Free Essay

Green Computing

In: Computers and Technology

Submitted By Ntoki
Words 4836
Pages 20
Chapter 11:
Green Computing
Prof. Yuh-Shyan Chen
Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering
National Taipei University
Prof. Chih-Shun Hsu
Department of Information Management
Shih Hsin University

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

2

1. Abstract

1. Abstract
• In 1992, the US Environmental Protection Agency launched Energy Star, a voluntary labeling program which is designed to promote and recognize energy efficiency in monitors, climate control equipment, and other technologies. • “Green computing" was probably coined shortly after the
Energy Star program began.
• Energy management has always been an important topic for laptop manufacturers, who have been working on this for years as they struggled to manage weight versus battery life issues.

3

1. Abstract

Definition of Green Computing
• Green computing is the study and practice of using computing resources efficiently.
• The primary objective of such a program is to account for the triple bottom line (or "People, Planet, Profit").
• Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must be systemic in nature, and address increasingly sophisticated problems.

4

1. Abstract

Green Computing
Regula-ons
and industry ini-a-ves  Government
 Industry

Green Compu-ng Approaches to Green Compu-ng

Architecture







Overview of Green Computing Architecture
Power Consumption in Laptop
The Goals of Green Computing
Impact of Green Computing Architecture
Metrics of Green Computing Architecture
Solution of Green Computing Architecture

 Product longevity  So1ware and deployment op6miza6on o Algorithmic efficiency o Resource alloca6on o Virtualiza6on o Terminal servers  Power management o Data center power o Opera6ng system support o Power supply o Storage o Video card o Display  Materials recycling  Telecommu6ng  Low performance computer

5

1. Abstract

Overview of Green Computing
• Green computing or green IT, refers to environmentally sustainable computing or IT.
• The study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems—efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment. 6

2. Green computing architecture

2. Green Computing Architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives  Government
 Industry

Green Compu-ng

Architecture

Approaches to Green Computing
 Product longevity
 Software and deployment optimization o Algorithmic efficiency o Resource allocation o Virtualization o Terminal servers
 Power management o Data center power o Operating system support o Power supply o Storage o Video card o Display
 Materials recycling
 Telecommuting
 Low performance computer

 Overview of Green Computing Architecture
 Power Consumption in Laptop
 The Goals of Green Computing
 Impact of Green Computing Architecture
 Metrics of Green Computing Architecture
 Solution of Green Computing Architecture
7

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

8

2. Green computing architecture

Overview of Green Computing Architecture
• The statistic results of the power consumption of each components of a laptop computer is shown first. With the statistic results of power consumption, we can realized which component consumes more power and can try to reduce the power consumption of these components.
• The second part shows the ecosystem view of green computing architecture, which contains impact, metrics, and solutions of green computing.

9

2. Green computing architecture

Power Consumption in An Average Laptop

“GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB Willemse, www.fs.gov.za

10

2. Green computing architecture

Power Consumption in An Average Laptop (cont.)
• The powerful new laptop with the terrifically beautiful video display might require a more expensive battery technology if the laptop’s weight is to be maintained as well as its battery life.
• Longer battery life always comes with a price—typically a guns-or-butter trade-off between heavier batteries or more expensive battery technologies for every additional minute of battery life.

11

2. Green computing architecture

The Goals of Green Computing
• The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry; reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste.
• Research continues into key areas such as making the use of computers as energy-efficient as possible, and designing algorithms and systems for efficiency-related computer technologies.

12

2. Green computing architecture

An Ecosystem is a View of Green Computing’s Architectural

“GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB Willemse, www.fs.gov.za

13

2. Green computing architecture

Green Computing’s Architecture
• In a large IT operation, this tree could conceivably span hundreds if not thousands of branches, particularly if it includes multiple business units and data centers located around the world.
• There is also a clearer view of how deeply the architecture for green computing cuts across so many functional roles in an IT operation.

14

2. Green computing architecture

Impact of Green Computing

“GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB Willemse, www.fs.gov.za

15

2. Green computing architecture

Metrics of Green Computing

“GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB Willemse, www.fs.gov.za

16

2. Green computing architecture

Solutions Green Computing

“GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB Willemse, www.fs.gov.za

17

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

3. Regulations and Industry Initiatives
Regulations and industry initiatives
 Government
 Industry

Green Compu-ng Approaches to Green Computing

Architecture






Power Consumption in Laptop
The Goals of Green Computing
Impact of Green Computing Architecture
Metrics of Green Computing Architecture
Solution of Green Computing Architecture

 Product longevity
 Software and deployment optimization o Algorithmic efficiency o Resource allocation o Virtualization o Terminal servers
 Power management o Data center power o Operating system support o Power supply o Storage o Video card o Display
 Materials recycling
 Telecommuting
 Low performance computer

18

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

19

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

Overview of Regulations and Industry Initiatives
• The Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development (OECD) has published a survey of over 90 government and industry initiatives on "Green ICTs", i.e. information and communication technologies, the environment and climate change.
• Initiatives tend to concentrate on the greening ICTs themselves rather than on their actual implementation to tackle global warming and environmental degradation.
• Only 20% of initiatives have measurable targets, with government programs tending to include targets more frequently than business associations.

