to hinder the attainment of a desired goal Violence as a means to achieve an end is counterproductive. (W. E. Brock) ——W. E. His uncontrollable anger is very counterproductive to his attempt at saving his marriage. feckless, hamstrung, ineffective, ineffectual, inefficacious, inefficient, inexpedient effective, effectual, efficacious, efficient, expedient, operant deflect [ ]

1 vt. to turn aside especially from a straight course or fixed direction The goalie deflected the ball with his hands. They are trying to deflect the public attention from the troubled economy. divert, redirect, swing, veer, wheel, whip deflection n. erroneous [ ]

1 adj. containing or characterized by error The news article about the new drug was filled with much erroneous information. inaccurate, incorrect, inexact, invalid, mistaken, unsound, untrue, untruthful, wrong accurate, correct, errorless, exact, precise, right, sound, true, valid, veracious fanciful [ ]

1 adj. not real and existing only in the imagination a fanciful tale of a monster in the woods chimerical, fabulous, fantastic, fictional, fictitious, ideal, invented, mythical, notional, phantom, visionary actual, existent, existing, real 2 adj. conceived or made without regard for reason or reality

She harbors the fanciful notion that she has a talent for singing. absurd, bizarre, crazy, foolish, insane, nonsensical, preposterous, unreal, wild realistic, reasonable fleeting [ ]

1 adj. lasting only for a short time; passing swiftly They have been waiting for more than 4 hours but caught only a fleeting glimpse of the movie star. brief, ephemeral, evanescent, flash, fugitive, impermanent, passing, temporary, transient, transitory ceaseless, deathless, eternal, everlasting, immortal, lasting, permanent, perpetual, timeless

Unit 9

FOREGROUND G AW K Y INDECOROUS LAX LURID MALIIGNANT NOTORIETY OVERSHADOW

LIONIZE PIONEER

foreground [ ] 1 vt. to indicate the importance of by centering attention on He repeatedly foregrounded his experience in international affairs in the course of his campaign for the presidency. accent, accentuate, emphasize, feature, highlight, illuminate, press, punctuate, stress de-emphasize, understate, play down gawky [ ]

1 adj. having or showing an inability to move in a graceful manner The pathetic gawky woman was once a lithe ballerina but got severely injured in a car accident. awkward, clumsy, gawkish, graceless, uncoordinated, ungainly agile, graceful, lithe, nimble elegant gawkiness n. indecorous [ ]

1 adj. conflicting with accepted standards of good conduct or good taste How can you make such an indecorous joke for a solemn moment in the marriage ceremony ? amiss, graceless, improper, inapposite, infelicitous, malapropos, perverse, unbecoming, unfit, unseemly, unsuitable, wrong appropriate, becoming, befitting, decorous, felicitous, fit, genteel, meet, proper, seemly, suitable

lax [

]

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1 adj. not tense, firm, or rigid exercises to improve lax muscles The guidelines for the essay contest were fairly lax, permitting a wide variety of topics. flabby, flaccid, insecure, loose, loosened, relaxed, slackened, unsecured taut, tense, tight hard, harsh, rigid, rigorous, severe, stern, strict 2 adj. failing to give proper care and attention The university has been lax about enforcing these rules. careless, derelict, disregardful, heedless, lazy, neglectful, neglecting, negligent, remiss, slack attentive, careful, cautious, conscientious, heedful, mindful, vigilant, wary lionize [ ]

1 vt. to look on or treat (a person) as a celebrity She was lionized everywhere after her novel won the Pulitzer Prize. aggrandize, canonize, deify, dignify, elevate, ennoble, enshrine, ensky, enthrone, glorify, magnify abase, degrade, demean, humble, humiliate lurid [ ]

1 adj. causing horror or revulsion We quickly drove past the lurid scene of the crash. appalling, atrocious, dreadful, frightful, ghastly, gruesome, hideous, horrid, horrific, macabre, monstrous, nightmarish agreeable, appealing, delicious, delightful, enjoyable, enticing, inviting, pleasant, satisfying 2 adj. wan and ghastly pale in appearance The doctor was alarmed by the patient's lurid complexion. ashen, ashy, blanched, cadaverous, doughy, livid, mealy, paled, pallid, pasty, peaked, wan blooming, florid, flush, full-blooded, glowing, rosy, rubicund, ruddy, sanguine malignant [ ]

1 adj. having or showing a desire to cause someone pain or suffering for the sheer enjoyment of it; disposed to do evil She has a malignant wish to poison everyone who was smarter, richer, or better-looking than she was. atrocious, brutal, cruel, despiteful, malevolent, malicious, malign, mean, nasty, spiteful, vicious, virulent benevolent, benign, benignant merciful notoriety [ ]

1 n. a person who is widely known and usually much talked about, especially for something bad; a notorious person a television show featuring notorieties from 20 years of scandals figure, icon, luminary, megastar, name, notable, personage, standout, star, superstar nobody, noncelebrity 2 n. the quality or condition of being notorious; ill fame She gained notoriety when nude photographs of her appeared in a magazine. His comment about the President has given him a notoriety that he enjoys very much. infamy, obloquy, odium, opprobrium

anonymity, oblivion, obscurity

celebrity, fame, renown, repute

overshadow [ ] 1 vt. to make dark, dim, or indistinct Large trees overshadow the yard and darken the house for much of the day. Her mother's illness overshadowed her childhood. becloud, befog, blacken, blear, blur, darken, dim, fog, haze, mist, obscure, overcast, overcloud, shroud brighten, illuminate, illumine, lighten 2 vt. to exceed in importance The forward’s outstanding performance should not overshadow the achievements of the rest of the team. eclipse, outrank, outshine, outstrip, overbalance, overweigh fall behind pioneer [ ]

1 n. one of the first to settle in a territory the hardships that the pioneers endured while taming the wilderness a pioneer in aviation colonist, colonizer, homesteader, settler follower 2 adj. coming before all others in time or order the nation's pioneer institutions for the education of African-Americans earliest, foremost, headmost, inaugural, initial, leadoff, maiden, original, premier, virgin final, last, latest, terminal, terminating, ultimate 3 vt. to open up (an area) or prepare (a way) He single-handedly pioneered the university’s institute for medical research. rockets that pioneered outer space begin, constitute, establish, inaugurate, initiate, innovate, institute, introduce, launch, plant, set up close, end, shut,terminate, phase out pioneering adj.

