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NAKAMA 1 second edition

INtroduc tory JApANese: CommuniC ation, Culture, Context

Hiroshima University

yukiko Abe Hatasa

Kazumi Hatasa

Purdue University The Japanese School, Middlebury College

seiichi Makino

Princeton University

Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • singapore • spain • united Kingdom • united states

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This is an electronic version of the print textbook. Due to electronic rights restrictions, some third party content may be suppressed. Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. The publisher reserves the right to remove content from this title at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it. For valuable information on pricing, previous editions, changes to current editions, and alternate formats, please visit www.cengage.com/highered to search by ISBN#, author, title, or keyword for materials in your areas of interest.

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Nakama 1: Introductory Japanese: Communication, Culture, Context, Second Edition Yukiko Abe Hatasa, Kazumi Hatasa, Seiichi Makino Publisher: Beth Kramer Acquisitions Editor: Nicole Morinon Development Editor: Kim Beuttler Editorial Assistant: Sara Dyer Media Editor: Laurel Miller Marketing Manager: Mary Jo Prinaris Marketing Coordinator: Janine Enos Senior Marketing Communications Manager: Stacey Purviance Senior Content Project Manager: Margaret Park Bridges Print Buyer: Betsy Donaghey Production Service: Inari Information Services Photo Manager: Jennifer Meyer Dare Cover Design Director: Tony Saizon Cover image: Harold Burch, New York City Compositor: Inari Information Services

 2011, 1998 Heinle, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work covered by the copyright herein may be reproduced, transmitted, stored or used in any form or by any means graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including but not limited to photocopying, recording, scanning, digitizing, taping, Web distribution, information networks, or information storage and retrieval systems, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2007926500 Student Edition ISBN-13: 978-0-495-79818-7 ISBN-10: 0-495-79818-5 Heinle 20 Channel Center Boston, MA 02210 USA Cengage Learning is a leading provider of customized learning solutions with office locations around the globe, including Singapore, the United Kingdom, Australia, Mexico, Brazil, and Japan. Locate your local office at: international.cengage.com/region Cengage Learning products are represented in Canada by Nelson Education, Ltd. For your course and learning solutions, visit www.cengage.com Purchase any of our products at your local college store or at our preferred online store www.ichapters.com

Photographs unless otherwise noted courtesy of the authors. Page 31:  Kayte M. Deimoa/PhotoEdit; Page 45:  Christine Schneider/zefa/Corbis; Page 83:  Gary Conner/PhotoEdit; Page 134:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 176:  Teruyo Shimizu/Photo Japan; Page 177:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 220:  Jeremy Hoare/Alamy; Page 221:  Jeremy Hoare/Alamy; Page 263:  Hugh Threlfall/Alamy; Page 294:  D. Hurst/Alamy; Page 294:  Hugh Threlfall/Alamy; Page 294:  Hugh Threlfall/Alamy; Page 294:  D. Hurst/Alamy; Page 294:  Bloomimage/Corbis; Page 294:  Lew Robertson/Corbis; Page 295:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 308:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 308:  Kenneth Hamm/ Photo Japan; Page 350:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 350:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 381:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 396:  Joeri DeRocker/Photo Japan; Page 396:  Chad Ehlers/Alamy; Page 413:  Stefan Zaklin/epa/Corbis; Page 423: Handout/Getty Images; Page 438:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 438:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 439:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan; Page 471:  Barry Lewis/Alamy; Page 487:  Kenneth Hamm/Photo Japan

Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 13 12 11 10 09

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ABout tHe AutHors

professor yukiko Abe Hatasa received her Ph.D. in linguistics in 1992 from the University of Illinois at UrbanChampaign. She is known nationwide as one of the premier Japanese methodologists in the United States and as an experienced coordinator of large teacher training programs. She has served as the coordinator of the Japanese language program at the University of Iowa and is currently a professor at Hiroshima University, where her primary responsibilities are teacher training and SLA research. professor Kazumi Hatasa received his Ph.D. in education in 1989 from the University of Illinois at UrbanChampaign. He is currently a professor at Purdue University and Director of the Japanese School at Middlebury College. He is recognized internationally for his work in software development for the Japanese language and distributes most of his work as freeware over the Internet. professor seiichi Makino received his Ph.D. in linguistics in 1968 from the University of Illinois at UrbanChampaign. He is an internationally prominent Japanese linguist and scholar who is recognized throughout the world for his scholarship and for his many publications. Before beginning his tenure at Princeton University in 1991, he taught Japanese language, linguistics and culture at the University of Illinois while training lower division language coordinators. He is an experienced ACTFL oral proficiency trainer in Japanese and frequently trains Japanese instructors internationally in proficiency-oriented instruction and in the administration of the Oral Proficiency Interview. Professor Makino has been the Academic Director of the Japanese Pedagogy M.A. Summer Program at Columbia University since 1996. He also directs the Princeton-in-Ishikawa Summer Program.

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coNteNts

To the Student Acknowledgments

xiii xvi

Chapter 1: the Japanese sound system and hiragana
I. Introduction II. Hiragana あ〜そ; Forms of address; Introducing yourself III. Hiragana た〜ほ; Daily greetings IV. Hiragana ま〜ん; Taking leave of friends and instructors V. Hiragana が〜ぽ: Voiced consonants; Thanking, apologizing, and getting attention VI. Hiragana ああ〜わあ: Long vowels; Understanding your instructor’s requests VII. Hiragana Small っ」 Double consonants; Confirming information 「 : and making requests VIII. Hiragana きゃ〜ぴょ: Glides; Asking for Japanese words and English equivalents 2 4 8 13 17 19 21 24

Chapter 2: greetings and introduCtions
Vocabulary Dialogue はじめまして Grammar I. II. III. IV. V. Listening Communication Reading: Using format as a clue Identifying someone or something, using 〜は 〜です Asking はい/いいえ questions, using 〜は 〜ですか Indicating relationships between nouns with の Asking for personal information, using question words Using も to list and describe similarities 46 50 53 56 61 65 66 67 How do you do? Japanese Culture: Meeting and greeting people 32 41 44

K ataKana 73 Chapter 3: daily routines
Vocabulary Dialogue じゅぎょうが あります。 I have a class. Japanese Culture: College life (1) Grammar I. II. Talking about routines, future actions, or events using the polite present form of verbs and the particle に, へ, を, or で Presenting objects or events using 〜が あります 98 103 84 94 96

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contents III. IV. V. Telling time using the particle に Using adverbs to express frequency of actions Expressing past actions and events using the polite past form of verbs 106 111 114 117 118 119

Listening Communication Reading: Scanning

Chapter 4: Japanese Cities
Vocabulary Dialogue このへんに ぎんこ うが ありますか。 Is there a bank around here? Japanese Culture: Geography and demographics of Japan Grammar I. Referring to things using これ, それ, あれ, どれ II. III. IV. Asking for and giving locations using 〜は 〜に あります /います and ここ, そこ, あそこ Describing people and things using adjectives + noun, and polite present forms of adjectives Describing things, people, and their locations, using 〜に 〜が あります /います 136 142 146 151 155 158 159 160 162 124 131 134

V. Using よ and ね Listening Communication Kanji : Introduction to kanji Reading: Using script types as clues to word boundaries

Chapter 5: Japanese homes
Vocabulary Dialogue リーさんの アパート Mr. Li’s apartment Japanese Culture: Japanese houses Grammar I. II. III. IV. Referring to people, places, and things using この, その, あの, どの Using location nouns: 中, そと, となり, よこ, ちかく, うしろ, まえ, 上, 下, みぎ, ひだり Referring to things mentioned immediately before, using noun/adjective + の (pronoun) Expressing distance and duration using the particles から, まで, and で, and the suffix 〜ぐらい 182 188 190 193 199 201 203 206 178 166 173 176

V. More about the topic marker は and the similarity marker も (double particles and は vs. が) Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Using visual clues

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contents ix

Chapter 6: leisure time
Vocabulary Dialogue: 週末はどうでしたか。 What did you do over the weekend? Japanese Culture: Japanese Colleges and College life Grammar I. II. III. IV. V. Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Identifying missing nouns Using the particles と and に Commenting about the past, using polite past adjectives and the copula verb です Connecting verb and adjective phrases and sentences using the て forms of verbs; making requests using the て form Connecting phrases, using the て forms of verbs and adjectives Extending an invitation using ませんか 222 227 230 234 237 241 242 243 245 210 217 220

Chapter 7: Favorite things and aCtivities
Vocabulary Dialogue 上田さんと リーさんのしゅみ Grammar I. Expressing likes or dislikes using 好 き or きらい and the particle や II. Forming noun phrases using の and plain present affirmative verbs (dictionary form) III. Making contrasts using the particle は, and expressing but using が IV. Making comparisons using 一 番 and 〜 (の) 方 が 〜より , and 〜も〜も , and expressing lack of preference
いちばん ほう す

250 Ms. Ueda’s and Mr. Li’s Hobbies 259 262 264 267 271 275 281 286 287 288 291

Japanese Culture: Popular leisure activities and consumer goods in Japan

V. Giving reasons using the plain form + ので Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Understanding word formation

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contents

Chapter 8: shopping
Vocabulary Dialogue デパート で At a department store Japanese Culture: Shopping in Japan, Japanese department stores, payment practices Grammar I. Requesting and giving explanations or additional information, and creating harmony and shared atmosphere using 〜んです II. Expressing desire using ほしい・ほしがっている and 〜たい・ たがっている III. Expressing quantities with numbers and the counters まい, 本, ひき, and さつ IV. Expressing quantities using Japanese-origin numbers V. Talking about prices using 円 ; indicating floor levels with かい
えん

296 305 308

310 313 319 322 325 330 331 332 335

Listening Communication Kanji: Using kanji for numbers Reading: Scanning

Chapter 9: restaurants and invitations
Vocabulary Dialogue レストランで At a restaurant Japanese Culture: Eating habits in Japan, Japanese restaurants Grammar I. Indicating choices using 〜にします; making requests using 〜をおねがいします II. III. IV. V. Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Understanding Japanese e-mail formats Eliciting and making proposals using 〜ましょうか and 〜ましょう Using question word + か + (particle) + affirmative and question word + (particle) + も+ negative Giving reasons using から; expressing opposition or hesitation using けど Making inferences based on direct observation using verb and adjective stems + そうだ 352 356 359 364 369 372 373 375 378 340 347 350

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contents xi

Chapter 10: my Family
Vocabulary Dialogue 私の家 族 は五 人 家 族 です。 There are five people in my family.
か ぞく ご にん か ぞく

382 394 396 398 400 403 406 409 413 415 416 419

Japanese Culture: The Japanese family Grammar I. Stating the order within a family using 番 (目) II. III. IV. Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Creating charts and figures Describing a resultant state, using verb て form + いる Describing physical appearance and skills using 〜は 〜が Describing people and things using nouns and modifying clauses


V. Expressing opinions using 〜とおも う

Chapter 11: seasons and Weather
Vocabulary Dialogue 寒 いですね。 It’s cold. Japanese Culture: Japan’s climate Grammar I. II. III. IV. Expressing ongoing and repeated actions using the て form of verbs + いる Plain past forms and casual speech Describing characteristics of places, objects, and time using 〜は 〜が Expressing manner of action or outcome of a change using the adverbial forms of adjectives and noun + に 440 444 450 453 456 462 463 464 467
さむ

424 435 438

V. Expressing uncertainty using 〜でしょう, 〜かもしれない, and 〜かな Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Getting used to vertical writing

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contents

Chapter 12: annual events
Vocabulary Dialogue: 子 供 の 時 の上田さん Ms. Ueda as a child Japanese Culture: National holidays and annual events Grammar I. Talking about time using noun/adjective + 時 , duration + 前 / 後 II. III. IV. V. Listening Communication Kanji Reading: Understanding the format of a postcard Talking about past experiences using 〜たことがある; listing representative activities using 〜たり〜たりする Expressing frequency using time-span に frequency / duration / amount Expressing hearsay using the plain form + そうだ Using noun modifying clauses in the past and present
とき まえ ご ども とき

472 483 486 488 492 497 500 503 507 508 509 512

reFerenCe seCtion
Appendix A: Pitch Accents Appendix B: Verb Conjugations Appendix C: Adjective and Copula Conjugations Appendix D: Counters and Time Expressions Appendix E: Demonstrative Words Appendix F: Kanji List Japanese-English Glossary English-Japanese Glossary Index 519 520 522 523 526 527 534 553 571

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to tHe studeNt
Nakama 1 is based on the principle that learning another language means acquiring new skills, not just facts and information—that we learn by doing. To achieve this goal, Nakama 1 systematically involves you in many activities that incorporate the language skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. We believe that culture is an integral component of language, too. To help you become familiar with Japanese culture, your text includes high-interest culture notes and relevant communication strategies. New to this edition, an appealing story line video, featuring a JapaneseAmerican exchange student in Tokyo, bring chapter dialogues to life.

orgANIZAtIoN of tHe textBooK
Nakama 1 consists of twelve chapters in two parts. In Chapter 1, you will learn the sounds of the Japanese language and a set of Japanese syllabary symbols called hiragana. You will also learn basic greetings and classroom instructions. A second Japanese syllabary called katakana is presented after Chapter 2. Chapters 2 through 12 each focus on a common communicative situation and contain the following features:



Chapter Opener: Each chapter opens with a theme-setting photograph and chapter contents by section. Keeping in mind the objectives listed at the top of the opener will help you focus on achieving your learning goals. Vocabulary: The vocabulary is presented in thematic groups, each followed by a variety of communicative activities and activities in context. Supplemental vocabulary is also provided throughout the chapter, but you are not expected to retain it. All active vocabulary is listed by function at the beginning of each chapter, except for Chapter 1, where the list appears last, after you’ve learned to read hiragana. Dialogue: The lively dialogues center on Alice Ueda, a Japanese-American college student, who is spending two years studying in Japan. Through the dialogue and accompanying video, you will get to know a series of characters and follow them through typical events in their lives. The video, related activities, and interactive online practice will all reinforce your understanding of the content, discourse organization, and use of formal and casual Japanese speech styles. Japanese Culture: Up-to-date culture notes in English explore social, economic, and historical aspects of Japanese life that are essential to effective communication. Grammar: Clear, easy-to-understand grammar explanations are accompanied by sample sentences and notes that help you understand how to use the grammar appropriately. In-class pair and group activities let you practice immediately what you’ve learned. As there is a high correlation between successful communication and grammar accuracy, this section is especially important. Listening: Useful strategies and pre-listening activities for general comprehension precede the section’s main listening practice. Post-listening activities concentrate on more detailed comprehension and apply what you have learned to other communicative purposes.











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xiv

to the student

• •

Communication: This section will provide you with knowledge and practice of basic strategies to accelerate your ability to communicate in Japanese. Kanji: Chapters 4 through 12 introduce a total of 127 kanji (Chinese characters). The section begins with useful information such as the composition of individual characters, word formation, and how to use Japanese dictionaries. The presentation of each character includes stroke order to help you master correct stroke orders when writing in Japanese and to prepare you for the reading section. Reading: Each reading passage begins with a reading strategy, and includes pre- and post-reading activities designed to help you become a successful reader of Japanese. From Chapter 2, the text is written in all three scripts: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. Hiragana subscripts (furigana) are provided for katakana through Chapter 3, and for unfamiliar kanji throughout the textbook. The readings include a small number of unknown words to help you develop strategies for understanding authentic texts. Integration: Integrated practice wraps up every chapter using discussion, interviewing, and role-play activities that interweave all the skills you’ve learned in the current and previous chapters.





studeNt coMpoNeNts

Student Text: Your Student Text contains all the information and activities you need for in-class use. It is divided into two parts encompassing twelve chapters plus a special chapter following Chapter 2 that introduces katakana. Each regular chapter contains vocabulary presentations and activities, a thematic dialogue and practice, grammar presentations and activities, cultural information, reading selections, writing practice, and ample communicative practice. Valuable reference sections at the back of the book include verb charts, a kanji list, and Japanese-English and English-Japanese glossaries. In-Text Audio CD: The In-Text Audio CD contains recordings of all the listening activities in the text as well as all active chapter vocabulary. The audio activity clips are also available as MP3 files and the vocabulary pronunciations can be found in the flashcards on the student website. These audio materials are designed to maximize your exposure to the sounds of natural spoken Japanese and to help you practice pronunciation. Student Activities Manual (SAM): The Student Activities Manual (SAM) includes out-of-class practice of the material presented in the Student Text. Each chapter of the SAM includes a workbook section, which focuses on written vocabulary, grammar, kanji and writing practice, and a lab section, which focuses on pronunciation and listening comprehension, including Dict-Conversation dictation activities. SAM Audio Program: The SAM Audio Program corresponds to the audio portion of the SAM and reinforces your pronunciation and listening skills. You may listen to this material in the lab or on CD. The audio is also available as MP3 files from the passkey-protected area of the student website. DVD: New for the second edition, the two-tiered Nakama video program includes a story line video, where the experiences of a Japanese-American exchange student, Alice Ueda, featured in the chapter dialogues are brought to life. A series of cultural segments that depict everyday situations are tied to









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to the student xv

the theme of each chapter. You will be able to view the video in class, on DVD, on the student website as MP4 files, or while working on video comprehension activities found on the passkey-protected area of the site.



Student companion site: You will find a variety of resources on the student companion site. A wealth of interactive exercises and games give you further practice with chapter topics. Vocabulary and grammar quizzes, audio flashcards for vocabulary, and kanji and pronunciation review help you monitor and assess your progress. MP3 files for the text listening activities can also be downloaded from the site. The website is accessible at www.cengage.com/japanese/nakama.

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

AcKNoWledgMeNts
The authors and publisher thank the following people for their recommendations regarding the content of Nakama 1. Their comments and suggestions were invaluable during the development of this publication. Noriko Akatsuka Aloysius Chang Len Grzanka Hiroko Harada Masako Hamada Janet Ikeda Mieko Ishibashi Noriko Iwasaki Kimberly Jones Sarachie Karasawa Hiroko Kataoka Yukio Kataoka Michiya Kawai Chisato Kitagawa Lisa Kobuke Chiyo Konishi Junko Kumamoto-Healey Yukari Kunisue Yasumi Kuriya John Mertz Masahiko Minami Akira Miura Shigeru Miyagawa Seigo Nakao Hiroshi Nara Machiko Netsu Catherine Oshida Yoko Pusavat Yoshiko Saito-Abbott Haruko Sakakibara Kitty Shek Ritsuko Shigeyama Satoru Shinagawa Zenryu Shirakawa Shizuka Tatsuzawa Miyo Uchida Alexander Vovin Paul Warnick Yasuko Ito Watt Kikuko Yamashita

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Acknowledgments xvii

The authors and publisher also thank the following people for fieldtesting Nakama 1. Their comments contributed greatly to the accuracy of this publication. Nobuko Chikamatsu Fusae Ekida Junko Hino Satoru Ishikawa Yoshiko Jo Sayuri Kubota Yasumi Kuriya Izumi Matsuda Junko Mori Fumiko Nazikian Mayumi Oka Amy Snyder Ohta Mayumi Steinmetz Keiko Yamaguchi The authors are also grateful to the following people at Houghton Mifflin for their valuable assistance during the development of this project: Rolando Hernández, Glenn Wilson, Eileen Bernadette Moran, Lorreen Pelletier, Judith Bach, Kim Beuttler, Charline Lake, and Margaret Bridges. They are especially grateful to Yoshiko Jo and Margaret Hines for copyediting, to Satoru Ishikawa, Bill Weaver, and Yoshiko Jo for proofreading, and to Michael Kelsey of Inari Information Services, Inc. Finally, profound thanks go to Noriko Hanabusa for her work on the Student Activities Manual and to Kazuko Yokoi for her work on the illustrations in this edition.

Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

Chapter 1

だ い い っ か
The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

I. Introduction II. Hiragana あ〜そ Useful Expressions: Forms of address; Introducing yourself III. Hiragana た〜ほ Useful Expressions: Daily greetings IV. Hiragana ま〜ん Useful Expressions: Taking leave of friends and instructors V. Hiragana が〜ぽ: Voiced consonants Useful Expressions: Thanking, apologizing, and getting attention VI. Hiragana ああ〜わあ: Long vowels Useful Expressions: Understanding your instructor’s requests VII. Hiragana Small っ: Double consonants Useful Expressions: Confirming information and making requests VIII. Hiragana きゃ〜ぴょ: Glides Useful Expressions: Asking for Japanese words and English equivalents

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Chapter 1

I. Introduction
Japanese is usually written with a combination of three types of script: hiragana, katakana, and kanji (Chinese characters). Individually, hiragana and katakana represent sounds, and kanji represent words. Hiragana is used for function words (words such as in, at, and on) and for inflectional endings (indicating sound changes used to express tense, negation, and the like), and for some content words as well. Katakana is used for words borrowed from other languages, for example, keeki (cake), for onomatopoeic words expressing sounds, such as wanwan (the Japanese word for bow-wow), and for some scientific terms, such as the names of animals and plants in biology textbooks. Kanji are characters of Chinese origin, and each kanji represents a morpheme or a word and is used for content words, such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

Hiragana
Like the individual letters in the English alphabet, hiragana represent sounds, but each hiragana character represents a vowel or a combination of a consonant and a vowel, such as a, sa, ki, tsu, me, and yo. Hiragana evolved through the simplification of Chinese characters during the Heian period (794–1185). Having no writing system of their own, the Japanese began importing Chinese characters (hanzi) to write their own language in the late fourth or early fifth century. They employed two adaptation strategies to do so. One was based on meaning and the other was based on sound. The meaning-based strategy involved using an individual kanji to write a Japanese word that was synonymous with the Chinese word the kanji represented. For example, the Japanese word for “wave” was expressed using the Chinese character with the same meaning, 波. Its pronunciation in Chinese, puâ, was replaced with the pronunciation of the corresponding Japanese word, nami. The sound-based strategy, by contrast, used Chinese characters to represent Japanese sounds rather than meanings. For instance, the character 波 in this context was used to represent the syllable ha because of its close resemblance to the sound puâ in Middle Chinese. (The character is currently pronounced [ha], but it was pronounced as [pa] in classical Japanese, similar to the middle Chinese [puâ].) In this usage, the meaning of the character 波 was completely ignored. This was a cumbersome system, however, because Japanese words usually contain several syllables and Chinese characters represent only one sound. In order to overcome this problem, Chinese characters were gradually simplified until they reached the forms used in present-day hiragana. These simplified characters appear in many women’s literary works, including the famous Tale of Genji, and for this reason hiragana was once called onna de (women’s hand). Hiragana as written today consists of 46 characters (Figure 1). Two diacritical or a small circle ゜ are used to show voiced marks in the shapes of two dots ゛ consonants (Figure 2). The basic syllabary can also be used to represent glides, which are combinations of characters that represent more complex sounds (Figure 3). Look at Figure 1 and pronounce each character by repeating it after your
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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



instructor and/or the accompanying audio. This chart should be read from top to bottom and right to left. Japanese may be written vertically in this manner or horizontally, from left to right, as in English.

