Free Essay

Gt Reading

In: English and Literature

Submitted By pb2143
Words 4724
Questions 1 - 5
Complete the form below. Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Example NAME FIRST NAME ADDRESS Answer Camden Peter Flat 5 53 (1) _________________________________ Finsbury (2) ____________________________________ 8th July (3) _____________________________ None (4) ____________________________________ (5) ____________________________________


General Training Test 3; Page 1 ©

Questions 6 - 8
Circle THREE letters A - F.
What type of books does Peter like? A B C D E F Wildlife books Romance books Travel books Historical novels Science Fiction novels Mystery books

Questions 9 and 10
9 How much does it cost to join the library? _________________________________ 10 How much does it cost to rent a DVD? _________________________________

General Training Test 3; Page 2 ©

SECTION 2 Questions 11 - 20
Questions 11 - 14
List FOUR reasons given for people needing blood transfusions. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 11 - 14 on your answer sheet.
11 12 13 14 ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________

Questions 15 - 20
Complete the 2 sets of notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Types of Blood Component Parts PART red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma USED FOR (15) __________________________ to cells help patients’ (16) ______________________ _____________________________________ blood clotting (17) ________________________ the other blood parts O, A, B + AB

General Training Test 3; Page 3 ©

GIVING BLOOD DAYS WHERE WHEN MUST Wednesday + next 2 days Westley General Hospital, (18) ___________________________ Department Between 9.00am and (19) ___________________________ be healthy be (20) ______________________ or over weigh more than 110 pounds have had no tattoos this year not have donated blood within past 56 days

General Training Test 3; Page 4 ©

SECTION 3 Questions 21 - 30
Questions 21 - 27
Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Computer Labs The 4 labs below can be used by undergraduates. Other computer labs can only be used by postgraduates and (21) _________________________ Lab Locations Wimborne Franklin Salisbury Court Johnson Building Computer Sciences Building (22) ____________________ Johnson Building


(23) ________________ a day unless computers are free Write reservation in book (24) ________________ (Penalty for erasing someone else’s reservation - 1 year ban) jamessmith2 (25) _________________ Pick up print outs from (26) ______________ in Franklin Costs (27) ________________

User Name Password Printing

General Training Test 3; Page 5 ©

Questions 28 - 30
Choose the correct letters A - C.
28 The introductory computer course that James decides to take is... A B C 29 beginner. intermediate. advanced.

The computer laboratory for James’ introductory computer course is in... A B C Wimborne Franklin Court


James will take his introductory computer course... A B C on Thursday at 2.00pm. on Tuesday at 4.30pm. on Tuesday at 5.00pm

General Training Test 3; Page 6 ©

SECTION 4 Questions 31 - 40
Questions 31 - 35
Complete the notes below. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS OR A NUMBER for each answer.

The Shinkansen or Bullet Train Safety Speed No deaths (bar 1 from passenger misadventure) since its launch in (31) ___________________________. Holds world train record for (32) _______________________ of 261.8 kph. 500 series Nozumi’s fastest speed is 300kph. Punctual to within the second. All bullet trains for 1 year were a total of (33) __________ late. First used on Tokyo to Osaka route. Old models have now been retired. 300, 500 and 700 are recent models. Nozomi trains stop at the (34) _________________________. Hikari stop more frequently. Kodama trains stop at (35) ____________________________.

Punctuality History


General Training Test 3; Page 7 ©

Questions 36 - 40
Complete the sentences below. Write NO MORE THAN 3 WORDS for each answer.
36 37 38 39 40 French TGV locomotives pull the TGV trains from both ends using a _______________. Japanese ground is unsuitable for the TGV type of train because it is _______________ and the tracks frequently curve horizontally and vertically. An extra advantage of the Japanese electric car system is that it can act as a _______________. Even after the power supply is cut off in the electric car system, electricity is still produced by _______________. Huge improvements in power, operability and safety administration have been made possible by advances in _______________.