Unit 10

PRAGMATIC THRILL

REFRESHING SKITTISH T I M E LY TRIFLING

STIGMATIZE ABREAST

SURPASS ABSENT

pragmatic [ ] 1 adj. a practical approach to problems and affairs Pragmatic men of power have had no time or inclination to deal withsocial morality.(K. B. Clark) ——K. B. a pragmatic man, not given to grand,

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visionary schemes down-to-earth, earthy, hardheaded, matter-of-fact, practical fanciful, idealistic, impractical, unrealistic, utopian, visionary pragmatism n. refreshing [ ] It

1 adj. having a renewing effect on the state of the body or mind A glass of cold water is very refreshing on such a hot day. is refreshing to hear some good news about him. bracing, cordial, invigorating, rejuvenating, restorative, reviving, stimulating, stimulative, vitalizing deadening, debilitating, draining, enervating, enfeebling, exhausting, sapping, wearying skittish [ ]

1 adj. easily frightened The kitty is skittish around people she doesn't know. fainthearted, fearful, fearsome, mousy, scary, timid, timorous, tremulous adventuresome, adventurous, audacious, bold, daring, dashing, gutsy, venturesome, venturous 2 adj. easily excited by nature The skittish colt leapt up when we approached. flighty, fluttery, hyper, hyperactive, hyperkinetic, jittery, jumpy, nervous, skittery, spasmodic, spooky imperturbable, nerveless, unexcitable, unflappable, unshakable 3 adj. likely to change frequently, suddenly, or unexpectedly The skittish housing market had both buyers and sellers on edge. capricious, changeful, flickery, fluctuating, fluid, inconstant, mercurial, mutable, temperamental, uncertain, unstable, unsteady, volatile changeless, constant, immutable, invariable, settled, stable, stationary, steady, unvarying stigmatize [ ] 1 vt. to characterize or brand as disgraceful or ignominious Urban construction workers are often stigmatized by the rest of society as lazy and dirty. abase, debase, degrade, demean, discredit, disgrace, dishonor, foul, humiliate, shame, sink, smirch aggrandize, canonize, deify, elevate, exalt surpass [ ]

1 vt. to become better, greater, or stronger than She always tried to surpass her older brother at anything he did, which results in his diffidence. beat, better, eclipse, exceed, excel, outclass, outmatch, outshine, outstrip, overtop, transcend fall behind 2 vt. to go beyond the limit of The sales of the band's newest CD have surpassed the combined sales of its last two albums. break, outreach, outrun, overpass, overreach, overrun, overstep thrill [ 1 ] n. a pleasurably intense stimulation of the feelings

Everyone gets a real thrill out of the Independence Day fireworks. bang, boot, exhilaration, frisson, jollies, kick, rush, titillation, wallop 2 vt. a pleasurably intense stimulation of the feelings I was thrilled to hear that you got the promotion that you’d been so desperately wanting. arouse, charge, electrify, excite, exhilarate, galvanize, intoxicate, provoke, stimulate, titillate, pump up bore, jade, pall, tire, weary thrilling adj. thriller n. timely [ ]

1 adj. done, carried out, or given without delay When I order a pizza, I expect it to be delivered in a timely manner. immediate, punctual, speedy belated, late, tardy 2 adj. appropriate or adapted to the times or the occasion Timely invitation to lunch that came just as I was starting to feel hungry. opportune, seasonable, well-timed inopportune, unseasonable, untimely trifling [ ]

1 adj. lacking in significance or solid worth Deciding what you want to do for a living is no trifling matter. trifling differences between the theatrical and DVD versions of the movie DVD frivolous, inconsequential, inconsiderable, insignificant, minor, minute, negligible, nugatory, slight, trivial consequential, eventful, important, meaningful, momentous, significant, substantial, weighty abreast [ ]

1 adv. beside one another with bodies in line a group of youths riding four abreast alongside, side by side aimlessly, desultorily, erratically, haphazardly, irregularly, randomly, willy-nilly 2 adj. up to a particular standard or level especially of knowledge of recent developments She tried to keep abreast of the latest fashion trends. acquainted, conversant, informed, knowledgeable, versed, well-informed ignorant, unacquainted, unfamiliar, uninformed, unknowledgeable absent [ ]

1 adj. not present, attending or existing The city's usual stir of activity was conspicuously absent due to the report of an escaped lion from the zoo. away, lacking, missing, nonexistent, wanting existent, present 2 adj. lost in thought seemed absent because he nodded but didn’t say anything abstracted, distracted, preoccupied

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alert, vigilant, watchful, wary

attentive, heedful, mindful

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List 30*
Unit 1

ACCLAIM AD V E RS I T Y

ACCOMPLISH ACCORD ACKNOWLEDGE AF F E CTAT I P M AF FI R M AG I LI TY

ACQUIRE AG R E E AB LE

acclaim [

]

1 n. public acknowledgment or admiration for an achievement Many people were involved in the search, but the person who actually found the missing girl got all the acclaim. accolade, applause, credit, distinction, homage, honor, kudos, laud, laurels 2 vt. to declare enthusiastic approval of He was acclaimed as the country's greatest modern painter. accredit, applaud, cheer, commend, endorse, exalt, hail, praise, salute, tout castigate, excoriate, lambaste, pan, slam accomplish [ ]

1 vt. to carry through (as a process) to completion I don’t think we can accomplish our goal unless we cooperate. achieve, commit, execute, fulfill, make, perpetrate, prosecute, carry out fail accomplishment n. accomplished adj. accord [ ]

1 n. a state of consistency This map doesn't seem to be in accord with the current layout of the streets. accordance, agreement, conformity, congruence, congruity, consonance, harmony, tune conflict, disagreement, incongruence, incongruity, incongruousness 2 vi. to be consistent or in harmony a theory that accords with the known facts quote does not accord with what he actually said. agree, chord, cohere, coincide, conform, correspond, fit, harmonize, jibe, sort, square, tally differ, disagree 3 vt. to grant or give especially as appropriate, due, or earned Women were finally accorded the right to vote in 1920. 1920 accord, award, grant, vest, vouchsafe withhold recant, retract, withdraw accordance n. acknowledge [ ]

1 vt. to admit the existence, reality, or truth of He refused to acknowledge the fact that her daughter has gone. admit, agree, allow, concede, confess, grant, own deny acknowledgement n. acquire [ ] have never acquired a taste for

1 vt. to get as one’s own bacteria that acquire tolerance to antibiotics wine.

attain, capture, draw, gain, garner, get, make, obtain, procure, realize, reap, secure, win, bring in forfeit, lose adversity [ ]

·

1 n. a state, condition, or instance of serious or continued difficulty or adverse fortune The fire is the test of gold, adversity of strong man.(Martha Graham) —— finally overcame all the adversities of the Great Depression and rebuilt their fortunes ill, hardship, misadventure, mischance, mishap, tragedy fortune, luck, serendipity

affectation [

]

1 n. the act of taking on or displaying an attitude or mode of behavior not natural to oneself or not genuinely felt the rolling of the ship made the young sailor squeamish façade, guise, mannerism, pose, pretense, show artlessness, genuineness, innocence, naivety affirm [ ]

1 vt. to assert (as a judgment or decree) as valid or confirmed He was unwilling to affirm without further study that the painting is an original Rembrandt. allege, assert, aver, avouch, avow, contend, declare, insist, maintain, profess, protest, purport, warrant deny, gainsay affirmation n. agility [ ]