20

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

Regulations and Industry Initiatives - Government
• Many governmental agencies abroad have continued to implement standards and regulations that encourage green computing.
• The Energy Star program was revised in October 2006 to include stricter efficiency requirements for computer equipment, along with a tiered ranking system for approved products.
• In 2008, a report published in the UK by the Department for Communities and Local Government, quantified that the potential carbon savings from increasing the usage of online public service delivery were significantly in excess of the negative impact of extra IT server capacity.

[1] WIKIPEDIA, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page

21

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
• There are currently 26 US states that have established state
-wide recycling programs for obsolete computers and consumer electronics equipment.
• In 2010, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) was signed into legislation by President Obama.
• The bill allocated over $90 billion to be invested in green initiatives (renewable energy, smart grids, energy efficiency, etc.) • In January 2010, the U.S. Energy Department granted $47 million of the ARRA money towards projects that aim to improve the energy efficiency of data centers.
• The projects will provide research on the following three areas: optimize data center hardware and software, improve power supply chain, and data center cooling technologies.
22

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

Energy Star
• Energy Star is an international standard for energy efficient consumer products originated in the United States of America.
• It was first created as a United States government program during the early 1990s, but Australia, Canada, Japan, New
Zealand, Taiwan and the European Union have also adopted the program.
• Devices carrying the Energy Star logo, such as computer products and peripherals, kitchen appliances, buildings and other products, generally use 20%–30% less energy than required by federal standards.

23

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

Energy Star specifications
• Energy Star specifications differ with each item, and are set by either the Environmental Protection Agency or the
Department of Energy. The following highlights product and specification information available on the Energy Star website. • Energy Star items:







Computers
Servers
Appliances
Heating and cooling systems
Home electronics
Imaging equipment

24

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

Regulations and Industry Initiatives - Industry
• Industry
• The Green Grid is a global consortium dedicated to advancing energy efficiency in data centers and business computing ecosystems.
• Climate Savers Computing Initiative (CSCI) is an effort to reduce the electric power consumption of PCs in active and inactive states.
• The CSCI provides a catalog of green products from it‘s member organizations, and information for reducing PC power consumption. 25

3. Regulations and industry initiatives

The Green Grid
• The Green Grid is a non-profit, open industry consortium of end-users, policy-makers, technology providers, facility architects, and utility companies collaborating to improve the resource efficiency of data centers and business computing ecosystems.
• With more than 170 member companies around the world,
The Green Grid seeks to unite global industry efforts, create a common set of metrics, and develop technical resources and educational tools to further its goals.

4. Approaches to Green Computing

4. Approaches to Green Computing
Regulations and industry initiatives  Government
 Industry

Green Compu-ng

Architecture






Power Consumption in Laptop
The Goals of Green Computing
Impact of Green Computing Architecture
Metrics of Green Computing Architecture
Solution of Green Computing Architecture

Approaches to Green
Computing
 Product longevity
 Software and deployment optimization o Algorithmic efficiency o Resource allocation o Virtualization o Terminal servers
 Power management o Data center power o Operating system support o Power supply o Storage o Video card o Display
 Materials recycling
 Telecommuting
 Low performance computer
27

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

28

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Overview of Approaches to Green Computing
• Modern IT systems rely upon a complicated mix of people, networks and hardware; as such, a green computing initiative must cover all of these areas as well. A solution may also need to address end user satisfaction, management restructuring, regulatory compliance, and return on investment (ROI).
• There are also considerable fiscal motivations for companies to take control of their own power consumption; of the power management tools available, one of the most powerful may still be simple, plain, common sense.

29

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Overview of Approaches to Green Computing (cont.)
• In Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, San
Murugesan defines the field of green computing as efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.







study and practice of designing
Manufacturing
Using disposing of computers
Servers
Associated subsystems






Monitors
Printers
storage devices
Networking
communications systems

30

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Outline of Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization





Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

31

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Outline of Approaches to Green Computing (cont.)
• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

32

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing







Product longevity
Software and deployment optimization
Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

33

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Product Longevity
• The PC manufacturing process accounts for 70 % of the natural resources used in the life cycle of a PC.
• Fujitsu released a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of a desktop that show that manufacturing and end of life accounts for the majority of this laptop ecological footprint.
• The biggest contribution to green computing usually is to prolong the equipment's lifetime.
• "Look for product longevity, including upgradability and modularity." • Manufacturing a new PC makes a far bigger ecological footprint than manufacturing a new RAM module to upgrade an existing one. 34

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization










Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

35

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Software and deployment optimization
• Optimize the software and deployment is an efficiency way for saving energy which include algorithmic efficiency, resource allocation, virtualization, terminal servers.
• The efficiency of software and deployment has an impact on the amount of computer resources required for any given computing function and there are many efficiency trade-offs in writing programs.