General Training Test 3; Page 8 ©

Questions 1 – 6

There are 5 advertisements A – E on the next page. Answer the questions below by writing the letters of the appropriate advertisements in boxes 1 – 6 on your answer sheet
Example Answer Which advertisment says that the successful applicant will be required to sell something? B

1 2 3 4 5 6

Which advertisement is NOT offering a job? Which advertisement specifically asks for someone to look good? Which advertisement offers the chance of a job abroad? Which advertisment doesn’t ask to be telephoned? Which job advertisement wants someone for a part time position? Which advertisement says that speaking a language will help the applicant?

General Training Test 3; Page 9 ©

SECRETARY - URGENT Busy High Street solicitors requires an experienced and efficient secretary. All applicants should have excellent typing, shorthand and telephone skills. Good package. Write with CV to: Aldersley and Sons 25 Charmin Street Guildford GU4 7YD


£ to be made

Busy town used car dealership urgently needs an experienced salesman. Exhaustive knowledge of different makes of cars a must. Good basic plus commission.

Call 020 8567 9634 and ask for Mike.

WANTED URGENTLY BABYSITTER 1 weekday and 1 weekend a week. 6.30pm – 11pm Responsible young lady required
Call 020 8467 2635

Hard-working law student, 22 years old, is searching for a suitable placement for his coming summer vacation. Anything considered. Please call Andrew Hall on 020 8746 3529.

Receptionist Chamber maids Bell Boys
Applicants must have relevant experience and a high standard of personal appearance
Phone personnel on 02 7854 3724 for an application form


The Grand Hotel Manchester

Posts available are:

The specialists in winter sports holidays

This prestigious and busy tour operator is currently recruiting for next winter’s season. We require a variety of enthusiastic and dedicated people to run our operations in Europe starting in November and running through to April. Salaries are based on experience, qualifications and suitability. Knowledge of a suitable European language would be a strong advantage. Interviews this summer.

Chalet girls and boys

Airport Reps

Holiday Reps

Ski instructors (relevant qualifications essential)
For details, ring 020 3947 9624 and ask Cathy for a relevant application form.

General Training Test 3; Page 10 ©

Questions 7 – 11
Read the Information leaflet about the Jamestown Hiking Centre on the following page. Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS, answer the following questions. Write your answers in boxes 7 – 11 on your answer sheet.

7 8 9 10

How much would a hiker have to pay in total for the example hike? On which day will the hikers come across ice? On which day will the hikers have the chance to do a water sport? On which day do the hikers have the option to not do any hiking and just take it easy? On which day will the hikers get to sleep next to the sea?


General Training Test 3; Page 11 ©

Source: Hiking New Zealand .com

Jamestown Hiking Centre

We offer hiking trips led by experienced guides out into the mountains. The hikes can last from an afternoon’s hike up to the Josef Waterfall to a fortnight’s trek through the James Forest and up into the Williams mountains and the rugged adjoining coastline. Below is an example of the itinerary for our 10 day hiking safari. Start Finish Length Grade Price Drake Visitors Centre, Jamestown 8.00am Kingstown 7.00pm 10 days Medium $ Canadian 1000 + $ 20/day kitty

Highlights Hike through beech forest, past limestone sinkholes and across tussockcovered mountain slopes. Watch the antics of the Longley Seal Pups at a breeding colony. Hike through the lush forest in a limestone canyon, wade across crystal clear rivers, and explore glowworm caves in Havely. Take a guided walk on the spectacular Franz Glacier and marvel at its crevasses and ice caves. Kayak the tranquil Okarto Lagoon and watch native birds feeding in the shallows. Hike through James forest to natural hot pools surrounded by mountain peaks in Westland. Watch for penguins and dolphins while strolling along isolated beaches.

