Premium Essay

Grouping Behavior

In: Psychology

Submitted By slimshady123
Words 2765
Pages 12

Organizational Behavior

Project Report


- Shashank Kumar Singh B10048 Business Management (2010-12) XLRI School of Business and Human Resources

Organizational Behavior


1. Introduction

A group can be broadly defined as a collection of two or more individuals, who have come together for a common purpose. Generally, the common purpose is apparent as is the case with trade unions- which are formed with the purpose of upholding the interests of the labor force, or reader’s clubs- formed for the purpose of sharing opinions and perspectives on various books. However, sometimes the common interests might not exactly be a purpose, but more of a necessity, as is the case with groups of friends formed at schools, hostels or between neighbours. The importance of groups cannot be emphasized on enough in our complex intertwined lives. At all levels, be they personal, societal, professional, recreational or any other, we seem to be part of one group or the other. The underlying principle of pursuit of common purpose is at the heart of the concept of grouping, through which one seems to reach higher levels of attainment- which might not have been possible through individual pursuits.

2. Conceptual framework

Groups form an essential and constituting unit in an organizational setting. They effectively break-down the organizational targets and goals into smaller group goals. This leads to a more focused and modularized approach towards achieving organizational objectives. This approach is also beneficial for the individual in multifold ways- distribution of workload, creative participation and involvement, reinforcing individual capacities, adaptive behavior and...

Similar Documents

Free Essay


...additional groupings and subtotals in reports, and to control the sort order for the report and entries within groupings. All these issues are covered in the Reports Chapter 11. Assignment Implement a Sales Journal in Tom's Trailer Sales database. The Sales Journal should look like the example below. The report has the default page footer that the report wizard creates. I have added a Chart of Accounts table to the database for you to use to use to get the account names for the report. You also will need to use the "Is Not Null" function as a selection criteria so that your report only picks up orders that have been delivered. Since this is a sales journal, only sales that can be recognized under GAAP's revenue recognition criteria should be included. For Tom's, that means only order that have been delivered to the customer. The report should look like the example at the end of the assignment. This is a complex report. I recommend that you follow the following steps in developing it: 1) Start by identifying which tables contain the data you will need for the report. 2) Then, use the report wizard to tell Access™ the fields you need from each table. Lay out your fields in the wizard from top to bottom in the same order they will appear in the report from left to right. 3) You will need two groupings in your report, one for each of the two subtotals in the report: Account and Sales Order Number. You will need to add the Sales Order......

Words: 852 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Investigating the Effect of Streaming on Performance of Students

...LITERATURE REVIEW ON AN INVESTIGATION UNTO THE EFFECT OF STREAMING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SLOW LEARNERS. This chapter is a reflection of what other researchers have come up with pertaining to the problem of streaming. It will help to gain understanding of the current state of knowledge about this problem. It will also help to stimulate and derive an initial list of pertinent questions to ask or behaviors to observe (Johnson and Christensen, 2012). Additionally it will show the originality and relevance of the research problem owing to the fact that, knowing what others have done makes researchers to be better prepared to understand with deeper insight, the problem under study (Leedey, 1985). One of the most controversial aspects of teaching is dealing with the many differences between students in the classroom (Reynolds, 2011), then (West and Muijs, 2009) observes that there is a need for personalization in order to offer education that is tailored to the learner, within systems responsive to learners’ needs rather than expecting the learner to adapt to the existing systems within the school. In order to address the differences in learning abilities teachers find themselves using the term streaming. There are a number of definitions of streaming. To begin with the Oxford English dictionary defines streaming as the policy of dividing school students into groups of the same level of ability. Daniel Muijs (2011), also defines streaming as a procedure where by students are...

Words: 1231 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Case Questions

...1) What are the reasons consumers of music switched to digital? Streaming services pointed to the ability to discover new music, their free of charge tier of offerings and the ability to listen to music without needing to purchase individual songs. Majority of consumers who use pirate sites i.e. approximately 57% believe that there are good services available for legally accessing digital music. The significant factors which drive the popularity of downloads and streaming services. The first factor being Security and ‘ease of payment, the second being the guarantee that the service is legal and the third factor being the trust that the consumer has in the brand or company. 2) Can Spotify be profitable in the future? Yes, Spotify can be profitable in the future if * They pay less in royalties or perhaps pay less in record company advances * Watch the pennies very closely: If Spotify was dedicated or forced to pay its current royalty and distribution costs at the same level, then it is probably going to have to cut its spending elsewhere to become profitable. * Finally make free pay: Rather than cutting financial corners, it is most likely that Spotify will want to become a profitable company the hard way by raising its average revenue per user in future to the point that its large costs can’t hurt its bottom line. 3) Apple’s iTunes is the leading distribution of a copy of digital music which Spotify and Rhapsody are leaders in the streaming realm. Which......

