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Green It

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This report examines the methodology and explains the CSS styles and HTML used in Assignment 1. In this report, a brief methodology is outlined. The discussion then focuses on the advantages and limitations of my technology abilities in relation to these main criteria: design, features, coding and CSS styles. It is concluded further in this report and comparism was made with admirable website.

Table of Contents
Contents Page 1. Introduction 2. Conclusion 3. Appendices 4. Reference

Green Information Technology (Green IT) refers to environmentally sustainable computing that addresses both IT and related sustainability problems. Over recent years, Green IT has become one of the world`s top important issues as both organizations and governments came under pressure to address the environmental sustainability concerns about Green IT. According to Elliot et.al, 2008, despite the increasing concerns from governments, businesses and organizations to Green their IT, their capability towards Green It still remains questionable as there is not much literature that has modelled a Green It capability construct and developed a valid and reliable instrument to measure this construct.
The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the key impacts of Green Information Technology and to identify the intuitiveness and key dimensions of organizations to develop a reliable and valid operation toward Green IT. This study can be considered as a preliminary attempt to construct an understanding towards the impact and the progressive reliable instrument that organizations used building towards the “Green It” concept. This paper is structured as follows: First; the understanding of Green It which includes the impact and the advantages of Green It .Second; the implementation and the development of the Green It concept by the organization and the society. Third; Conclusion, liability of this study and the potential future this research has highlighted.

Green IT is the relation of Information Technology and the environment, in which is essentially how the design, manufacturing, usage and the disposal of hardware’s impact the environment. In recent years, the use of IT devices has multiplied and so have the related carbon dioxide emissions. This increase of IT-related CO2 emissions is getting recognized as a problem that could contribute to the acceleration of global warming (Edahiro,2009). It is suggested by Greenitweek.org (2010), that Green It is composed of two things. Firstly, is minimising the negative environmental impacts of the industrial processes and the innovative technology to the environment such as pollutions, land waste, and the thinning of the ozone layer. Secondly, would be the usage of information technology to help solve the environmental issues (www.Greenitweek.org,2010). Mainly the main goal is to find ways to not damage or deplete natural resources , which means creating fully recyclable products, reducing pollution, using alternative technologies to reduce the energy consumption and so on (Greenitweek.org ,2010).

Greenitweek.org (2010), also suggested that there is a need to take action and create awareness to the society about “proper” disposal of computers and hardware. According to a research done by Greenitweek.org (2010), most of the equipment that is thrown out each year is monitors, printers, and computer devices. Each of these systems can contains over one kilogram of hazardous materials such as antimony, arsenic, nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and hydrogen fluoride (Greenitweek.org, 2010).Katherine Walsh (2008), also refers to the idea of “safe” disposal of IT assets, adding to the fact that if old computer equipment’s ends up in the landfill, the toxic substances may lead to our ground water and may cause further contamination. In Australia 43 million tonnes of electronic waste ended up in landfill in 2006-07, which is an increase of 31% to the five years prior, and only 10% of the 16.8 million televisions and computers we bought in 2007-08 were recycled (Greenitweek.org, 2010).
However from another perspective, Edahiro (2009) argued that IT holds the potential to reduce the overall CO2 emissions in the world. This was because IT is applied into business and educational areas such as video conferencing, telecommuting and many other paperless systems that may actually result to lower CO2 emissions from the reduced travel and paper usage (Edahiro, 2009). This argument has literally highlighted the importance of “greening the IT”. Corresponding to this, in 2008, the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) released a report about green IT (Edahiro 2009). According to Edahiro (2009), if IT energy usage continues to grow at the current pace, by 2025 the amount of electricity it consumes will be 5.2 times the level in 2006, equivalent to one-fifth of predicted total electricity generation in Japan. Besides this, it is estimated that worldwide consumption will be 9.4 times higher in 2025 compared to the 2006 level, equivalent to 15 per cent of total electricity generation worldwide (Edahiro,2009)

Estmation of IT Electricity Consumption: Source: JFS News <http://www.japanfs.org/en/mailmagazine/newsletter/pages/028756.html>
After the 1997 Kyoto Protocol for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the world has finally taken the first step in reducing emissions (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). This act has also started to encourage and create awareness to the other industries and the society towards the ideas of “Green Computing”. A good example of a “Green IT” company would be VIA Technologies. According an article done by Sarah Gingichashvili (2007), VIA Technologies, a major Taiwanese company that manufactures motherboard chipsets, CPUs, and other computer hardware. VIA Technologies started to introduce its initiative for “green computing" in year 2001 and aims to offer the world's first PC products certified carbon free, taking responsibility for the amounts of CO2 they emit (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). One of the early ideas of VIA Technologies’ is to reduce the "carbon footprint" of users and had environmental experts to calculate the electricity used by the device over its lifetime (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007) .This allows one to conclude how much carbon dioxide the device will emit into the atmosphere during its operation. This estimate will serve as an indicator, and the company will pay regional organizations for the offsetting of the emissions (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). Sarah Gingichashvili (2007) also added that VIA promotes the usage of alternative energy sources such as solar power, so power plants wouldn't need to burn as much fossil fuels, reducing the amount of energy used.