Day 1 Drive from Jamestown to Longley. Hike through beech forest, camp under natural rock shelter. 4 hours hiking Day 2 Hike up above the bushline on Mt Arthurs. Drive to camp by the Bull River. 7 hours hiking Day 3 Visit seal colony. Drive to Havely and hike while learning river crossing techniques. 3 hours hiking Day 4 Explore limestone caves and hike down a river canyon. Visit the Caves at the Lemon Cliffs. 5 hours hiking Day 5 Drive to Franztown and walk to the glacier terminal, or do the guided walk on the glacier ($35). 2 hours hiking Day 6 Kayak ($40) across Okarto lagoon and up forested river channels, or hike along beach. 4 hours kayaking or 3 hours hiking Day 7 Hike up the Knight’s Valley to Welley Flats hut and soak weary muscles in natural hot pools. 7 hours hiking Day 8 Boulder-hop up to a waterfall with stunning mountain views, or have a rest day. 4 hours hiking Day 9 Hike back down the Knight’s Valley, visit a penguin colony and camp on an isolated beach. 6 hours hiking Day 10 Hike along a beach frequented by dolphins, drive over the Hast Pass and General Training Test 3; Page 12 continue to Kingstown. 2 hours hiking ©

Questions 12 and 13
Read the advertisement below for Regent Taxi Services and look at the statements following it. In boxes 12 and 13 on your answer sheet write: TRUE FALSE NOT GIVEN if the statement is true if the statement is false if the information is not given in the advertisement

* * * * * cheapest deals in town established since 1979 max 5 people no destination too far minivan available (max 9 persons)

$25 to Westley International Airport $50 to Eastley town centre

Tel: 0684 639746

12 13

It will cost $50 for 2 people to go to Eastley town centre. Westley Taxi Services will go to any destination.

General Training Test 3; Page 13 ©

SECTION 2 Questions 14 – 28
Questions 14 - 18
Read the Information Guide for Westley Public Library on the following page. Look at the following customer bills (Questions 14 - 18) that need to be worked out. According to the Westley Public Library Information Guide, match the customer bills (Questions 14 - 18) with the prices given (A - I). Write the appropriate letters (A - H) in boxes 14 - 18 on your answer sheet.

14 15 16 17 18

2 CD ROMs for 2 weeks. 11⁄2 hours on the internet. 6 internet sheet printouts. 2 books late for 1 week. 6 months library membership. PRICES A B C D E F G H I $3 $2 $20 $12 $2.50 $1 30 cents 50 cents $1.50

General Training Test 3; Page 14 ©

1 Only members of the Library may borrow items from the Library. Membership for this year is $24 for 12 month or pro rata monthly membership. Membership runs from 1st January to 31st December. Library membership consists of the right to take out 6 hardbacks and six paperbacks. Extra borrowing may be added on at the librarian’s discretion. Hardback books are taken out for a maximum of two weeks and paperbacks for a maximum of three weeks. Renewals are permitted. The books can be brought in and re-stamped for renewal or, in emergencies, members may phone in. Overdue books will be charged at a rate of 50 cents per book per week or part of a week. Lost books will be charged at the current market price plus a postage/administration charge. Popular books can be reserved on a waiting list. There is no renewal for books in this category. The Library has a CD ROM section from which members are allowed to borrow. Members borrowing a CD ROM pay a charge of $1 per CD ROM for a period of two weeks – a maximum of 3 discs may be borrowed at any one time. The Library member will be liable for any loss or damage to the CD ROM. The Library has a video and DVD section. Library members can borrow up to 2 DVDs at a time for a two day period. Members must pay a refundable $20 deposit to borrow DVDs. The Library has 10 internet terminals. Use of the terminals is not restricted to members. Any person can reserve a 30 minute or 1 hour session on one computer in the Library for internet use at the rate of $1 for 30 minutes and $2 for an hour. 8 PCs will be available to be reserved and 2 will be there on a “first come, first served” basis. Printouts of internet pages will be charged 5 cents a sheet. All PCs are equipped with CD writer facilities. Your suggestions for new books to be ordered are always most welcome and may be written in the suggestion book.