Figure 1

ん わ

n

w


Figure 2 p b

ら り る れ ろ d r

や ゆ よ z y

ま み む め も g m

は ひ ふ へ ほ

h

な に ぬ ね の

n

た ち つ て と

t

さ し す せ そ

s

か き く け こ

k

あ い う え お

a i u e o

ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ p ば び ぶ べ ぼ b だ ぢ づ で ど d ざ じ ず ぜ ぞ z が ぎ ぐ げ ご g a i u e o

Figure 3
















r




m




h




n




t




s




k




ya





ゅ ゅ




じ ぎ



ゅ ゅ

み ひ



ゅ ゅ




し き


yu





ょ ょ




じ ぎ



ょ ょ

み ひ



ょ ょ




し き


yo

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Chapter 1

II. Hiragana あ〜そ
In this section, you will learn fifteen hiragana and their pronunciation. The following charts show both printed and handwritten styles. Note that some lines that are connected in the printed style are not connected in handwriting. For example, the vertical diagonal curved lines in the printed forms of き[ki] and さ[sa] are connected, but they are not connected in handwriting (き and さ). Also, the character そ [so] is written as a single stroke in the printed style, but as two strokes in handwriting (そ), where the diagonal line at the top is not connected with the rest of the character.

Printed style

Handwritten style

さ し す せ そ

s

か き く け こ

k

あ い う え お

s a i u e o

k

さ し す せ そ

か き く け こ

あ い う え お

a i u e o

Learning hiragana
The mnemonic pictures and keys below have been provided to help you memorize the hiragana characters. Remember that the mnemonic pictures are not accurate representations of the shapes or the sounds of the characters.

a



is similar to [ah] but is

shorter.

Ah! Ann is good at ice-skating.

i



is similar to the vowel

sound in ear but is shorter.

I have big ears.

う is similar to the vowel u sound in [ooh] but is shorter and the lips are not as rounded.

Ooh! This is heavy.

え is similar to the first e vowel sound in exercise but the mouth is not opened as widely. I need exercise.

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



お is similar to the vowel o sound [o] in on as the British pronounce it, but the lips are slightly more rounded. The ball will land on the green.

か ka

is a combination of [k] Karate kick.

and [a]. The Japanese [k] sound is less forceful than the English sound.

ki

き is similar to key but the vowel sound is shorter.

This is a key.

ku

く is similar to the first syllable of cuckoo but the lips are not as rounded.

This is a cuckoo.

ke

け is similar to the sound
[ca] in cane, but without the [y] sound.

A man with a cane.

ko

こ is similar to the sound
[co] in coin without the [y] sound.

A ten yen coin is worth about a dime.

さ sa

is a combination of Don't drink too much sake.

[s] and [a]. The Japanese [s] sound is not as strong as the English [s] sound because less air is forced out between the teeth.

し is similar to she but shi is shorter and the lips are spread wider. Japanese does not have the sound [si] as in sea. This is how she wears her hair.

su

す is a combination of [s] and [u].

Swimming is fun in the summer.

se



is similar to the sound

of se in señor.

Hello, Señor G arcía.

so

そ is similar to so but is shorter. This character zigzags so much.

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Chapter 1

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to intonation and devoiced (whispered) sounds. Characters with a bar over them (for example, いけ ) should be pronounced with a higher pitch than those without a bar. The [i] and [u] in き , く , し , す , ち ,
――

つ , ひ , and ふ may be devoiced between two voiceless consonants or at the end of a word. Characters with a small circle under them ( き ) contain a devoiced [i] or [u].


え おか し

――

――

picture confectionery tree face leg world morning red blue

いけ いす き く さけ えき そこ しお あかい か さ あお い いす
―― ―― ―――― ―― ―― ―― ―― ――

――

pond chair chrysanthemum sake station bottom salt red umbrella blue chair



かお あし せ かい あさ あか い あお い
―― ―― ―― ―― ――

――

◦ ――

Useful Expressions
1. Forms of address
The Japanese always use a title to address people other than family members. Young people, however, sometimes refer to their close friends by name only, without using titles.

せんせい professor, teacher ta na ka

se

n

se

e

〜せ ん せ い
Professor 〜 se n se

se

n

se

e

〜さ ん
Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. 〜 ya ma da sa n

sa

n

Example: た な か せ ん せ い Professor Tanaka

e

やまださん Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. Yamada

Notes

• The せい in せんせい (sensee) is pronounced by stretching the [e].
You will learn more about long vowels in a later section.

• It is customary to address an instructor simply as せんせい .
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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



• The literal meaning of せんせい is “born ahead,” which by extension means “honorable master.” For this reason, it is used to refer to other people but never to oneself. Further, it can be used to address people in professions other than teaching, especially when the person in question has recognized expertise and performs a mentoring function. Patients refer to their medical doctors as

せんせい. But せんせい should never be used in reference to oneself. • The Japanese usually address each other using last names and titles, even when they have known each other for a long time. First names are used primarily among family members and close friends.

• 〜さん is a generic term, but you cannot use it when referring to yourself or to someone who should be addressed with a title such as せんせい.

2. Introducing yourself

はじめまして。

ha

ji

me ma

shi

te

〜 で す 。ど う ぞ よ ろ し く 。

de

su

do

o

zo

yo

ro

shi

ku

How do you do? I am 〜 . Pleased to meet you. (The English translation here is not a literal equivalent of the Japanese.) Example: A: はじめまして。やまだ B: はじめまして。すみす h a j i m e m a s h i t e s u m i s u h a j i m e m a s h i t e y a m a d a

で す。どうぞ で す。どうぞ d e s u d o o z o

d e s u

d o o z o

よろしく。 よろしく。 yoroshiku yoroshiku

Mr. Smith

Mr. Yamada

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Chapter 1

Notes

• The little circle at the end of each sentence represents a period in written Japanese.

• You cannot use a title or さん when speaking of yourself.
はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
1. Today is the first day of Japanese class. Introduce yourself to your classmates. Listen to your classmates as they introduce themselves and try to remember their names. 2. Did you greet your classmates with a bow? If you didn’t, greet them again, and bow. If you don’t know how to bow properly, ask your instructor to show you.

III. Hiragana た〜ほ
In this section, you will learn fifteen more hiragana and their pronunciation. Note that the right side of な [na] consists of a single connected line in the printed style, but consists of two strokes in the handwritten style な [na].

Printed style

Handwritten style

は ひ ふ へ ほ

h

な に ぬ ね の

n

た ち つ て と

t

h a i u e o

n

t

は ひ ふ へ ほ

な に ぬ ね の

た ち つ て と

a i u e o

Learning hiragana た is a combination of [t] and [a]. The Japanese [t] sound is produced by touching the upper teeth and gum with the tip of the tongue. The Japanese [t] sound is not as strong as the English [t] because less air is forced between the teeth. The letters t and a make ta.

ta

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



chi

ち The sound is [chi] as in cheer. There is no [ti] sound in Japanese.

Being a c heerleader isn't easy.

tsu

つ is similar to the sound
[t’s] in cat’s.

A cat’s tail.

te

て is similar to the first syllable of table, but without the [y] sound.

Fruit on a table.

to

と is similar to the sound of toe but the [t] is softer.

I’ve got a thorn in my toe.

な is similar to the sound na of [na] in nap in British pronunciation, but the vowel sound is more like [a] as in ah. This person is taking a nap.

ni

に is similar to the sound of knee, but the vowel sound is shorter.

Look at my knees.

nu

ぬ is similar to the first syllable of noodle, but the vowel sound is shorter.

Noodles and chopsticks.

ne

ね is similar to the sound of ne in net.

I caught a fish in my net.

の is similar to the sound no of the English no, but the vowel sound is shorter and the lips are not as rounded.

See the no s moking sign.

は is a combination of [h] ha and [a]. The Japanese [h] sound is much softer than the English equivalent.

I bought a house.

hi

ひ is similar to the sound of he, is but the vowel sound is shorter.

This is Mr. Hill. He is strong.

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10

Chapter 1

ふ is a combination of [f] fu and [u]. The initial consonant [f] is produced by bringing the lips together as if blowing out a candle. Mt. Fuji is b eautiful.

he



is similar to the sound

of head, without the final [d] sound.

I have a headache.

ho



is similar to the initial

part of home, without the [u] sound.

A house isn’t a home without TV.

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to devoiced sounds and intonation.

て ―― つき

――

hand moon stomach nose mouth waterfall shelf high, expensive low, flat

おな か ―― はな ―― くち たき ―― たな ―― たか い ―― ひくい
◦ ◦ ――

◦ ――――

にく ―― ひと ねこ ―― いぬ ―― ふえ ほし ―― うち ―― ―― たか い にく ―― ―― ひくい こえ

―― ――

――

meat person cat dog flute star house expensive meat low voice



Useful Expressions
Daily greetings
Greeting people properly is important in all cultures. In Japanese, the phrases used when greeting people vary according to the time of day.

In the morning: o ha yoo go za i ma su

おはよう

ございます。

Good morning. / Hello. (formal speech) o ha yoo
――――――

おはよう。
Good morning. / Hello. (casual speech)

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

11

Examples: Student A: おはよう 。 Student B: おはよう 。 Student: おはよう ございます。 Teacher: おはよう 。 Acquaintance A: おはよう ございます。 Acquaintance B: おはよう ございます。 o h a y o o g o z a i m a s u o h a y o o g o z a i m a s u o h a y o o o h a y o o g o z a i m a s u o h a y o o

o h a y o o

In the afternoon: ko n ni chi wa

こん にちは。
Good afternoon./ Hello. Example: A: こんにちは。 B: こんにちは。 k o n n i c h i w a k o n n i c h i w a

――――――――

In the evening: ko n ba n wa

こん ばんは。
Good evening./Hello. Example: A: こんばんは。 B: こんばんは。 k o n b a n w a k o n b a n w a

――――――――

Notes

• The よう in おはよう ございます [ohayoo gozaimasu] is vowels in a later section.

pronounced by stretching the [o]. You will learn more about long

• In general, these phrases are used in both casual and formal

situations. The expression おはよう ございます [ohayoo gozaimasu], however, has a less formal version, おはよう [ohayoo], which may be used with friends or family members. It is considered

rude if used with superiors or in formal situations.

• If you see the same person more than once on the same day, using cases, you should just bow slightly or talk about something else.

these phrases each time you meet would sound rather silly. In such

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1

Chapter 1

• The は in こんにちは [konnichi wa] and こんばんは [konban wa] is pronounced [wa] rather than [ha].

• こんにちは [konnichi wa] and こんばんは [konban wa] are not used among family members.

はなして みましょう

Conversation Practice

1. It is morning. You meet an elderly neighbor on the street. Greet him/her. 2. Imagine that class is about to begin in the morning. Greet your instructor and classmates, nodding slightly rather than bowing. 3. Greet a friend in the morning. Greet your instructor in the afternoon. Greet a friend in the evening. 4. Walk around the classroom. As your instructor announces whether it is morning, afternoon, or evening, greet five classmates with the appropriate phrase. Don’t forget to bow slightly.

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

1

IV. Hiragana ま〜ん
In this section, you will learn the remaining hiragana. Notice that the right side of

む [mu] consists of a single connected line in the printed style but has two strokes in the handwritten style む [mu]. Similarly, while ゆ [yu] in the printed style is written in a single stroke with all lines connected, the handwritten style of ゆ [yu] is written in two strokes. In addition, り [ri] in the printed style is written in a single connected line, but り [ri] in handwritten style consists of two vertical lines. Printed style Handwritten style



n



w



ら り る れ ろ

r

や ゆ よ

y

ま み む め も

m

n a i u e o

w

r

y

m







ら り る れ ろ

や ゆ よ

ま み む め も

a i u e o

Learning hiragana ま is a combination of [m] and [a].
The Japanese [m] sound is like the [m] in mom, but is less forceful.

ma

Mom! I can’t sit any longer.

mi

み is similar to the sound of me, but the vowel sound is shorter.

Who is twenty-one? Me!

mu

む is similar to the sound of moo, but the vowel sound is shorter.

Cows moo.

me

め is similar to the first syllable of medal. An Olympic gold medal.

mo

も is similar to the sound of [mo] in more.

Catch more fish with a hook.

ya

や is a combination of the [y] and
[a] sounds. The sounds [yi] and [ye] do not exist in Japanese.

A yacht.

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1

Chapter 1

yu

ゆ is similar to the first syllable of ukulele. Can you play the ukulele?

yo

よ is similar to the first syllable of yo-yo, but the vowel sound is shorter.

Yo-yos were once very popular.

ra

ら The [r] sound in Japanese differs slightly from both the English [l] and [r]. To an English speaker’s ears, its pronunciation lies somewhere between [r], [l], and [d]. It is produced by flicking the tip of the tongue against the gum behind the upper set of teeth. It is much lighter than the English [l]. り is similar to the first syllable of ribbon. The position of the tongue is the same as in ら.

A rabbit.

ri

A ribbon.

る is similar to the sound of loop ru without the [p] sound, but the vowel sound is shorter. The position of the tongue is the same as in ら.

A loop at the end.

re

れ is similar to the sound of let’s without the [t’s]. The position of the tongue is the same as in

Let’s dance.

ら.
A cowboy with his rope.

ろ is similar to the sound rope ro without the [p] sound, but the vowel sound is shorter. The position of the tongue is the same as in ら.

wa



is similar to the English wah, Wah!

but the lips are not as rounded or pointed.

wo



is pronounced like お .

Oh! I can ride a unicycle

ん The pronunciation of ん n changes according to the sound it precedes. It is [n] before [t], [s], [d], [z], [dz], [n], and [r], and [m] before [m], [n], [b]. It is a somewhat more nasal sound [ng], when it comes before [k] or [g], or at the end of a word. The end

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

1

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to devoiced sounds and intonation.

あたま みみ め
―― ―― ―― ――

――――

head ear eye afternoon night rain snow cloud white black

はれ とり かわ やま
―― ―― ――

――

clear (weather) bird daughter river mountain mustard medicine horse
――

ひる よる あめ ゆき くも しろ い くろ い
―― ―― ―― ――

――

むすめ

――――

からし く すり うま
―― ―― ―― ――――

――――

◦ ――

しろ い とり くろ い め

white bird black eyes

Useful Expressions
Taking leave of friends and instructors
The phrase for good-bye differs according to the person you are addressing. To instructors or social superiors: shi tsu ree shi ma su

し つれい しま す 。
Good-bye.
◦ ◦

――

Example: Student:

せんせい、 しつれい します。 ja s a y o n a r a

s e n s e e

s h i t s u r e e

shimasu

Instructor: じゃ、さよなら。

Notes

• The literal translation of しつれい します is I am about to commit a rudeness or I am about to disturb you.

• You should nod slightly when you say good-bye. • しつれい します can also be used as a polite greeting (similar to
“excuse me”) when you enter the office of a professor or social superior.

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1

Chapter 1

To friends:

じゃあ 、ま た 。
See you later. (literally, well then, again) Example: Student A: じゃあ、また。 Student B: じゃあ、また。 j a a m a t a j a a m a t a

j

a

a

ma

ta

Note

• The 、mark represents a comma in Japanese. Unlike English commas, Japanese commas always slant to the lower right. To someone you do not expect to see for an extended period of time:

さ よ う な ら 。/ さ よ な ら 。
Good-bye. Example: Friend A: さ よ な ら 。 Friend B: さようなら。 s a y o o n a r a sa yo na ra

sa

yo

o

na

ra

sa

yo

na

ra

Note

• さようなら [sayoonara] or さよなら [sayonara] is usually used of time, although these phrases, especially the more colloquial

when you do not expect to see the person for an extended period

さよなら [sayonara] can be used more generally as well.

はなして みましょう classmates. Conversation Practice

1. Imagine that class is over. Say good-bye to your instructor and five 2. You are leaving your professor’s office. Say good-bye to him/her. 3. Your friend is moving to a different city. Say good-bye to him/her.

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

1

V. Hiragana が〜ぽ : Voiced consonants
The consonants [k], [s], [t], [h] are voiceless, and they have voiced counterparts. The difference between voiceless and voiced consonants is the presence or absence of vibration. For instance, pronounce [k] and [g] one after another. The position of the tongue and the shape of the lips are identical for both sounds. In both cases you touch the back of your mouth with your tongue, then you quickly release the tongue to let the air flow. The only difference between the two is that your vocal chords vibrate when you pronounce [g], but not when you pronounce [k]. Feel the difference by putting your hand on your throat when you pronounce [k] and [g]. A voiced ) and an unvoiced consonant by a small circle consonant is indicated by two dots ( ゛ ) to the upper right corner of the character. For example, the voiced consonant [b] ( ゜ in ば has its voiceless counterpart [p] in ぱ。






New hiragana Printed style p b

ら り る れ ろ

や ゆ よ

ま み む め も

は ひ ふ へ ほ

h

な に ぬ ね の

た ち つ て と

t

さ し す せ そ

s

か き く け こ

k

あ い う え お

Handwritten style d z g (ng) p a i u e o b d z g (ng)

ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ

ば び ぶ べ ぼ

だ ぢ づ で ど

ざ じ ず ぜ ぞ

が ぎ ぐ げ ご

ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ

ば び ぶ べ ぼ

だ ぢ づ で ど

ざ じ ず ぜ ぞ

が ぎ ぐ げ ご

a i u e o

Note that [g] is sometimes represented as [ng] to reflect the softness of this sound.

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1

Chapter 1

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to the voiced and voiceless consonants.

ひげ ゆび うで のど ひざ
―― ―― ―― ――

――

beard finger arm throat knee body telephone long

にほ んご かばん ちず かぎ かぜ えんぴ つ てん ぷら
―― ―――― ―――――― ―― ―― ―― ――――

――――――

Japanese language bag map key wind pencil
――

からだ でん わ なが い
―――― ―― ――――

――――



tempura long arm short finger

なが い うで

みじかい short

みじかい ゆび

――

Useful Expressions
Thanking, apologizing, and getting attention
Expressions of courtesy are important in every culture. Here are some of the basic ones in Japanese.

ありがとう ございます。
Thank you.


a

ri

ga

to

o

go

za

i

ma su

ど う い た しま し て 。
You are welcome.

su mi ma se n

do

o

i

ta shi

ma shi

te

すみません。
I am sorry, excuse me.

(あ の う 、 )す み ま せ ん 。
(Um,) Excuse me.

a

no

o

su

mi ma

se

n

Note

• ございます as in おはよう ございます [ohayoo gozaimasu]
[arigatoo] are used in casual speech, among peers, but not with older people or with those of a higher social status.

and ありがとう ございます [arigatoo gozaimasu] are polite expressions. The more informal おはよう [ohayoo] and ありがとう

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

1

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
1. What would you say to your instructor if you forgot your homework? 2. Your instructor is talking to someone. You need to speak to him/her. How would you interrupt the conversation? 3. Your classmates are standing in front of the door. You want to leave the room. What would you say to them? 4. The student sitting next to you picks up the pencil you just dropped. What would you say to him?

VI. Hiragana ああ〜わあ : Long vowels
When the same vowel appears twice consecutively in a word, the two are pronounced as a continuous sound rather than as two separate vowels. This is called a long vowel. In general, long vowels are written by adding あ to hiragana containing the vowel [a], い to hiragana containing the vowel [i] or [e], and う to hiragana containing the vowel [u] or [o]. Note that when い is added after the vowel [e] it is pronounced as [e]. (See the following chart.) Similarly, when う is added after the [o] sound, it is pronounced as [o]. There are some exceptions in which え and お are added instead of い and う, respectively, but you should not worry about them for now. You can learn them when you learn new vocabulary. w r y m h n t s k

ん わ あ



ら あ り い る う れ い ろ う

や あ ゆ う よ う

ま あ み い む う め い も う

は な た あ あ あ ひ に ち い い い ふ ぬ つ う う う へ ねね て い えい い ほ の とと う う おう

さ あ し い す う せ い そ う

か あ き い く う け い ここ おう

あ あ い い う う ええ えい おお おう

aa

ii

uu

ee

oo

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0

Chapter 1

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to long vowels.
―――― ―――――― ――

せんせい ふうせん
―――――― ―― ―――― ――

teacher balloon king polite elder brother younger brother grandfather small yes street

がくせい さと う とけい
―― ―― ――――

student sugar high school clock, watch younger sister father grandmother
――――

おうさま て いねい おに いさん おとうと
―― ―― ―――――― ――

こうこう いもうと おと うさん おば あさん ちいさい とけい おね えさん こおり
―――― ―――― ―― ―――― ――――――

――――――

おか あさん mother おじ いさん ちいさい ええ
―― ――――

small clock, watch elder sister ice

Here are some common exceptions that use え or お for long vowels.

とおり
――――

――――

おおきい big, large

おおきい とおり

――――

big street

Useful Expressions
Understanding your instructor’s requests
Here are a few common expressions your instructor will use in class. When you hear words you don’t understand, try to guess what the teacher is saying from the context or situation or by observing gestures.

きいて ください。 み て ください。 か いて ください。 よ んで ください。 いって ください。
―― ―――――― ―――― ―― ―――― ―――――― ―― ―― ――

―――― ――――――

Please listen. Please look. Please write. Please read. Please say it/repeat after me. Please say it again. Please speak loudly.
―――― ――――――

もう いちど いって ください。 おお きい こ えで いって ください。

―――― ――――――

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
1. Listen to your instructor’s requests and try to determine what he/ she wants you to do. 2. Working in pairs, take turns asking each other to perform certain actions, using phrases you know.
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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana

1

VII. Hiragana Small っ : Double Consonants
A small tsu っ indicates that the consonant that immediately follows it is preceded by a glottal stop and held for an additional syllable. This is called a double consonant. Double consonants often involve the glottis in speech, but may not necessarily require a full glottal stop. When written in a romanized form, they are indicated by a doubled consonant.

Horizontal writing
Printed style Handwritten style

Vertical writing
Printed style

っ く

っ き か



Handwritten style

っ く

っ き

っ か

っか っき っく っけ っこ

っか っき っく っけ っこ

Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to double consonants.

にっき がっき がっこう きっぷ きって ねっとう
―――――― ―――――― ―――― ―――― ―――――― ――――

――――

diary musical instrument school ticket stamp boiling water

ざっし せっけん はっぱ こっき さっか しっぽ りっぱな が っこう
―――――― ―――――――― ―――― ―――― ―――― ―――― ――――――

――――

magazine soap leaf national flag writer tail fine school

りっぱな fine, magnificent

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Chapter 1

Useful Expressions
Confirming information and making requests わかりましたか 。 は い、わかりました。 いいえ、わかりませ ん。
―――― ―――――― ―― ―― ―――――― ―――――― ――

Do you understand (it)? Yes, I understand (it). No, I don’t understand (it).

If you have trouble understanding your teacher because he/she speaks too softly or too fast for you, you can make requests using the following phrases. To hear something repeated:
―― ―――――― ――――――――――

もう いちど おね がいします 。
Please say it again. (literally, Once more, please.) Example: Student : せんせい、すみません。もう いちど


おねがいします。

Excuse me, Professor, could you say that again?

Teacher: あ、すみません。じゃ、もう いちど いいます。 Oh, sorry. Okay, I’ll say it again.

To hear something spoken more loudly:

おおきい こ えで おね がいします 。
Please speak loudly. (literally, Loud voice, please) . Example: Student: あのう、すみません。おおきい こえで


――――

――

――――――――――

おねがいします。

Excuse me, Professor, could you say that again a bit louder?

Teacher: はい、わかりました。 Okay.

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



To hear something spoken more slowly:

もう す こし ゆっくり おねがいします 。
Please say it slowly. (literally, A bit more slowly, please.) Example: Student: すみません、もう すこし ゆっくり
◦ ◦

おねがいします。

Excuse me, could you say that once more, a bit more slowly?

Teacher: はい、わかりました。 Okay.

Notes
) which • These phrases can be used with ( あのう、 すみません、 makes your request sound more polite.

• おねがいします is more polite than 〜てください (as in your instructor.

いってください ) because the latter is a command form. It is more appropriate to use おねがいします with a social superior such as

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
1. Your instructor says something and checks your comprehension. Respond to him/her. 2. Your instructor says something you don’t understand completely because it was spoken too fast, too softly, etc. Make the appropriate request so that you can understand what was said.