Words: 387 - Pages: 2

Free Essay

Student Selection from Schools

...Some people contend that mixed ability classes are more beneficial for children’s development than streaming them on the basis of judgement about their academic abilities. However, from my perspective, I disagree with this contention. Admittedly, mixed ability classes provide a better environment for children’s all-round development. In such classes, children with different abilities study together and in turn they can learn from one another. From example, a student, who is good at academic study but weak in dancing or painting, can learn how to dance or paint form his peers. In this sense, mixed ability classes allow students to develop their abilities in different subjects instead of only academic abilities. Despite the argument above, I believe streaming students brings more benefits to teachers and students. As for teachers, separating children with better academic abilities from others facilitates effective teaching. This practice helps teachers to control their students more conveniently and easily. Compared with mixed ability in which teacher should consider students’ differences when they are using teaching methodologies, streaming makes this situation simpler. To be more specific, students are at the same level of academic ability in a class, and in turn teachers can use the same methodologies for them all. In this way, the narrower the spread of ability in the class, the more convenient the teaching can be. On top of this, steaming enables students to learn in an...

Words: 325 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Literature Review

...Understanding Education through Sociological Theory, macro-level theories are discussed in detail. One theory that stands out is referred to as the labeling theory, which highlights the sense of self that youth ranging from the age of 6 to 18 develop in school. In particular, it addresses the notion of how labeling children may likely lead to self-fulfilling prophesies. For instance, if a child is labeled as less capable or more incompetent than his fellow peers, his sense of self may plummet as a result and lead to him never performing to his maximum potential at any point in his academic career. The labeling theory resonates with the idea of tracking of students in the education system. Tracking in American education typically involves grouping and labeling sets of students as low-performing, average, or high-performing. Based on several previous studies in addition to the research carried out by the authors of the paper, The Economics of Tracking in Education, it is apparent that tracking “increases inequality without boosting efficiency.” In particular, one researcher stated that when comparing students categorized in the “upper group” in schools that utilize ability tracking, they outperformed similar students in other schools that did not use tracking. However, the same researcher also found that the students grouped into the lower ability category in the same schools that...

Words: 1806 - Pages: 8

Premium Essay

Learning Personality Theories

...Learning Personality Theories The world is full of human beings of different cultures. Individual personalities evolve from the environmental observation of others. Cultural differences are the core factors to personality and human interaction in the environment (Piekkola, 2011). Personalities can change as behaviors are modified, and certain personality traits, while uniquely formed to each individual, have common roots within specific cultural backgrounds. Cultural backgrounds stem from common grounds of beliefs and personalities that form from those environments but differ depending on geographic location. However, traits that evolve from constitution and temperament have minimal effects of changes in the environment; consequently, socially adapted traits may improve, alter, or even dissipative (Piekkola, 2011). Common personality traits that are culturally learned might remain stable over time depending on the cultural patterns that have worked to produce them. Personality traits may still change to conform to environmental exposure. Through various social contingencies, personalities may encounter various changes in order to adapt and live in the world today (Piekkola, 2011). Individuals learn from an interaction between the self, others, and the environment and any changes that occur within the personality function as an adaptive coping mechanism within these specific interactions. In this conversation, the authors will discuss the various learning and......

Words: 948 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Analysis 6.1

...are, offer rewards for results, If you aren’t doing the most you can to ensure that your team members are happy, motivated, and truly involved in the business, then you are doing a disservice to yourself, your team. What is Personal Accountability? being willing to answer for the outcomes resulting from your choices, behaviors, and action “When you’re personally accountable, you take ownership of situations that you’re involved in. You see them through, and you take responsibility for what happens good or bad. You don’t blame others if things go wrong. Instead, you do your best to make things right. In the workplace, accountability can go beyond your own tasks. For example, you may be held accountable for the actions of your team. forming stage, personal relations are characterized by dependence. Group members rely on safe, patterned behavior and look to the group leader for guidance and direction. Group members have a desire for acceptance by the group and a need to be known that the group is safe. They set about gathering impressions and data about the similarities and differences among them and forming preferences for future sub-grouping. Rules of behavior seem to be to keep things simple and to avoid controversy. Serious topics and feelings are avoided. The major task functions also concern orientation. storming, is characterized by competition and conflict in the personal-relations dimension an organization in the task-functions dimension.As the group members......