36

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization










Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

37

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Algorithmic Efficiency
• The average Google search released 7 grams of carbon dioxide (CO₂), however, Google disputes this figure, arguing instead that a typical search produces only
0.2 grams of CO₂.
• An independent study by GreenIT.fr demonstrate that
Windows 7 + Office 2010 require 70 times more memory
(RAM) than Windows 98 + Office 2000 to write exactly the same text or send exactly the same e-mail than 10 years ago. • Fine-grained green computing refers to running a program efficiently and effectively via a subtle power control on each computing resources as CPU, memory, registers, peripherals, clock management, and power supply.
38

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Algorithmic Efficiency
Before

Activity
Turn into low power mode

After Wake up the memory and io
Activity
Memory and io turn into sleep mode Turn into low power mode [4] Chia-Tien Dan Lo and Kai Qian, “Green Computing Methodology for Next Generation Computing
Scientists”, 2010 IEEE 34th Annual Computer Software and Applications Conference

39

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization










Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

40

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Resource Allocation
• Resource allocation is used to assign the available resources in an economic way.
• In project management, resource allocation is the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both the resource availability and the project time.
• There are two parts of the resource allocation:
• Strategic planning
• Resource leveling

41

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Resource Allocation – Strategic Planning
• In strategic planning, resource allocation is a plan for using available resources, for example human resources, especially in the near term, to achieve goals for the future.
• It is the process of allocating resources among the various projects or business units.
• The strategic planning has two parts:
• Firstly, there is the basic allocation decision and
• Secondly there are contingency mechanisms.

• The basic allocation decision is the choice of which items to fund in the plan, and what level of funding it should receive, and which to leave unfunded: the resources are allocated to some items, not to others.

42

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Resource Allocation – Resource Leveling
• The main objective is to smooth resources requirements by shifting slack jobs beyond periods of peak requirements.
• Some of the methods essentially replicate what a human scheduler would do if he had enough time; others make use of unusual devices or procedures designed especially for the computer. They of course depend for their success on the speed and capabilities of electronic computers.

43

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization










Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

44

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Virtualization
• Computer virtualization refers to the abstraction of computer resources, such as the process of running two or more logical computer systems on one set of physical hardware.
• With virtualization, a system administrator could combine several physical systems into virtual machines on one single, powerful system, thereby unplugging the original hardware and reducing power and cooling consumption.

45

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Virtualization
• Full virtualization
• In full virtualization, the virtual machine simulates enough hardware to allow an unmodified "guest" OS (one designed for the same instruction set) to be run in isolation.

46

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Virtualization
• Hardware-assisted virtualization
• In hardware-assisted virtualization, the hardware provides architectural support that facilitates building a virtual machine monitor and allows guest OSes to be run in isolation.

• Partial virtualization
• In partial virtualization, including address space virtualization, the virtual machine simulates multiple instances of much of an underlying hardware environment, particularly address spaces.
• Usually, this means that entire operating systems cannot run in the virtual machine – which would be the sign of full virtualization – but that many applications can run.

47

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization










Algorithmic efficiency
Resource allocation
Virtualization
Terminal servers

Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

48

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Terminal Serves
• Terminal servers have also been used in green computing.
• When using the system, users at a terminal connect to a central server; all of the actual computing is done on the server, but the end user experiences the operating system on the terminal.
• These can be combined with thin clients, which use up to
1/8 the amount of energy of a normal workstation, resulting in a decrease of energy costs and consumption.
• There has been an increase in using terminal services with thin clients to create virtual labs.

49

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

50

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Power Management
• The Advanced Configuration and Power Interface
(ACPI), an open industry standard, allows an operating system to directly control the power saving aspects of its underlying hardware.
• This allows a system to automatically turn off components such as monitors and hard drives after set periods of inactivity.
• Some programs allow the user to manually adjust the voltages supplied to the CPU, which reduces both the amount of heat produced and electricity consumed.