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Chapter 1

VIII. Hiragana きゃ〜ぴょ : Glides
Sounds containing a consonant and [y], such as [kya], [kyu], or [kyo], are called glides. Glides are written with a hiragana containing the sound [i] followed by a small ゃ、ゅ、 or ょ.

ぱ ぴ ぷ ぺ ぽ pya ば び ぶ べ ぼ bya だ ぢ づ で ど dya ざ じ ず ぜ ぞ ja zya

が ん わ ぎ ぐ げ ご を gya ら や ま は な た り み ひ に ち る ゆ む ふ ぬ つ れ め へ ね て ろ よ も ほ の と rya さ し す せ そ sya sha

か き く け こ kya [i]

ぴ ゃ

び ゃ

ぢ ゃ

じ ゃ

ぎ ゃ

り ゃ

mya

み ゃ

hya

ひ ゃ

nya

に ゃ

cha tya

ち ゃ

し ゃ

き ゃ

pyu

byu

dyu

ぴ ゅ pyo び ゅ byo ぢ ゅ dyo ju zyu

gyu

ryu

myu

hyu

nyu

じ ゅ

ぎ ゅ gyo り ゅ ryo み ゅ myo ひ ゅ hyo に ゅ nyo chu tyu

ち ゅ

syu shu

kyu

し ゅ

き ゅ kyo ぴ ょ ょ

び ょ



jo zyo

じ ょ

ぎ ょ ょ

り ょ

み ょ

ひ ょ



cho tyo

ち ょ

syo sho

し ょ

き ょ

There are some variations in romanization.

Horizontal writing
Printed style Handwritten style

Vertical writing
Printed style

きゃ しゅ ちょ

きゃ しゅ ちょ










Handwritten style










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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



Reading hiragana
Read the following words, paying attention to glides.

こうちゃ black tea でんしゃ train いしゃ
―――― ―――― ――――――

――――――

き んじょ ひゃく
―― ―――― ――

――

neighborhood one hundred

doctor

さ んびゃく three hundred りょこう trip しゃしん photo

A glide can be combined with a double consonant.

しゅっぱつ departure
――――

――――――

ちょっかく right angle しょっき
――――

――――――

しゃっくり

hiccup

tableware

Add あ or う to form a long vowel within a glide.
――――

きょう
――――

today cucumber

びょうき
――――

――――

sickness last name New Year’s Day milk

きゅうり
―――――――― ――――

みょうじ しょうがつ ぎゅうにゅう
―――――――― ――――――

にんぎょう doll りょう dormitory Useful Expressions
Asking for Japanese words and English equivalents
1. Asking for a Japanese word Look at the objects in your classroom. Is there anything you do not know how to say in Japanese? If the object is close to you:

これ は にほ んごで な んと いいま す か 。
What do you call this in Japanese?


――――

――――――――

――

――――

――

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Chapter 1

Example: Smith:

これは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call this in Japanese?

Yamada: 「ほん」と/って いいます。 You call it hon.

Smith

Yamada

Notes

• To answer, say 〜と/って いいます . • The marks 「」are the equivalent of quotation marks in English.
If the object is close to your interlocutor but at a distance from you:

それ は にほ んごで な んと いいます か 。
What do you call that in Japanese? Example: Smith:


――――

――――――――

――

――――

――

それは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call that in Japanese?

Yamada: 「いす」と/って いいます。 You call it isu.

Smith

Yamada

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



If the object is at a distance from both you and your interlocutor:

あれ は にほ んごで な んと いいます か 。
What do you call that (over there) in Japanese? Example: Smith:


――――

――――――――

――

――――

――

あれは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
What do you call that (over there) in Japanese?

Yamada: 「でんわ」と/って いいます。 You call it denwa.

Smith

Yamada

Note that これ, それ, and あれ refer only to objects, and never to people. If you want to know the Japanese word for an object that is out of sight, for something intangible, or for any English word:

〜は にほ んごで な んと いいます か 。 ◦ How do you say 〜 in Japanese?
Example: Smith: 「 せんせい、love」 にほんごで なんと いいますか。 は Professor, how do you say “love” in Japanese?

――――――――

――

――――

――

Teacher: 「あい」と/って いいます。 You say ai.

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Chapter 1

2. Asking for the meaning of a Japanese word or phrase Do you know what がくせい means? How about だいがく and せんこう ? If you don't understand a Japanese word or expression, ask your instructor or a classmate:

〜って な んです か 。
What does 〜 mean? Example: Student: せんせい、 「すいか」って なんですか。 Professor, what does suika mean?


――――

――

――

Teacher: 「Watermelon」 です。 It means watermelon.

To give the answer, say 〜です。

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
1. Point at things that you are wearing and ask your instructor how to say them in Japanese. 2. Your instructor is in front of the class and you are sitting at a distance from him/her. What objects are near him/her? Ask your instructor what these objects are called in Japanese. 3. If the classroom has a window, ask your instructor the Japanese word for something you can see outside. 4. Ask your instructor the meanings of the following words: だいがく,

せんこう, がくせい, つくえ , こ くばん , まど , くるま .

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The Japanese Sound System and Hiragana



Vocabulary
Nouns せんせい Suffixes 〜せんせい 〜さん Expressions (あのう、 すみません。 ) ありがとう ございます。
Japanese? (Um,) Excuse me. Thank you. Professor 〜 Mr./Mrs./Miss/Ms. 〜 Teacher

たんご

あれは にほんごで なんと いいますか。 How do you say that (over there) in いいえ、 わかりません。 いって ください。
No, I don’t understand (it). Please speak loudly. (student request) Please speak loudly. (instructor request)

Please say it. / Repeat after me.

おおきい こえで おねがいします。 おおきい こえで いってください。 おはよう。 おはよう ございます。 かいて ください。 きいて ください。 こんにちは。 こんばんは。

Good morning. / Hello. (casual) Good morning. / Hello. (polite) Please write. Please listen. How do you say this in Japanese?

これは にほんごで なんと いいますか。
Good afternoon. / Hello. Good evening. / Hello. Good-bye. Good-bye. / Excuse me.

さようなら。 /さよなら。 しつれいします。 じゃあ、 また。 すみません。

See you later. (literally, Well then, again.) I am sorry. / Excuse me. How do you say that in Japanese? What does 〜 mean? You say 〜 , you call it 〜. You are welcome. Yes, I understand it.

それは にほんごで なんと いいますか。 〜って なんですか。 どういたしまして。 はい、 わかりました。 〜と いいます。 /〜って いいます。

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0

Chapter 1

はじめまして。 〜です。 どうぞ よろしく。 Pleased to meet you.

How do you do? I am 〜.

〜は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 みて ください。 Please look at it. もう いちど いってください。 もう いちど おねがいします。 よんで ください。 わかりましたか。
Please read. Do you understand (it)?

How do you say 〜 in Japanese?

Please say it again. (instructor request) Please say it again. (student request) Please say it slowly.

もう すこし ゆっくり おねがいします。

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Chapter 2

だ い に か
あいさつと じこしょうかい
Greetings and Introductions
Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar Meeting people for the first time, introducing people, identifying people, telling time Countries, nationalities, languages, year in school and academic status, majors, time expressions はじめまして How do you do? I. Identifying someone or something, using 〜は 〜です II. Asking はい/いいえ questions, using 〜は 〜ですか III. Indicating relationships between nouns with の IV. Asking for personal information, using question words V. Using も to list and describe similarities Listening for key words Using format as a clue

Japanese Culture Meeting and greeting people

Listening Reading

Communication Using あいづち: (attentive feedback) 1; classroom manners

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32

Chapter 2

Vocabulary

たんご

Nouns アジ アけんきゅう
あ じ あ

アジア研究 一年生 今 英語 学生 韓国 経営学 工学 高校 午後 午前 三年生 出身 専攻 大学

Asian studies America, the United States England freshman, first-year student (The suffix せい may be dropped.)

ア メリカ
あ め り か

イ ギリス
い ぎ り す

いちねんせい いま えいご オーストラリア
お す と ら り あ

now English Australia student Canada South Korea management/business administration engineering high school p.m., afternoon a.m., morning this person, this way junior, third-year student (The suffix せい may be dropped.)

がくせい カナダ
か な だ

かんこ く けいえいがく こうがく こ うこう ごご ごぜん こちら さんねんせい しゅっしん スペイン
す ぺ い ん

one’s native country, hometown, birthplace, alma mater Spain major college, university

せんこう だいがく

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Greetings and Introductions

33

だいがくいんせい だいがくせい たいわん ちゅうごく なまえ にねんせい にほん ビジネス
び じ ね す

大学院生 大学生 台湾 中国 名前 二年生 日本 文学 四年生 来年 留学生 歴史

graduate student college student Taiwan China name sophomore, second-year student (The suffix せい may be dropped.) Japan business France literature Mexico senior, fourth-year student (The suffix せい may be dropped.)

フランス
ふ ら ん す

ぶんがく メキシコ
め き し こ

よねんせい らいねん りゅうがくせい れきし Pronouns ぼく わたし Copula Verb です Time Expressions いちじ にじ さんじ よじ ごじ ろくじ

next year foreign student history

僕 私

I (normally used by males) I (used by both males and females)

(to) be

一時 二時 三時 四時 五時 六時

one o’clock two o’clock three o’clock four o’clock five o’clock six o’clock

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34

Chapter 2

しちじ はちじ くじ じゅうじ じゅういちじ じゅうにじ はん Question words どこ どちら なに/なん Particles か の は も Prefixes お〜

七時 八時 九時 十時 十一時 十二時 半

seven o’clock eight o’clock nine o’clock ten o’clock eleven o’clock twelve o’clock half past いちじはん 1:30



where where (more polite than どこ ), which way what

question marker noun modifier marker (of), (’s) topic marker similarity marker (also, too)

御〜

polite prefix おなまえ polite form of なまえ (name)

Suffixes 〜ご 〜じ 〜じん 〜せい 〜ねん 〜語 〜時 〜人 〜生 〜年 language にほんご Japanese language 〜 o’clock
-nationality アメリカじん -student
あ め り か

だいがくせい college student いちねんせい freshman year いちねん first year

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Greetings and Introductions

35

Interjections あのう いいえ はい/ええ Expressions いいえ、そうじゃありません/ そうじゃないです はい/ええ、そうです そうですか 〜から きました こちらこそ 〜って いいます
Yes, that’s so Is that so? I see. came from 〜 [casual] It is I who should be saying that. Thank you. colloquial version of 〜と いいます

uh, well . . . no, don’t mention it, you’re welcome yes

No, that’s not so

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36

Chapter 2

たんごの れんしゅう Vocabulary Practice A. くに Countries
Starting with this chapter, loan words (foreign words used in Japanese) will be written in katakana. They will have subscripts in hiragana, except for the symbol ー , which indicates a long vowel. For example: コ ーヒ ー (coffee) is pronounced with an こ ひ elongated [ko] and an elongated [hi].

B. こ せきと こ ご Nationalities and languages く く

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37

Activity 1
In Japanese, identify the countries indicated on the map below, the nationality of the people from each country, and the principal language(s) spoken there.

3 2 1

4

5 10 6 8 7 9

Activity 2
In Japanese, identify the countries represented by the flags below, the nationality of people from each country, and the principal language(s) spoken there.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Activity 3
Identify or guess the language of each of the following greeting phrases. (a) Good morning. (b) Bonjour. (c) Buenos días. (d) Ni hao?/Zao chen hao. (e) An nyong haseyo. (f) おはよう(ございます)。

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38

Chapter 2

C. 〜ねんせい Year in school and academic status

1

2

3
さんねんせい junior

4

G

い ちねんせい にねんせい freshman がくせい sophomore student college high school

よねんせい だいがくいん せい senior graduate student

りゅうがくせい だいがく こうこう Activity 4

international student

Write your answers to the following questions in hiragana. 1. いま、 なんねんせいですか。 (Which year are you in now?) 2. らいねん なんねんせいですか。 (Which year will you be in next year?) 3. “high school student” は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 4. “graduate student” は にほんごで なんと いいますか。

D. せんこう
あ じ あ

Majors

アジアけんきゅう Asian studies けいえいがく こ うがく ぶんがく ビジネス
び じ ね す

management engineering literature business history

れきし Activity 5

Answer the following questions in Japanese. 1. Which of these disciplines are you interested in? 2. Which of these disciplines is the most difficult to learn, in your opinion? 3. Which of these disciplines is the easiest to learn, in your opinion? 4. Do you know how to say your major in Japanese? If not, ask your instructor and write it down.
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39

Supplementary Vocabulary: Academic majors
いがく おんがく かがく きょういくがく けいざいがく けんちくがく こ くさいかんけい コンピュータこうがく
こ ん ぴ ゅ た

医学 音楽 化学 教育学 経済学 建築学 国際関係 コンピュータ工学 社会学 情報科学 情報工学 心理学 人類学 数学 生物学 政治学 美術 物理学

medicine (medical science) music chemistry education economics architecture international relations computer engineering sociology information science information technology psychology anthropology mathematics biology political science fine arts physics

しゃかいがく じょうほうかがく じょうほうこうがく しんりがく じんるいがく すうがく せいぶつがく せいじがく びじゅつ ぶつりがく

E. Time expressions

いちじ

にじ

さんじ

よじ

ごじ

ろくじ

しちじ

はちじ

くじ

じゅうじ じゅういちじ じゅうにじ

じゅうにじはん

You can probably guess how to say the numbers “1” through “12” from the time expressions and academic years presented above. For a complete explanation of Japanese numbers, see Chapter 3, vocabulary practice D (pp. 91–92).
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40

Chapter 2

Activity 6
State the time on the following clocks using time + です (it’s 〜 ). Example: Q: いま なんじですか。 What time is it now?

A: いちじです。

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

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Greetings and Introductions

41

ダイアローグ


Dialogue









はじめに

Warm-up

Answer the following questions in English 1. When you meet a Japanese person for the first time, how do you introduce yourself? Do you shake hands? 2. Suppose you have just been introduced to your host family in Japan. What kinds of things would you talk about?

リ ー


ア リスうえだ
あ り す

はじめまして

How do you do?

Alice Ueda, a Japanese-American student, is attending an orientation session at the International Student Center at Joto University in Tokyo. A student sitting next to Ueda speaks to her.

リ ー: あのう、すみません。いま なんじですか。


うえだ: いちじですよ。 リ ー: いちじですか。どうも ありがとう ございます。


うえだ: いいえ。 リ ー: あのう。


うえだ: はい。 リ ー: おなまえは なんですか。ぼく、リ ーって いいます。
り り

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42

Chapter 2

どうぞ よろしく。 うえだ: こちらこそ どうぞ よろしく。わたしの なまえは ア リス うえだです。
あ り す

リ ー: ああ、そうですか。ぼくは たいわんから きました。


うえださんは? うえだ: シ カゴです。わたしは ウ エストサイドだいがくの
し か ご う え す と さ い ど

さんねんせいです。 リ ー: そうですか。ぼくも さんねんせいです。


せんこうは なんですか。 うえだ: ぶんがくです。リ ーさんは?


リ ー: ぼくは れきしです。


An International Student Center staff member and a Japanese man approach them.

りゅうがくせいセンターの ひと (International Student Center staff member):
せ ん た

うえださんですか。 うえだ: ええ、そうです。 りゅうがくせいセ ンターの ひと: すずきさん、こちらは
せ ん た

うえださんです。うえださん、こちらは ホ ストファミリーの すずきさんです。
ほ す と ふ ぁ み り

うえだ: はじめまして。 ア リスです。 どうぞ よろしく。
あ り す

すずき: すずきです。 こちらこそ、よろしく。

Dialogue Phrase Notes



The particle よ (I tell you) in いちじですよ indicates the speaker’s assertion and mild emphasis that he/she is providing information known to him/her but not to the listener.

• どうも can have many meanings. In the dialogue どうも means very much, so どうも ありがとう ございます (thank you very much) expresses a deeper appreciation than ありがとう



ございます (thank you). いいえ means no, but in the above dialogue, it means don’t mention it or you are welcome, as in いいえ、 どういたしまして. This usage of いいえ is common in Japanese conversation.

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43

• あのう is a hesitation marker. It expresses the speaker’s reluctance to bother the person to whom he/she is speaking. This hesitation shows the speaker’s respect and consideration for the person he/she is approaching. It can appear by itself as in the dialogue, or with other phrases such as あのう、 すみません as in Chapter 1.

• 〜と/って いいます ([something/someone] is called 〜) was introduced in Chapter 1. This phrase can be used in selfintroductions, as in the dialogue.

そうですか (oh, I see) and そうですか (I see / is that so?) • ああ、 is used by the speaker to acknowledge that he/she has understood what has been said. ああ may also be used as a shorter way to convey the same meaning.

ダイアローグの あとで
だ い あ ろ ぐ

Comprehension

Complete the chart with information about Alice and Li.

くに/まち
Country/city

〜 ねんせい
Year in college

せんこう
Major

うえだ リー


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44

Chapter 2

にほんの ぶんか
Japanese Culture

First name or last name?
How do you address your friends and classmates? How about your professors? When you meet a Japanese adult for the first time, use your last name when introducing yourself. Also, it is not customary to use a Japanese adult’s first name, especially when the person is older or higher in social status. However, it is not uncommon to find close friends calling each other by their first names. Since many Japanese are aware that Westerners usually use first names, a foreign student may be addressed by his/her first name, followed by さん , as in クリスさん . In family settings, older family members address younger ones by their first names, though younger family members do not use the first names of older members. Instead, they use kinship terms such as mother, father, older brother, and older sister. When a foreign student stays with a Japanese host family, the parents will call the student The host either by his/her first name only, or will use the first name with さん . sisters or brothers will most likely use first name + さん . In general, senior members are referred to by kinship terms and junior members by their first name plus さん (unisex), くん (for a young boy) or ちゃん (for small children). When in doubt, ask the members of the host family how they want to be addressed.
く り す

Bowing? Shaking hands?
Why didn’t Suzuki shake hands with Alice Ueda when he was introduced to her? To be on the safe side, always bow when meeting a Japanese adult for the first time. Bow with your feet together, bending about fifteen degrees from your waist. Drop your eyes as you bow. You may bow more deeply and more than once if you wish to show greater respect. Shaking hands is not customary in Japan, but if someone extends his or her hand, then respond accordingly. Do not squeeze the person’s hand too firmly.

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45

名刺 (business cards) Who uses めいし ? When and how do people exchange めいし ?
In Japan, exchanging business cards is an important part of the ritual of meeting people for the first time. Professionals always have business cards, as do many graduate students. Undergraduate students usually do not have them since they are not considered full-fledged members of adult society. When a person expected to have a card does not have one on hand, he/she usually apologizes for his/her oversight. A person given a name card takes it with both hands. It is important to read the card carefully in order to identify the person’s title or position and the name of the organization to which he/she belongs. Such information is considered essential in socializing with the proper degree of formality or politeness.

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46

Chapter 2

Grammar
I. Identifying someone or something, using 〜は 〜 です
The sentences X は Y です (X is Y) and X は Y じゃありません/じゃないです (X isn’t Y) are used to identify or characterize a person or thing. Japanese uses particles in addition to nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc. Particles most often consist of one character (sometimes two), and they are placed immediately after a noun or at the end of a sentence. Those particles that appear after nouns assign a grammatical function to the noun they follow. Those that appear at the end of a sentence indicate the function of the preceding sentence or the speaker’s attitudes or emotions. は , which is pronounced wa, indicates that the preceding noun X is the topic of the sentence.

ぶんぽう

Affirmative
Topic Noun Particle (Topic) Noun Comment Copula Verb

たなかさん
Mr. Tanaka is a junior.



さんねんせい

です。

Negative
Topic Noun Particle (Topic) Noun Comment Copula Verb

すずきさん



りゅうがくせい

じゃありません。 じゃないです。

Mr./Ms. Suzuki is not an international student. In the above example sentences, the topic Xは represents information already known to both the speaker and the listener. Yです is a comment about the topic. That is, Y represents information concerning the topic X. For example, in the sentence たなかさんは さんねんせいです。 (Mr./Ms. Tanaka is a junior.), たなかさん is what the speaker wants to talk about, or the topic, and さんねんせい is what the speaker wants to say about the topic.

わたしは いちねんせいです。でも、たなかさんは いちねんせいじゃありません。
I am a freshman, but Ms./Mr. Tanaka is not a freshman.

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47

ロ ペスさんは メ キシコ じんです。がくせいです。
ろ ぺ す め き し こ

Mr./Ms. Lopez is Mexican. He/she is a student.

モ ネさんは だいがくいんせいです。リ ーさんは
も ね り

だいがくいんせいじゃありません。
Mr./Ms. Monet is a graduate student, but Mr./Ms. Li is not.

Notes



The topic X は can be omitted if the speaker thinks the listener can identify what it is from the context. For example, わたしは is omitted in greetings such as はじめまして 〜です。

どうぞよろしく, because it is obvious that the speaker is talking about himself/herself.

• です and じゃありません/じゃないです do not change form according to either the number of persons or things being discussed or the voice (first person, second person, or third person) of the subject. Compare the following Japanese and English sentences.

わたしは だいがくせいです。
I am a college student.

うえださんは だいがくせいです。
Ms. Ueda is a college student.

わたしたちは だいがくせいです。
We are college students.

• じゃないです is more colloquial than じゃありません . • While the English verb to be sometimes indicates location, such as
Tokyo is in Japan, です and じゃありません/じゃないです do not.

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48

Chapter 2

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Imagine that the following people live in your dormitory. Work with a partner and tell him/her about each person. Example: たなかさんは にほんじんです。 Name だいがくいんせいです。 せんこうは かんこ くごです。 Nationality Year in school Major

たなか リー
り ぶ ら う ん

にほんじん ちゅうごくじん
お す と ら り あ

だいがくいんせい かんこくご だいがくいんせい アジアけんきゅう
あ じ あ

ブ ラウン オーストラリアじん スミス
す み す き む も ね

よねんせい さんねんせい にねんせい いちねんせい

ビジネス
び じ ね す

アメリカじん
あ め り か

こうがく フランスご
ふ ら ん す

キム モネ

かんこくじん カナダじん
か な だ

ぶんがく

Activity 2
Complete the following chart by circling the appropriate words and by writing in your major (and nationality, if necessary) in Japanese. Your name Status Major Year Nationality

だいがくせい だいがくいんせい いちねんせい にねんせい さんねんせい よねんせい だいがくいんせい ア メリカじん ちゅうごくじん かんこくじん あ め り か じん

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49

Activity 3
Introduce yourself to your partner and describe yourself using the words in Activity 2 and the X は Y です pattern. Example: はじめまして。 (your name) です。どうぞ よろしく。

(わたしは) (college student/graduate student) です。 (year) せいです。 せんこうは です。わたしは (nationality) じんです。

Now listen to your partner’s self-introduction and complete the following chart. Partner’s name Status Major Year Nationality

Activity 4
Introduce a partner and yourself to another classmate. Example: わたしは です。 じんです。

せいです。 せんこうは です。 こちらは さんです。 さんは じゃありません/じゃないです。 です。

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50

Chapter 2

II. Asking はい/いいえ questions, using 〜 は 〜ですか
It is very easy to formulate questions in Japanese. All you have to do is add the particle か to the end of the sentence.

Asking the listener’s identity
Question Copula Verb Particle Answer Copula Verb

すずきさん

です

か。

はい/ええ、
Yes, I am.

そう

です。

Are you Mr./Ms. Suzuki?

