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Ground School- Ppl

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Class #1
Licensing Requirements, Airframes & Theory of Flight
Introduction/Theory of Flight
Student Pilot Permit
Age: _______
Medical Category: I, III or IV
Written Test (PSTAR) _______%

Recreational Pilot Permit
Age: _______
Medical Category: I, III or IV
Written Test _______% (Must have valid Medical and 10 hours flight time)
Training: 25 hours total time 15 hours dual (2 hours dual cross country with two 30 min legs) 5 hours PIC
Flight Test:________ %

Private Pilot Licence
Age: _______
Medical Category: __________
Written Test _______% (Must have valid Medical, ground school time and 10 hours flight time)
Training: 45 hours total time 15 hours dual (3 hours dual cross country, 5 hours instrument training). 12 hours PIC (5 hours PIC cross country, including a 150 nm route with 2 stops)
Flight Test: ______ %

Night Rating
Must hold a Private Pilot Licence
Training: ______ hours of flight training consisting of: 5 more hours of instrument training 10 hours night (5 dual 2 hours cross country, 5 Solo, 10 takeoffs and landings)
No Flight Test or Written Test

VFR Over-The- Top (VFR OTT)
Must hold a Private Pilot Licence
Training: Minimum of 15 hours dual instrument time

Multi-Engine Rating
Training: No minimum hours required
Flight Test Required

Instrument Rating
Group 1: _______; Group 2 ___________
Written and flight test required
Training: 40 hours instrument time required (1 dual cross country 100 nm) Minimum 50 hour cross-country PIC AIRFRAMES AND PARTS OF AN AIRPLANE
Basic Definitions
Airframe: Structure of an aircraft without engines, power plants or instruments
Fuselage: the body of the aircraft to which other components are attached, used to accommodate crew, passengers and cargo
Wing: Device employed to develop lift on an airplane
Ailerons: Surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the wing towards the wing tip for the purposes of lateral control
Flaps: Surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the wing towards each wing root (closest to the fuselage)
Empennage: Tail section of the aircraft, consisting of a fin, rudder, stabilizer, elevators and trim tab
Undercarriage: tires and landing gear also used to support the weight of the airplane
Parts of the Airplane


Truss Type * Steel tubes are welded or bolted together to form the frame * Longerons-Long tubes running lengthwise- main members that are balance together by vertical or diagonal members * 2 types: 1) N-Girder 2) Warren Truss

Semi- Monocouqe: * Round/oval formers/bulk heads carry some load * Held together by lengthwise stringers * Skin carries some load * Early construction: wood covered by plywood * Now: metal over metal


Monocoque * Consists of a series of found or oval formers or bulkheads, which carry the load, held together by stringers which run lengthwise * The outer covering is made stiff enough to carry some of the loads that are imposed on the airplane- known as stressed skin
Horizontal Stabilizer: An airfoil placed at the rear end of the fuselage to balance the airplane and provide longitudinal stability
Elevators: Surfaces hinged to the trailing edge of the stabilizer to give longitudinal control
Vertical Stabilizer: fixed vertical surface at the rear end of the fuselage to provide directional stability
Rudder: Movable control surface attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer to give directional control
Trim Tab: Adjustable tab attached to the trailing edge of a control surface to eliminate the need to exert excessive pressure on flight controls during various phases of flight
Stabilator: A single airfoil section which is a combination of a horizontal stabilizer and an elevator
Canard: A horizontal stabilizer assembly at the front of the airplane

Airfoil: Any surface designed to have a reaction with the air to produce lift
Leading Edge: The forward edge of the wing
Trailing Edge: The reward edge of the wing
Chordline: A straight line connecting the leading edge to the trailing edge
Chord: The distance between the leading edge and the trailing edge
Relative Airflow: the direction of airflow directly opposite to the direction of the wing
Angle of Attack: The angle between the chordline and the relative airflow
Meanline: A line connecting all points midway between the upper and lower surfaces. This line is also known as the mean camber line
Camber: The perpendicular distance between the chordline and the meanline. The result is generally the upper surface having a greater curvature
Relative Airflow * Term used to describe the direction of airflow with respect to the wing * Directly opposite to the movement of the airplane * Only motion of the airplane produces relative airflow- wind speed and direction have no affect

The Four Forces
______________: Force generated by the wings that keeps aircraft in flight
______________: Force due to gravity
_____________: Force exerted by engine prop
_____________: Resistance to forward motion

Lift * The force action upward that sustains the airplane in flight * Lift always acts perpendicular to the relative airflow and the wingspan

Wight * The force that acts vertically downward toward the centre of the earth, which is the result of gravity. * Weight acts through the centre of gravity

Thrust * Thrust provides the forward motion of the aircraft * Several ways to produce this force 1. Jets 2. Propellers 3. Rockets * All are based on the principal of pushing air backwards causing thrust in the forward direction
* The resistance to forward motion

Equilibrium * Is when all the forces are equal to one another so that an aircraft will continue to move forward at the same uniform rate and speed neither climbing or descending * If either of the forces becomes greater than the other opposing force the state of equilibrium will be lost
Example: If thrust is greater than drag- the aircraft will accelerate

Centre of pressure: The average of all lift forces acting on an airfoil and is represented by one straight line

Aspect Ratio: Relationship between the length and width of the wing


Bernouli’s Principle: ____________________________________________________________




Newton’s Third Law:




Downwash Principle: An increase in the angle of attack will increase the amount of downwash and force the wing in the opposite direction of the downwash

3 Reasons for Lift





Drag: is the resistance to forward motion

2 Types of Drag



Parasite Drag



Induced Drag:




When is induced drag greatest?



What is a characteristic of induced drag?





Wingtip Vortices: tubes of circulating air that are left behind a wing as it generates lift * Counter rotating vortices originating at the wingtips * Form from induced drag

Vortex Strength: * Proportional to aircraft weight * Low speed= high angle of attack to generate required lift * High angle of attack results in larger volume of air deflected “downward” to support aircraft weight * Downward deflected air is compressed and flows outward towards the low pressure area over the wing tips * Heavier aircraft move larger volumes of air

Worst Case Scenario: * Heavy transport aircraft (A340/B747) * Clean configuration, low airspeed * Peak intensity when wings initially support aircraft weight * Strength of the vortices is consistent in strength up to 2 mins after aircraft passage * Vortices on the ground will be influenced by the winds * Most dangerous in light quartering tail winds


Takeoff | |

Landing | |

Ground Effect: Increase in the lift of an aircraft operating close to the ground caused by reaction between high-velocity downwash from its wing or rotor and the ground.

THEORY OF FLIGHT REVIEW 4. How is the Bernoulli’s Principle and Newton’s Third Law related to the production of lift?

5. What are the four forces acting on an airplane? 1) Lift, Camber, Canard, Drag 2) Benoulli, Thrust, Lift, Stabilator 3) Canard, Drag, Weight, Lift 4) Lift, Thrust, Weight, Drag

6. What are the three reasons for lift? 5) 6) 7)

7. What is relative airflow?

8. What are 2 types of drag 8)


9. What is parasite drag and give an example?

10. What is induced drag

11. 12. When is induced drag greatest?

13. What is a characteristic of induced drag?

14. Is an accelerating aircraft in a state of equilibrium? Why?

15. What is the term used to describe the curved surface of the wing?

Class #1
Theory of Flight Part 2

Wing Span: Distance from wing tip to wing tip

Chord: Distance from leading edge to trailing edge

Aspect Ratio: Relationship between length and width of a wing (span & Chord)

Aspect Ratio= _SPAN_ Chord

Note: Higher ratio= less induced drag which is better for gliding and high altitudes

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