51

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

52

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Data Center Power
• Data centers, which have been criticized for its extraordinary high energy demand, are a primary focus for proponents of green computing.
• The federal government has set a minimum 10% reduction target for data center energy usage by 2011.
• With the aid of a self-styled ultra efficient evaporative cooling technology, Google Inc. has been able to reduce its energy consumption to 50% of that of the industry average. 53

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Data Center Power
• An illustration of the cross section of a data center.
• Cold air is blown from floor vents, while hot air rises from hot aisles. Mixed air eventually returns to the CRAC where it is cooled with the help of chilled water, and the cycle repeats. [3] Jie Liu, Feng Zhao, Jeff O’Reilly, Amaya Souarez, Michael Manos, Chieh-Jan Mike Liang, and
Andreas Terzis, “Project Genome: Wireless Sensor Network for Data Center Cooling”

54

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Data Center Power
• Data collected from physical and cyber systems in data centers is correlated and analyzed to provide models and tools for data center management and performance optimization. [3] Jie Liu, Feng Zhao, Jeff O’Reilly, Amaya Souarez, Michael Manos, Chieh-Jan Mike Liang, and
Andreas Terzis, “Project Genome: Wireless Sensor Network for Data Center Cooling”

55

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

56

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Operation System Support
• The dominant desktop operating system, Microsoft
Windows, has included limited PC power management features since Windows 95. These initially provided for stand-by (suspend-to-RAM) and a monitor low power state. • Windows 2000 was the first NT based operating system to include power management, his required major changes to the underlying operating system architecture and a new hardware driver model; it also introduced Group Policy, a technology which allowed administrators to centrally configure most Windows features.

57

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Operation System Support
• The most recent release, Windows 7 retains these limitations but does include refinements for more efficient user of operating system timers, processor power management, and display panel brightness.
• The most significant change in Windows 7 is in the user experience. • The prominence of the default High Performance power plan has been reduced with the aim of encouraging users to save power.

58

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

59

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Power Supply
• Desktop computer power supplies (PSUs) are generally 70–75% efficient, dissipating the remaining energy as heat.
• An industry initiative called 80 PLUS certifies PSUs that are at least
80% efficient; typically these models are drop-in replacements for older, less efficient PSUs of the same form factor.
• As of 20 July 2007, all new Energy Star 4.0-certified desktop PSUs must be at least 80% efficient.

60

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

61

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Storage
• Smaller form factor (e.g. 2.5 inch) hard disk drives often consume less power than physically larger drives.
• With no moving parts, power consumption may be reduced somewhat for low capacity flash based devices.
• As hard drive prices have fallen, storage farms have tended to increase in capacity to make more data available online, this includes archival and backup data that would formerly have been saved on tape or other offline storage.
• The increase in online storage has increased power consumption. • Reducing the power consumed by large storage arrays, while still providing the benefits of online storage, is a subject of ongoing research.
62

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

63

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Video Card
• A fast GPU may be the largest power consumer in a computer. • Energy efficient display options include:
• No video card - use a shared terminal, shared thin client, or desktop sharing software if display required.
• Use motherboard video output - typically low 3D performance and low power.

• Select a GPU based on low idle power, average wattage or performance per watt.

64

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing
• Product longevity
• Software and deployment optimization
• Power management







Data center power
Operating system support
Power supply
Storage
Video card
Display

• Materials recycling
• Telecommuting
• Low performance computer

65

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Display
• CRT monitors typically use more power than LCD monitors, they also contain significant amounts of lead.
• LCD monitors typically use a cold-cathode fluorescent bulb to provide light for the display.
• Some newer displays use an array of light-emitting diodes
(LEDs) in place of the fluorescent bulb, which reduces the amount of electricity used by the display.

66

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Cathode ray tube (CRT)
• The first computer monitors used cathode ray tubes (CRT).
• Until the early 1980s, they were known as video display terminals and were physically attached to the computer and keyboard.
• CRT remained the standard for computer monitors through the 1990s.
• CRT technology remained dominant in the PC monitor market into the new millennium partly because it was cheaper to produce and offered viewing angles close to
180 degrees.

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Liquid Crystal Display
• A liquid crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals (LCs). LCs do not emit light directly.
• LCDs are more energy efficient and offer safer disposal than CRTs.
• Its low electrical power consumption enables it to be used in battery-powered electronic equipment.
• It is an electronically modulated optical device made up of any number of segments filled with liquid crystals and arrayed in front of a light source or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome.
• The most flexible ones use an array of small pixels.

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Light-emitting diode
• A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source.
• LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for other lighting.
• Early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Organic light-emitting diode
• Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) monitors provide higher contrast and better viewing angles than LCDs, and are predicted to replace them. • In 2011 a 25 inch OLED monitor costs $6000, but the prices are expected to drop.
• LEDs are often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern.
• LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller size, and faster switching.
• LEDs powerful enough for room lighting are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than compact fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output.

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing







Product longevity
Software and deployment optimization
Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

71

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Materials Recycling
• Computer systems that have outlived their particular function can be repurposed, or donated to various charities and non-profit organizations. • Recycling computing equipment can keep harmful materials such as lead, mercury, and hexavalent chromium out of landfills, but often computers gathered through recycling drives are shipped to developing countries where environmental standards are less strict than in North America and Europe.