1 n. ease and grace in physical activity His agility on the parallel bars has won him several medals. deftness, dexterity, nimbleness, sleight, spryness awkwardness, clumsiness, gaucheness, gawkiness, gracelessness, ungainliness agreeable [ 1 needs Would you mind putting on some agreeable music for dinner ? agreeable melancholy resulting from a sense of the transitoriness of natural beauty adj. ] pleasing to the mind or senses especially as according well with one's tastes or

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congenial, delectable, delicious, delightful, dulcet, enjoyable, felicitous, gratifying, heavenly, palatable, pleasing, satisfying, savory abhorrent, abominable, disagreeable, disgusting, loathsome, nauseating, repellent, repugnant, repulsive, revolting 2 adj. having an easygoing and pleasing manner especially in social situations I have an agreeable art teacher who lets me do pretty much whatever I want. affable, genial, good-natured, good-tempered, gracious, mellow, nice, pleasant, sweet, well-disposed choleric, dyspeptic, fussy, grouchy, irascible, irritable, peevish, touchy 3 adj. being in harmony These new security measures are not agreeable with our core concepts of personal freedom. amicable, compatible, congenial, consistent, consonant, frictionless, kindred, unanimous, united disagreeable, discordant, disunited, incompatible, inharmonious

Unit 2

AL L O Y AM BI VAL E NT AN AL O G O US ANTIQUATED ANTITHETICAL APPARITION

AN NO TAT E APPLICABLE

ANT I PAT H Y APPREHENSIVE

alloy [

]

1 n. a distinct entity formed by the combining of two or more different things Brass is an alloy, consisting of copper and zinc. always been an alloy of journalism and show business. admixture, amalgam, cocktail, composite, compound, fusion, intermixture, mix, mixture, synthesis element 2 vt. to debase by the addition of an inferior element idealism that was alloyed with political skill adulterate, contaminate, dilute, extend, lace, pollute, sophisticate, thin purify unalloyed adj. ambivalent [ ]

1 adj. having a mixture of opposing feelings He maintained an ambivalent attitude to religion throughout his life. conflicting, contradictory, mixed certain, decided, definite, positive, resolute, sure, unquestioning ambivalence n. analogous [ ]

1 adj. having qualities in common Bad-mouthing your sister is analogous to slapping her in the face - it's just as bad.

—— akin, cognate, comparable, connate, corresponding, matching, parallel, resembling, similar, suchlike different, disparate, dissimilar, diverse, unlike annotate [ ]

1 vt. to furnish (a literary work) with critical commentary or explanatory notes The advent of e-books enables user to freely annotate what they are reading without worrying about being fined by libraries. commentate, footnote, gloss annotation n. antipathy [ ]

1 n. settled aversion or dislike I feel no antipathy towards any of my opponents in the tournament. animosity, animus, antagonism, bitterness, enmity, gall, grudge, hostility, jaundice, rancor amity liking, partiality, predilection, prepossession 2 n. an object of aversion Cruelty to animals is one of my most deeply felt antipathies. abhorrence, abomination, anathema, aversion, detestation, execration beloved, darling, dear, love antiquated [ ]

1 adj. outmoded or discredited by reason of age: being out of style or fashion We saw an antiquated hand-cranked rope-making machine at the textiles museum. antique, archaic, dated, fossilized, moribund, moth-eaten, obsolete, outdated, outmoded, outworn, prehistoric, rusty contemporary, current, modern, recent antithetical [ ] 1 adj. being in direct and unequivocal opposition Spiritual ideals seem antithetical to the materialism embraced by modern society. antipodal, antipodean, contradictory, contrary, diametric, opposite, polar equivalent, identical, same apparition [ ]

1 n. a ghostly figure An eccentric claimed to have photographed an apparition in her very own house. ghost, phantasm, phantom, shade, shadow, specter, spirit, spook, sprite, vision, visitant, wraith entity, substance applicable [ ]

1 adj. capable of being put to use or account Is that Act applicable in this case where suspect is a foreigner?

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actionable, applicative, applied, functional, practicable, serviceable, useful, workable impractical, inapplicable, unusable, unworkable, useless 2 adj. having to do with the matter at hand He rarely makes comment that is applicable to our discussion. apposite, apropos, germane, material, pointed, relative, relevant extraneous, immaterial, impertinent, inapposite, irrelevant, pointless 3 adj. meeting the requirements of a purpose or situation He has been busy in selecting the most applicable word for his PhD thesis. appropriate, apt, becoming, befitting, felicitous, fitting, meet, pretty, proper, right, suitable improper, inappropriate, inapt, incongruous, malapropos, misbecoming, unbecoming, unfitting, unmeet, unseemly, unsuitable, wrong apprehensive [ ]

1 adj. having specified facts or feelings actively impressed on the mind I am fully apprehensive of the options, I assure you. alive, aware, cognizant, mindful, sensible, sentient, ware, witting ignorant, insensible, oblivious, unaware, unconscious, unmindful, unwitting 2 adj. anxious or fearful about the future People apparently haven’t recovered from the devastating terrorist attack and are still terribly apprehensive about the future. afraid, aghast, fearful, frightened, horrified, hysterical, scared, shocked, terrified dauntless, fearless, intrepid, unafraid confident apprehension n.

Unit 3

ARCANE AT T U N E

ARGUMENT AUSPICIOUS

A R R AY AUSTERE

ASS AIL BASH

AT T E S T BASK

arcane

[

]

1 adj. having an often intentionally veiled or uncertain meaning The rebate form uses arcane language, the only purpose of which seems to be to disqualify buyers from actually getting a rebate. ambiguous, dark, elliptical, equivocal, murky, mysterious, mystic, nebulous, occult, opaque accessible, clear, obvious, plain, unambiguous, unequivocal 2 adj. difficult for one of ordinary knowledge or intelligence to understand Grammatical rules seem extremely arcane to generations of students who were never taught grammar in the first place. abstruse, cryptic, deep, enigmatic, esoteric, hermetic, impenetrable, inscrutable, recondite, uncanny easy, facile, shallow, simple, superficial

argument [

]

1 n. an often noisy or angry expression of differing opinions The couple’s arguments were often loud enough to be heard all over the neighborhood. altercation, controversy, disagreement, dispute, hassle, imbroglio, quarrel, squabble, tiff, wrangle 2 n. a coherent series of statements leading from a premise to a conclusion In his argument the author committed several logical fallacies which undermined its soundness. account, accounting, argumentation, case, explanation, rationale, reasoning 3 n. an idea or opinion that is put forth in a discussion or debate It is and will always be my argument that we have too many problems here on earth to concern ourselves with manned trips to Mars. assertion, point, position, stand, thesis array [ ]

1 n. a regular and imposing grouping or arrangement a marching band’s carefully choreographed array arrangement, disposal, disposition, distribution, ordering, sequence, setup disorder, disorganization 2 vt. to arrange or display in or as if in an array data arrayed in descending order rarity and consequent monetary value —— arrange, classify, codify, dispose, marshal, organize, range, systematize, draw up, lay out derange, disarrange, disarray, disorder, mess, rumple, upset 3 vt. to dress or decorate especially in splendid or impressive attire He had already arrayed himself in his best clothes. holidays with a beautiful evergreen wreath adorn, beautify, bedeck, bedizen, blazon, embellish, emblaze, emboss, enrich, garnish, ornament, trim blemish, deface, disfigure, mar, scar, spoil assail [ ]