Asking about people and things
Question Particle

キ ムさんは かんこくじんです
き む

か。

Is Mr./Ms. Kim Korean? /Are you Korean, Mr./Ms. Kim? Affirmative Answer Copula Verb Affirmative Answer Copula Verb

はい/ええ、 そう
Yes, he/she is. / Yes, I am. (literally, Yes, it is so.)

です。

はい/ええ、 かんこくじん

です。

Yes, he/she is Korean. / Yes, I am Korean.

Negative Answer Copula Verb

Negative Answer Copula Verb

いいえ、 そう じゃありません。 じゃないです。
No, he/she isn’t. (literally, No, it isn’t so.) おおき: うえださんですか。 うえだ: はい、そうです。

いいえ、 イ ギリスじん
い ぎ り す

です。

No, I am British. Are you Ms. Ueda? Yes, I am.

おおき: うえださんは にほんじんですか。 Are you Japanese, Ms. Ueda? うえだ: いいえ、ア メリカじんです。
あ め り か

No, I’m American.

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51

Notes



The Japanese pronoun あなた , although it is equivalent to you, is not used as commonly as its English counterpart. It is more common to use the name of the person being addressed. Thus,

アリスさんは がくせいですか can mean either Are you a student, Alice? or Is Alice a student? depending on whether you are talking to Alice or someone else.
あ り す

• はい/ええ、 そうです is an affirmative answer to questions, and means Yes, I am / you are / it is / he/she is / they are / we are.

いいえ、 そうじゃありません/いいえ、 そうじゃないです is a negative answer, and it means No, I’m not / you aren’t / it isn’t / he/she isn’t / they aren’t / we aren’t.

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Answer the following questions, using ええ、そうです or いいえ、

そうじゃありません/いいえ、そうじゃないです .
Example: がくせいですか。 ええ、そうです。 1. がっこうは ウエストサイドだいがくですか。
う え す と さ い ど

2. いちねんせいですか。 3. せんこうは にほんごですか。 4. アメリカじんですか。
あ め り か

5. りゅうがくせいですか。 6. せんせいは にほんじんですか。

Activity 2
Find out how many of your classmates are in the same year of school as you by asking 〜さんは 〜ですか . Also, find out how many have the same major as you. Example: A: たなかさんは いちねんせいですか。 B: ええ、そうです。/いいえ、そうじゃありません/

いいえ、そうじゃないです。 A: そうですか。せんこうは にほんごですか。 B: ええ、そうです。/いいえ、そうじゃありません/

いいえ、そうじゃないです。
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52

Chapter 2

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Choose an identity from the chart below, but don’t tell your partner. Your partner will try to guess who you are by asking questions using 〜は 〜ですか . Answer with ええ、そうです or いいえ、

そうじゃありません/いいえ、そうじゃないです .

Examples: A: にほんじんですか。 Name B: いいえ、そうじゃありません。 A: アメリカじんですか。 B: ええ、そうです。 A: せんこうは えいごですか。 B: ええ、そうです。 A: スミスさんですか。
す み す あ め り か

B: ええ、そうです。 Nationality
あ め り か あ め り か あ め り か あ め り か あ め り か

Year in school

Major

ス ミス
す み す

ア メリカ じん さんねんせい ア メリカじん ア メリカじん ア メリカじん ア メリカじん にほんじん にほんじん にほんじん にほんじん にほんじん いちねんせい にねんせい だいがくいんせい よねんせい いちねんせい だいがくいんせい にねんせい よねんせい さんねんせい

えいご ア ジアけんきゅう
あ じ あ

ブ ラウン
ぶ ら う ん ろ ぺ す

ロ ペス ジ ョンソン
じ ょ ん そ ん は と

ぶんがく ビ ジネス
び じ ね す す ぺ い ん す ぺ い ん

ハ ート たなか やまだ さとう もり すずき

ス ペインご ス ペインご けいえいがく こうがく ぶんがく ア ジアけんきゅう
あ じ あ

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Greetings and Introductions

53

III. Indicating relationships between nouns with の
The particle の allows the first noun in a phrase to modify the second noun. Because の can convey a variety of relationships between two nouns, such as possession, group membership, or location, the particle’s meaning depends on the context.

とうきょうだいがくの とうきょうだいがくの

リ ーさん がくせい せんこう せんこう せんせい ほん り

Mr./Ms. Li from Tokyo University student at Tokyo University my major history major my teacher teacher’s book; book written by the teacher house in Mexico book about Japan; book from Japan book written in Japanese; book about Japanese Mr./Ms.Okada who lives in Tokyo; Mr./Ms. Okada who is from Tokyo

わたしの れきしの わたしの せんせいの

メ キシコの
め き し こ

うち ほん ほん

にほんの

にほんごの とうきょうの

おかださん

すずき:はじめまして。すずきです。
How do you do? I’m Suzuki.

きむら:はじめまして。りゅうがくせいセ ンターの きむらです。
せ ん た

How do you do? I’m Kimura of the International Student Center.

うえださん、こちらは うえださんの ホ ストファミリーの ほ す と ふ ぁ み り すずきさんです。
Ms. Ueda, this is Mr. Suzuki from your host family.

うえだ:はじめまして。ア リス うえだです。どうぞ よろしく。
あ り す

How do you do? I’m Alice Ueda. Pleased to meet you.

すずき:こちらこそ。よろしく。
Same here.

たなか:ロ ペスさんの せんこうは ビ ジネスですか。
ろ ぺ す び じ ね す

Is your major economics, Mr./Ms. Lopez?

ロ ペス:いいえ。 わたしは こうがくの せんこうです。
ろ ぺ す

No. I’m an engineering major.

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54

Chapter 2

Notes



Possessive pronouns in English consist of one word, as in my, but the equivalent forms of Japanese consist of a pronoun followed by

の, as in わたし/ぼく+ の. Also, the semantic relationship between the modifier and the word being modified is not always clear in this structure. The relationship depends on context and the meanings of the two nouns. For example, in the phrase

たなかせんせいの ほん , Professor Tanaka may be the author



or the owner of the book. The appositive relationship can also be expressed with の . The following example is translated into English as Mr. Suzuki from my host family. In contrast, すずきさんの ホストファミリー is ほ す と ふ ぁ み り interpreted as Mr. Suzuki’s host family.

ホ ストファミリーの すずきさん Mr. Suzuki, who is in (my) host family すずきさんの ホ ストファミリー Mr. Suzuki’s host family
ほ す と ふ ぁ み り ほ す と ふ ぁ み り

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Pretend that you are the moderator of a panel discussion on environmental protection. Introduce the following experts using Noun の Noun.

Dr. Yamada University of Chicago

Mr. Kimura ASUKA, Inc.

Dr. Tanaka University of Tokyo

Mr. Sato HAL Japan

Example: (やまだ)

こちらは シカゴだいがくの やまだせんせいです。
し か ご

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Greetings and Introductions

55

Activity 2
You meet a student from another school. Introduce yourself in terms of your school by using Noun の Noun. Example: はじめまして。 (わたしは) だいがくの

Activity 3

です。

Complete the following dialogue, using the information from the chart below. Example: A: たなかさんの せんこうは えいごですか。 Name B: いいえ、そうじゃありません。かんこ くごです。 School Major

たなか リー


とうきょうだいがく にほんだいがく UCLA ハ ワイだいがく
は わ い

かんこくご ア ジアけんきゅう
あ じ あ

ケ リー
け り

ビ ジネス
び じ ね す

ス ミス
す み す き む

こうがく ぶんがく

キム

ヨ ンセイだいがく
よ ん せ い

1. A: の せんこうは アジアけんきゅうですか。
あ じ あ

B: ええ、そうです。
け り あ じ あ

2. A: ケリーさんは アジアけんきゅうの ですか。 B: いいえ、ビジネスの がくせいです。
び じ ね す す み す は わ い

3. A: スミスさんの は ハワイだいがくですか。 B: ええ、そうです。
き む

4. A: キム さんは の せんこうですか。 B: ええ、そうです。

Activity 4
Use Noun の Noun to tell a classmate your friend’s name, school, and major. Example: さんは わたしの ともだち (friend) です。

さんの だいがくは だいがくです。 せんこうは です。

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Chapter 2

IV. Asking for personal information, using question words
In Japanese, you don’t have to change the word order of a sentence to form an information question. All you have to do is to use a question word, such as なん (what) or どこ (where), for things you want to ask about.

Asking about names and things, using なん
Question Question Word Answer

おなまえは
What is your name?

なん

ですか。

ア リスです。
あ り す

I am Alice. Question Answer

Question Word + Suffix

キ ムさんは
き む

なんねんせい

ですか。

さんねんせいです。
I am a junior. Answer

What year are you in, Mr./Ms. Kim? Question Question Word + Suffix

いま

なんじ

ですか。

さんじです。
It’s 3 o’clock.

What time is it now?

もり: すみません。いま なんじですか。
Excuse me. What time is it?

すずき: よじはんですよ。
It’s 4:30.

もり: そうですか。どうも。
Oh, is it? Thanks.

すずき: いいえ。
You’re welcome. To specify a.m. and p.m., add ごぜん (a.m.) or ごご (p.m.) in front of the time expression.

とうきょうは いま ごぜん じゅうじです。
In Tokyo it is 10 a.m. now.

ニ ューヨークは ごご ろくじはんです。
に ゅ よ く

It is 6:30 p.m. in New York.

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Greetings and Introductions

57

Using どこ and どちら to ask about places
Question Question word Particle (place) Noun (place) Answer Particle

どこ

から

きましたか。

にほん

から

きました。

Where are you from? (literally, Where did you come from?)

I’m from Japan. (literally, I came from Japan.)

やまだ: ソ フィさんは どこから きましたか。
そ ふ ぃ

Sophie, where are you from?

ソ フィー: カ ナダから きました。
そ ふ ぃ ー か な だ

I’m from Canada.

やまだ: そうですか。なんねんせいですか。
I see. What year are you in?

ソ フィー: いちねんせいです。やまださんは?
そ ふ ぃ

First year. How about you, Mr./Ms. Yamada? I am a sophomore.

やまだ: わたしは にねんせいです。

Notes



In Japanese, a question word cannot be used as a topic or come before the particle は . It is a part of the です half of the sentence, and replaces the word that is in question. For example:

やまだ: たなかさんは なんねんせいですか。
What year are you in, Mr./Ms. Tanaka?

たなか: わたしは いちねんせいです。
I’m a freshman.

• どこから きましたか。 is a way of asking about someone’s hometown, home state, or native country. から is a particle that means from. きました is the past tense form of the verb きます (come). In formal situations use the more polite どちらから

いらっしゃいましたか (where are you from). When answering this more formal question, however, you should always use

きました , and not いらっしゃいました .

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58

Chapter 2



To find out the name of someone’s school, use どこ. For example,

やまださんの だいがくは どこですか。 asks for the name of a school, and not the location of the school. A: やまださんの だいがくは どこですか。 Where do you go to school, Mr./Ms. Yamada?

B: とうきょうだいがくです。
I go to the University of Tokyo. Do not use なんですか to ask for the name of a school:

やまださんの だいがくは なんですか。

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Begin a dialogue by asking a question that corresponds to each of the following answers. Example: スミスです。
す み す

あのう、おなまえは なんですか。
め き し こ あ じ あ り

1. メキシコから きました。 2. アジアけんきゅうです。 3. リ ーです。 4. さんねんせいです。

5. フランスごです。
ふ ら ん す

6. よじです。 7. だいがくいんせいです。 8. じょうとうだいがくです。

Activity 2
Ask your classmates about their majors and hometowns. Is there anyone who is majoring in the same subject as you?

Example: A:

さんの せんこうは なんですか。

B:

です。〜さんは? ああ、そうですか。

A: わたしの せんこうは です。 B:

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Greetings and Introductions

59

Activity 3
Ask your classmates and your instructor about their majors and hometowns. Find out who comes from the most distant place. Example: A: さんは どこから きましたか。

Activity 4

B: から きました。〜さんは? A: から きました。 B: ああ、そうですか。

Work with a partner. Look at the map of world and ask each other what time it is in various cities. Example: とうきょう (Tokyo)

A: とうきょうは いま なんじですか。 B: ごぜん じゅういちじですよ。 A: そうですか。
に ゅ よ く ろ ん ど ん

1. ニューヨーク (New York) 6. ロンドン (London) 2. ホノルル (Honolulu) 3. シドニー (Sydney) 4. モスクワ (Moscow) 5. バンクーバー (Vancouver)
ば ん く ば も す く わ し ど に ほ の る る

7. バンコク (Bangkok) 8. デリー (Delhi) 9. カイロ (Cairo)
か い ろ で り ば ん こ く

London 3:00 a.m.

Moscow 6:00 a.m. Tokyo 11:00 a.m.

Vancouver 7:00 p.m.

Cairo 5:00 a.m.

Delhi 7:30 a.m.

Bangkok 9:00 a.m.

Honolulu 4:00 p.m.

New York 10:00 p.m.

Sydney 12:00 p.m.

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60

Chapter 2

Activity 5
Work with a partner. You are traveling through a number of cities in the United States. Ask your partner what time it is in the city you are in now. The reference time indicates the current time in the last city you visited. Your partner will have to compute the time for the city you are asking about based on the reference time. Example: Reference time: 7:30 a.m. EST City you are in now: Chicago

A: あのう、すみません。いま なんじですか。 B: ろくじはんですよ。 A: ああ、そうですか。どうも ありがとうございます。 B: いいえ。 5. 1:00 p.m. MST., Atlanta 6. 11:30 p.m. PST, Salt Lake City 7. 1:30 a.m. PST, Honolulu

1. 7:30 p.m. EST, Denver 2. 9:00 a.m. CST, Seattle 3. 8:30 p.m. CST, New York

4. 2:30 p.m. MST, Anchorage 8. 11:00 p.m. PST, Boston

Seattle Boston Salt Lake City Los Angeles Atlanta Honolulu Chicago New York

Denver

Anchorage

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Greetings and Introductions

61

V. Using も to list and describe similarities
The particle も means also or too, and it is used to show the similarity between what has been just said and what you are saying. Sentence 1

Particle

わたしの こうこう



ミ ルズ ハ イスクールです。
み る ず は い す く る

My high school is Mills High School. Sentence 2 Noun Phrase Particle

ト ムさんの こうこう
と む



ミ ルズ ハ イスクールです。
み る ず は い す く る

Tom’s high school is also Mills High School.

うえだ: キ ムさんは にほんごの がくせいですか。
き む

Are you a Japanese major, Mr./Ms. Kim? (literally, are you a student of Japanese?)

キ ム: ええ、そうですよ。うえださんは?
き む

Yes, I am. How about you, Ms. Ueda? I am a Japanese major, too.

うえだ: わたしも にほんごの せんこうですよ。 キ ム: ああ、そうですか。
き む

Oh, is that so?

やまだ: すずきさんは どこから きましたか。
Ms. Suzuki, where are you from?

すずき: とうきょうから きました。
I’m from Tokyo.

やまだ: そうですか。ぼくも とうきょうから きました。
Is that so? I’m from Tokyo, too.

すずき: ああ、そうですか。とうきょうの どこですか。
Oh, really. Where in Tokyo?

やまだ: あさくさです。
Asakusa.

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62

Chapter 2

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Work with a partner. The following is a list of new students at the International Student Center. Introduce one of the students to your partner, and your partner will then introduce you to a student who shares the trait you have just described in the first introduction. Take turns making the introductions. Example 1: A: こちらは キムさんです。キムさんは フランスごの
き む き む ふ ら ん す

がくせいです。
B: こちらは ロペスさんです。ロペス さんも
ろ ぺ す ろ ぺ す

フランスごの せんこうです。
ふ ら ん す

Example 2: A: こちらは ワットさんです。ワットさんは
わ っ と わ っ と

イギリスから きました。
い ぎ り す

B: こちらは モリスさんです。モリスさんも
も り す も り す

イギリスじんですよ。
い ぎ り す

Name

Country /Nationality

Year in school

Major

キム
き む い り

かんこく かんこく ちゅうごく ちゅうごく オ ーストラリア
お す と ら り あ お す と ら り あ め き し こ め き し こ い ぎ り す い ぎ り す

いちねんせい

フ ランスご
ふ ら ん す

イー リー チ ョー
ち ょ

だいがくいんせい ぶんがく よねんせい にねんせい さんねんせい にねんせい よねんせい こうがく かんこくご れきし かんこくご フ ランスご
ふ ら ん す

ブ ラウン
ぶ ら う ん す み す ろ ぺ す

ス ミス ロ ペス ガ ルシア
が る し あ わ っ と も り す

オ ーストラリア メ キシコ メ キシコ イ ギリス イ ギリス

だいがくいんせい こうがく いちねんせい さんねんせい れきし ぶんがく

ワ ット モ リス

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63

Activity 2
Work with the class. Find a person who went to the same high school you attended. Example: A: わたしの こ うこ うは セントラル ハ イスクールです。
せ ん と ら る は い す く る

〜さんの こうこうは どこですか。
せ ん と ら る み る ず は い す く る

B: わたしの こ うこ うも セントラル ハ イスクールです。 or わたしの こうこうは ミルズ ハ イスクールです。
は い す く る

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Ask your partner the time in the cities on the list. Example 1: ペキン (Beijing) ホンコン (Hong Kong)
ぺ き ん ほ ん こ ん

A: ペキンは いま なんじですか。
ぺ き ん

B: じゅういちじですよ。 A: そうですか。じゃあ、ホンコンは いま

なんじですか。
ほ ん こ ん

ほ ん こ ん

B: ホンコンも じゅういちじですよ。

Example 2: ペキン (Beijing) バンコク (Bangkok)
ぺ き ん ば ん こ く

A: ペキンは いま なんじですか。 B: じゅういちじですよ。
ぺ き ん

A: そうですか。じゃあ、バンコクは いま

なんじですか。
ば ん こ く

ば ん こ く

B: バンコクは じゅうじですよ。

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64

Chapter 2

1. シドニー (Sydney)
し ど に

グ アム (Guam)
ぐ あ む

2. とうきょう 3. ペキン (Beijing)
ぺ き ん

タイペイ (Taipei)
た い ぺ い た い ぺ い

タイペイ ホンコン (Hong Kong)
ほ ん こ ん そ う る

4. タイペイ
た い ぺ い

5. とうきょう 6. ホンコン (Hong Kong)
ほ ん こ ん

ソウル (Seoul) バンコク (Bangkok)
ば ん こ く

Beijing

Seoul

Tokyo Hong Kong Taipei Guam Bangkok

Sydney

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Greetings and Introductions

65

きく れんしゅう
Listening

じょうずな ききかた Listening for key words

Listening Strategy

Listening comprehension passages for this section contain some unknown expressions and words so that you can develop skills to deal with real-life situations in which you may not understand every word. You may be surprised to find that natural speech is very redundant and that it is really not important to understand every single word. Try to focus on key words without worrying too much about the rest. For example, when someone is introduced to you, the most important word to understand is the person’s name. Don’t worry about the rest; just relax and listen.

きく まえに

Warm-up

Listen to the dialogue and write the names of the two people who are being introduced
り す と

ことばの リスト Vocabulary

むすめ ちち はは

(speaker’s) daughter (speaker’s) father (speaker’s) mother

れんしゅう Practice すずきさんの むすめさん Mr. Suzuki’s daughter
Read the statements below, then listen for the key words in the dialogue. Circle はい or いいえ , according to what you understood. Situation: Remember that Alice and Mr. Suzuki already met in the main dialogue on page 42. Mr. Suzuki’s daughter is standing next to him. He introduces her to Alice. 1. The name of Mr. Suzuki’s daughter is Michiko. 3. Mr. Suzuki’s daughter is majoring in economics. 4. Alice’s father is Japanese.

はい はい はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

2. Mr. Suzuki’s daughter is a sophomore at Joto University. はい

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66

Chapter 2

ききじょうず はなしじょうず
Communication

Communication Strategy Using あいづち (attentive feedback) 1
Being a good listener is one of the most important factors in communicating effectively in any language, but the strategies for being a good listener differ considerably between languages. For example, the Japanese tend to avoid frequent or prolonged eye contact, because they do not think that making eye contact indicates a person’s interest in the conversation. A Japanese person will tend to feel intimidated or uneasy after prolonged eye contact, so it’s a good idea to look away from time to time. Instead of eye contact, Japanese speakers use various other forms of feedback when they are listening. For example, they nod occasionally to show attentiveness. For this reason, Japanese students often nod in the classroom. Another common type of feedback is the frequent use of ええor はい, which both mean yes. These expressions do not necessarily indicate agreement. They simply mean that the person is listening to you. If the listener remains silent even though he/she is looking at the speaker, the speaker may consider the listener to be impolite, cold, or even uninterested. In Japanese, feedback given to confirm attentive listening is called あいづち.

Classroom Manners
It is considered inappropriate to eat or drink in the classroom in Japan. Equally inappropriate is putting one’s feet or legs up on a chair or desk. Japanese instructors who are not used to such behavior may think these acts show a lack of seriousness or boredom on the part of the student.

れんしゅう Practice
1. Listen to your instructor talk about himself/herself. Sit up straight and nod occasionally to indicate interest while listening. 2. Work with a partner. Tell him/her about a friend. While listening, your partner should nod or say ええ or はい between sentences. Avoid making eye contact.

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Greetings and Introductions

67

よむ れんしゅう
Reading

じょうずな よみかた Using format as a clue

Reading Strategy

めいし are generally written in kanji and katakana, and for a beginning student of Japanese, it may seem impossible to make any sense of them. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a few facts if you know what to look for, and this is a very important first step in improving your reading skills. The information provided on めいし typically includes name, position or title, the relevant employer or organization, address, phone and fax numbers, e-mail address, and web address. The information always follows a certain format. For example, the name appears in the center, and the organization and title will be next to or above the name.

よむ まえに Pre-reading
1. Look at the horizontally formatted card and circle the telephone number and the name of the organization. 2. Look at the other card. Although it is written vertically, the basic format is the same as that of the first card. The second card is read from right to left. Circle the name of the card owner and the address.

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68

Chapter 2

れんしゅう Practice

ともだち ぼしゅう

Looking for a friend

Japanese is usually written in hiragana, katakana, and kanji as appropriate. Printed Japanese is unlike English in that there are usually no spaces between words. The text in the reading section of this book utilizes all three scripts rather than being limited to hiragana and katakana, so that you can become familiar with normal written Japanese. The following are short introductory messages placed on a web page for people who are looking for pen pals. Read the messages and answer the following questions.