72

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing







Product longevity
Software and deployment optimization
Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

73

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Telecommuting
• Teleconferencing and telepresence technologies are often implemented in green computing initiatives.
• The advantages are many; increased worker satisfaction, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions related to travel, and increased profit margins as a result of lower overhead costs for office space, heat, lighting, etc.
• The savings are significant; the average annual energy consumption for U.S. office buildings is over 23 kilowatt hours per square foot, with heat, air conditioning and lighting accounting for 70% of all energy consumed.

74

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Approaches to Green Computing







Product longevity
Software and deployment optimization
Power management
Materials recycling
Telecommuting
Low performance computer

75

4. Approaches to Green Computing

Low Performance Computers
• As of 2007, several personal computer vendors (e.g.,
Everex, Linutop, Systemax, Zonbu and OLPC) ship dedicated low-power PCs.
• These systems provide minimal hardware peripherals and low performance processors, which makes them impractical for applications that require a lot of processing power such as computer gaming and video production.
• A low power PCs is usually much smaller than traditional desktop. The limited capacity for upgrades, low performance and proprietary may lead to shorter life spans and greater difficulty in repair.
76

5. Conclusion

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

77

5. Conclusion

5. Conclusion
• 在ICT產業邁向green computing的過程中,藉由從外部的
材料、硬體方面改善,到軟體執行的最佳化與改進,這些
技術包含延長產品的生命週期、軟體與設備的最佳化、能
源管理方法、廢棄材料回收、遠距離通訊……等等技術,
透過這些技術,不但可以讓設備或是系統擁有高效率的處
理與執行,更可以減少產生的廢棄物與溫室氣體,不但能
增加產品的使用率,也可以避免環境的汙染,讓整個地球
生態能夠更好。

78

Outline
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Abstract
Green computing architecture
Regulations and industry initiatives
Approaches to green computing
Conclusion
Reference

79

6. Reference

6. Reference
1) WIKIPEDIA, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
2) “GREEN COMPUTING”, Department of the Premier, GJPB
Willemse, www.fs.gov.za
3) Jie Liu, Feng Zhao, Jeff O’Reilly, Amaya Souarez, Michael
Manos, Chieh-Jan Mike Liang, and Andreas Terzis, “Project
Genome: Wireless Sensor Network for Data Center Cooling”
4) Chia-Tien Dan Lo and Kai Qian, “Green Computing
Methodology for Next Generation Computing Scientists”, 2010
IEEE 34th Annual Computer Software and Applications
Conference
5) Joseph Williams and Lewis Curtis, “Green: The New
Computing Coat of Arms?”
6) David Wang, “Meeting Green Computing Challenges”, 2007
IEEE
80

Homework #11:
1. What is the Energy Star and its major activity ?
2. List five approaches to green computing and explain one of the five approaches in detail.
3. Explain the methods for software and deployment optimization.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Green Computing

...Green computing, green IT or ICT Sustainability, is the study and practice of environmentally sustainable computing or IT. In the article "Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices", San Murugesan notes that this can include "designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems—such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems — efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment."[1] The goals of green computing are similar to green chemistry: reduce the use of hazardous materials, maximize energy efficiency during the product's lifetime, and promote the recyclability or biodegradability of defunct products and factory waste. Many corporate IT departments have green computing initiatives to reduce the environmental impact of their IT operations.[2] Green ICT and its services present opportunities to deliver low carbon footprints and mitigate carbon emissions because of the unique ability to make energy consumption and green house gas emissions visible through its products and services.[3] Definition - What does Green Computing mean? Green computing is the environmentally responsible and eco-friendly use of computers and their resources. In broader terms, it is also defined as the study of designing, manufacturing/engineering, using and disposing of computing devices in a way that reduces their environmental impact. Many IT manufacturers and vendors are continuously...

Words: 512 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Green Computing

...Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied. scanned. or duplicated. in whole or in pan. C.2 Appendix C Natalie. overseeillg {he program. There arc several projects undcTIlcmh {his program, olle being the Greell Computing Hcscarch Project , The CIO and projcC! sponsor. Be ll, has givell this project high priority and plans {() hold special imcr"icws to hand -pick (he project manager and team. Bell is aL~o a memher of {he program sleeTing commincc. Be fore coming to We Are mg, Inc., Be ll sponsored a project at a large eom pmcr firm to imprOl'c d ata cemcr efficiency. This projcct , however, is much broader thall tim! one was. The main purpose o f the GrL'e1l COmputing Hcscarch Project is ({) research possible applicatiolls o f green L'()lllptHing including: Data cen ter and {wcrall e nergy dficicllcy The d isposal o f clcc!Ton ic WlISIe and recycling Telecommuting Virtua!iz;1tioll of server resourccs Thill dicm solmiolls u,," of 01"''' "oun.,,, ""flw"r", "",.1 Dcvelopmcm o f IlCW software 10 addrcss green computing for imcrnal use alld pOlelltial sale 10 mher orgall izatiolls Thc budgel for [he projcct was S500, 000, ami thc blo::ll \\1IS 10 provide all cxtensll'e report, illcludillg detailctl financial analysis alld recommelldations 0 11 what green compming lechnologies [0 implemem . OffiCial project re(luest forms for thc rccommcllded solutions would also he crcaled a ~...