2 3

4 5 6

7 8


LIBRARY TIMINGS Mon/Tues/Thurs/Fri Wed Sat 9.00 am - 6.00 pm 9.00 am - 8.00 pm 10.00 am - 1.00 pm

Source: The Club, Abu Dhabi

Questions 19 – 20
Look again at the Information Guide for Westley Public Library. Complete the following statements (Questions 19 and 20) with words taken from the guide. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 19 and 20 on your answer sheet.
19 20 If a book that you want is already taken out, put your name on the ____________ and the book will be kept for you when it is returned. If library customers have any ideas on how to improve the library, they can leave a written note of their recommendation in the _______________.
General Training Test 3; Page 15 ©

Halifax College
A Halifax College is a school situated just outside the Nova Scotia capital city of Halifax. Opened in 1935, it was first privately run by the Halifax Church Council. In 1960 it was purchased by the provincial government and since then it has been enormously extended and now operates as a day school as well as keeping its original boarding element. Currently enrolment stands at 550 but this is expected to rise to 750 by 2005. B The school’s mission is the pursuit of excellence by its students both in academic and extracurricular fields. Prospective students are expected to show high academic potential and proficiency in any sporting or musical activity is also looked for. Entrance to the College is by an in house examination. Six scholarships are offered per year by the College in academic, sporting and musical areas (2 in each). Details of these scholarships and the entry procedure can be obtained from the Admissions Office. C Academic life at Halifax College is naturally geared towards students’ success in achieving their High School Diploma. Halifax College offers all the usual core and elective subjects and also offers a few unusual ones. See the prospectus for details. D The school is divided into three sub-schools: Elementary Years 1 - 6 Part 1 Secondary Years 7 - 9 Part 2 Secondary Years 10 - 12 Each sub-school has its own administration and is headed by its own principal. The School Council is the umbrella organization that administers the school as a whole. E As mentioned earlier, sports and music are considered very important at Halifax College. At the College we have our own facilities for football, baseball, hockey and lacrosse. In addition to these we have our own gymnasium, sports hall, indoor swimming pool, athletics track and indoor and outdoor tennis courts. Students also have the opportunity to row at our boathouse on the Iona River. Music is centred at our purpose-built music school which has facilities for learning a variety of instruments and its own performance hall. F The future of our students is of the greatest importance to us here at Halifax College. To cater for this the College has a Careers Office staffed by a full time careers officer. Students can see the officer at any time to discuss their future careers and tertiary education options. The College has a library with an enormous selection of information concerning further education institutes in Canada and abroad. Various career lectures are organized through out the school year and students can also book aptitude tests and mock university and job interviews. General Training Test 3; Page 16 ©

Questions 21 – 25
The reading passage on Halifax College has 6 paragraphs A – F. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B – F. Write the appropriate number (i – xi) in boxes 21 – 25 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi

Student Prospects Study Choices at Halifax College The Teaching and Study Staff College Buildings School Structure The History of Halifax College Working at Halifax College Special Circumstances Extracurricular Activities Competition at Halifax College Joining Halifax College

Example Paragraph A

Answer vi

General Training Test 3; Page 17


21 22 23 24 25

Paragraph B Paragraph C Paragraph D Paragraph E Paragraph F

Questions 26 - 28
Read the Information about Halifax College again. Using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS, answer the following questions. Write your answers in boxes 26 - 28 on your answer sheet.

26 27 28

What is the current school population? How does the average student enter Halifax College? Where can the students practise their skills in boats?