ことばの リスト Vocabulary
り す と

ネ イティブ 〜を さがしています Message 1
ね い て ぃ ぶ

native (speaker) to be looking for 〜

はじめまして! 私 は 東 京 大 学の学 生です。なまえはけいこ です。専 攻は英 語 です。今 一 年 生です。英 語 のネ イティブの友 達を さがしています。どうぞよろしく。 Message 2 はじめまして。僕 はたかしです。千 葉大 学の三 年 生です。専 攻は ア ジアとア メリカの歴 史 です。どうぞよろしく。
あ じ あ あ め り か れき し ぼく ち ば だいがく さんねんせい せんこう せんこう えい ご いまいちねんせい えい ご ね い て ぃ ぶ ともだち わたし とうきょうだいがく がくせい

Message 3 はじめまして。 私 はヤ ン・リ ーと言 います。 中 国 から来 ました。 京 都 の 留 学 生 です。日 本 文 学 の専 攻です。二 年 生です。友 達をさがしてい ます。よろしく。 Message 4 はじめまして。僕 はリ チャードです。オ ーストラリアのシ ドニーから 来 ました。今 、 阪大 学の四 年 生です。ビ ジネスの専 攻です。よろしく。 大
き いま おおさかだいがく よ ねんせい び じ ね す せんこう ぼく り ち ゃ ど お す と ら り あ し ど に りゅうがくせいい に ほんぶんがく せんこう に ねんせい ともだち わたし や ん り い ちゅうごく き きょう と

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Greetings and Introductions

69

よんだ あとで Comprehension
1. Complete the following with information about the four people who posted the messages above. Don’t worry about writing kanji or katakana. Message 1 Message 2

Name ___________________________ Name _____________________________ School ___________________________ School ____________________________ Year _____________________________ Year_______________________________ Major ___________________________ Major _____________________________ Hometown/country Hometown/country (if mentioned) __________________ if mentioned) _____________________ Message 3 Message 4

Name ___________________________ Name _____________________________ School ___________________________ School ____________________________ Year _____________________________ Year_______________________________ Major ___________________________ Major _____________________________ Hometown/country Hometown/country (if mentioned) __________________ (if mentioned) ____________________ 2. Are there any similarities between you and any of the four people? If there are, describe them. Example:

わたしは いちねんせいです。 けいこさんも いちねんせいです。

3. Select one person from the list and write a message to him/her to introduce yourself. If you have yet to decide on a major, write (せんこうは)まだ

わかりません , meaning “I don’t know my major yet.”

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70

Chapter 2

そうごう れんしゅう
Integration

インタビュー Interview
い ん た び ゅ

1. Ask your classmates about their name, major, year in school, hometown, high school, and country of origin. Write the phrase you will use to greet them, and then make a list of questions to ask. Next, ask the questions, speaking with as many people as you can. Fill in the blanks with the information you gather.

Greeting phrase: ________________________________________________ Questions: なまえ (name) _______________________________________________ 〜ねんせい (year) ___________________________________________ せんこう (major) ____________________________________________
_ 〜から きました (hometown/country) _______________________

こうこう (high school) _______________________________________
2. Based on the answers you get, introduce one of your classmates to another classmate. Write down what is said by each person during the conversation. ____________ : ___________________________________________________ ____________ : ___________________________________________________ ____________ : ___________________________________________________ ____________ : ___________________________________________________

はじめまして。 わたし/ぼくは といいます。 は から きました。 だいがくの ねんせいです。 せんこうは です。 どうぞよろしく。

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Greetings and Introductions

71

ロールプレイ Role Play
ろ る ぷ れ い

1. Approach and introduce yourself to the person who is sitting next to you, using the following dialogue as a model. You: You:

あのう。 おなまえは なんですか。 ぼく/わたし、 って いいます。どうぞ よろしく。

Partner: はい。

Partner:こちらこそ。どうぞ よろしく。ぼく/わたしの

なまえは です。
You:

ああ、そうですか。ぼく/わたしは から きました。 さんは。 だいがくの せい です。

Partner: です。 ぼく/わたしは

You:

そうですか。 ぼく/わたしも せい です。せんこうは なんですか。

Partner: です。 You:

そうですか。

2. Suppose that you are at an airport to pick up a Japanese person named Yamada whom you have never met. Approach someone and ask if he/she is the person you are looking for using the following dialogue as a starter. Then introduce yourself.

あのう、すみませんが。 Partner: はい。 You: やまださんですか。
3. Suppose you have found a Japanese student on campus. Naturally, you want to practice Japanese with him/her. Introduce yourself and strike up a conversation.

You:

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カタカナ
Katakana
I. Introduction
In this section, you will learn how to read and write katakana. It is important to learn katakana because Japanese uses a large number of loan words, many of which are borrowed from English. The following chart shows both print and handwritten styles, with the reading of each katakana given in hiragana. Note that the use of small tsu ッ for double consonants, the two dots ゛on the right shoulder to indicate voiced syllables, and the small ya ャ , yu ュ , and yo ョ to indicate glides are exactly the same as hiragana. A dash ー indicates a long vowel, as explained in Chapter 1.
や ゆ よ つ








































































































































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74

Chapter 2.5

II. Katakana ア〜ソ
あ そ

Study the first fifteen katakana. Using the mnemonic devices in the right-hand column, practice reading each character. Then practice writing them in your Student Activities Manual following the correct stroke order.

a

i

ア イ ウ エ オ カ キ ク ケ コ サ

I’d like an ice-cream cone. I need an easel to draw. It’s a wick of a candle.

u

e

An egg is on an egg stand. Oh, what an odd way to walk.

o

ka

Karate kick.

ki

This is a key. A baby is sleeping in a cradle. This is a crooked K This letter has two corners. This is a saddle on a horse.

ku

ke

ko

sa

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Katakana

75

shi su

se

so

シ ス セ ソ
1. キス 2. ケーキ 3. サーカス 4. ケース 8. オアシス 9. シーソー

She (the cat) is sleeping. Here is a swing set. Say, isn’t that Señor García? I'm sewing with a needle.

れんしゅう Practice
Read the following words in katakana and guess what they mean. 5. アイス 6. コース 7. エース

III. Katakana タ〜ホ
た ほ

Study the following カタカナ . Using the mnemonic devices in the right-hand column, practice reading each character. Then practice writing them in your Student Activities Manual following the correct stroke order.
か た か な

ta

chi

tsu

タ チ ツ テ ト

A crooked tie. A chick is trying to fly. A cat gets up on her feet. The cat’s tail is wagging to the left. An Indian tomahawk.

te

to

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Chapter 2.5

na

ni

ナ ニ ヌ ネ ノ ハ ヒ フ ヘ ホ

A knife. A neat tennis court. Noodles are difficult to eat with chopsticks. A neckerchief is around my neck. Someone’s nose. A hat.

nu

ne

no

ha

hi

A heel. A child’s hood. I have a bad headache. Two hands hold a cross.

fu

he

ho

れんしゅう Practice
Read the following words in katakana and try to guess what they mean. Remember that the small ッ indicates a double consonant. 1. カタカナ 2. ネット 3. セーター 4. カヌー 5. ノート

6. エチケット 7. テキスト 8. カッター 9. ホット 10. ニット 11. テスト

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Katakana

77

IV. Katakana マ〜ン
ま ん

Study the following カタカナ. Using the mnemonic devices in the right-hand column, practice reading each character. Then practice writing them in your Student Activities Manual following the correct stroke order.

ma

マ ミ ム メ モ ヤ ユ ヨ ラ リ ル

A giant mushroom Who’s three? Me! The moon is sleeping. The knife is melting. A monster appears in Tokyo. A yacht in the ocean. It’s a Uboat! Yoga is fun. A rabbit with long ears. This ribbon has long tails. A tree with deep roots.

mi

mu

me

mo

ya

yu

yo

ra

ri

ru

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78

Chapter 2.5

re

ro

wa

n

レ ロ ワ ン
9. テキサス 10. オクラホマ 11. ミネソタ 12. アーカンソー 13. サウスカロライナ 14. メキシコ 15. スイス 16. インドネシア

Let’s write a capital L. A loaf of bread. A wine glass. A needle is sharp at the end.

れんしゅう Practice
Read the following words in katakana and try to guess what they mean. 1. ワシントン 2. ユタ 3. アイオワ 4. オハイオ 5. ノースカロライナ 6. アメリカ 7. イタリア 8. ロシア 17. モンタナ 18. ミシシッピー 19. イリノイ 20. テネシー 21. メイン 22. オーストラリア 23. フランス

V. Transcribing katakana
A. Rules that apply to transcribing both hiragana and katakana
1. The diacritic marker [゙] indicates a voiced sound, as in ガ [ga] or ギ [gi]. A small circle [゜ indicates the [p] sound as in パ [pa]. ] 2. Small ヤユヨ are used to form sounds such as キャ [kya], シュ [shu], and

ミョ [myo]. 3. A small ツ indicates a double consonant, as in ホットドッグ hot dog.

B. Conventions used in transcribing English words into katakana
1. The English sounds -er, -or, and -ar are heard as [aa] in Japanese. A dash represents the long vowels.

カーター ハート

Carter heart

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Katakana

79

When katakana is written vertically, the long vowel marker (−) is also written vertically.

リ ー ダ ー

サ ッ カ ー

ハ ー ト

2. The English [v] is heard in Japanese as [b]. Accordingly, [va], [vi], [vu], [ve] and [vo] become [ba], [bi], [bu], [be] and [bo] in Japanese.

カバー バイオリン ライト リーダー ロビー

cover violin right or light reader or leader lobby or Robby

3. The English [l] and [r] are both heard as an [r] in Japanese.

4. The English [th] as in think and third is heard as [s] and the [th] as in that or mother is heard as [z].

サンクスギビング マザーグース サードベース バスルーム

Thanksgiving Mother Goose third base bathroom

5. If an English word ends in [k], [g], [m], [f], [v], [l], [s], [z], [th], [p], or [b], the vowel [u] is added in Japanese. The vowel [u] is also added when these sounds are followed immediately by consonants in English.

ミルク リング ホテル ミス ジャズ コスト スピード ラスト ベッド

milk ring hotel Miss jazz cost speed last bed

6. If an English word contains [t] or [d], the vowel [o] is added in Japanese.

7. The English vowel sounds in bus and cut or bath or gas are both heard as [a] in Japanese.

バス カット バット ガス

bus or bath cut bat gas

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Chapter 2.5

8. To approximate as much as possible the pronunciation of people’s names and other borrowed sounds, the following combinations are commonly used. Note that these combinations are never used in hiragana.

ウィ [wi] ウェ [we] ウォ [wo] シェ [she] ジェ [je] チェ [che] ティ [ti] ディ [di] デュ [dju] ファ [fa] フィ [fi] フェ [fe] フォ [fo]

ウィンストン Winston ウェイン Wayne ウォルター Walter シェリル ジェーン チェイス カーティス ディーン デューク ジェニファー マーフィー フェイ フォード
Sheryl Jane Chase Curtis Dean Duke Jennifer Murphy Fay Ford

ウィスコンシン ハイウェイ ウォッカ シェーバー ジェスチャー チェロ アイスティー ディズニーランド デュエット ファッション フィンランド フェンシング フォーク

Wisconsin highway vodka shaver gesture cello iced tea Disneyland duet fashion Finland fencing fork

Try writing your name in katakana. Use the above conventions if your name contains any of the sounds listed.

れんしゅう Practice
A. The following words appeared in Chapter 1. Read them and write their meanings in English. 1. アジアけんきゅう ______________________________ 2. アメリカ ______________________________________ 3. イギリス ______________________________________ 4. オーストラリア ________________________________ 5. カナダ ________________________________________ 6. スペイン ______________________________________ 7. フランス ______________________________________ 8. メキシコ ______________________________________

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Katakana

81

B. Guess what the following words are in English.

1. Food and drinks
1. ハンバーガー 5. スパゲティ 9. レタス 13. バター 17. チョコレート 2. ステーキ 3. ホットドッグ 4. カレー 6. サンドイッチ 7. サラダ 8. トマト 10. オレンジ 11. レモン 12. フルーツ 14. チーズ 18. クッキー 15. ケーキ 19. ジュース 23. コーラ 16. ア イスクリーム 20. ミルク 24. ワイン

21. ポテトチップス 22. ビール

2. Sports
1. フッ トボール 5. ジョギング 9. ラケッ トボール 2. バスケッ トボール 3. テニス 6. スキー 10. ゴルフ 7. スケート 11. サーフィ ン 4. サッカー 8. バレーボール

3. Music
1. ピア ノ 5. トランペット 2. バイオリン 6. ジャズ 3. ギター 7. ロック 4. オーケストラ 8. クラシック

4. Household items
1. キッチン 5. トースター 9. カメラ 2. リビングルーム 6. ラジオ 10. カレンダー 3. ランプ 7. レコード 4. オーブン 8. ビデオ

5. Countries
1. ブラジル 5. イタリア 9. オーストラリア 13. サウジアラビア 2. イギリス 6. スイス 10. インド 3. ドイツ 7. イスラエル 11. タイ 4. オランダ 8. ロシア 12. ベトナム

6. Cities
1. ニューヨーク 5. サンフランシスコ 9. パリ 13. シドニー 2. ボストン 6. トロント 3. シカゴ 4. ロサンゼルス 12. カイロ 7. モントリオール 8. ロンドン

10. ベルリン 11. モスクワ 14. バンコク 15. ホンコン

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Chapter 3

だ い さ ん か
まいにちの せいかつ
Daily Routines
Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar Describing daily routines Daily activities, numbers, minutes, relative time, days of the week じゅぎょうが あります。 I have a class. I. Talking about routines, future actions, or events using the polite present form of verbs and the particles に, へ, を, or で II. Presenting objects or events using 〜が あります III. Telling time using the particle に IV. Using adverbs to express frequency of actions V. Expressing past actions and events using the polite past form of verbs Listening for general ideas Scanning

Japanese Culture College life (1)

Listening Reading

Communication Using あいづち (2)

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Chapter 3

Vocabulary

たんご

Nouns あさ あさごはん あさって あした うち えいが おととい おふろ がっこう かようび きのう きょう きんようび クラス
く ら す

朝 朝御飯 明後日 明日 家 映画 一昨日 お風呂 学校 火曜日 昨日 今日 金曜日 月曜日 御飯 今週 今晩 週末 授業 宿題 水曜日

morning breakfast the day after tomorrow tomorrow home movie the day before yesterday bath school Tuesday yesterday today Friday class Monday coffee meal, cooked rice this week tonight shower weekend class, course homework Wednesday

げつようび コーヒー
こ ひ

ごはん こんしゅう こんばん シャワー
し ゃ わ

しゅうまつ じゅぎょう しゅくだい すいようび

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Daily Routines

85

せいかつ せんしゅう つぎ テレビ
て れ び

生活 先週 次 電話番号 図書館 土曜日 日曜日 晩 晩御飯 昼 昼御飯 勉強 本 毎朝 毎週 毎日 毎晩 木曜日

life, living last week next television, TV telephone number library Saturday Sunday night, evening supper, dinner afternoon lunch study book every morning every week every day every night Thursday

でんわばんごう としょかん どようび にちようび ばん ばんごはん ひる ひるごはん べんきょう ほん まいあさ まいしゅう まいにち まいばん もくようび う -verbs あります いきます かえります のみます はいります よみます

行きます 帰ります 飲みます 入ります 読みます

(to) be held, (to) have; the dictionary form is ある. (to) go; the dictionary form is いく . (to) return, (to) go home; the dictionary form is

かえる.
(to) drink; the dictionary form is のむ. (to) take (a bath), (to) enter; the dictionary form is はいる. おふろに はいります take a bath (to) read; the dictionary form is よむ .

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Chapter 3

る -verbs あびます おきます たべます ねます みます Irregular verbs きます します べんきょうします Question word いつ Numbers ゼロ
ぜ ろ

浴びます 起きます 食べます 寝ます 見ます

(to) take (a shower) シャワーを あびます し ゃ わ take a shower; the dictionary form is あびる. (to) get up, (to) wake up; the dictionary form is おきる. (to) eat; the dictionary form is たべる. (to) go to bed; the dictionary form is ねる. (to) see, (to) watch; the dictionary form is みる.

来ます 勉強します

(to) come; the dictionary form is くる. (to) do; the dictionary form is する. (to) study; the dictionary form is べんきょうする.

when

零 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十

zero zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

れい いち に さん よん、し ご ろく なな、しち はち きゅう、く じゅう

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Counter 〜ふん Adverbs いつも ぜんぜん たいてい ときどき よく Par ticles に に で へ を Prefixes こん〜 まい〜 今〜 毎〜 this こんしゅう、こんばん every まいしゅう、まいあさ、まいばん、

〜分

〜 minute(s), (for) 〜 minute(s)

全然 時々

always not at all (used with negative verb forms) usually sometimes often; well

at; on; in (point in time) 1 0じに ねます to (goal, activity) クラスに いきます
く ら す

at; in; on; etc. (location of action or event)

としょかんで べんきょうします to (direction) がっこうへ いきます direct object marker ほんを よみます

まいにち Suffixes 〜ようび 〜ごろ 〜曜日 〜頃 day (of the week) about 〜 (used only with time expressions)

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Chapter 3

たんごの れんしゅう Vocabulary Practice

A. まいにちの せいかつ

Daily activities

おきます
(to) wake up

ねます
(to) go to bed

あさごはんを たべます (to) eat breakfast

ひるごはん を たべます
(to) eat lunch

うちで ばんごはんを たべます (to) eat dinner at home

べんきょうします/ べんきょうを します
(to) study

としょかんで べんきょうします。
(to) study at the library

しゅくだいを します
( to) do homework

ほんを よみます
(to) read a book

コ ーヒ ーを


のみます



テ レビを
て れ び

みます

(to) drink coffee

(to) watch TV

えいがを みます (to) watch a movie

シ ャワーを あびます
し ゃ わ

おふろに はいります
(to) take a bath

(to) take a shower

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じゅぎょうが あります here is / I have a class. T

がっこうに/がっこうへ ク ラスに/ク ラスへ いきます
(to) go to school
く ら す

きます

く ら す

(to) come to the classroom

うちに/うちへ かえります (to) go home

Activity 1
Say what activities you do in the morning, in the afternoon, and at night. Example: あさ じゅぎょうが あります (I have class in the morning.)

1. あさ (morning) 2. る (afternoon) ひ 3. ばん (night) Activity 2
Work with a partner. Put the activities you have just described in chronological order and tell your partner what your day is like.

B. Relative time expressions
Japanese has a set of words that indicate points in time with respect to the current time. Their English equivalents are words such as today, tomorrow, and yesterday. These words are categorized as relative time expressions because the day we call “yesterday” today will not be “yesterday” tomorrow. On the other hand, time expressions that are fixed, such as 1977, three o’clock, or Friday, are classified as absolute time expressions. Some relative time expressions follow.

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Chapter 3

いつ あさ ひる ばん こんばん しゅうまつ きょう あした あさって Activity 3

when morning afternoon night tonight weekend today tomorrow the day after tomorrow

きのう おととい まいにち まいしゅう まいあさ こんしゅう まいばん せんしゅう

yesterday the day before yesterday every day every week every morning this week every night last week

Answer the following questions.

1. いま、あさですか。ひるですか。ばんですか。 2. 「まいあさ」 まいにち」 まいばん」の 、 「 、 「 「まい」って なんですか。 3. 「まいしゅう」 こんしゅう」 せんしゅう」 しゅうまつ」の 「 、 「 、 「 、 「しゅう」 って なんですか。 4. 「こんばん」「こんしゅう」の 、 「こん」ってなんですか。 Activity 4
For each activity shown on pages 88–89, create a sentence using the time expressions that apply to your own daily routine. If you want to use きのう (yesterday) or せんしゅう (last week), change the verb form to 〜ました instead of 〜ます, as in みました (watched) instead of みます (watch). Example: おきます (to) wake up

(I あさ、おきます。 wake up in the morning.) (I せんしゅう、えいがを みました。 watched a movie last week.)

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C. 〜ようび

Days of the week
なんようび にちようび げつようび かようび すいようび もくようび きんようび どようび

Note that each day of the week ends with ようび. Which day of the week? Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Activity 5
Look at the calendar and give the day of the week for the following dates. 1. 10/16 2. 10/26 3. 10/31 4. 10/1 5. 10/21 6. 10/4 7. 10/27 8. 10/8 9. 10/5 10. 10/7 11. 10/17 12. 10/25

Activity 6
Answer the following questions in Japanese.

1. きょうは なんようびですか。 2. あしたは なんようびですか。 3. あさっては なんようびですか。 4. きのうは なんようびでしたか。( でした = was) 5. おとといは なんようびでしたか。( でした = was) 6. つぎの にほんごの クラスは なんようびですか。
く ら す

D. すうじ

Numbers
7 なな、しち 8 9 10 11 12 13 はち きゅう、く じゅう じゅういち じゅうに じゅうさん 20 にじゅう 30 40 70 90 99 さんじゅう よんじゅう ななじゅう、しちじゅう きゅうじゅう きゅうじゅうきゅう、 きゅうじゅうく

Read the following numbers aloud.

0 ゼロ、れい 1 2 3 4 5 6 いち に さん よん、し ご ろく
ぜ ろ

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92

Chapter 3

Notes



Numbers between 11 and 19 are formed by using the number ten followed by the appropriate single digit.

11 = 10 + 1 じゅういち=じゅう+いち 12 = 10 + 2 じゅうに=じゅう+に 13 = 10 + 3 じゅうさん=じゅう+さん



The numbers 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 are formed by using the appropriate single digit followed by 10.

20 = 2 X 10

にじゅう=に X じゅう 30 = 3 X 10 さんじゅう=さん X じゅう 40 = 4 X 10 よんじゅう=よん X じゅう



Numbers like 23 and 35 are formed by combining the tens digit and the ones digit.

23 = 20 + 3

にじゅうさん = にじゅう+さん 35 = 30 + 5 さんじゅうご = さんじゅう+ご



The numbers 4, 7, and 9 have two possible pronunciations. The number 40 is usually pronounced よんじゅう. The number 70 can be pronounced either ななじゅう or しちじゅう, and the number 90 is always pronounced きゅうじゅう.

Activity 7
Say the following telephone numbers でんわばんごう) in Japanese. Use の to ( indicate a dash. Example: 123-4567 1. 356-2891 2. 245-6689 3. 8217-0370

いちにさんの よんごろくなな
4. 03-3986-5772 5. 06-4463-5998 6. 0895-23-5005 7. 090-7244-1456 8. 080-4647-4176

Activity 8
Take turns asking classmates their telephone numbers ( でんわばんごう). Example: A: あのう、でんわばんごうは なんですか。

B: いちにさんの よんごろくななです。 A: そうですか。どうもありがとう。

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Activity 9
Read the following numbers aloud. 1. 2 2. 5 3. 6 4. 8 5. 10 6. 11 7. 17 8. 20 9. 49 10. 53 11. 75 12. 94 13. 81 14. 62 15. 99

Activity 10
Work in groups of three. One person writes five numbers in Arabic numerals on five separate slips of paper. As he or she shows the numbers, the other two members of the group compete to be the first to call out each number correctly.

E. 〜ふん

Minute(s)

Note: * indicates a sound change.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

* いっぷん * にふん * さんぷん * よんふん/よんぷん * ごふん * ろっぷん * しちふん/ななふん

8 9 10 11 12 20 21

* はっぷん/はちふん * きゅうふん * じゅっぷん/じっぷん * じゅういっぷん * じゅうにふん * にじゅっぷん/にじっぷん * にじゅういっぷん

* なんぷん how many minutes? Activity 11
Say the following times in Japanese. 1. 4:10 2. 2:25 3. 7:37 4. 1:44 5. 12:30 6. 6:40 7. 8:09 8. 1:56 9. 4:17 p.m. 10. 9:18 a.m. 11. 7:11 p.m. 12. 9:02 a.m. 13. 6:55 a.m. 14. 9:03 p.m. 15. 3:53 p.m. 16. 8:30 a.m.

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94

Chapter 3

ダイアローグ


Dialogue









はじめに

Warm-up

Answer the following questions in Japanese.

1. まいにち じゅぎょうが ありますか。 2. なんじに じゅぎゅうが ありますか。 3. たいてい どこで ひるごはんを たべますか。 4. たいてい なんじごろ うちに かえりますか。 5. きのう なんじごろ うちに かえりましたか。 6. せんしゅうの しゅうまつ なにを しましたか。

じゅぎょうが あります。 I have a class.
It is 9:45 a.m. Ueda is eating a sandwich in front of the foreign language building. Li passes by.