Words: 521 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Green Computing

...Description: Green computing, likewise called green technology, is the earth mindful utilization of PCs and related assets. Such practices incorporate the execution of vitality productive central processing units (CPUs), servers and peripherals and in addition lessened asset utilization and legitimate transfer of electronic waste (e-waste). The objectives of green computing are like green science: diminish the utilization of dangerous materials, boost energy productivity amid the item's lifetime, and advance the recyclability or biodegradability of ancient items and plant waste. Green computing is imperative for all classes of frameworks, going from handheld frameworks to expansive scale server farms. Numerous corporate Information technology divisions have green computing activities to lessen the ecological effect of the operations done in IT departments. Initiative: One of the soonest activities toward green computing in the United States was the intentional marking system known as Energy Star. It was brought about by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1992 to advance energy effectiveness in equipment of different types. The Energy Star mark turned into a typical sight, particularly in scratch pad PCs and presentations. Comparative projects have been received in Europe and Asia. Regulations of the government however well meaning, is just piece of a general green computing logic. The work propensities for PC clients and organizations can be altered to......

Words: 365 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Green Computing Project

...Green Computing Research Project By James C. Frazier Part1 The purpose of this Green Computing Research Project is to research possible applications of green computing for We Are Big Incorporated. First, I want to define what is Green Computing: Environmental responsibility and sustainability in computing and/or IT systems, including overall energy efficiencies, responsible disposal of electronic waste and recycling programs, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, thin client solutions, using open source software, and the development of new software to address green computing. In an article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, by San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.” The applications being closely researched are as follows: * Data center and overall energy efficiency: Is a basic Energy Star program for organizations and using technology or data centers for multi-user/departmental uses. Cities teaming up with businesses to use tools like smart meters, data visualizations and even mobile technology to promote energy efficiency and urban sustainability. Quoting a report State of the World Report, by Diana......

Words: 3528 - Pages: 15

Premium Essay

Computing Goes Green

...CASE STUDY QUESTIONS 1. What business and social problems does data center power consumption cause? Excessive power consumption uses vast amount of electricity that must be generated through hydroelectric plants or coal-fired power plants. While hydroelectric generation plants are less stressful on the environment than coal-fired, nevertheless, they do pull resources from more useful purposes. Coal-fired power plants generate huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which some scientists and politicians claim is a major cause of global warming. Social implications of increased power consumption point to global warming. 2. What solutions are available for these problems? Which are the most environment-friendly? Some of the solutions to cut power consumption discussed in the case study are a good beginning. Building data centers that take advantage of hydroelectric power generation rather than coal-fired power plants; renewable energy projects; alternative energy; employee telecommuting; thin client computers, software that automatically turns computers off; more efficient chips. Perhaps the most environment-friendly solutions are those that control the hardware and software, thereby controlling the problem at its source. Virtualization holds great promise as a way to reduce power requirements by reducing the number of servers required to run applications. 3. What are the business benefits and costs of these solutions? Even......

Words: 1092 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Green Computing Research Project

...Green Computing Research Project By James C. Frazier Part1 The purpose of this Green Computing Research Project is to research possible applications of green computing for We Are Big Incorporated. First, I want to define what is Green Computing: Environmental responsibility and sustainability in computing and/or IT systems, including overall energy efficiencies, responsible disposal of electronic waste and recycling programs, telecommuting, virtualization of server resources, thin client solutions, using open source software, and the development of new software to address green computing. In an article Harnessing Green IT: Principles and Practices, by San Murugesan defines the field of green computing as "the study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of computers, servers, and associated subsystems such as monitors, printers, storage devices, and networking and communications systems efficiently and effectively with minimal or no impact on the environment.” The applications being closely researched are as follows: • Data center and overall energy efficiency: Is a basic Energy Star program for organizations and using technology or data centers for multi-user/departmental uses. Cities teaming up with businesses to use tools like smart meters, data visualizations and even mobile technology to promote energy efficiency and urban sustainability. Quoting a report State of the World Report, by Diana Lind,......