General Training Test 3; Page 18 ©

SECTION 3 Questions 28 - 40
Read the following passage and answer Questions 28 – 40. The Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia
A The Interior of Australia is a sparsely populated and extreme environment and the delivery of basic services has always been a problem. One of the most important of these services is medical care. Before the inception of the Royal Flying Doctor Service (RFDS), serious illness or accidents in the Inland often meant death. The RFDS was the first comprehensive aerial organization in the world and to this day remains unique for the range of emergency services that it provides. B The story of the Flying Doctor Service is forever linked with its founder, the Very Reverend John Flynn. It is a story of achievement that gave courage to the pioneers of the outback. In 1911 the Reverend John Flynn took up his appointment at Beltana Mission in the north of South Australia. He began his missionary work at a time when only two doctors served an area of some 300 000 sq kms in the Northern Territory. In 1903 the first powered flight had taken place and by 1918 the aeroplane was beginning to improve itself as a means of transport. Radio, then very much in its infancy, was also displaying its remarkable capability to link people thousands of miles apart. Flynn saw the potential in these developments. The Service began in 1928 but it was not until 1942 that it was actually named the Flying Doctor Service and the Royal prefix was added in 1955. C In 1928 the dream of a flying doctor was at last a reality but Flynn and his supporters still faced many problems in the months and years to come. The first year’s service was regarded as experimental, but the experiment succeeded and almost miraculously the service survived the Great Depression of the late 1920s and early 1930s. By 1932 the Australian Inland Mission (AIM) had a network of ten little hospitals across the coverage area. A succession of doctors and pilots followed and operations continued to expand over the next few years. D The Service suffered severe financial difficulties in its early years. Flynn and his associates had to launch public appeals for donations. While some government financial aid was made available on occasions in the early days, regular government subsidies only became an established practice later on. Even today the Service continues to rely chiefly on money from trusts, donations and public appeals for its annual budget and raising money remains an integral part of the working day for the Service and its volunteers. E In 1922 Flynn began a campaign for funding to buy some aircraft for the AIM. The first flight, on 17th May 1928, was made using a De Havilland model DH50 aircraft. This plane, named
General Training Test 3; Page 19 ©

“Victory”, went on to fly 110 000 miles in the service of the Flying Doctor until 1934 when it was replaced with a DH83 Fox Moth. In 1928 flying was still in its early days. Pilots had no navigational aids, no radio and only a compass and inadequate maps, if any. They navigated by landmarks such as fences, rivers, dirt roads of just wheel tracks and telegraph lines. They also flew in an open cockpit, fully exposed to the weather. Flights were normally made during daylight hours although night flights were attempted in cases of extreme urgency. Fuel supplies were also carried on flights until fuel dumps were established at certain strategic locations. Nowadays twin engine craft, speed, pressurization, the ability to fly higher and further with more space for crew and medical personnel have all improved patient care and safety problems. There are hardly any places now that the RFDS cannot reach though safe landing at the remote areas is another issue altogether. Many outstations now have some sort of airstrip lighting but even now car headlights are sometimes used. Landings are therefore still often made in hazardous circumstances on remote fields or roads and it is pilots who continue to be responsible for determining if the flight can be safely undertaken. F In the early 1900s basic telephone and telegraphic links existed only near larger towns. Radio communication was practically unknown and neighbours could be hundreds of miles away. What was needed was a simple, portable, cheap, and reliable two-way radio, with its own power source and with a range of 500 kms. In 1928 Alf Traeger, an Adelaide engineer, invented the Pedal Radio and over the next 10 years these were distributed around the stations and the operators were trained in Morse Code. Over the years radio developed with new technology and of course now telephones have taken its place. Whereas a few years ago, all calls for medical assistance were received by radio, today this represents only about 2% of all such calls. G Over the years, the RFDS has developed to take along medical specialists, dentists and various health related professionals. Sister Myra Blanche was the first nurse employed by the RFDS in 1945 undertaking home nursing, immunizations, advising on prevention of illnesses and, on occasion, filling in for the doctor. However, flight nurses as we know them were not used by the Service on a regular basis until the 1960s. Today, based on the judgement of the doctor authorizing the flight, up to 80% of medical evaluations are made with only the flight nurse and pilot on board.
Source: Royal Flying Doctor Service