う えだ: あ、リ ーさん、おはよう。


リ ー: ああ、うえださん。おはよう。 いま、あさごはんですか。


うえだ: ええ、きょうは はちじに じゅぎょうが ありました。 リ ー: そうですか。たいへんですね。


うえだ: ええ。で、リ ーさんは?


リ ー: ぼくは としょかんへ いきます。 あさは たいてい


としょかんで しゅくだいを します。

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うえだ: そうですか。ク ラスは?
く ら す

リ ー: いちじはんに にほんごの じゅぎょうが あります。


うえださんは? うえだ: じゅうじに れきしの ク ラスが あります。
く ら す

リ ー: そうですか。


Dialogue Phrase Notes







In the dialogue, the topic particle は follows the time expressions きょう and あさ. In Japanese, a topic does not necessarily have to be the subject of sentence, but it does introduce the item about which the speaker wishes to comment. In the dialogue above, Ueda wants to say something about “today,” and Li wants to say the same thing about “mornings.” For further discussion of topic particles, refer to the supplementary notes titled “More about the topic particle は” on p. 106 of this chapter. たいへんですね means that’s hard, in which たいへん means tough, hard, serious. ね is an affective particle that commonly appears in conversation to express shared feelings or assumptions. In the dialogue, ね expresses Li’s sympathy toward Ueda. The で in the phrase で、リ ーさんは? is often used in conversation. It can be interpreted as well then, so, or by the way. It is not used in written Japanese.


ダイアローグ の あとで Comprehension
だ い あ ろ ぐ

A. Read each statement below. Then circle はい if the statement is true and

いいえ if it is false. 1. はい いいえ 2. はい いいえ 3. はい いいえ リ ーさんは きょうのごご としょかんで べんきょうします。 うえださんは ごご じゅぎょうが あります。 うえださんは きょうのあさ じゅぎょうが ありました。


B. Answer the following questions in Japanese.

1. うえださんは なんじごろ あさごはんを たべましたか。 2. にほんごの じゅぎょうは なんじに ありますか。 3. じゅうじに なにが ありますか。

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96

Chapter 3 6

にほんの ぶんか
Japanese Culture

The academic year in Japan
Japanese colleges and universities usually begin the academic year in April. Summer vacation starts at the end of July. The fall semester, or session, runs from September or October through January or February. The winter break is usually short, from the end of December through the beginning of January.

College classes
The usual class period in Japanese colleges is 90 or 100 minutes. Apart from seminars and some science classes, most classes are straight lectures, and little interaction takes place between students and professors. Many classes meet once a week for a full academic year, resuming after summer vacation and winter break. Major examinations are usually held only once, at the end of the academic year, and the exam period lasts a couple of weeks.

College housing
The majority of Japanese colleges are commuter schools, and few have dormitories. Those dormitories that do exist are rarely found on campus. Most Japanese college students live at home or in an apartment. Their average commute is about an hour but may be as long as two hours in large cities.

Financial aid
Many parents pay for their children’s college education in Japan. Although there are scholarships available from various sources, student loans do not exist.

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Daily Routines Leisure Time

97

According to a recent study by a student support organization (Gakusei Engoka) over 80 percent of students have part-time jobs or アルバイト/バ イト (from
あ る ば い と ば い と

the German “arbeiten,” meaning work). Common jobs for students include convenience store or supermarket clerk, かていきょうし (private tutor for junior and senior high school students), and waiter or waitress.

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98

Chapter 3

Grammar
I. Talking about routines, future actions, or events using the polite present form of verbs and the particles に , へ , を , or で
Chapter 2 (see p. 46) introduced the copula verb です and the topic particle は . This chapter deals with regular verbs and four additional particles.

ぶんぽう

A. Polite present form of verbs
Unlike English, all Japanese verbs have a polite form and a plain form. The polite form is used with acquaintances, people of different age groups, strangers in public places, on TV and radio broadcasts, and in letters. The plain form is used among family members, young children, close friends of the same age, and in newspapers and magazine articles. You will first learn the basics of Japanese verbs using the polite form in this book.

Verb tenses
Japanese verbs have only two tenses: past and non-past. The non-past tense indicates both present and future actions or states. Question Verb Answer Verb

がっこう



いきます

か。

いいえ、

いきません。

Do you go to school? / Are you going to school?

No, I don’t. / No, I’m not.

In the above example, いきます can indicate either the habitual action of going to school or future action. The meaning must be taken from the context.

Verb classes
There are three classes of Japanese verbs: う-verbs, る -verbs, and irregular verbs. Japanese has only two irregular verbs: きます and します. (します can be combined with certain nouns to produce irregular compound verbs, as noted below.) These verb classes will become more useful as you learn different forms of inflection in Chapter 7 (see pp. 267–68).

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Polite affirmative form Polite negative form to go to go home to read to get up to go to bed to eat to come to do to study

Verb class

いきます かえります よみます おきます ねます たべます きます します べんきょうします

いきません かえりません よみません おきません ねません たべません きません しません べんきょうしません

う -verb う -verb う -verb る -verb る -verb る -verb
Irregular Irregular Irregular

Note that べんきょうします is considered an irregular verb because it is a compound verb consisting of べんきょう and します. You will learn more compound verbs (noun +します ) in later chapters.

B. Direct object particle, を
The particle を marks a direct object. The direct object receives the action of the verb. For example, in the sentence “John buys a car,” car is the direct object. In English, the direct object is understood by its location (it generally appears immediately after the verb), but in Japanese it is followed by を, as in the following examples. The particle を was once pronounced wo, but is now pronounced o. Topic Direct object Noun Particle Verb (action)

わたしは

ひるごはん



たべます。

I eat lunch. / I will eat lunch.

ス ミス: しゅうまつ、よく なにを しますか。
す み す

What do you often do on weekends?
て れ び

たなか: テ レビを みます。
I watch TV.

ス ミス: そうですか。わたしも よく テ レビを みます。
す み す

Is that so? I often watch TV, too.

て れ び

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100 Chapter 3

Notes

• べんきょうします consists of the noun べんきょう, which means study, and the verb します. Thus, it can be paraphrased as べんきょうを します, which literally means do the study. In the latter sentence, use の to indicate what is being studied.

にほんごを べんきょうします。
I study Japanese.

にほんごの べんきょうを します。
I study Japanese. (literally, I do the study of Japanese.)

• を may be omitted when the meaning can easily be inferred from the context of the conversation. However, it is not easy to determine exactly when to delete を. In this textbook you will sometimes see instances in which particles have been omitted.

C. Destination or goal particles に and へ
The particle に indicates a goal, a destination, or a point of arrival or contact. It is similar to the English prepositions to, into, or onto. The particle へ indicates a direction toward which something or someone moves. When used as a particle, the pronuciation of へ is exactly the same as that of え [e]. When used in other contexts, it is pronounced like the English word hay. Like を, the particles に and へ may be omitted when the meaning can be inferred easily from the context. Destination/Goal Place noun Particle Verb

うち

に/へ

かえります

I will go home. / I am going home.

ス ミス: どこに いきますか。
す み す

Where are you going?

たなか: がっこうへ いきます。 I am going to school. へ can replace に in verbs of motion such as いきます, きます, and かえります, but these particles are not interchangeable with other types of verbs.

がっこうに/へ いきます。
I will go to school. / I go to school.

だいがくに/へ きます。
I will come to the university. / I come to the university.

おふろに はいります。
I will take a bath. / I take a bath.

かばん (bag) に ほんを いれます (put)。
I will put a book in the bag. / I put a book in the bag.

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D. Place of action and event, で
The particle で indicates the place at which an action or event takes place. It is translated as in, at, or on in English. Place of action Noun Particle Verb phrase (action)

としょかん



えいがを みます。

I see a movie at the library. / I am going to see a movie at the library.

ス ミス: どこで べんきょうしますか。
す み す

Where do you (will you) study? I study (will study) at the library.

たなか: としょかんで します。

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
Activity 1
Complete each sentence using the appropriate particles. Example: しゅくだい / します

しゅくだいを します。 6. としょかん / いきます 7. シャワー / あびます 8. がっこう / ひるごはん / たべます 9. うち / かえります
し ゃ わ

1. ほん / よみます 2. おふろ / はいります 3. うち / ねます 4. テレビ / みます 5. クラス / きます
く ら す て れ び

Activity 2
Answer the following questions. Example: よく としょかんに いきますか。

ええ、いきます。 or いいえ、いきません。

1. あさごはんを たべますか。 2. まいあさ コーヒーを のみますか。 3. よく テレビを みますか。 4. よく えいがに いきますか。 5. こんばん としょかんで べんきょうしますか。
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こ ひ

て れ び

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Chapter 3

Activity 3
Work with a partner. In the column headed わたし below, write はい if you are thinking of doing the stated activity today, and いいえ if you are not. Then ask your partner whether he/she is planning to do these activities. Start your questions with the phrase あとで (later). Switch roles after you reach the bottom of the list. Example: A: あとで、ほんを よみますか。

B: ええ、よみます。 or いいえ、よみません。

わたし はい/いいえ ほん/よみます ほかの (another) じゅぎょう/ いきます おふろ/はいります シ ャワー/あびます
し ゃ わ

パ ートナー
ぱ と な

はい/いいえ

えいが/みます にほんごの しゅくだい/します テ レビ/みます
て れ び

ごはん/たべます うち/かえります

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II. Presenting objects or events using 〜が あります
The phrase X が あります means there is X. This phrase is used to describe an object, event, or activity. Depending on the context, 〜が あります can also be used to express possession.

ほんが あります。
There is a book. / I have a book.

えいがが あります。
There is a movie.

しゅくだいが あります。
There is homework. / I have homework.

ス ミス: しゅうまつ なにを しますか。
す み す

What are you going to do this weekend? I am going to school.

たなか: がっこうに いきます。 ス ミス: え、どうしてですか。
す み す

Really, why? There is a Japanese movie (playing) at the library.

たなか: としょかんで にほんの えいがが あります。 ス ミス: あ、そうですか。
す み す

Oh, I see.

Notes



Use the particle で to describe where an event will take place, as in the dialogue above.

としょかんで えいがが あります。
There is a movie at the library.



When 〜が あります expresses possession, use 〜は to indicate the possessor.

ぼくは じゅぎょうが あります。
I have a class.

やまださんは テ レビが ありません。
Yamada-san does not have a TV.
て れ び

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104

Chapter 3

はなして みましょう
Activity 1

Conversation Practice

Work with a partner. You have the following event listing for Tokyo Disney Resort. Tell your friend about various shows and locations. Example: ワールド・バ ザールで ドローイング・クラスが あります。
わ る ど ば ざ る ど ろ い ん ぐ く ら す

Tokyo Disney Resort Theme Park

Special Events

ワ ールド・バ ザール
わ る ど ば ざ る

ド ローイング・ク ラス
ど ろ い ん ぐ く ら す

フ ァ ン タ ジ ー・ラ ンド



ア リスのテ ィ ーパ ーテ ィ
あ り す て




















ウ エスタン・ラ ンド
う え す た ん ら ん ど あ め り か ん う た ふ ろ ん と

フ ロ ン テ ィ ア ・レ ビ ュ ー
ふ ろ ん て










アメリカン・ウォーターフロント ミュージカル「アンコール」




















メ デ ィ テ レ ーニ ア ン ・ハ ーバー ウ ォ ータ ー・カ ーニバル
め で






























マーメイド・ラグーン
ま め い ど ら ぐ ん

ミュージカル「アンダー・ザ・シー」



















ア ラビアン ・ コ ースト
あ ら び あ ん こ す と

マ ジック ・ シ ョ ー
ま じ っ く し


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Activity 2
Work with the class. Ask at least three classmates if they have a class after Japanese class, and if they do, find out what and where it is. Then fill in the chart with the classmate’s name, class and location. Example: A: このあと (after this class) じゅぎょうが ありますか。

B: ええ、ぶんがくの じゅぎょうが あります。 A: そうですか。どこで ありますか。 B: スミス・ホール (Smith Hall) で あります。 or
す み す ほ る

A: このあと (after this class) じゅぎょうが ありますか。 B: いいえ、ありません。〜さんは? A: わたしは えいごの じゅぎょうが あります。

なまえ

じゅぎょう

ばしょ (location)

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Chapter 3

III. Telling time using the particle に
The particle に with a time expression indicates a specific point in time. This use of に corresponds to the English prepositions at, in, or on. It may be used to express clock times, days of the week, months, or years. For example:

ごじに at 5 o’clock ごがつに in May

げつようびに on Monday 1996ねんに in 1996

The particle に is never used with the words きょう, いま, あさ, ばん, いつ, まい〜 (every 〜), こん〜 (this 〜 ), らい〜 (next 〜 ). Point in time Time Particle

ろくじはん



おきます。

ス ミス: うえださんは きょう きますか。
す み す

Is Ms. Ueda coming today? Yes, she is coming around 5 o’clock.

たなか: ええ、ごじに きますよ。 ス ミス: リ ーさんも きますか。
す み す

Is Mr. Li coming, too? No, he is coming on Saturday.




たなか: いいえ、リ ーさんは どようびに きます。

たなか: すみません。いま なんじですか。
Excuse me. What time is it now?

ス ミス: じゅうじ よんじゅうさんぷんです。
す み す

It’s 10:43. Thank you very much.

たなか: どうも ありがとう。 ス ミス: いいえ。
す み す

Not at all.

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Notes

• •

For the pronunciation of numbers and number +ふん , refer to vocabulary sections D and E, pages 91–93. The pronunciation of some numbers may change, depending on the counters being used. For example:

よん いち

扌 よじ 扌 いちじ

よんふん いっぷん



We have seen the use of はん meaning “half past the hour.” Another way to say this is the more literal さんじゅっぷん . For example: さんじさんじゅっぷん/さんじはん = 3:30. from the largest to the smallest unit (for example, day and time), and connect them with の. A few words like まいにち do not take の. For example,

• When two or more time expressions are used together, list them

どようびの さんじに きます。
I am coming at 3: 00 o’clock on Saturday.

まいにち はちじに おきます。
I wake up at 8 o’clock every day.



Use 〜ごろ or ごろ (に) to express an approximate time. For example,

たなか: きょう なんじごろ(に) かえりますか。
About what time are you going to go home today?

ス ミス: よじごろ かえります
す み す

I will go home around 4 o’clock.

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108 Chapter 3

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
Activity 1
Work with a partner. A Japanese film festival is going on all week at the student union. Look at the following schedule and ask each other what time the various screenings begin. Example: A: となりの トトロは いつ ありますか。
と と ろ

B: げつようびの ごぜん じゅういちじに あります。 Movie titles Date and Time Monday 11:00 a.m. Wednesday 5:35 p.m. Friday 8:30 p.m. Tuesday 10:50 a.m. Thursday 12:05 p.m. Saturday 3:15 p.m. Wednesday 10:00 a.m. Friday 10:55 a.m. Sunday 7:45 p.m. Monday 9:40 p.m. Thursday 10:20 a.m. Saturday 12:00 p.m. Tuesday 4:25 p.m. Friday 6:08 p.m. Sunday 10:25 a.m. Wednesday 9:10 p.m. Thursday 12:00 p.m. Saturday 9:30 a.m. Monday 2:33 p.m. Tuesday 11:10 a.m. Sunday 11:44 a.m.

となりの ト トロ
と と ろ

たんぽぽ フ ラガール
ふ ら が る

ゴ ジラ
ご じ ら

リ ング
り ん ぐ

シ ャル・ウ イ・ダ ンス
し ゃ る う い だ ん す

手 紙 (Letter)
て が み

Activity 2
Combine the following phrases to form complete sentences. Use whatever particles are necessary. Example: ごじ/かえります

ごじに かえります。
こ ひ

1. まいあさ/コーヒー/のみます 2. あした/ばん/とうきょう/いきます 3. げつようび/じゅういちじごろ/かえります

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4. らいしゅう/どようび/えいが/みます 5. まいにち/しちじごろ/おふろ/はいります 6. いま/クラス/あります
く ら す

Activity 3
Work with your classmates. Following the model in Box 1 of the chart below, fill in all the blanks with the appropriate particles. Use an X to indicate that no particle is required. Then ask your classmates はい/いいえ questions based on the statements in the chart. If someone answers はい , write his or her name in the box. Try to fill one row or column with different names. Example: A: スミスさんは まいにち ほんを よみますか。
す み す

B: はい、よみます。 Write スミスさん in Box 1.
す み す

① さん まいにち X ほん を よみます。

④ さん まいしゅう げつようび こ ひ としょかん のみます。 いきます。 ⑤ さん ⑥ さん ⑦ さん ⑧ さん もくようび としょかん こんばん うち じゅぎょう べんきょう しゅくだい ひるごはん あります。 します。 します。 たべます。 ⑨ さん あさはちじごろ ごはん たべます。 ⑬ さん まいばん おふろ はいります。 ⑩ さん じゅうにじはん じゅぎょう あります。 ⑭ さん さんじごろ うち かえります。 ⑪ さん ⑫ さん まいあさ にちようび テ レビ がっこう て れ び きます。 みます。 ⑮ さん こんばん はちじ テ レビ みます。
て れ び

② さん がっこう しゅくだい します。

③ さん きょう コ ーヒー

⑯ さん まいあさ しちじ シ ャワー あびます。
し ゃ わ

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110

Chapter 3

Activity 4
Ask a partner about his or her class schedule for the week to complete the following chart. Then switch roles. Example: A: げつようびは じゅぎょうが ありますか。

〜ようび げつようび かようび すいようび もくようび きんようび

B: ええ、ありますよ。 A: そうですか。 いつですか。 B: ごぜんはちじに にほんごの じゅぎょうが あります。

そして、くじに ぶんがくの じゅぎょうが あります。 じゅぎょう 8 a . m .- にほんご 9 a . m .- ぶんがく

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IV. Using adverbs to express frequency of actions
Japanese has a variety of adverbs that express how often one does something, as shown in the following illustration. 100% 50% 0%

いつも

たいてい

よく

ときどき

あまり

ぜんぜん

always

usually

often

sometimes not very often not at all

Sentences containing いつも, たいてい, よく or ときどき end with an affirmative verb form.

わたしは いつも あさ コ ーヒーを のみます。
I always drink coffee in the morning. I usually go to bed at eleven o’clock.
こ ひ

わたしは たいてい じゅういちじに ねます。 わたしは よく としょかんに いきます。
I often go to the library.

わたしは ときどき じゅうじごろ おきます。
I sometimes get up about l0:00. The adverbs あまり and ぜんぜん must always be used with the negative form of the verb.

わたしは あまり ほんを よみません。
I don’t read books very much.

わたしは ぜんぜん あさごはんを たべません。
I don’t eat breakfast at all.

ス ミス: よく あさごはんを たべますか。
す み す

Do you always eat breakfast? No, I never eat it.

たなか: いいえ、ぜんぜん たべません。 ス ミスさんは?
How about you, Mr. Smith?
す み す

ス ミス: わたしは たいてい たべますよ。
す み す

I usually do. I see.

たなか: そうですか。

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Chapter 3

Notes

• とても may be used before よく in order to express very frequent actions. たなかさんは とても よく としょかんに いきます。
Mr. Tanaka goes to the library very often.



The position of an adverb of frequency in a sentence is relatively flexible. These adverbs usually appear immediately before the verb, but may appear before the direct object without any significant change in meaning.

わたしは としょかんに あまり いきません
I don’t go to the library very often.

わたしは あまり としょかんに いきません。
I don’t go to the library very often.

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
Activity 1
Complete the sentences below with an adverb of frequency that best describes your own habits. Choose from いつも , たいてい , よく , ときどき , あまり , or ぜんぜん . Example: うちで あさごはんを たべます。

うちで あさごはんを あまり たべません。
せ ん た

1. りゅうがくせいセンター ( International Student Center) に いきます。 2. としょかんで べんきょうします。 3. シャワーを あびます。 4. うちで しゅくだいを します。 5. おふろに はいります。 6. あさ ほんを よみます。
し ゃ わ

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Activity 2
Ask a partner whether he or she does something often. Then fill in the chart with activities that he or she does and does not do frequently. Example: A: 〜さんは ほんを よく よみますか。

B: いいえ、あまり よみません。

パ ートナー
ぱ と な

わたし

いつも よく ときどき あまり ぜんぜん Activity 3
Work with members of your class. Write down what you do or don’t do frequently in the chart in Activity 2. Tell individual classmates what you do and ask whether he or she has similar habits. Find a classmate who shares your interests. Example: A: わたしは ときどき としょかんに いきます。

〜さんは よく としょかんに いきますか。

B: はい、 わたしも ときどき としょかんに いきます。 or はい、 よく いきます。 or いいえ、 わたしは あまり いきません。 or いいえ、 わたしは ぜんぜん いきません。

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114

Chapter 3

V. Expressing past action and events using the polite past forms of verbs
Forming the polite past form of a verb is quite easy. All you need to do is to use ました instead of ます for an affirmative sentence, and ませんでした instead of ません for a negative sentence. Question Verb (past) Answer Verb (past)

あさごはんを

たべましたか。

いいえ、
No, I didn’t.

たべませんでした。

Did you eat breakfast?

ス ミス: きのう しゅくだいが ありましたか。
す み す

Was there an assignment yesterday? No, there wasn’t.

たなか: いいえ、ありませんでしたよ。 ス ミス: そうですか。どうも。
す み す

I see. Thank you. Polite negative form present past

Polite affirmative form present past

〜ます to go

〜ました

〜ません

〜ませんでした

Verb class

いきます いきました いきません いきませんでした う -verb to eat たべます たべました たべません たべませんでした る -verb to come きます きました きません きませんでした Irregular to do

します

しました

しません

しませんでした Irregular

はなして みましょう Conversation Practice
Activity 1
The chart below lists everything Mr. Smith did yesterday. Looking at the chart, describe each of his activities. Example: スミスさんは しちじに おきました。
す み す

7:00 a.m. 7:10 a.m. 8:00 a.m. 8:45 a.m. 9:00 a.m. 10:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m.

Wake up Shower Breakfast Go to school Japanese class Literature class Lunch at school

1:30 p.m. 2:30 p.m. 4:30 p.m. 6:00 p.m. 7:30 p.m. 9:00 p.m. 12:00 a.m.

English class Study at the library Go home Dinner Watch TV Do homework Go to bed

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Activity 2
Answer the following questions, based on Mr. Smith’s chart in Activity 1. Example: A: スミスさんは きのう はちじに おきましたか。
す み す

す み す す み す す み す す み す す み す す み す す み す

B: いいえ、おきませんでした。

1. スミスさんは きのう おふろに はいりましたか。 2. スミスさんは きのう がっこうで ひるごはんを たべましたか。 3. スミスさんは きのう れきしの じゅぎょうが ありましたか。 4. スミスさんは きのうのばん シャワーを あびましたか。 5. スミスさんは きのう としょかんへ いきましたか。 6. スミスさんは うちで しゅくだいを しましたか。 7. スミスさんは じゅういちじごろ ねましたか。 Activity 3
Work with a partner. Fill in the table below with as much detail as possible describing what you did yesterday. Your partner will have a blank table and will ask you questions to figure out what you did. Compare the two tables when you are done. Example: A:
し ゃ わ

きのう なんじに おきましたか。 はちじごろ おきました。〜さんは? わたしは しちじに おきました。 そうですか。あさごはんは たべましたか。 いいえ、たべませんでした。でも、コーヒーを のみました。
こ ひ

5 a.m. 6 a.m. 7 a.m. 8 a.m. 9 a.m. 10 a.m. 11 a.m. 12 p.m. 1 p.m. 2 p.m. 3 p.m.

B: A: B: A:

4 p.m. 5 p.m. 6 p.m. 7 p.m. 8 p.m. 9 p.m. 10 p.m. 11 p.m. 12 a.m. 1 a.m.