Words: 1082 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Analysis of Consumer Behavior Quotes

...Analysis of Consumer Behavior quotes “We surround ourselves with valued material possessions as a matter of our lives taking course. A sense of linkage to the concrete and observable world external to ourselves permits us to obtain a sense of stability and continuity in an otherwise less stable existence”. Discuss Introduction Psychology is important in many aspects of business, not least in the whole area of marketing and advertising. An understanding of the consumer behaviour is an essential part of the psychology of marketing. This essay will firstly give an explanation of consumer behaviour. Following this, it will discuss the benefits of the applications of consumer behaviours. Finally, it will look at the explication of attachment in consumer behaviours in the quote “We surround ourselves with valued material possessions as a matter of our lives taking course; a sense of linkage to the concrete and observable world external to ourselves permits us to obtain a sense of stability and continuity in an otherwise less stable existence.” Consumer Behaviour Consumer behaviour is a complex, multi-disciplinary theory contributed from a variety of social sciences. The microeconomic demand theory, the foundation theory of market economy, is focused on what prospect effect the changes in income and price has on demand under the prerequisite of stable preferences; it does not provide explanation of the dynamics of the many factors in between, for instance, what influence......

Words: 2201 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Organisation Behaviour

...achieve a wide variety of goals, both goals of the organization and goals of the various individuals in the organization. Organizations exist to provide services and goods that people want. These goods and services are the products of the behaviors of workers. Organizational behavior usually known as ‘OB’ is the study of the many factors that have an impact on how individuals and groups respond to and act in organizations and how organizations manage their environments. Organization is somewhat defined as “Organisations comprise two or more people engaged in a systematic and coordinated effort, persistently over a period of time, in pursuit of goals which convert resources into goods and/or services which are needed by consumers” such definition implies the organization exists with the presence of people consists of diverse cultures, character, perception, intelligence and abilities this necessitate a manager to understand behavioral trends of various people in organization So to achieve the organizational goals it stimulate specific goals, objectives and achieve within an optimal performance of workers, Manager’s knowledge of OB may find it useful to explore ways of stimulating fruitful behaviors from workers. Often drastic changes in behavior of workers may...

Words: 1820 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Expatriates and Business

...* Global citizenship is no longer just a nice phrase in the lexicon of rosy futurologists. It is every bit as real and concrete as measurable changes in GNP or trade flows * There is little debate that for executives in large multinational corporations (MNCs) today globalization is a daily reality. Yet most of those executives have not been specifically educated, trained, or groomed to deal with the complexities that are inherent in the globalization of business markets.) * In this destabilized and international context, multinational corporations and their executives face several significant challenges and the new skills to successfully meet these challenges. One of the first issues that an MNC faces is that because it operates in multiple countries, it must deal with multiple sources of sovereign authority. This involves working with different laws and legal systems, or in some cases the lack of systematic legal structures and processes. * Executives in positions at headquarters or in foreign subsidiaries must have the skills to understand the impact of various laws, tariffs, taxes, enforcement practices, overarching legal systems, and be able to work with host government officials in enacting and maintaining reasonable legislation across a wide variety of countries and cultures. * Second, MNCs must also operate in different markets with different cultures, histories, values, social systems, languages, etc., which often require not only product......

Words: 1712 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Performance Appraisal Method

...METHOD Performance Appraisal Method Critical Incident Method Definition: This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period. Critical incident is a method used for many sectors. An incident is critical when it illustrates what the employers has done or failed to do. The critical incidents for performance appraisal are a method in which the manager writes down positive and negative performance behavior of employees throughout the performance period. Each employee will be evaluated as such and one’s performance appraisal will be based on the logs that are put in the evaluation form. The manager maintains logs on each employee, whereby he periodically records critical incidents of the workers behavior. At the end of the rating period, these recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the workers’ performance. The critical incidents file of performance appraisal is a form of documentation that reflects all data about employee performances. Most frequently, the critical incidents technique of evaluation is applied to evaluate the performance of superiors rather than of peers of subordinates. Disadvantages of Critical Incident This method suffers however from the following limitations: • Critical incidents technique of evaluation is applied to......