General Training Test 3; Page 20 ©

Questions 29 - 34
The reading passage on the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia has 7 paragraphs A – G. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B – G. Write the appropriate number (i – xi) in boxes 29 – 34 on your answer sheet. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all.

i ii iii iv v vi vii viii ix x xi

RFDS Hospitals Funding Communication Issues Navigation Issues The Birth of an Idea Aviation Why the RFDS was Founded The First Pilot The Growth of the Service Doctors’ Assistants Refueling Problems

Example Paragraph A 29 30 31 Paragraph B Paragraph C Paragraph D

Answer vii

General Training Test 3; Page 21 ©

32 33 34

Paragraph E Paragraph F Paragraph G

Questions 35 – 40
Read the the article about the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia again and look at the statements below. In boxes 35 – 40 on your answer sheet write: TRUE FALSE NOT GIVEN
35 36 37 38 39 40

if the statement is true if the statement is false if the information is not given in the passage

Test flights before 1928 proved that John Flynn’s ideas were possible. The RFDS today gets most of its operational money from charities. In the early years RFDS fliers had only compasses to help them find their way. Today some landing areas still do not have proper lighting. Telephones have now completely replaced radios for reporting emergencies to the RFDS. Quite a few RFDS flights today don’t even have a doctor on board.

General Training Test 3; Page 22 ©


You should spend about 20 minutes on this task. 2 weeks ago you bought a radio from a local branch of a well known chain of shops. It did not work properly. The shop took it back and said they would repair it. You have waited a week and still it is not ready. Write a letter to the shop complaining. Tell what has happened and how you feel. Ask them to repair the radio very soon or supply you with a new radio. You should write at least 150 words. You do NOT need to write your own address. Begin your letter as follows: Dear Sir,

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task. It is better for boys and girls to study separately rather than study in mixed sex classes. They are less distracted and this leads to better results. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? You should write at least 250 words.

General Training Test 3; Page 23 ©

Section 1 * * * Tell me about the job or studies that you are doing. Why did you choose this field? Do you think you will ever change this job or study? (Why/Why not?) Schooldays

Topic 1 * * * *

What were the good parts and the bad parts about your schooldays? What was your favourite subject at school? (Why?) How did your school teach sports? How would you improve the school that you went to? Rivers

Topic 2 * * * *

Describe a river in your country. What kinds of things are rivers used for in your country? Are there any pollution problems with rivers in your country? (What?) What kind of problems do people face if they live near a big river?

Section 2

Describe your favourite restaurant You should say: where the restaurant is and how you found it what type of food it serves how often you go there and explain exactly why you like this restaurant so much. Section 3 Topic 1 * * * * Fast Food

Is fast food popular in your country? (Why?) Why has fast food become so popular over the last 30 years? Could you compare fast food with traditional meals? How can we stop young people eating so much fast food? Food Problems

Topic 2 * * * *

What are some of the problems that some countries have with food production? Could you suggest any ways to solve these problems? What other problems can you predict happening in terms of food in the next 50 years? Could you compare methods of food production and distribution today with that of 50 years ago? General Training Test 3; Page 24

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...AccuData® GTS/GTS The Advantage test strip contains the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase which converts the glucose in a blood sample to gluconolactone. This reaction liberates an electron that reacts with a mediator. The oxidized form of the mediator hexacyanoferrate (III) accepts the electron, forming the reduced form of the mediator, hexacyanoferrate (II). The Advantage test strip employs the electrochemical principle of biamperometry. The monitor applies a voltage between two identical electrodes, which causes the reduced mediator formed during the incubation period to be reconverted to an oxidized mediator. This generates a small current that is read by the monitor. If controls do not fall within the acceptable range after one repeat 1 Do not report the patient results (this would be if the operatoris running controls for the purpose of checking the meter; otherwise, the QC lockout would not have allowed the patient to be tested prior to getting the controls in acceptable range). 2 Review the test policy and procedure. 3 To get a trade, take all of the reagents and supplies out of the drawer and take the entire GTS to the High Volume Lab of Chemistry, 5th floor McCullough Bldg. 4 If feasible for the testing site, the Nurse Manager/designee or Clinic Manager can authorize the borrowing of a GTS unit from another location. cont. NOTE: The proper comment code (09) identifying a temporary GTS unit is being used should be entered after the patient result is......