Controlling the carbon-emissions emitted has always been the main issue for many industries who have expressed a firm commitment to sustainability. Dell is a good example of a company with a “green IT” commitment that aims to use 50% of recycled content by 2009 and is known for its free worldwide product-recycling program (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). On the other hand, Gingichashvili (2007) has provide yet another example of company working its way towards “green IT”, AMD. AMD is a global microprocessor manufacturer that is aiming to reduce their energy consumption and cutting back on hazardous waste in their products (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). The company’s use of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology in its manufacturing, and strained silicon capping films on transistors (known as “dual stress liner” technology), have contributed to reduced power consumption in its products(Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007).

Many governments worldwide have started energy-management programs, such as Energy Star. Energy Star is an international standard for energy-efficient electronic equipment that was created by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 1992 and has now been adopted by several other countries (EnergyStar.gov.au, 2011). According to EnergyStar.gov.au (2011), Energy Star reduces the amount of energy consumed by a product by either automatically switching it into a 'sleep' mode when it's not being used and/or reducing the amount power used when in 'standby' mode. EnergyStar.gov.au (2011) also added that standby power is estimated to account for as much as 1 percent of global greenhouse emissions and most of the energy used by products on standby does not result any useful function. In addition to that, only a small amount is needed for maintaining memory or an internal clock, remote-control activation, or other features; but most standby power is wasted energy (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). However, an Energy Star enabled product helps to minimize this waste.

Corresponding to this, China National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) decided to establish the China Energy Conservation Program (CECP) in 1998 (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007) CECP was a non-profit organization that is in charge of the administration, management, and implementation of the certification for energy- conserving, water-saving, and environmentally friendly products (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). CECP aims to encourage manufacturers to produce more resource-efficient products and to reduce the “carbon footprints” to the Earth (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). Sarah Gingichashvili (2007), verified that CECP has been undertaking various projects within the national and the international arena, actively supporting improvements in energy efficiency and environmental protection and assisting social and economic sustainable development in the recent years.

Another good example of a “Green IT” supportive country would be Japan. The country's first initiative towards green computing was in 1995, when it first joined the International Energy Star Program launched by the United States (Sarah Gingichashvili, 2007). Then, in 2004, the Japan Electronics and Information Technology Industries Association (JEITA) created the PC Green Label System to indicate environment-friendly personal computers that meet standards set under the labelling system, a voluntary effort organized by Japanese industry groups (Pc3r.association.html, 2011). According to the webpage, the association is organized based on the Law for Promotion of Effective Utilization of Resources hence the association’s main purpose is to promote the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle) for personal computers which includes associated display devices, started with the active collection and recycling by businesses of their used PCs (Pc3r.association.html, 2011). Pc3r Association (2011), explained that the PC Green Label Standards are divided into four areas; firstly, the company’s system to design and manufacture personal strict environment conscious principals. The second standard was that each product must consist about the environmental information and thirdly, environmental conscious product design and manufacturing (Pc3r.association.html, 2011). Pc3r Association (2011), also added that the fourth standard was the making of the product should implement the 3R principal.

In addition to that, Japans Ministry of Economics, Trade and Industry (METI) was also encouraging the developments of innovative technologies that reduces the energy consumption of IT systems hence the “Green IT Project” (Pc3r.association.html, 2011). This project was launched by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), which is an independent administrative agency under METI (Pc3r.association.html, 2011). This project aims to reduce the energy consumption of data centres (servers and storage hardware) by more than 30 per cent, networks (routers) by 30 per cent, and display monitors by more than 50 per cent (Pc3r.association.html, 2011).

Ever since the “Green IT” concept boomed, many Japanese companies have been raising concerns about “greening their IT”, in response with that, many companies are faced with intense competitors with the same goal to green their system and to offer the solutions of “Green IT”. Although many companies were under pressure, this incident has helped brought forward the establishment of the Hokkaido Green Energy Data Centre Research Group, in June 2008 (Edahiro, 2009). In the recent years, the number of data centers has been increasing nationwide. Edahiro (2009), supported that the early idea of a research center was to benefit Hokkaido's cool climate to contribute to a drastic reduction of electricity consumption. In other words, the researchers were trying to recreate a new type of energy that is au natural, using Hokkaido`s cool climate. Companies and organizations such as Fujitsu Limited, Ricoh Co., and Muroran Institute of Technology are participating in this research group as observers (Edahiro, 2009).

Edahiro (2009) explained that 44 per cent of a data center's electricity is consumed by air-conditioning systems that is needed to keep computer servers cool. The researchers are aiming to reduce electricity consumption by taking advantage of lower outside temperatures in winter and using snow energy stocked during the winter to cool IT devices during the summer (Edahiro, 2009). Researchers are now using the heat from the exhaust of data centers for heating purposes during winter (Edahiro, 2009). Having large-scale data centers that hold tens of thousands of servers, the group estimates that it's possible to reduce the amount of electricity used for cooling by more than 50 percent (Edahiro, 2009).

Innovative technology companies and businesses are under increasing pressure from the competitors, consumers, society and the government constantly, to implement the strategic standards towards green computing. The act of balancing the environment sustainability and the world wide economic may be a key issue in the future. There are many opportunities that are yet to be explored in the field of “Green IT” This study has argued that as much study and implementation that has been done, In the various scenarios of people's social and private lives, the opportunities to use IT will continue to increase. Green IT can contribute to substantial reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions throughout society, instead of adding to larger consumption and emissions, although this depends on how both the "greening of IT" and "greening with IT"

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