Words: 4332 - Pages: 18

Premium Essay

Psychology Assignment

...Albert Bandura – Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory is also called observational learning. This learning is proving that learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely through observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct  Albert Bandura says that people learn from 3 different strategies and they are; Observation, Imitation and modelling; a saying for this is ‘monkey see, monkey do’ because ‘children see’ and ‘children do’. This saying explains everything in 4 simple words. Bandura’s social learning theory explains human behaviour in cognitive, behavioural and environmental influences. Everyone and everything around us has an impact on how we all behave. Bandura particularly focused on how aggression progresses in children. Bandura says that childrens behaviour is influenced and learned by observing whats going on around them in the environment that they are in. Children also observe the way people behave around others and are influenced by them in good ways and bad ways, this is shown by the bobo doll experiment. Children are especially influenced by the role models in this society, at first they will observe everything they do such as their behaviour and further down the line they will start to copy what they do and reinact it themselves. Sometimes this could be a good thing sometime this could be a bad thing. He also looks at how we are affected by the rewards and......

Words: 8024 - Pages: 33

Premium Essay

Classroom Management Plan

...Classroom Management Plan Introduction and Overview In teaching there is no one style of classroom management that fits all classrooms. Every classroom is unique, with diverse students going through many things especially in a middle school classroom. Nonetheless, that’s why having a formal, written classroom management plan is of utmost importance especially in a changing classroom. Hence, in planning my own classroom management plan it is why I implemented a plan that relies highly on teacher preparation and organization. I have learned in my short time in the classroom that problems will occur no matter what you do in the classroom. However, being prepared by having a set of rules, procedures, and consequences for certain discipline problems within the classroom is the best method for a successful learning environment. In middle school classroom, students both females and males alike are going through both physical and emotional changes. Having a teacher who they can rely on as an advisor or even a person of confidence is of utmost importance in order to build a family of learners. Classroom Arrangement I arrange students in group tables of four or five students depending on the group of students. I’m most comfortable with this arrangement as it allows for the most amount of free space, and also provides more working space for students when doing group activities. Even though my desk is in the front of the classroom, I will try and not spend much time there, rather...

Words: 1911 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...echnical University, Latvia, Abstract Fast development of equipment and technologies, economic globalization and many other external circumstances stimulate the changes in consumer behavior. Usually consumer behavior has drawn upon theories developed in related fields of study of human behavior such as psychology, sociology, economics, behavioral economics, and anthropology, to develop a theoretical framework for the analysis of the behavior of consumers. It is very convenient and up-to-date to use information and telecommunication technologies for communication among individuals what improves the information flow within an organization and outside. At the same time there are a lot of challenges for all involved parts – industry and society. These challenges are principally related to adoption of the technologies in the country what directly impacts the consumer behavior. In the paper customer behavior in electronic environment have been analyzed, peculiarities of behavior caused by information and telecommunication technologies were funded out. The research conducted by the author showed that information technologies create dynamic behavior what involves different from traditional market interactions and exchanges. Keywords: consumer behavior, electronic environment, adoption of technologies, information and telecommunication technologies. Introduction A society of the future is the society of knowledge, in which the capability of knowledge......

Words: 3622 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Organisation Behaviour

...There are many definitions of Organizational Behavior (OB). In order to develop a personal operating definition of OB, I read several definitions to help form a framework of what OB means to me. The definitions I read ranged from the very complex to the very simple. Along with many OB definitions, there are also many different types of research. Mole noted four assumptions that are used in all OB research (2002). 1. Behavior is predictable 2. Behavior is caused 3. Behavior has many causes 4. Generalities can be made Personal Operational Definition With the above assumptions, as well as the concept that OB is a combination of different fields of behavioral sciences, I developed the following operational definition of OB. The study of Organizational Behavior is to observe, analyze and learn, what variables influence individual behavior, at both the individual and group levels, and understand how it affects the behavior of the organization. I will use this operating definition in my organization as we plan to make a major software change. The process is underway to replace the maintenance software system with an updated software so that a purchasing package can be procured that will integrate the two. By observing the behavior of the employees, I will be able to better understand the cause of their resistance to change. I will recommend a cross functional team to address all the concerns and determine what features of the old software are important and should......

Words: 595 - Pages: 3