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...EJELE BSE-I Cognitive Factors That Affect Reading Comprehension Reading comprehension refers to the ability of a reader to construct meaning from text. Expected levels of reading comprehension vary throughout a reader's lifespan. When children first learn to read, the emphasis is on understanding the meaning of words and how they form sentences to communicate simple ideas. As children grow into adults, reading comprehension grows to include semantic and symbolic understanding of written text. 1. Decoding and Word Recognition Speed * One cognitive factor that can affect reading comprehension is the speed at which the reader decodes and recognizes words. Decoding refers to the reader's ability to make sense of letter-sound relationships, including proper word pronunciation and noticing common letter combinations, in order to quickly recognize familiar words. Readers who experience difficulty with decoding and recognizing words read at a much slower pace and find it more difficult to comprehend the meaning of reading passages than their peers without decoding difficulties. Vocabulary * Vocabulary breadth can also have an impact on reading comprehension. Readers use decoding skills to figure out the pronunciation and approximate meaning of words they haven't seen before, but this process takes far more time than recognition of a familiar word. Individuals with a wider vocabulary can interpret the meaning of reading passages faster and more thoroughly than......

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...than to jump into another one. Reading gives us a place to go when we want to stay where we are. I like reading because it's like dreaming. Going on an adventure, living a different life, experiencing new things. I love reading and I love my books, their tattered covers, the well-thumbed pages, the intoxicating smell and the smooth feel of the spine. They are my friends, my companions. And book collection is an obsession, an occupation, a disease, an addiction, an absurdity, a fate. It's not just a hobby. My books are my treasure, my gateway to flights of fancy, realms of magic. Open the cover and you fall in. Into the Tartarus of a imagination, of magic. I have just one life but Fiction and Fantasy help me live many. But there's a problem with fiction. It makes too much sense, reality never does. Novels are just for entertainment, they say. You'll never really learn anything from them, they say. But to be honest, there are things the books have taught me my school never could. I sometimes wish I could read in the shower. Also in the dark. Also in my sleep. It sounds like an overstatement but there are times when I find a really good book I can't put down and I read it late into the night and only stop because my eyes start to hurt or my vision goes blurry from either strain or sleep and I have to force myself to put it down and go to sleep. But, in the morning the first thing I do is pick up the book and start reading again until I'm either......

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...Reading comprehension involves two levels of processing, shallow (low-level) processing and deep (high-level) processing. Deep processing involves semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words. Shallow processing involves structural and phonemic recognition, the processing of sentence and word structure and their associated sounds. There are two elements that make up the process of reading comprehension: vocabulary knowledge and text comprehension. In order to understand a text the reader must be able to comprehend the vocabulary used in the piece of writing. If the individual words don’t make the sense then the overall story will not either. Children can draw on their prior knowledge of vocabulary, but they also need to continually be taught new words. The best vocabulary instruction occurs at the point of need. Parents and teachers should pre-teach new words that a child will encounter in a text or aid her in understanding unfamiliar words as she comes upon them in the writing. In addition to being able to understand each distinct word in a text, the child also has to be able to put them together to develop an overall conception of what it is trying to say. This is text comprehension. Text comprehension is much more complex and varied that vocabulary knowledge. Readers use many different text comprehension strategies to develop reading comprehension. These include monitoring for understanding, answering and......