1 vt. to criticize harshly and usually publicly The union organizers assailed the chemical company for failing to provide a safe working environment. abuse, bash, belabor, blast, castigate, excoriate, lambaste, savage, scathe, slam, trash, vituperate acclaim, commend, compliment, hail, laud, praise 2 vt. to take sudden, violent action against He was assailed by a young man with a knife. assault, attack, beset, charge, raid, rush, storm, strike, set on defend, guard, protect, shield assailable adj. attest [ ]

1 vt. to give evidence or testimony to the truth or factualness of Her fine work attests her ability. argue, authenticate, certify, corroborate, substantiate, support, testify, validate, verify, vindicate

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contradict, disprove, gainsay, rebut, refute attune [ ] 1 vt. to bring into harmony After years spent in academia, he found it difficult to attune himself to the corporate culture. accommodate, conciliate, conform, coordinate, key, reconcile disharmonize disarray, disorder, disorganize, disrupt attunement n. auspicious [ ]

1 adj. pointing toward a happy outcome began the season with an auspicious win against their strongest football rival bright, encouraging, golden, heartening, hopeful, promising, propitious baleful, dark, direful, doomy, foreboding, gloomy, menacing, minatory, ominous, portentous, sinister, threatening austere [ ]

1 adj. markedly simple or unadorned For the private office of the CEO of the large corporation, the room is unexpectedly austere. plain, spartan, stark, unadorned deluxe, lavish, luxurious, plush, sumptuous elaborate, fancy 2 adj. stern and cold in appearance or manner an austere fortress at the top of some formidable cliffs memory his deceased grandfather is an austere, distant, cold person. dour, fierce, flinty, forbidding, formidable, gruff, intimidating, lowering, rough, rugged, severe, steely benign, benignant, gentle, mild, tender bash [ ]

1 n. a forceful blow He has not been the same ever since he received that bash on his head. bang, bat, beat, crack, hit, knock, lash, poke, pound, punch, slam, slap, smash, spank, stroke, swat 2 vt. to strike violently and often repeatedly The angry child kept bashing her toy with a hammer until it broke. baste, batter, buffet, hammer, lace, maul, nail, smash, strike 3 vt. to criticize harshly and usually publicly In all of talk radio no other host seems to enjoy bashing liberals as much as he does. abuse, assail, belabor, blast, castigate, excoriate, lambaste, savage, scathe, slam, trash, vituperate acclaim, commend, compliment, hail, laud, praise bask [ 1 ] vi. to lie or relax in a pleasant warmth or atmosphere

We blissfully basked at the seashore over the long holiday. loll, lounge, relax, repose drudge, grind, hustle, labor, moil, plod, slave, sweat, toil, travail, work

Unit 4

BELLIGERENT BESET CALAMITY CALCULATED

BLACKM AIL BLUFF BRIM CAPTIOUS CELLULAR CEREMONIOUS

belligerent [ ] 1 adj. inclined to or exhibiting assertiveness, hostility, or combativeness The coach became quite belligerent and spit at an umpire after being thrown out of the game. aggressive, agonistic, assaultive, bellicose, combative, contentious, disputatious, feisty, gladiatorial, militant, pugnacious, quarrelsome, truculent, warlike dove, pacific, peaceful belligerence n. beset [ ]

1 vt. to cause persistent suffering to He has been beset by a lack of self-confidence virtually his entire life. agonize, anguish, bedevil, besiege, curse, excruciate, harrow, persecute, plague, rack, torment, torture comfort, console, solace, soothe 2 vt. to set upon The settlers were beset by savages. suddenly beset by robbers. assail, assault, attack, charge, raid, rush, storm, strike, set on defend, guard, protect, shield blackmail [ ]

1 n./vi. extortion of money or something else of value from a person by the threat of exposing a criminal act or discreditable information It looks like these pornographic pictures were being used for blackmail. extortion bluff [ ]

1 adj. being or characterized by direct, brief, and potentially rude speech or manner Frankly speaking, he is a bluff but good-hearted teacher. abrupt, brusque, crusty, curt, downright, forthright, snippy, straightforward, unceremonious

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circuitous, mealy-mouthed 2 vt. to cause to believe what is untrue; deceive I successfully bluffed the interviewer into believing that I could really speak French and thus would be the perfect person to serve in the newspaper’s Paris bureau. bamboozle, beguile, cozen, deceive, delude, dupe, fool, hoax, misguide, misinform, mislead, trick disabuse, disenchant, disillusion brim [ ]

1 n. an upper or outer margin The brim of the teacup was banded with gold. borderline, bound, boundary, circumference, confines, edge, frame, fringe, margin, perimeter, periphery, skirt, verge center, core, heart, kernel 2 vi. to be or become full often to overflowing a secondhand bookstore that was brimming with bargains brimming with tears bristle, bulge, burst, bustle, buzz, crawl, hum, overflow, pullulate, swarm, teem lack, need, want 3 vt. to put into (something) as much as can be held or contained He brimmed the glass with milk, and now I’m afraid that I will spill it. charge, cram, heap, jam, load, pack, stuff clear, empty, evacuate, vacate, void calamity [ ]

1 n. a disastrous event marked by great loss and lasting distress and suffering This latest breakdown of the car is inconvenient, but not a calamity. apocalypse, cataclysm, catastrophe, debacle, disaster, tragedy benediction, boon, felicity, godsend, manna, windfall calculated [ ]

1 adj. engaged in, undertaken, or displayed after reckoning or estimating the statistical probability of success or failure He took a calculated risk and got in on the ground floor of the new enterprise. advised, considered, deliberate, knowing, measured, reasoned, studied, thoughtful, weighed automatic, casual, instinctive, spontaneous, unstudied captious [ ]

1 adj. marked by an often ill-natured inclination to stress faults and raise objections a captious and cranky eater who has never met a vegetable he didn’t hate carping, caviling, critical, faultfinding, hypercritical, judgmental, overcritical appreciative

cellular [

]

1 adj. containing cavities; having a porous texture the cellular construction of a beehive porous ceremonious [ ]

1 adj. marked by or showing careful attention to set forms and details A century ago everyday life was much more ceremonious than in our anything-goes era. correct, decorous, formal, nice, proper, punctilious, starchy, stiff, stilted casual, easygoing, informal, unceremonious

Unit 5

CERTITUDE CHANNEL CHIVALROUS CHORALE CLAMOR CLAN C L E AV E CLING COHESIVE C O L L A B O R AT E

certitude [

]

1 n. the state of being or feeling certain I believes with certitude that he is the best candidate for the job. assurance, assuredness, certainty, confidence, conviction, doubtlessness, positiveness, sureness, surety doubt, dubiety, incertitude, uncertainty channel [ ]