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116

Chapter 3

More about the topic particle は
In Chapter 2 (see pages 46–47), the topic of the sentence was also the subject of the sentence as in わたしは がくせいです (I am a student). As you learned in the Dialogue section of this chapter, the subject serves often as the topic, but not always. The function of the topic is to present something the speaker wishes to comment on, so topics can include time expressions, direct objects, goals, locations, and other words. Understanding how the topic works in Japanese conversation and learning how to use topics can be quite difficult, and more explanations follow later in this book. Do not be surprised if the topic particle は appears when you don’t expect any particle, as in きょうは (today) or where you expect a different particle, as in しゅくだいは (homework) instead of しゅくだいを .

しゅくだいは あした します。
I will do the homework tomorrow. (literally, Speaking of homework, I will do it tomorrow.)

あしたは じゅぎょうが あります。
There is a class tomorrow. (literally, Speaking of tomorrow, there is a class.) A: B: A:

よく えいがを みますか。
Do you watch movies often?

ええ。
Yes.

じゃあ、テ レビは?
て れ び

Well, how about TV? B:

テ レビは みませんね。
て れ び

No, I don’t watch TV. A: B: A:

しゅうまつは なにを しますか。
What will you do this weekend?

えいがを みます。にほんの えいがですよ。
I’m going to a movie. A Japanese film.

そうですか。いいですね。
Is that so? That sounds good.

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きく れんしゅう
Listening

じょうずな ききかた Listening Strategy Listening for general ideas
Conversations are often full of redundancy and unimportant details, and it is not necessary to understand every single spoken word. It is more important to pick up a few key words and to get a general idea of what the conversation is about. If you need to know specific details or information, you can always ask questions about them for clarification.

みっつの ライフスタイル Three different lifestyles
ら い ふ す た い る

Think about your lifestyle and write down some of the words and phrases that describe it. Then listen to three people talking about their daily lives. Decide which person’s life is most like yours. Try to explain the reasons for your choice. There will be some conversational fillers and unknown words in what you hear, but don’t worry about them. Try to pick out a few words at a time, write them down, and get the gist of each monologue. Then, try to guess which one of the following people fits in each description. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________

A

B

C

D

E

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118

Chapter 3

ききじょうず はなしじょうず
Communication

Communication Strategy Using あいづち (attentive feedback) 2

In Chapter 2 (p. 66), you learned that the Japanese give feedback, or あいづち, in several ways during a conversation, and that はい and ええ do not necessarily indicate agreement. In addition to indicating that the listener is following the conversation, the use of はい and ええ can mean that the listener sympathizes with the speaker, or that the listener agrees with the speaker’s opinion. It is not easy for people unfamiliar with this use of あいづち to interpret correctly which meaning of はい and ええ is intended in many cases. A classic example is that of an American businessperson who reports that a negotiation seemed to be going well because his or her Japanese counterpart appeared to be agreeing with what was being said, but that the deal ultimately fell through, leaving the American bewildered. The words はい and いいえ are used between phrases as well as between sentences. In the following example, speaker B constantly interrupts speaker A so that A never finishes a sentence. A: きのう えいがが あって ... B: ええ、 A: おもしろいって いうから A: There was a movie yesterday, and . . . B: Yeah/Yes. A: I went because I heard it would be

いってみたんですが ... interesting, but . . . B: ええ、ええ B: Yeah, yeah. A: ぜんぜん おもしろくなくて ... A: It was not interesting at all, and . . .
Although this might appear rude according to Western standards, by Japanese standards B is not being rude, because A expects constant feedback from B. Indeed, A would feel uncomfortable if B waited for him or her to finish the sentence. In fact, this type of interruption can be seen in many types of conversational feedback in Japanese.

れんしゅう Practice
Work with a partner. Imagine that both of you are in front of the library and your partner is pointing out different buildings on campus. Say はい or ええ between phrases and sentences to indicate that you understand what he or she is saying.

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Daily Routines

119

よむ れんしゅう
Reading

じょうずな よみかた Reading Strategy Scanning
There are many ways to read a text. Reading style depends on the reader’s purpose. For example, if you are looking for certain information, such as the title of a movie, a date, or a topic, you may scan for a specific word or phrase. If you are looking for a reference article, you might skim the abstracts of papers. If you are writing a critique of an article, you will read it in detail. In this chapter, we will discuss the scanning process. Scanning is a technique used to located specific information or facts quickly. People scan a text to look up a word in a dictionary or a name in the telephone directory, or to search for an answer to a comprehension question. In order to scan, a reader must know what he/she is looking for to be able to search for specific words or phrases. Scanning is also an effective pre-reading tool when reading numerous texts. The reader may scan the text to assess its relevance, then skim it to get the gist, and if necessary, go back to the text yet again for more detailed reading. When scanning is used as a pre-reading tool, it is a good idea to look for items that signal text organization, such as numbers, steps, or words such as first and second. Also, words that appear in boldface, italics, a larger font size, or a different color may also indicate key information.

れんしゅう

Practice

A. Your friend asks you when you are available to go out for lunch next week. You check your appointment book, which is shown on the next page. Use the information there to answer the following: 1. What kind of information you look for in an appointment book in cases like this. 2. The day of the week and time that is most convenient for you. Use the phrase 〜ようびの 〜じは どうですか (How about 〜 ?). Example: げつようびの じゅうにじは どうですか。 How about 12 o’clock Monday?

B. Another friend asks you to play tennis with him. Check your appointments in the table below to let him know the day of the week and time that you can play. Use the phrase 〜ようびの 〜じは どうですか (How about 〜 ?)

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120

Chapter 3

10/1 〜 10/7

10/1 9時 〜12時 ク ラス じ じ く ら す 月 1時 半 〜2時 ク ラス げつ 3時 半 〜10時 ア ルバイト
じ はん じ あ る ば い と じ はん じ く ら す

10/5 9時 〜12時 ク ラス 金
きん

1時 半 〜2時 ク ラス
じ はん じ く ら す











10/2 9時 〜10時 ク ラス じ じ く ら す 火 10時 半 〜12時 ク ラス か 1 時 〜2時 田 中 先 生 4時 〜6時 ク ラス
じ じ じ く ら す じ じ じ はん じ く ら す た なか せん せい

10/6 9時 〜5時 ア ルバイト 土
ど じ じ あ る ば い と

10/3 9時 〜12時 ク ラス 水
すい

1時 半 〜2時 ク ラス 4時 半 〜7時 半 ク ラス
じ はん じ はん く ら す じ はん じ く ら す









10/7 デ ート で と 日
にち

10/4 9時 〜10時 ク ラス じ じ く ら す 木 10時 半 〜12時 ク ラス もく 4時 〜6時 テ スト
じ じ て す と じ はん じ く ら す

NOTES

ジョンソンさんの一日 Ms. Johnson’s Daily Routine
じ ょ ん そ ん いちにち

よむ まえに Pre-reading
A. Write five Japanese sentences about your daily routine. B. Read the question below and identify the words or phrases to scan for in order to find out the answer quickly.

ジョンソンさんは まいにち じゅぎょうが ありますか。
じ ょ ん そ ん

When you are done, scan the passage on the following page. Give your answer to the instructor as soon as you find it.

ことばの リスト Vocabulary
り す と

そして その後 ですから でも 学 生 会 館
がくせいかいかん あと

and, then after that so, therefore but Student Union Building

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Daily Routines

121

私 の 一日
わたし いちにち

キム ・ジョンソン
き む じ ょ ん そ ん
わたし

私 は毎 日 七 時 半 に起きます。そして、シャワーを浴びます。 た
まいにちしち じ はん はち じ お し ゃ わ あ あさ はん た はち じ はん だいがく

いてい八 時 ごろ朝 ご飯 を食 べます。そして、八 時 半 ごろ大 学 へ行 きます。日 本 語 の授 業 は毎 朝 九 時 にあります。その後 、
い に ほん ご じゅぎょう まいあさ く じ あと

よく図 書 館 で勉 強 します。昨日も図 書 館 でテストの勉 強 をしま
と しょかん べんきょう きのう と しょかん て す と べんきょう

した。
ひる

昼 ご飯 はたいてい学 生会館で食 べます。でも、昨日は食 べま
はん がくせいかいかん た きのう えい ご た げつよう び すいよう び きんよう び ご ご ぶんがく

せんでした。月 曜 日 と水 曜 日 と金 曜 日 の午 後は英 語 と文 学の 授 業 があります。火 曜 日 と木 曜 日 の午 後は授 業 がありませ
じゅぎょう か よう び もくよう び かえ ご ご じゅぎょう

ん。たいてい五 時 半 ごろ家 に帰 ります。六 時 ごろ晩 ご飯 を食
ご じ はん うち ろく じ ばん はん た

べます。そして、宿 題 をします。テレビはあまり見 ません。い
しゅくだい ね て れ び み

つも 十 一 時 半 に寝 ます。
じゅういち じ はん

よんだ あとで Comprehension
Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. ジョンソンさんは なんじごろ おきますか。
じ ょ ん そ ん じ ょ ん そ ん

2. ジョンソンさんは いつ ねますか。 3. げつようびは なんの じゅぎょうが ありますか。 4. ジョンソンさんは がくせいかいかんへ よく いきますか。
じ ょ ん そ ん じ ょ ん そ ん じ ょ ん そ ん

5. ジョンソンさんは きのう なにを しましたか。 6. ジョンソンさんは よく テレビを みますか。
て れ び

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122

Chapter 3

そうごう れんしゅう
Integration

すずきさんの まいにち
Form a group of three people. There should be three types of groups: A, B, and C. Your instructor will tell you which group you are in. Listen to an interview with Suzuki-san, and take notes on the schedule sheet below. Discuss the interview with your partners and make sure that your information is correct. Then form a different group of three. All of the members in this group should come from different groups, one from Group A, another from Group B, and the other from Group C. Exchange information with the others to discover if there are discrepancies in your information.

〜ようび にちようび げつようび かようび すいようび もくようび きんようび どようび

なにを しますか。

ロールプレイ
ろ る ぷ れ い

Role Play

Imagine that you are talking to a Japanese friend. Explain to him or her how a typical American college student might spend a week.

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Chapter 4

第 四
い だ


ん か



にほんの まち
Japanese Cities
Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar Asking about places and indicating location Buildings, landmarks, adjectives このへんに ぎんこ うが ありますか。 Is there a bank around here? I. Referring to things using これ, それ, あれ, どれ II. Asking for and giving locations using 〜は 〜に あります / います and ここ, そこ, あそこ III. Describing people and things using adjectives + noun, and polite present forms of adjectives IV. Describing people, things, and their locations using 〜に 〜が あります/います V. Using よ and ね Using redundancy in speech Introduction to kanji 大 学 校 先 生 Using script types as clues to word boundaries

Japanese Culture Geography and demographics of Japan

Listening Kanji Reading

Communication Getting someone’s attention (1)

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124

Chapter 4

単語
Vocabulary
たん ご

Nouns アパート えき えんぴつ かばん カフェ きっさてん きょうかしょ ぎんこう けしゴム こ うえん こ うばん このへん コンビニ じしょ スーパー たてもの テスト デパート ノート ビル びょういん ペン ボールペン 病院 建物 辞書 喫茶店 教科書 銀行 消しゴム 公園 交番 この辺 駅 鉛筆 鞄 apartment station pencil luggage, bag coffee shop, café (recent term) coffee shop (traditional term) textbook bank eraser park police box this area convenience store dictionary supermarket building, structure test department store notebook building hospital pen ballpoint pen

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Japanese Cities

125

ほんや まち ゆうびんきょく りょう レストラン る -verbs います

本屋 町 郵便局 寮

bookstore town post office dormitory restaurant

to be; to exist (used for an animate beings). The dictionary form is いる.

Demonstrative words ここ これ そこ それ あそこ あれ い -adjectives あおい あかい あたらしい いい おおきい きいろい くろい しろい たかい ちいさい 大きい 黄色い 黒い 白い 高い 小さい 青い 赤い 新しい blue red new good big yellow black white tall, high small here, this place this object, this there, that place (close to the listener or slightly removed from both speaker and listener) that object, that (close to the listener or slightly removed from both speaker and listener) over there, that place (far away from both speaker and listener) that, that object over there

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126 Chapter 4

ちゃいろい ふるい な -adjectives きれい ( な ) ゆうめい ( な ) りっぱ ( な ) Question words だれ どれ どんな Adverbs あまり とても どうも

茶色い 古い

brown old

clean, pretty, neat

有名 ( な ) 立派 ( な )

famous fine, splendid, nice

who which one what kind of

very (always used with a negative form) very (always used with an affirmative form) very

どうも ありがとう どうも すみません Suffix 〜や 〜屋

Thank you very much I’m very sorry

store (for example, ほんや bookstore)

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Japanese Cities

127

単語の 練習
たん ご

れんしゅう

Vocabulary Practice

A. まち

Towns supermarket library post office park

dormitory hospital

school

restaurant department store

apartments

convenience store

bank

cafe police box

bookstore station

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128

Chapter 4

Activity 1
Complete the chart with the Japanese word for each symbol. Location station bank post office supermarket school hospital restaurant coffee shop police box department store convenience store Map Symbol Japanese

Activity 2
Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

よく カフェに いきますか。 よく コンビニに いきますか。 なんじごろ うちに かえりますか。 〜さんは うちに すんでいますか。アパートに すんでいますか。 りょうに す んでいますか。( すんでいます to live) せんしゅう スーパーに いきましたか。 しゅうまつは ときどき デパートに いきますか。 よく どこで べんきょうしますか。 レストランで よく なにを たべますか。

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Japanese Cities

129

B. Adjectives
あたらしい 大 きい
おお

new big tall, high small old clean, pretty, neat famous nice, fine, splendid

あおい あかい きいろい くろい しろい ちゃいろい

blue red yellow black white brown

たかい ちいさい ふるい きれい ( な ) ゆうめい ( な ) りっぱ ( な ) Activity 3

Write an antonym for each of the following words. Follow the example. Example: きたない (dirty) → きれい

大 きい
おお

あたらしい しろい あかい むめい (unknown) Activity 4
Create as many sentences as you can using 〜は adjectives です and the adjectives in the above list. Example: わたしの 学 校は 大 きいです。
がっこう おお

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130

Chapter 4

C. School supplies

えんぴつ

けしゴム

ペン

ボールペン

ノート Activity 5

きょうかしょ

じしょ

かばん

Create sentences describing the color(s) and/or size for each of the items above that you own. Example: わたしの かばんは ちゃいろいです。 じしょは しろいです。

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Japanese Cities

131

ダイアローグ
Dialogue

はじめに

Warm-up

The Shibuya/Harajuku District is a popular hangout for young Japanese. Look at the map of Shibuya and Harajuku below and try to identify some of the landmarks in the area.

Shibuya and Harajuku

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132

Chapter 4

Is このへんに ぎんこ うが ありますか。 there a bank around here?
Ueda is meeting a friend in Shibuya. She has just gotten off the train, and realizes that she needs to withdraw some cash. She approaches a passerby (つうこうにん) in front of Shibuya Station (しぶやえき).

うえだ: つうこうにん A: うえだ: つうこうにん A: うえだ: つうこうにん A: うえだ: つうこうにん A:
In the building:

あのう、すみませんが。 はい。 このへんに ぎんこうが ありますか。 ええ、ありますよ。あそこに たかい ビルが ありますね。 ええ。 あれですよ。 あ、 そうですか。どうも ありがとう ございます。 いいえ。

うえだ: つうこうにん B: うえだ: つうこうにん B: うえだ: つうこうにん B:

あのう、すみません。 はい。 ぎんこうは どこに ありますか。 あ、ぎんこうは それですよ。 ああ、どうも。 いいえ。

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Japanese Cities

133

At the entrance of the bank:

うえだ: あのう、すみませんが、ATM は どこですか。 こういん (clerk): そこに ございます。 うえだ: ああ、どうも。

Dialogue Phrase Notes



When someone thanks you, it is common to say いいえ . In this case, いいえ means Don’t mention it, or You’re welcome.

• Like English, Japanese uses a variety of expressions, such as あ
(Ah / Oh), ああ (Oh / OK), へえ〜 (Hmm / Oh) to indicate understanding or surprise.

• どうも is an abbreviation of phrases such asどうも ありがとう and どうも すみません . It is very common to use only どうも in conversation.

• ございます is the polite form of あります. In this dialogue, the bank clerk uses it when speaking with Ueda.

ダイアローグの 後で
あと

Comprehension

Answer the following questions in Japanese.

1. うえださんは どこに いきますか。 2. それは しぶやえきに ありますか。 3. どんな たてものですか。

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134

Chapter 4

日本の文化
Japanese Culture
に ほん ぶん か

Geography and demographics of Japan
Japan is an island nation consisting of about 3,000 islands. Among them, Honshu, Hokkaido, Kyushu, and Shikoku are the four major islands. Japan lies east of

Korea, Russia, and China and is separated from continental Asia by the Sea of Japan. The country is comparable in size to the state of California, with a climate that varies from cool temperate in the north to subtropical in the south. Mountains cover nearly three quarters of Japan. Since so little flat area exists, many hills and mountainsides are cultivated all the way to the top. There are many volcanoes in Japan because the country lies in an area where several continental plates meet. The most famous volcano is Mt. Fuji, which is the highest point of Japan, with an elevation of 3,776m (12,388 feet). Considered to be one of the most beautiful mountains in the world, Fuji-san, as the Japanese call it, is held sacred and can be seen from Tokyo when the weather is clear. As Japan is situated in a volcanic zone along the Pacific deeps, frequent lowintensity earth tremors and occasional volcanic activity are felt throughout the

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Japanese Cities

135

islands. Destructive earthquakes occur several times a century. Hot springs are numerous and have been developed as resorts. The population of Japan is about 125,000,000. While nearly the entire population is Japanese, more than half of the non-Japanese population is Korean. Several smaller minorities from other parts of Asia, India, Latin America, and the Mideast live mostly in Tokyo and other large cities.

Japanese neighborhoods
Japanese neighborhoods tend to develop around a train station. Surrounding a station are various stores, restaurants, banks, post offices, bus terminals, and other buildings. It is also common to find a police box (こうばん) in front of a station. A police box usually has a couple of officers on duty around the clock. People often ask officers for directions. Police boxes in Tokyo are designed to match the atmosphere of the neighborhood. Many of them include artistic architectural detail, with “KOBAN” signs written in romanized text instead of the characters 交 番 , to appear more friendly and modern.
こうばん

Map symbols
In Japan, streets are not usually laid out with a north-south or east-west orientation, and many are designated only by number, so being able to read a Japanese map and keeping one handy is essential to getting around in Japan. If you happen to be in a car, GPS navigation systems are common, and some cell phones have a feature to access maps online. For a chart of Japanese map symbols and their meanings, visit the Nakama 1 student website. Around the turn of the last century, the term カフェ came into use in Japan. Until then きっさてん had been the only word for coffee shop. These words now refer to different types of coffee shops. A カフェ usually has a modern interior and hip urban feel, and serves food and coffee intended to appeal to women and younger consumers. (for example, Starbucks, or スタバ as the Japanese tend to call it.) The term きっさてん refers to a more traditional coffee shop and tends to imply a less sophisticated atmosphere. Many きっさてん allow smoking inside, so they are often considered resting spots for smokers, especially businessmen.

カフェ vs きっさてん

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136

Chapter 4

文法
Grammar
I. Referring to things, using これ, それ, あれ,どれ
In Chapter 1, you learned the Japanese words to ask about objects around you, using これ/それ/あれは にほんごで なんと いいますか. This chapter introduces the general use of これ, それ, あれ and どれ. これ, それ, あれ and どれ are nouns that refer to things.
ぶんぽう

A. これ means this or this thing. It refers to something that is close to the speaker.

Speaker

これは わたしの えんぴつです。
This is my pencil.

B. それ means that or that thing. It refers to something that is closer to the listener than the speaker or somewhat away from both of them.

Speaker

Speaker

それは わたしの えんぴつです。
That is my pencil.

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C. あれ means that or that thing over there. It refers to something away from both of them.

Speaker

あれは わたしの えんぴつです。
That one over there is my pencil.

D. どれ means which or which thing. It is a question word that asks for a choice between two or more items.

スミス: たなかさん、それは なんですか。
Ms. Tanaka, what is that?

たなか: これは にほんごの きょうかしょです。
This is a Japanese textbook.

スミス: あ、そうですか。じゃあ、あれも にほんごの きょうかしょ ですか。
I see. Then, is that one over there a Japanese textbook, too?

たなか: いいえ、あれは にほんごの じしょです。
No, that’s a Japanese dictionary.

スミス: それは たなかさんの ほんですか。
Is that one your book?

たなか: いいえ、ちがいます。
No, it isn’t.

スミス: じゃあ、たなかさんの ほんは どれですか。
Which one is your book, Ms. Tanaka?

たなか: あれです。
That one over there.

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スミス: あれは だれの ノートですか。
Whose notebook is that over there?

たなか: あれですか。キムさんの ノートです。
That one over there? It’s Ms. Kim’s.

スミス: そうですか。
Is that so?

Notes

• これ, それ, あれ and どれ are pronouns and cannot be followed by another noun.



It is rude to refer to people using これ, それ, あれ, どれ because they refer to things. However, you can use them to refer to a person in a picture because he/she is not considered a person.

• Actual distances that these words indicate vary depending on context. それ would imply much greater distance when it is used to point out a building than when it is used to point to an item in a room. In the picture below, これ refers to the building in front of the speaker and the listener, あれ refers to the house far away from them, and それ refers to the one that is somewhat away from them but not quite far enough for them to call it あれ .

• だれ means who, but it also means whose if followed by the particle の. Who is coming? だれが きますか。 これは だれの ほんですか。 Whose book is this?

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話して みましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Look at the following drawing of a room. Smith is asking Kimura the Japanese words for various objects in the room. Complete the following conversations using これ , それ and あれ . Example: スミス : これは にほんごで なんと いいますか。

きむら : けしゴムと いいます。

1. スミス : 2. スミス : 3. スミス : 4. スミス : 5. スミス :

_____________は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 _____________は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 _____________は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 _____________は にほんごで なんと いいますか。 _____________は にほんごで なんと いいますか。

きむら : けしゴムと いいます。 きむら : じしょと いいます。 きむら : えんぴつと いいます。 きむら : ノートと いいます。 きむら : かばんと いいます。

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. Look at the following drawing. Pretend you are person A, and your partner is person B. Some erasers, pencils, books, and dictionaries are scattered around the room. First, let your partner decide who among the following people owns each item and mark it on the drawing.

たなか先 生 きむらさん アリスさん キムさん スミスさん リンさん
せんせい

Then ask who owns each item and write it under the owner's name. After you finish, have your partner check your answers. Example: A: これ/それ/あれは だれの ほんですか。 B: きむらさんの ほんです。
A B

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Looking at the map below, ask a classmate to locate certain buildings using これ , それ and あれ . Assume that both of you are standing in front of the police box. Example: A: これ/それ/あれは

ですか。

B: はい、そうです。 or いいえ、そうじゃありません。

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Activity 4
Work with a partner. Look at the following town maps. Imagine that your partner is a new student and you are showing him/her the campus. First, decide where you and your partner are among the locations numbered 1 through 4. Then, describe the buildings around you, using これ, それ, あれ, どれ . Example: A: これ/それ/あれは です。 B: A:

そうですか。じゃあ、これ/それ/あれは なんですか。 です。

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II. Asking for and giving locations using 〜は 〜に あります/います and ここ, そこ, あそこ A. ここ、 そこ、 あそこ、 どこ
The words これ, それ, あれ, どれ refer to objects. When these words are used to point out a building, the speaker is viewing the building as an object rather than as a location. However, buildings and facilities are also considered places or locations. In order to refer to the location, you need to use ここ, そこ, あそこ, どこ instead.