Words: 3522 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Green Computing

...Project Title: Realization of Green Cloud Computing ~ Green EDI collaborating with Financial EDI ~ Project Leader Name: Youichiro Kojima Organization/Company: Kojima Press Industry Co.,Ltd., Japan Nominated by: Japan Association for Simplification of International Trade Procedures (JASTPRO) Abstract: This Green Cloud Computing project has achieved the significant reduction of Cost and CO2 through the cloud computing while realizing EDI for SMEs, REACH and Financial settlement. Executive Summary: Our approach toward Green IT started with internal activities under the slogan of “CO2 reduction through Green IT” in 2005. Our group companies achieved significant results by integrating hardware and using common software. To produce further effects, these activities need to be practiced in society as a whole. For that purpose, we have developed “Green Cloud Computing,” a social action program focused on the automotive parts industry and small and medium-sized businesses outside the framework of a single company. With the spread of the Internet, web-based EDI (electronic data interchange) systems have been increasingly used as a means to exchange information between individual companies. In the automotive parts industry in among SMEs, where no industry-standard EDI system has been established, many different terminals and screens must be used, due to the lack of system integration between companies. In addition, not many small and medium-sized businesses have introduced computer...

Words: 6041 - Pages: 25

Premium Essay

Green Cloud Computing

...GREEN CLOUD COMPUTING ABSTRACT: Cloud computing is a highly scalable and cost-effective infrastructure for running HPC, enterprise and Web applications. However, the growing demand of Cloud infrastructure has drastically increased the energy consumption of data centers, which has become a critical issue. High energy consumption not only translates to high operational cost, which reduces the profit margin of Cloud providers, but also leads to high carbon emissions which is not environmentally friendly. Hence, energy-efficient solutions are required to minimize the impact of Cloud computing on the environment. In order to design such solutions, deep analysis of Cloud is required with respect to their power efficiency. Thus, in this chapter, I discuss various elements of Clouds which contribute to the total energy consumption and how it is addressed in the literature. I also discuss the implication of these solutions for future research directions to enable green Cloud computing. The paper also explains the role of Cloud users in achieving this goal. Table of Contents ABSTRACT: 2 1. Introduction 3 2. What is Cloud computing? 6 2.1 Cloud Computing Characteristics 7 2.2 Components of Cloud Computing 8 2.3 Cloud Computing Deployment Models 10 3. Cloud Computing and Energy Usage Model: A Typical Example 12 4. Features of Clouds enabling Green computing 13 5. Towards Energy Efficiency of Cloud computing: State-of-the-Art 15 5.1 Applications 15 5.2...

Words: 5257 - Pages: 22

Premium Essay

The Survey and Future Evolution of Green Computing

...2011 IEEE/ACM International Conference on Green Computing and Communications The Survey and Future Evolution of Green Computing Qilin Li Production and Technology Department Sichuan Electric Power Science and Research Institute Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R.China li_qi_lin@163.com Mingtian Zhou School of Computer Science and Technologies University of Electronic Science and Technology Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R.China mtzhou@uestc.edu.cn Although green computing is becoming increasingly important in IT systems, it presents challenging problems to system designers. Designers need to take into account energy consumption during the phase of system design and to find solutions to reduce it. Green computing involves all aspects of IT systems, such as chips, system architectures, compilers, operating systems, communication networks and application services, and so on[1]. Further, these aspects are interdependent and complicated. As a result, building lowcost and low-power-consumption systems is a challenging and important activity. Such a new computing paradigm introduces new technical challenges to system designers. In light of today’s requirements for green computing, we present latest research efforts that attempt to deal with them and indicate still open issues. We thus discuss the connotation of green computing and sketch our view on the next generation of IT systems for green computing. We further identify key issues relevant to green computing and evaluate different approaches......

Words: 2936 - Pages: 12

Free Essay

Case Study Green Computing

...Google’s Green Computing: Efficiency at Scale Introduction Introduction Powering an Email System Provisioning Email Servers Redundancy and Reliability Computer Housing and Cooling Cloud Advantages Carbon Costs Conclusions It’s common to hear about new data centers being built, and it may seem as if the energy used by “the cloud” is a growing problem. However, services provided by the cloud can be remarkably efficient. In many cases, data centers hosting cloud services are more efficient than the in-house office servers they replace. These efficiency gains come from maximizing server utilization, using high-efficiency facilities and making power usage efficiency a priority for hardware and software developers. This case study compares the energy savings and carbon footprint of using Gmail via Google Apps—Google’s cloud-based messaging and collaboration suite, versus housing local servers to manage the same email. Google’s cloud services are all carbon neutral—dating back to 2007. However, for the purposes of this case study, we will be modeling Google’s per-user carbon footprint before offsets are applied. Powering an Email System When a user checks their email, energy is consumed in three places: 1. The client: The PC, laptop, phone or other device directly accessing email is called the client. It’s using electricity as it fetches and displays email. 2. The network: Wireless routers, network switches and all the intervening networking equipment between the......

