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H-O Model

In: Business and Management

Submitted By nhocheosua
Words 517
Pages 3
Chương trình Giảng dạy Kinh tế Fulbright
Niên khóa 2007-2008

Lý thuyết ngoại thương

Bài giảng 3

MÔ HÌNH HECKSHER-OHLIN
Chương 4

1/29/2008

1

Giới thiệu
• Mô hình Ricardo giải thích ngoại thương xảy ra là do sự khác nhau về năng suất lao động giữa các nước. • Trong thực tế ngoại thương xảy ra cũng được phản ánh sự khác nhau về nguồn lực giữa các nước.
• Thí dụ:
– Một số quốc gia dồi dào về đất đai xuất khẩu lương thực như Hoa Kỳ, Úc
– Một số quốc gia dồi dào về lao động bán kỹ năng có xu hướng xuất khẩu hàng hoá thâm dụng lao động như quần áo, giày dép.
1/29/2008

Trương Quang Hùng

2

1

Chương trình Giảng dạy Kinh tế Fulbright
Niên khóa 2007-2008

Lý thuyết ngoại thương

Bài giảng 3

Giới thiệu
• Mô hình Hechsher-Ohlin nhấn mạnh sự khác biệt về nguồn lực (lao động, vốn, đất đai) là nguồn gốc duy nhất cuả ngoại thương • Mô hình này cho thấy rằng lợi thế so sánh cuả một nước được quyết định bởi:
– Sự đồi dào tương đối các yếu tố sản xuất cuả một nước
– Sự thâm dụng các yếu tố tương đối cuả một loại
1/29/2008 hàng hoá
3

Giới thiệu
• Mô hình này có những dự đoán tương đối phù hợp với thực tế hơn so với mô hình
Ricardo
– Các nước có xu hướng sản xuất hai loại hàng hoá (không có chuyên môn hoá hoàn toàn).
– Ngoại thương mang lại lợi ích cho một nước nhưng đồng thời cũng gây ra tác động phân phối lại thu nhập bên trong một nước.
1/29/2008

Trương Quang Hùng

4

2

Chương trình Giảng dạy Kinh tế Fulbright
Niên khóa 2007-2008

Lý thuyết ngoại thương

Bài giảng 3

Giả thiết mô hình
• Hai quốc gia là nước nhà (H) và nước ngoài (F)
– Có sở thích giống nhau
– Tỷ lệ các yếu tố sản xuất khác nhau

• Sử dụng 2 yếu tố sản xuất là lao động (L) và vốn (K)
– Các yếu tố sản xuất hoàn toàn linh hoạt trong phạm vi một nước nhưng không linh hoạt giữa các nước
– Các yếu tố sản xuất có thể thay thế cho nhau
1/29/2008

5

Giả thiết mô hình
• Hai hàng hoá được sản xuất là bia và vải
– Bia là hàng hoá thâm dụng vốn tương đối.
– Vải là hàng hoá thâm dụng lao động tương đối
– Không có sự đảo ngược các yếu tố sản xuất khi có sự thay đổi trong giá các yếu tố

• Thị trường hàng hoá và các yếu tố sản xuất được giả thiết là cạnh tranh hoàn

1/29/2008

Trương Quang Hùng

6

3

Lý thuyết ngoại thương

Chương trình Giảng dạy Kinh tế Fulbright
Niên khóa 2007-2008

Bài giảng 3

Giả thiết mô hình
• Công nghệ sản xuất được giả thiết là giống nhau giữa các nước và được mô tả bởi các phương trình:






QB = QB(KB, LB)
∂MPLB/ ∂LB

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