1 n. an open man-made passageway for water Water was drained from the swamp through a specially constructed channel. aqueduct, canal, conduit, course, flume, racecourse, raceway, watercourse, waterway 2 n. a narrow body of water between two land masses the world record for swimming the channel between Alaska and Chukotskiy narrows, neck, sound, strait 3 vt. to cause to move to a central point or along a restricted pathway a youth who channeled all of his energy into sports canalize, channelize, conduct, direct, funnel, pipe, siphon chivalrous [ ]

1 adj. marked by gracious courtesy and high-minded consideration(especially to women) still engages in chivalrous behavior, such as opening doors for people big, elevated, gallant, great, greathearted, high, high-minded, lofty, lordly, magnanimous, natural, sublime

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base, debased, degenerate, degraded, ignoble, ignominious, low chivalry n. chorale [ ]

1 n. a hymn or psalm sung to a traditional or composed melody in church practiced a chorale to perform in church anthem, canticle, carol, hymn, paean, psalm, spiritual 2 n. an organized group of singers a chorale that is regarded as being among the best in the state choir, chorus, consort, ensemble clamor [ ]

1 n. loud, confused, and usually inharmonious sound A clamor arose from the crowd as the prisoner was brought forward. blare, bluster, cacophony, clangor, discordance, howl, racket, rattle, roar, tumult, uproar, vociferation quiet, silence, still, stillness calm, lull, serenity, tranquility clamorous adj. clan [ ]

1 n. a group united by a common interest or common characteristics That clan of football fans has parties every weekend on which the New England Patriots play. body, bunch, circle, clique, community, coterie, coven, crowd, fold, network, pack, ring, set clannish adj. cleave [ ]

1 vi. to adhere firmly and closely or loyally and unwaveringly You should resolutely cleave to the facts in your report. adhere, cling, hew, stick defect 2 vt. to divide by or as if by a cutting blow His spade cleaved the firm sand with a harsh crunch. cut, decouple, disconnect, disjoin, dissever, dissociate, divide, part, ramify, sever, slice, split, sunder join, link, unify, unite cling [ ]

1 n. a physical sticking to as if by glue For certain types of materials that plastic wrap has very little cling. adherence, bonding, cohesion 2 vi. to adhere as if glued firmly a dozen magnets clinging to the refrigerator of child rearing long after they had gone out of fashion adhere, cleave, hew, stick defect cohesive [ ]

1 adj. exhibiting or producing cohesion or coherence a cohesive social unit adherent, adhesive, clingy, gluey, glutinous, gummy, tacky, tenacious, viscid non-adhesive, non-viscous cohesion n. collaborate [ ] 1986

1 vi. to work jointly with others or together especially in an intellectual endeavor The two men collaborated on a blockbuster in 1986 which gained both of them fame. band, concert, cooperate, concur, conjoin, conspire, join, league, unite stonewall collaboration n.

Unit 6

COMPATIBLE CONCRETE

COMPELLING CONDEMN

COMPLEMENTARY CONDITIONAL

COMPLICATE CONFLATE

COMPREHEND CONFORM

compatible [

]

1 adj. capable of existing together in harmony I don’t think that they could be compatible as roommates. theory that is compatible with what we already know about early man accordant, coherent, concordant, conformable, congruent, congruous, consonant, harmonious conflicting, incompatible, incongruous, inconsistent, inharmonious compelling [ ]

1 adj. having the power to persuade made a compelling argument against military intervention you can’t present any compelling evidence to prove your innocence, you will be found guilty. conclusive, convincing, decisive, effective, forceful, persuasive, satisfying, strong, telling feeble, weak 2 adj. needing immediate attention There is no compelling need to raise taxes at this time. burning, clamant, critical, crying, dire, emergent, exigent, imperative, imperious, importunate, instant, necessitous, pressing, urgent minor, negligible, trivial, unimportant complementary [ 1 adj. ] mutually supplying each other’s lack

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The complementary contributions of the cooking and cleanup committees were essential to the success of the barbecue. correlative, interdependent, reciprocal, supplemental, supplementary contradictory, incompatible complicate [ ]

1 vt. to make complex or difficult Don’t complicate matters by getting the parents involved. complex, embarrass, entangle, ravel, perplex, sophisticate, tangle simplify, streamline complicated adj. comprehend [ ]

1 vt. to grasp the nature, significance, or meaning of the age at which children can comprehend the difference between right and wrong happened. appreciate, apprehend, assimilate, behold, catch, cognize, conceive, discern, grasp, perceive, recognize, savvy, see, seize, sense, understand misapprehend, misconceive, misinterpret, misperceive, misunderstand 2 vt. to contain or hold within a total scope, significance, or amount Our notion of morality should comprehend much more than proper sexual behavior. carry, contain, embrace, encompass, entail, involve, number, subsume, take in exclude, leave, omit, preclude comprehensive adj. comprehension n. comprehensible adj. concrete [ ]

1 adj. relating to or composed of matter concrete objects like rocks and trees physical, substantial, substantive airy, diaphanous, gossamery, immaterial, tenuous, thin, vaporous 2 adj. existing in fact and not merely as a possibility Concrete evidence, and not just a theory, must be presented at a trial. effective, existent, factual, genuine, real, true, very, de facto conjectural, hypothetical, ideal, platonic, suppositional, theoretical condemn [ ]

1 vt. to declare to be reprehensible, wrong, or evil usually after weighing evidence and without reservation a policy widely condemned as racist that slavery, which was once common, is now universally condemned. anathematize, censure, damn, decry, denounce, execrate, reprimand, reprehend, reproach, reprobate commend, endorse, extol, laud, praise conditional [ ]

1 adj. a conditional offer

subject to, implying, or dependent upon a condition

contingent, dependent, subject, tentative absolute, categorical, unconditional conflate [ ]

independent

1 vt. to turn into a single mass or entity that is more or less the same throughout The movie conflates documentary footage and dramatized reenactments so seamlessly and ingeniously that viewers may not know what is real and what is not. amalgamate, combine, composite, fuse, homogenize, immingle, incorporate, integrate, interfuse, meld, merge, mingle, mix disunite, divide, part, separate, sunder conflation n. conform [ ]

1 vt. bring into harmony or accord We have to conform this new rule with existing policy regarding student-run organizations on campus. accommodate, attune, conciliate, coordinate, key, reconcile disharmonize 2 vt. to change (something) so as to make it suitable for a new use or situation I can be funny or serious, for I always conform my behavior to the situation. acclimate, acclimatize, accommodate, adjust, condition, doctor, edit, fashion, fit, put, shape, suit, tailor 3 vi. to be obedient or compliant an independent-minded person who refuses to conform to another’s wishes adhere, comply, follow, goose-step, mind, observe defy, disobey, rebel conformist n. conformism n.

Unit 7

CONJURE CONTEMPT

CONSENT CONTEND

CONSIGN CONSTERNATION CONTRADICT CONTRIVED

CONTEMPLATE CORRELATE

conjure

[

]

1 vt. to charge or entreat earnestly or solemnly I conjure you to hear my plea for mercy. look after his children.