Words: 1881 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Green Computing and Green It Best Practices - Jason Harris

...GREEN COMPUTING AND GREEN IT BEST PRACTICES On Regulations and Industry Initiatives, Virtualization, Power Management, Materials Recycling and Telecommuting Notice of Rights: Copyright © Jason Harris. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability: The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks: Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book. 1 WRITE A REVIEW & RECEIVE A BONUS EMEREO......

Words: 31633 - Pages: 127

Free Essay

Green Computing and Green It Best Practices - Jason Harris

...GREEN COMPUTING AND GREEN IT BEST PRACTICES On Regulations and Industry Initiatives, Virtualization, Power Management, Materials Recycling and Telecommuting Notice of Rights: Copyright © Jason Harris. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Notice of Liability: The information in this book is distributed on an “As Is” basis without warranty. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of the book, neither the author nor the publisher shall have any liability to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damage caused or alleged to be caused directly or indirectly by the instructions contained in this book or by the products described in it. Trademarks: Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations appear as requested by the owner of the trademark. All other product names and services identified throughout this book are used in editorial fashion only and for the benefit of such companies with no intention of infringement of the trademark. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with this book. 1 WRITE A REVIEW & RECEIVE A BONUS EMEREO......

Words: 31633 - Pages: 127

Premium Essay

Go Green with Cloud Computing-Benefits to Hr

...` Title: Go-Green with Cloud Computing: Benefits to HR Name: Mala Srinivas & Animesh Giri (Assistant Professor, Dept of Information Science technology, PEs Institute of Technology-BSc) Affiliation: III Semester, MBA – HR, PES Institute of Technology – BSc Email: Mala.s44@gmail.com animeshgiri@pes.edu Title: Go-Green with Cloud Computing: Benefits to HR Name: Mala Srinivas Affiliation: III Semester, MBA – HR, PES Institute of Technology – South Campus, Bangalore Email: Mala.s44@gmail.com ABSTRACT Cloud Computing is the hot topic in today’s World. Cloud computing comes with the great advantage of providing higher energy savings, a fact which translates into being environmentally friendly. In the last few years, technology has improved immensely, taking the environment into account and providing a solution for those worrying about carbon footprints and the impact of technology into the environment. In the last couple of decades, HR has re-invented itself from the mundane activities like Industrial Relations, labour etc. to the front of a Company’s Business radar on par with Marketing, Finance, Administration and other departments. HR managers today use hundreds of strategic and collaborative technology tools to keep up the HR function fast moving. But lot of these technology tools is not implemented in a large number of Small & Medium Enterprises (SME) who forms 75% of our country’s market. Why? Because many of the SME’s are of...

Words: 2648 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Green Computing

...Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2 Case Study 2: Green Computing Research Project- Part 2 Requirements Traceability Matrix Project Name: Green Computing Research Project Project Manager: Requirement No. | Name | Category | Source | Status | 1 | Data Center | Building | | | 2 | PC computers and laptops | Hardware | | | 3 | Recycling | Building | | | 4 | Virtualization and Cloud Computing | Hardware | | | 5 | Solar Computing | Energy Source | | | 6 | Electricity output | Energy Source | | | 7 | Office material and resources | Operation | | | 8 | Power management | Energy Source | | | 9 | Work from home | Operation | | | 10 | Days and hours of work | Operation | | | 11 | Environmentally friendly market | Operation | | | 12 | Government benefits | Operation | | | 13 | Open Source Software | Software | | | 14 | User support and training | Operation | | | Questions to the Sponsor(s) About the Scope What would the sponsor(s) like to come out of this research project? What are the desired timeframes for the project? What resources are going to be available or brought in to assist with the project? What green technologies and areas are the sponsor(s) looking to implement and change? How has the organization handled changes and upgrades in the past? How much support and training will there be for the users for new hardware and software? What will be the estimated budget and end date? Scope Statement The scope statement is an......

Words: 282 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Green Computing

...STUDY 1: GREEN COMPUTING RESEARCH PROJECT IT PROJECT MANAGEMENT Strayer University Green Computing Research Project Charter |Project Title: Green Computing Research Project | |Date of Authorization: July 20, 2012 | |Project Start Date: September 1, 2012 Projected Finish Date: August 30, 2013 | |Budget Information: The company has a projected budget of $500,000 and a goal to provide an extensive report, including detailed financial | |analysis and recommendations on what green computing technologies to implement. There will be five dedicated full-time people to work on this | |project for a six-month period and others on an as-needed basis to call upon (Schwalbe, 2011). | |Project Manager: TBD | |Project Objectives: The Environmental Technologies Program was started to improve the environment as well to increase revenues and reduce | |costs at We Are Big, Inc., an international firm with over 100,000 employees located in several countries. The Green......

Words: 854 - Pages: 4