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...5 Reading, Writing, and Speaking in Mathematics As teachers of mathematics, we sometimes forget that the words and phrases that are familiar to us are foreign to our students. Students need to master this language if they are to read, under­ stand, and discuss mathematical ideas. -Thompson & Rubenstein Thompson and Rubenstein were referring to the issue of language and mathematics learning in mainstream classrooms. They state vocabulary or the fluent use of terminology is a necessary condition for overall mathematics achievement. If the learning of mathematics is highly dependent on its language and the teaching of math vocabulary is crucial, it is doubly so for ELLs. English language learners in secondary schools should have many opportunities to communicate their mathematical ideas and questions. Talking and writing about their mathematical thinking helps ELLs build word knowledge and oral expression and clarify their thinking. Discussions with the teacher or peers are also useful monitoring tools for teachers. Through listening and recording student conversations and peer problem solving, teachers can monitor individual student progress. Mathematics is no longer viewed as isolated, individualistic, or competitive. Mathematics problems are ideally suited to cooperative group discussions because they have solutions that can be objectively demonstrated. Students can persuade one another by the logic of their arguments. Mathematics problems can often be solved by......

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...150 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Reading comic books is bad for children. Use specific details and examples to support your answer. I disagree with this statement.  Children can learn something from comic books. So, as long as children don’t spend too much time reading comic books, comic books could be good for them. I think reading books is good for children, but some children don’t like reading books. However, some of these children like reading comic books. It would be difficult for children who are not accustomed to reading texts to start reading books. But, once they come to like reading comic books, it would be a bit easier for them to start reading books. I mean, comic books could help children start reading un-comic books. So, I disagree with this statement. (111 words) I disagree with this statement.  Children can learn something from comic books.  So, as long as children don’t spend too much time reading comic books, comic books could be good for them.  I think reading books is good for children, but some children don’t like reading books.  However, some of these children like reading comic books.  It would be difficult for children who are not accustomed to reading texts to start reading books.  But, once they come to like reading comic books, it would be a bit easier for them to start reading regular books.  I mean, comic books could help children start reading un-comic text-based books.  So, I disagree with this statement. ...

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...F Reading Strategies Worksheet Identify two reading goals, one short-term and one long-term. * Long-term reading goal: To learn to enjoy reading Short-term reading goal: Read and understand all of the readings for my classes Write a 100- to 150-word response to each of the following questions: * How do you currently approach the weekly readings in the course? I approach the weeks readings by previewing it early in the week. Then going back over it when a discussion question is asking for input on what was read. I do this to give more detail and convert it to my own words. Then depending on what the assignment is I will go back over it again to make sure that I have a complete understanding of it. I also refer back to the readings while doing my assignments to make sure that what I am answering is correct. How might you incorporate three of the suggestions covered this week into your study time? I plan on reading the first and last sentence in each paragraph and paying attention to words listed in bold and italics. I do this to an extent now but I plan to do it more in the future as it has helped me to understand what the readings are about and grasp what is trying to be taught. I also plan on setting goals for myself for the weekly readings since I do not like to read. These will help me to achieve my academic goals I have set for myself. How might this plan help you accomplish your reading goals? This plan will help me get my readings......

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...Extensive Reading: Why? and How? Timothy Bell timothy [at] Kuwait University ------------------------------------------------- Abstract An extensive reading program was established for elementary level language learners at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen. Research evidence for the use of such programs in EFL/ESL contexts is presented, emphasizing the benefits of this type of input for students' English language learning and skills development. Practical advice is then offered to teachers worldwide on ways to encourage learners to engage in a focused and motivating reading program with the potential to lead students along a path to independence and resourcefulness in their reading and language learning. ------------------------------------------------- Introduction: The Reading Program An extensive reading program was established at the British Council Language Center in Sanaa, Yemen. An elementary level class of government employees (age range 17-42) was exposed to a regime of graded readers, which was integrated into normal classroom teaching. Students followed a class reader, had access to a class library of graded readers, and had classes in the British Council library, which gave them access to a collection of 2000 titles. Questionnaires were used to examine students' reading interests, habits and attitudes, both prior to, and following the program. The class library contained 141 titles in the published readers of some major......

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