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appeal, beseech, besiege, entreat, impetrate, implore, importune, petition, plead, pray, solicit, supplicate 2 vi. to form a mental picture of With certain flowers I instantly conjure up memories of our Caribbean honeymoon. conceive, dream, envisage, envision, fancy, fantasize, feature, ideate, image, picture, vision, visualize consent [ ]

1 n. the approval by someone in authority for the doing of something We had to get our neighbor’s consent in order to trim the tree from his side. allowance, approval, authorization, clearance, concurrence, granting, license, sanction, warrant interdiction, prohibition, proscription 2 vi. to give assent or approval consent to being tested in her neurobiology experiment consent to the marriage acquiesce, agree, approve, assent, subscribe dissent deny, veto consign [ ]

1 vt. to give, transfer, or deliver into the hands or control of another The record shows that the deliveryman had consigned our package to a next-door neighbor. commend, commit, confide, delegate, deliver, entrust, hand, recommend, repose, transfer, transmit, vest hold, keep, retain consternation [ ]

1 n. a state of paralyzing dismay The two girls stared at each other in consternation without any idea about what to do. alarm, apprehension, dread, fear, fright, horror, terror, trepidation bravery, courage, dauntlessness, fearlessness, fortitude, intrepidity, stoutness, valor contemplate [ ]

1 vt./vi. to view or consider with continued attention contemplate the vastness of the universe several hours before reaching a decision. cogitate, consider, deliberate, meditate, mull, perpend, pore, revolve, ruminate, study, weigh, wrestle disregard, ignore, overlook, slight contemplation n. contempt [ ]

1 n. open dislike for someone or something considered unworthy of one's concern or respect my undying contempt for people who abuse animals illiterate was obvious. contemptuousness, despisement, despite, despitefulness, disdain, misprision, scorn admiration, esteem, estimation, regard, respect, reverence, veneration contemptible adj. contemptuous adj.

contend

[

]

1 vi. to strive or vie in contest or rivalry or against difficulties two traditional rivals contending for the championship battle, fight, race, rival, vie capitulate, quit, succumb, surrender, give in 2 vt. to state as a fact usually forcefully contended that his opponent was wrong about practically everything affirm, allege, assert, aver, avouch, avow, declare, insist, maintain, profess, protest, purport, warrant deny, gainsay contradict [ ]

1 vt. to assert the contrary of; to imply the opposite or a denial of contradict a rumor deny, disaffirm, disavow, disclaim, disconfirm, disown, gainsay, negate, negative, refute, reject, repudiate acknowledge, admit, avow, concede, confirm contradictory adj. contrived [ ]

1 adj. lacking in natural or spontaneous quality We are bored with the contrived applause of a TV studio audience that has been told when to clap. affected, assumed, bogus, factitious, feigned, plastic, pretended, pseudo, simulated, unnatural artless, natural, spontaneous, unaffected, uncontrived, unfeigned, unforced correlate [ ]

1 vt. to establish a mutual or reciprocal relation between a demanding father who always correlated success with hard work In this work, we correlate the simulation in the lab and the observation in the field to examine the validity of our theory. connect, identify, link, relate separate correlation n.

Unit 8

COUNTERPART COURTEOUS CREDIBLE CREDIT DE I G N DE LI NE AT E DE S P E R AT E DI CH O TO MY

DECRY DI CTATE

counterpart [ 1 n.

] one having the same function or characteristics as another

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She worked with her counterpart in the other office to get the job done. coequal, compeer, coordinate, equivalent, fellow, like, match, parallel, peer, rival courteous [ ]

1 adj. marked by polished manners, gallantry, or ceremonial usage of a court Their customer service department always gives courteous responses, even to rude people. civil, civilized, couth, genteel, gracious, mannerly, suave, urbane, well-bred discourteous, ill-bred, ill-mannered, impertinent, impolite, impudent, insolent, rude courtesy n. credible [ ]

1 adj. worthy of being accepted as true or reasonable It’s not perfect, but is at least a credible explanation. believable, creditable, likely, plausible, presumptive, probable implausible, improbable, incredible, unbelievable, unlikely credibility n. credit [ ]

1 n. mental conviction of the truth of some statement or the reality of some being or phenomenon I give full credit to this report on the prevalence of cheating among college students today. belief, credence, faith, trust disbelief, doubt, dubiety, incertitude 2 n. public acknowledgment or admiration for an achievement She deserves all the credit, since she did all the work. acclaim, accolade, applause, commendation, distinction, endorsement, homage, honor, kudos, laud denunciation, excoriation, rebuke, reprimand, reproach, reproof, stricture decry [ ]

1 vt. to express strong disapproval of Scientists were quick to decry the claims of the psychic. belittle, denigrate, denounce, deprecate, depreciate, derogate, disapprove, dismiss, disparage, minimize acclaim, applaud, exalt, extol, glorify, laud, magnify, praise deign [ ]

1 vi. to condescend reluctantly and with a strong sense of the affront to one's superiority that is involved I would never deign to answer that absurd accusation. condescend, stoop delineate [ ]

1 vt. to indicate or represent by drawn or painted lines lights delineating the narrow streets

define, silhouette, sketch, trace 2 vt. to describe, portray, or set forth with accuracy or in detail delineate the steps to be taken by the government remarkable job of delineating the emotions that immigrants feel upon their arrival in a strange country. depict, display, draw, image, limn, paint, picture, portray, render color, distort, falsify, garble, misrepresent, misstate, pervert, twist, warp delineation n. desperate [ ]

1 adj. feeling or showing no hope a desperate spirit crying for relief despondent, despairing, forlorn, hopeless hopeful, optimistic dichotomy [ 1 entities a dichotomy between the academic world and the industrial world bifurcation, breakup, cleavage, division, fractionalization, partition, schism, scission, split, sundering unification, union dictate [ ] n. ] a division into two especially mutually exclusive or contradictory groups or

1 n. a command by one in authority followed the dictates of my conscience new government. behest, charge, commandment, decree, direction, directive, edict, imperative, injunction, instruction, order 2 vt. to request the doing of by virtue of one’s authority The general dictated that the terms of surrender be negotiated by his senior staff. call, decree, direct, impose, mandate, ordain, order, prescribe cancel, countermand, rescind dictator n.

Unit 9

DISCREET D R A M AT I C

DISPROVE DRE AD

DISTINCTIVE D U P L I C AT E

DOCTRINAIRE DRAB D Y N AM I C ECLECTIC

discreet [ ] 1 adj. having or showing good judgment and restraint especially in conduct or speech He was very discreet, only saying what was necessary.

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intelligent, judicious, prudent imprudent, indiscreet, injudicious 2 adj. not readily seen or noticed With a discreet gesture, she signaled to her husband that she was ready to leave the party. inconspicuous, invisible, unnoticeable, unobtrusive apparent, conspicuous, distinct, evident, manifest, noticeable, obvious, patent, visible disprove [ ]

1 vt. to prove to be false or wrong Magellan’s circumnavigation of the globe disproved any lingering notions that the earth is flat. “ ” belie, confound, confute, debunk, disconfirm, discredit, falsify, rebut, refute, shoot down confirm, establish, prove, validate, verify distinctive [ ]

1 adj. being not of the same kind She seems to alternate between two distinctive hairstyles. disparate, dissimilar, distant, distinct, distinguishable, diverse, unalike, unlike identical, indistinguishable, same alike, analogous, kindred, like, parallel, similar 2 adj. serving to identify as belonging to an individual or group She seems to alternate between two distinctive hairstyles. characteristic, classic, diagnostic, discriminating, distinguishing, identifying, peculiar, symptomatic, typical atypical, uncharacteristic, untypical distinction n. doctrinaire [ ]

1 adj. given to or marked by the forceful expression of strongly held opinions A doctrinaire conservative, the columnist takes special delight in baiting liberals. dogmatic latitudinarian drab [ ]

1 adj. characterized by dullness and monotony The new city hall turned out to be another drab pile of masonry for the town. arid, dreary, drudging, humdrum, jading, jejune, monochromatic, monotonous, pedestrian, ponderous, stale, stodgy, tedious, tiresome, wearisome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting dramatic [ ] 1 adj. striking in appearance or effect a dramatic drop in the temperature overnight arresting, bold, brilliant, catchy, conspicuous, flamboyant, prominent, remarkable, splashy, striking discreet, inconspicuous, invisible, subtle, unnoticeable, unobtrusive dramatically adv.

dread

[ ] 1 n. great fear especially in the face of impending evil We were filled with dread when we saw the rapids we would be rafting down. alarm, apprehension, consternation, fear, fright, horror, terror, trepidation bravery, courage, dauntlessness, fearlessness, fortitude, intrepidity, stoutness, valor dreadful adj.

duplicate

[

]

1 n. either of two things exactly alike and usually produced at the same time or by the same process a duplicate of a house key copy, dupe, duplication, facsimile, imitation, mock, reduplication, replica, replication, reproduction archetype, original, prototype 2 vt. to make a copy of A cell duplicates itself when it divides. are trying to duplicate paintings in the museum’s collection as part of their training. clone, copycat, imitate, reduplicate, render, replicate, reproduce originate 3 vt. to do over or again often needlessly We were unable to duplicate the experiment with the same result in our own lab, so we’re suspicious. redo, reiterate, renew, repeat duplicable adj. dynamic [ ]

1 adj. marked by usually continuous and productive activity or change; energetic He has become a dynamic new challenger for the title of champion. a dynamic speech expressing her goals and values brisk, energetic, flush, forceful, gingery, kinetic, lusty, peppy, robust, sprightly, vital, vivacious dull, lethargic, listless, sluggish, torpid eclectic [ ]

1 adj. composed of elements drawn from various sources The museum’s eclectic collection has everything from a giraffe skeleton to medieval musical instruments. assorted, diverse, heterogeneous, indiscriminate, magpie, mixed, motley, piebald, ragtag, varied homogeneous, uniform

Unit 10

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E F F I C AC I O U S ELUDE EXORCISE EXPLICATE

E N AM O R E D EXTERMINATE

E N T H R AL L EXTRAPOLATE

ETHOS FALLIBLE

efficacious [ ] 1 adj. having the power to produce a desired effect Taking break with a cup of coffee while studying is one of the most efficacious ways of rejuvenating the mind that I have ever discovered. effective, effectual, efficient, fruitful, operative, potent, productive bootless, fruitless, ineffective, ineffectual, inefficient, inoperative, unproductive, useless elude [ ]

1 vt. to avoid adroitly managed to elude capture years before getting caught. avoid, dodge, duck, eschew, evade, finesse, scape, shirk, shun, sidestep, weasel confront 2 vt. to escape the perception, understanding, or grasp of a metaphor that eluded them baffle, befog, befuddle, bewilder, confound, discombobulate, disorient, maze, mystify, perplex, puzzle, vex clarify, elucidate, explicate, expound, illuminate, illustrate elusive adj. enamored [ ]

1 adj. filled with an intense or excessive love for Many teenage girls became enamored of the movie idol for her boyish good looks. besotted, bewitched, captivated, crazy, dotty, enraptured, fascinated, infatuated, mad, nuts, obsessed apathetic, detached, indifferent, insouciant, nonchalant enthrall [ ]

1 vt. to hold the attention of as if by a spell Enthralled by the flickering aurora in the sky, we lost all track of time. absorb, arrest, bedazzle, enchant, engross, fascinate, grip, hypnotize, immerse, mesmerize, spellbind bore, jade, pall, tire, weary enthralling adj. ethos [ ]

1 n. the code of good conduct for an individual or group Rigorous self-discipline was central to the ethos of the ancient Spartans. ethics, morality, morals, norms, principles, standards exorcise [ ]

1 vt. to get rid of (something troublesome, menacing, or oppressive) Please exorcise that offensive word from your vocabulary.

cashier, cast, ditch, dump, fling, jettison, lose, pitch, reject, scrap, shed, slough, throw, toss, unload adopt, employ, use, utilize exorcism n. explicate [ ]

1 vt. to give a detailed explanation of The physicist did his best to explicate the wave theory of light for the audience of laymen. clarify, clear, construe, demonstrate, demystify, elucidate, explain, expound, illuminate, illustrate, interpret, simplify, unriddle obscure explication n. exterminate [ ]

1 vt. to get rid of completely usually by killing off We hope that the fumigant exterminates the whole colony of cockroaches, for any survivors may be resistant to any poison. annihilate, decimate, efface, eradicate, expunge, extirpate, liquidate, obliterate, raze, sweep, wipe out conserve, preserve, protect rescue, save extermination n. extrapolate [ ]

1 vt. to form an opinion or reach a conclusion through reasoning and information We can extrapolate from past economic recessions the probable course of the current one. conclude, decide, deduce, derive, gather, judge, reason, understand conjecture, guess, speculate, surmise extrapolation n. fallible [ ]

1 adj. tending or likely to be erroneous or capable of making an error They are only human and all too fallible. errant fail-safe, foolproof, infallible, unfailing fallibility n.

List 31*
Unit 1

FERVENT GERMINATE

FIGMENT GRUDGE

FOREBODE HALFHEARTED

FORFEIT HUMDRUM

FORSAKE HUMILIATE

fervent [

]

1 adj. exhibiting or marked by great intensity of feeling a fervent speech that called for tolerance and compassion for those who are physically challenged ardent, demonstrative, fervid, flaming, glowing, impassioned, incandescent, passionate, perfervid, torrid, vehement, zealous cold, cool, dispassionate, emotionless, impassive, unemotional figment [ ] 1 n. something made up or contrived Unable to find any tracks in the snow the next morning, I was forced to conclude that the shadowy figure had been a figment of my imagination. gment of fantasy writers. chimera, conceit, daydream, delusion, dream, fancy, fantasy, hallucination, illusion, phantasm, vision fact, materiality, reality forebode [ ]

1 vi. to show signs of a favorable or successful outcome That police car parked outside the house doesn’t forebode well. augur, predict, promise foreboding n. forfeit [ ]

1 n. a sum of money to be paid as a punishment The forfeit for each baseball player involved in the brawl was $5,000. damages, fine, forfeiture, mulct, penalty bonus, premium, prize forsake [ ]

1 vt. to renounce or turn away from entirely Forsaking most of our possessions, we evacuated just before the hurricane struck. abandon, desert, maroon, quit, renounce, strand

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reclaim forsaken adj. germinate [ ]

hold, keep, retain, withhold

1 vi. to begin to grow Some seed varieties germinate very quickly. burgeon, shoot, sprout fade, flag, wilt, wither 2 vi. to come into being A truly marvelous proof of this theorem germinated in his mind. develop, evolve, grow disappear, vanish germination n. grudge [ ] deep

1 n. a feeling of deep-seated resentment or ill will There has been a grudge between the two families for years. grudge against her ever since she snubbed him at the dance.

animosity, animus, antagonism, antipathy, bitterness, gall, hostility, jaundice, malice, rancor, resentment amity halfhearted [ ]

1 adj. lacking heart, spirit, or interest a halfhearted attempt to clean the house before the arrival of the in-laws lukewarm, tepid, uneager, unenthusiastic eager, enthusiastic, keen, passionate, warm humdrum [ ]

hearty, wholehearted

1 n. a tedious lack of variety She has been loathing the humdrum of daily life in a small town for a long time. monotone, monotonousness, sameness diversity, variety 2 adj. lacking variety or excitement trapped in a humdrum but well-paid job arid, drab, dreary, drudging, jading, jejune, monochromatic, monotonous, pedestrian, ponderous, stale, stodgy, tedious, tiresome, wearisome absorbing, engaging, engrossing, gripping, interesting, intriguing, involving, riveting humiliate [ ] 1 vt. to reduce to a lower position in one’s own eyes or others’ eyes No student feels humiliated for not having the “right” clothes because everyone is wearing a school uniform. He humiliated me in front of my parents and I swear to retaliate. abase, chasten, cheapen, debase, degrade, demean, discredit, disgrace, dishonor, shame, sink, smirch

aggrandize, canonize, deify, elevate, exalt humiliation n.

Unit 2

HYPOTHETICAL IMPUNITY INCENTIVE JUSTIFY LICENSE LUDICROUS LUMINOUS MALEVOLENT MEDITATE MERETRICIOUS

hypothetical [

]

1 n. something taken as being true or factual and used as a starting point for a course of action or reasoning He believes that predictions of the extinction of certain species as the result of global warming are based upon too many hypotheticals. assumption, given, postulate, premise, presumption, presupposition, supposition conclusion, consequence, deduction, induction, inference 2 adj. existing only as an assumption or speculation We talked about what we would do in various hypothetical emergencies. conjectural, speculative, supposed, suppositional actual, factual, real impunity [ ]

1 n. exemption or freedom from punishment, harm, or loss She mistakenly believed that she could insult people with impunity. exemption, immunity liability incentive [ ]

1 n. something that incites or has a tendency to incite to determination or action The handsome reward for the missing wallet was an incentive for me to start looking. A little bonus will give employees an incentive to work harder. boost, goad, impetus, incitement, instigation, momentum, motivation, motive, provocation, spur, stimulant, stimulus, yeast deterrent, disincentive justify [ ] The

1 vt. to prove or show to be just, right, or reasonable failed to justify the need for a new expressway at this time storm warning justified his leaving early. excuse, rationalize, warrant

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justification n. license [ ] 1 n. the approval by someone in authority for the doing of something The company is seeking license to operate several more power plants in the state. A restaurant owner has to get a license to serve food and drink. allowance, authorization, clearance, concurrence, consent, empowerment, granting, sanction, warrant interdiction, prohibition, proscription 2 n. the right to act or move freely Military commanders on the ground must be granted considerable license, as wars cannot be micromanaged by people back in Washington. freedom, latitude, liberty confinement, custody, imprisonment 3 n. disregard for standards of personal conduct a night of drinking and license at the nightclub debauchery, hedonism, libertinage, libertinism, licentiousness, profligacy, voluptuousness abstinence, asceticism, sobriety, temperance 4 vt. to permit or authorize especially by formal license A state statute licenses county sheriffs to choose their own deputies. licensed to use deadly force accredit, certify, commission, empower, enable, invest, qualify, vest, warrant disqualify forbid, interdict, prohibit, proscribe, veto ludicrous [ ]

1 adj. meriting derisive laughter or scorn as absurdly inept, false, or foolish He made a ludicrous and easily detected attempt to forge his father’s signature on a note to school. absurd, comical, derisive, derisory, farcical, laughable, ridiculous, pathetic, preposterous, risible, silly logical, rational, reasonable, sensible luminous [ ]

1 adj. emitting or reflecting usually steady, suffused, or glowing light The luminous moon bathed the snow-covered fields with a pearly glow. beaming, bright, candescent, dazzling, effulgent, glowing, incandescent, lambent, lucent, lucid, lustrous, radiant, refulgent, shiny, splendid dim, dull, lackluster 2 adj. standing above others in rank, importance, or achievement some of the most luminous writers in the nation’s history astral, brilliant, distinguished, illustrious, notable, noteworthy, preeminent, prestigious, redoubtable, signal average, inferior, mediocre luminosity n. malevolent [ ]

1 adj. having, showing, or arising from intense often vicious ill will, spite, or hatred The novel grossly oversimplified the conflict as a struggle between relentlessly malevolent villains on one

side and faultless saints on the other. cruel, despiteful, evil, malicious, malign, malignant, mean, nasty, spiteful, vicious, virulent benevolent, benign, benignant malevolence n. meditate [ ]

1 vt. to focus one’s thoughts on meditated a visit to her professor I have been meditating a career change for months. cogitate, consider, contemplate, deliberate, mull, perpend, ponder, ruminate, study, weigh, wrestle disregard, ignore, overlook, slight meditation n. meretricious [ ]

1 adj. attracting attention in a vulgar manner The paradise they found was no more than a meretricious wasteland of casinos and bars. flamboyant, flaring, flashy, garish, gaudy, glaring, loud, ostentatious, tawdry conservative, quiet, understated, unflamboyant

Unit 3

MILIEU OSTENSIBLE

M I L I TA R Y OUTGROWTH

N O S TA L G I A OUTMODED

NUMB OVERRIDE

ORDEAL OVERWHELM

milieu

[

]

1 n. the physical or social setting in which something occurs or develops Young, innovative artists thrive in the freewheeling milieu that a big city offers. ahistorical milieu conducive to democracy ambient, atmosphere, climate, context, environment, environs, medium, setting, surroundings, terrain military [ ]

1 adj. of or relating to soldiers, arms, or war NATO struggles with how to proceed military operation against Libya. an encyclopedia of modern military aircraft martial, service civilian nostalgia [ ]