ここ means here or this place, and refers to the area close to the speaker. そこ means there or that place, and refers to the area close to the listener but away from the speaker, or between, or some distance from both of them. speaker and the listener.

あそこ means that place over there, and refers to the area far away from both the どこ means where.

B. ~ は ~ に あります
In Chapter 3 (p. 103), you learned that the verb あります (there is X) is used to describe the existence of an object or event. It is commonly used to ask or identify the location of objects such as pens, books, and buildings. To ask about location, use 〜は どこに ありますか. Here に is a particle that indicates the location of an object. Where is the dictionary? じしょは どこに ありますか。

りょうは どこに ありますか。 Where is the dormitory?
The answer to these questions might be: Location に あります. It’s here. ここに あります

あそこに

あります。

It’s over there.

The word あります is never used to indicate the location of animate objects such as people, pets, and other animals, because it is used only for lifeless objects. Use います to talk about the location of living beings.

キム: まもるさんは どこに いますか。 Where is Mamoru? スー: ここに います。
He is here.

スミス: あのう、すみませんが、ゆうびんきょくは どこに ありますか。
Um, excuse me, but where is the post office?

たなか: そこに あります。
It’s there.

スミス: あ、そうですか。どうも。
I see. Thanks.
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(The teacher is taking attendance, but he doesn’t see Ms. Kim.)

先 生: キムさんは どこに いますか。
せんせい

Where is Ms. Kim?
せんせい

ブラウン: 先 生、いま としょかんに います。
Professor, she is in the library now.

先 生: あ、そうですか。じゅぎょうに きますか。
せんせい

I see. Is she coming to class? Well, I am not sure.

ブラウン: さあ、よくわかりません。

Notes



Location に あります/います can be abbreviated as Location

です. なかがわ: スミスさんの りょうは どこですか。
Where is Mr. Smith’s dormitory?

スミス: あそこです。
Over there.
せんせい

先 生: キムさんは どこに いますか。
Where is Ms. Kim? In the library.

ジョンソン: としょかんです。



You cannot use the particle で in this structure because で indicates a location at which an event or activity takes place. When you are merely asking or indicating the location of a building or object, no activity is implied.

スミス: どこで えいがが ありますか。
Where is the movie?

なかがわ: あそこで あります。
It will be over there.

キム: こうえんは どこに ありますか。
Where is the park?

やまだ: あそこに あります。
It’s over there.

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Work with a partner. Look at the drawing of a room. One person asks questions about the location of the objects and people, 〜は どこに あります /いますか and the other person responds using ここ/そこ/あそこ and 〜に あります /います or 〜です. Follow the model. Example: A: ノートは どこに ありますか。 B: ここに あります。/ここです。

1. けしゴム 2. やまださん 3. にほんごの じしょ

4. スミスさん 5. ボールペン 6. きょうかしょ
A B

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Activity 2
Look at the following drawing of a street. Your partner will ask you where the following buildings are. Answer his/her questions based on the picture. Example: A: あのう、としょかんは どこに ありますか。 B: そこに あります。 A: ああ、そこですね。どうも。

1. こうえん 2. こうばん 3. ゆうびんきょく

4. ほんや 5. としょかん

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III. Describing people and things using adjectives + noun, and polite present forms of adjectives
There are two types of adjectives in Japanese. Both of them modify nouns directly and can be used at the end of sentence to describe a noun. One is called an い -adjective because it ends in い before a noun, as in 大 きい うち (big house) and ちいさい うち (small house). The other type is called a な -adjective, because the adjective takes な before a noun as in りっぱな うち (fine house) and きれいな うち (pretty house).
おお

A. Describing people and things, using adjectives and adverbs + noun りょうは ふるい たてものです。
The dormitory is in an old building.

えきビルは ゆうめいな たてものです。
The station building is a famous building. The formation of adjective + noun is the following. Note that the dictionary form is the form in which dictionaries list adjectives and verbs.

い -adjectives
Dictionary form

大 きい
おお おお

大 きい + うち 扌 大 きい うち
おお

な -adjectives
Dictionary form: きれい

きれいな + うち 扌 きれいな うち やまなか: あれは わたしの うちです。
That one over there is my house.

スミス: へえ、大 きい うちですね。
Wow, it’s a large house, isn’t it?
おお

ジョンソン: ゆうびんきょくは どこに ありますか。
Where is the post office?

ほんだ: ゆうびんきょくですか。あそこです。
The post office? Over there.

ジョンソン: ああ、りっぱな たてものですね。
I see, it’s a nice building.

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B. Describing and commenting on places using adjectives (polite affirmative and negative forms), and とても and あまり. Polite affirmative form わたしの かばんは あかいです。
My bag is red.

おがわさんのりょうは とても ちいさいです。
Mr. Ogawa’s dorm is very small.

びょういんは とても きれいです。
The hospital is very clean.

Polite negative form わたしの かばんは くろくありません。
My bag is not black.

わたしの かばんは くろくないです。
My bag is not black.

びょういんは あまり 大 きくありません。
The hospital is not very big. The hospital is not very big.
おお

びょういんは あまり 大 きくないです。
おお

すずきさんのりょうは あまり りっぱじゃありません。
Mr. Suzuki’s dorm is not very nice.

すずきさんのりょうは あまり りっぱじゃないです。
Mr. Suzuki’s dorm is not very nice. The following charts show the formation of polite forms and adjective + noun for い - and な-adjectives.

い -adjectives
Dictionary form Polite affirmative form Polite negative form adjective + noun

大 きい
おお

大 きいです
おお

大 きくありません
おお おお

大 きいうち
おお

(large)

大 きくないです いいうち

いい *
(good)

いいです

よくありません よくないです

* い -Adjective いい , meaning good, has an irregular negative form.

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な -adjectives
Dictionary form Polite affirmative form Polite negative form Adjective + noun

ゆうめい
(famous)

ゆうめいです

ゆうめいじゃありません ゆうめいじゃないです

ゆうめいな うち

ジョンソン: ほんださんの うちは どこですか。
Where is your house, Mr. Honda?

ほんだ: それです。
It’s there.

ジョンソン: ああ、とても きれいな うちですね。
Wow, it’s a very nice house, isn’t it.

ほんだ: ありがとう。でも、 あまり 大 きくありませんよ。/ おお 大 きくないですよ。
おお

Thank you, but it is not very big.

Notes



The alternative negative form, 〜ないです, is considered colloquial and only used in spoken language.

• Note that the negative form of a な-adjective is the same as that of a noun + です. Negative of noun + です Negative of な - adjective
だいがくせい

大 学生じゃありません。

きれいじゃありません。

りょうは とても きれいです。
The dormitory is very nice/clean.

りょうは あまり きれいじゃありません。
The domitory is not very nice /clean.



The adverbs とても and あまり are often used with adjectives, and both may be translated as very in English. とても occurs with an affirmative form, and あまり occurs with a negative form. The combination of あまり 〜ません/ないです means not very. Use どんな (what kind of 〜 ) to ask about characteristics of people and objects.



イー: どんな たてものですか。
What kind of building is it?

ホン: くろい たてものです。
It is a black building
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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Describe buildings, objects, and people using the boxed adjectives and the phrases listed below. Example: わたしの りょう/たてもの

わたしの りょうは ふるい たてものです。
おお

大 きい ちいさい

あたらしい ふるい しろい ゆうめい

たかい いい

あかい あおい きれい りっぱ 1. わたしの 大 学/大 学
だいがく

くろい きいろい ちゃいろい

2. わたしの うち/たてもの 3. わたしの かばん/かばん Activity 2

だいがく

4. にほんごの 先 生/ひと ( person)
せんせい

5. びょういん/たてもの 6. 先 生の ペン/ペン
せんせい

Work with a partner. Ask your classmates what kinds of places they prefer for doing one of the following activities: Example: うちを かいます。 (to buy) A: どんな うちが いいですか。

B: ふるい うちが いいですね。
だいがくいん

1. 大 学 院 に はいります。 2. カフェで べんきょうします。 3. びょういんに いきます。 4. りょこうに いきます。 (to go on a trip) 5. レストランで ごはんを たべます。

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Activity 3
Look at the chart describing various buildings, and answer the following questions, paying attention to はい, いいえ, とても and あまり. Examples: A: B: or A: B:

ゆうびんきょくは 大 きいですか。 いいえ、大 きくありません。 いいえ、大 きくないです。 ぎんこうは 大 きいですか。 はい、とても 大 きいです。
おお おお おお おお おお

ゆうびんきょく
おお

ぎんこう とても いいえ いいえ いいえ あまり とても

スーパー あまり はい とても はい いいえ いいえ

びょういん はい あまり とても はい はい はい

大 きい いい

いいえ とても あまり はい いいえ あまり

あたらしい きれい ゆうめい りっぱ 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

スーパーは いいですか。 ゆうびんきょくは あたらしいですか。 びょういんは きれいですか。 びょういんは あたらしいですか。 ゆうびんきょくは いいですか。 ぎんこうは りっぱですか。 ぎんこうは ゆうめいですか。

Activity 4
Work with a partner. Using the adjectives you have just learned, tell your partner about your home and belongings. Then ask your partner whether his/her place and belongings also share these characteristics. Follow the model. Example: A: わたしの アパートは あたらしいです。

〜さんの アパートも あたらしいですか。
B: ええ、とても あたらしいです。/

いいえ、あまり あたらしくありません。

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IV. Describing people, things, and their locations using 〜に 〜が あります/います
The phrase 〜に 〜が あります/います means there is a person/object in a certain location. It uses the same verbs and the location particle に like 〜は 〜に あります/います, but their usage is different. Whereas 〜は 〜に あります/ います is used to ask for or tell the location of something or someone, 〜に 〜が あります/います is used to describe a scene in which someone or something exists in a given location or to ask what is in that location.

あ、ここに ほら、あそこに 大 学に
だいがく

ねこが すずきさんが ほんやが ゆうびんきょくが

えきに

here. います。 Look! I see Mr. Suzuki over there. あります。 There is a bookstore in the university. あります。 There is a post office in the station.

います。 Oh, there is a cat right

ブラウン: そこに ほんが ありますか。
Is there a book there (near you)?

おがわ: ええ、ありますよ。ブラウンさんの ほんですか。
Yes, there is. It that yours?

ブラウン: ええ、そうです。ありがとう。
Yes, it is. Thank you.

たなか: このへんに なにが ありますか。
What is in this area?

スミス: とても ゆうめいな こうえんが あります。
There is a very famous park.

うえだ: すみません、このへんに スーパーが ありますか。
Excuse me. Is there a supermarket around here?

つうこうにん (passerby) ええ、ありますよ。 :
Yes, there is.

うえだ: そうですか。どこに ありますか。
I see. Where is it?

つうこうにん (passerby) あそこですよ。 :
It is over there.

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Notes



The location may be marked by には instead of just に , if the location is the topic of a sentence. Example: にほんには ふじさんが あります。 As for Japan, Mt. Fuji is there.

• 〜に 〜が あります cannot be replaced with 〜は 〜です.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
The box below represents a room. You are at location A. Decide where to place the objects listed in the chart and fill in blanks 2 through 8 accordingly. Then, assuming you are talking with a person at location B, complete the chart with the location number and correct location noun ( ここ, そこ or あそこ). Finally, create sentences describing the location of each object, following the example. Example: ここに くろい ペンが あります。

1 くろい ペン 6 ____________

2 _____________ 7 _______________

3 _______________ 5____________ 8 ____________ 4 ____________

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Location 1–8 1

ここ/そこ/あそこ ここ

Object

くろい ペン あかい ボールペン ふるい かばん しろい かばん きいろい ノート ちゃいろい えんぴつ ふるい じしょ きれいな きょうかしょ

Activity 2
Work with a partner. Ask your partner where the objects in Activity 1 are located on his/her map for the same exercise, and write in the name of the objects in the correct location below. Use the location number to specify the exact location. Example: A: 1に なにが ありますか。 B: くろい ペンが あります。

1 くろい ペン 6 ____________

2 _____________ 7_________________

3 _______________ 5____________ 8 ____________ 4 ____________

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Activity 3
Work with a new partner. Ask your partner about buildings in his/her neighborhood. Then write a description of the neighborhood using adjectives you have just learned. Example: A: このへんに どんな たてものが ありますか。 B:

ぎんこうが あります。 たかい たてものです。 でも、あまり きれいじゃありません。

A: どんな たてものですか。 B:

Activity 4
Work in a group of four. One person will think of a famous city or a country. Try to guess the name of the city or the country by asking who lives there or what landmarks are found there. Use そこ to refer to the target city or country. Examples: A: そこに なにが ありますか。 B:

ビッグベン (Big Ben) が あります。 はい、そうです。

A: ロンドンですか。 B:

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V. Using よ and ね
Japanese employs a variety of sentence final particles to indicate the speaker’s assumption, intention, and other subtle nuances. Two of the most common particles used in conversation are ね and よ .

A. The particle ね
The particle ね can be translated as 〜 isn’t it?/right?/correct? in English. It indicates that the speaker thinks the listener shares the same information, opinions, or feelings. ね is used when the speaker is seeking the listener’s agreement, or confirming a fact, or to create a sense of togetherness between the speakers. For example, in the following exchange, Li is confirming that a kanji quiz is scheduled for today.

リー: きょう かんじの テストが ありますね。
We have a kanji test today, right?

キム: ええ。
Yes. In the following sentence, Li thinks that Yoyogi Park is pretty and assumes Kim thinks the same. So, he is seeking her agreement.

リー: 代々木公 園は きれいですね。
よ よ ぎ こうえん

Yoyogi Park is pretty, isn’t it?

キム: ええ、ほんとうに きれいですね。
Yes, it is indeed pretty. In the following sentence, John does not necessarily assume that Yamashita shares the same opinion about the park. Instead, he invites Yamashita to share his opinion by using ね . The speaker uses ね in this way to create a sense of togetherness or familiarity with the listener.

やました: こうえんは あそこです。
The park is over there.

ジョン: ああ、りっぱな こうえんですね。
Wow, it is a nice park, isn’t it?

B. The particle よ
The particle よ can be translated as I tell you or you know in English. よ indicates the speaker’s assumption that the listener does not share the speaker’s opinion or information. Therefore, it is used when the speaker wishes to emphasize to the listener that he/she is imparting completely new information, and can sound authoritative. When overused or used improperly, よ sounds pushy and overly aggressive.
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Chapter 4

リー: 先 生、あした テストが ありますか。
Are we going to have a test tomorrow?
せんせい

先 生: いいえ。テストは あさってですよ。
せんせい

No, it will be the day after tomorrow.

ブラウン: このへんに ぎんこうが ありますか。
Is there a bank around here?

つうこうにん (passerby) : ええ、そこに ありますよ。
Yes, it is there.

ブラウン: あ、あかいたてものですね。
Ah, the red building, right?

つうこうにん (passerby) : ええ、そうです。
Yes, it is.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Complete the following conversations by choosing ね or よ . Example: A: あのう、このへんに コンビニが ありますか。 B: ええ、 あります (ね/よ) 。あそこです。 A: あ、あれです (ね/ 。どうも ありがとう ございます。 よ)

1. A: すみません、いま なんじですか。 B: 3じはんです (ね/よ) 。 A: そうですか。どうも ありがとう。 2. A: きょう なんじに かえりますか。 B: 6じごろ かえります。 A: 6じごろです (ね/よ) 。じゃあ、6じはんに いきます。 3. A: あの、これは スミスさんの じしょですか。 B: いいえ、それは、うえださんの じしょです (ね/よ) 。 A: あ、そうですか。どうも。 4. A: あの、先 生、テストは あしたです (ね/よ) 。
B:

ええ、そうです。 いいえ、かようびは じゅぎょうが あります。 やすみは すいようびです (ね/よ) 。
せんせい

せんせい

5. A: あの、先 生、らいしゅうの かようびは やすみです (ね/よ) 。
B:

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6: A: すみません。ゆうびんきょくは どこですか。 B: あそこに たかいビルが あります (ね/よ) 。 A: ええ。 B: ゆうびんきょくは あそこに あります。 A: ああ、そうですか。どうも。 B: いいえ。 Activity 2
Work with a partner. The following conversations sound slightly unnatural because they are missing the particle ね or よ. Revise the conversation using ね or よ where appropriate. Example: A: あのう、すみませんが、やまだびょういんは どこですか。 B: やまだびょういんですか。あそこです。 A: あ、あれですね。どうも ありがとう ございます。 B: いいえ。

1. A: あのう、このへんに びょういんが ありますか。 B: いいえ、ありません。びょういんは とおい (far away) です。 A: そうですか。どうも。 2. A: そこに しろい たてものが あります。 B: ええ。 A: それは なんですか。 B: それは ほんやです。 3. A: これは なんですか。 B: なっとうです。 A: え、なっとう? なっとうって なんですか。 B: Fermented soy beans です。 4. A: あれは デパートですか。 B: いいえ、スーパーです。 A: とても りっぱな スーパーです。 B: そうです。

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158

Chapter 4

聞く 練習


Listening

れんしゅう

上手な 聞き方
じょう ず き かた

Listening Strategy

Using redundancy in speech
In Chapters 2 and 3 (see p. 67 and p. 117), you learned that it is not necessary to understand every single word in order to understand a conversation, and that it is important to pick up only a few key words. In face-to-face conversations, there are many clues as to what a person is saying, such as facial expressions, gestures, and intonation. Context and general knowledge will also help you guess words you may have missed.

学生街
がくせいがい

Campus Town

聞く 前に
き まえ

Warm-up

Listen to the following conversations. They take place on a busy street that runs near Joto University. Since there is a lot of background noise, some of the words in the conversations cannot be heard. Try to guess the missing words and write them down. 1. _____________________________________________________ 2. ____________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________

聞いた 後で
き あと

Comprehension

Based on the conversation you have just heard, complete the following sentences with the correct building names.

1. しろい たてものは です。 2. は ほんやの ちかくに あります。 3. そのちゃいろい たてものは です。

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159

聞き上手 話し上手


Communication

じょう ず

はな

じょう ず

Communication Strategy

Getting someone’s attention (1)
In Chapter 1 (p. 18), you learned the phrase, あのう、 すみません (Excuse me) as a way of getting someone’s attention. In this chapter, you will learn more about すみません along with other phrases commonly used in this context. In current Japanese, すみません has three separate functions: to apologize, to get someone's attention, or to thank. すみません is probably the phrase most commonly used to get someone's attention. It is often preceded by あのう (ah . . .) or ちょっと (well . . .) and followed by が (but), as in あのう すみませんが, ちょっと すみませんが, and あのう ちょっと すみませんが. あのう by itself may also be used to get someone's attention. For example, if someone wants to initiate a conversation at a meeting or a party, the person can say あのう and wait for the listener to respond. あのう is also used as a conversation filler when one cannot think of the right word. If you want to ask someone a personal question, first say しつれいですが or あのう しつれいですが (literally, I am being rude, but . . .). For instance, あのう しつれいですが、 にほんの かたですか is a polite way of asking someone whether he/she is Japanese. Finally, along with あのう or すみません, おねがいします (literally, I am requesting) may also be used to get the attention of someone who provides a service, such as a store clerk.

練 習 Practice
れんしゅう

A. Listen to three dialogues and identify the phrase used to approach the listener in each dialogue. B. You are looking for a certain building or facility, and your classmates are all strangers. Ask for its location using the appropriate expression.

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160

Chapter 4

漢字
Kanji
漢字 Introduction to Kanji
かん じ

かん じ

In addition to hiragana and katakana, the Japanese writing system makes extensive use of kanji, which are characters borrowed from Chinese. When the Japanese adopted kanji, they also adopted the Chinese way of reading them. At the same time, the Japanese gave the Chinese characters Japanese readings for existing Japanese words. Consequently, a kanji character has two or sometimes more readings. The Chinese reading of a kanji is called the on reading, and the Japanese reading is called the kun reading. For example, the on reading for the kanji 大 (big) is だい as in 大 学 . Its kun reading is おお as in 大 きい. Chinese words incorporated into Japanese are usually given on readings, as in 大 学, 学生 and 先 生 . A kanji can be used only for its specific meaning. Thus, even if 五 (five) is read ご , one may not use it to replace the hiragana ご in おはようございます or あさごはん . Kanji originated as pictographs and some of the characters still retain their pictorial qualities. For example, 川 (river) developed from the picture , 大 (big) from (a man extending arms and legs), and 生 (life) from (picture of a plant coming out). The exact number of existing kanji has never been clear, but it is estimated to be more than 40,000. Approximately 3,000 kanji are commonly used in Japan. The Japanese Ministry of Education has designated 1,945 for use in publications such as newspapers and magazines. Learning kanji can be a laborious process. However, once a certain number of kanji have been learned, it becomes easier because kanji can be associated on the basis of their components. In dictionaries, kanji are classified according to 214 basic component shapes, or radicals, each of which has a unique meaning. The following kanji, which share the common radical 言, have something to do with language: 訳 (translation), 話 (talk), 語 (language), and 読 (reading). A kanji is written according to a fixed stroke order. The general rule is to write from top to bottom, and left to right. Also, a horizontal line is usually drawn before a vertical one. In Japanese, kanji are used mostly for nouns and stems of verbs, adjectives, and adverbs. Grammatical markers, such as particles and inflectional endings, are not written in kanji. For example, in the following sentence, the nouns わたし and さかな are written with the kanji 私 and 魚 , and the verb stem た of たべます is written with the kanji 食 . The particles は and を as well as the verb ending べます are written in hiragana. I 私は魚を食べます。( わたしは さかなを たべます。 eat fish.) Note the following format for the kanji charts used in this book The charts will contain the typeset version of the character, a handwritten version, and stroke order. The on readings are in katakana and the kun readings are in hiragana. to study, learn
だいがく がくせい せんせい だいがく おお

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How to write kanji: Stroke order
Stroke order is very important not only in writing but also in reading, especially when reading handwritten kanji. In the handwritten style, lines are often connected and some strokes are simplified. The following are the basic rules for writing kanji. 1. Write from left to right. 2. Write from top to bottom. 3. Write as shown.

4. When enclosing a square, write the bottom line last. It is also important to distinguish the following three types of strokes: stop release hook big, large

to study, learn

school

ahead; previous

life, to live

練 習 Practice
れんしゅう

Read the following sentences.

1. スミスさんはニューヨーク大学の学生です。 2. ジョンソンさんは学校の先生です。 3. 学生 : 「やまだ先生、おはようございます。 」 先生 : 「あっ、きむらさん、おはよう。 」
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162

Chapter 4

読む 練習


Reading

れんしゅう

上手な 読み方
じょう ず よ かた

Reading Strategy

Using script types as clues to word boundaries
Unlike English, Japanese words are not separated by spaces. However, there are certain ways of identifying word and phrase boundaries. For example, katakana and kanji are always used for content words such as nouns, verbs, and adjectives. If a series of katakana appears within a sentence, it usually indicates a word or name. Hiragana is always used for particles like は, が, の and に and for the endings of verbs and adjectives. Other content words are written in hiragana as well. When several hiragana appear in the middle of a sentence, you should read them carefully because they may contain more than one word.

練習

れんしゅう

Practice

Read the following sentences and try to identify word boundaries using script types as a clue. In this exercise, each noun should be grouped with its particle as one word. Then insert a slash between the words. Don’t worry about understanding the meaning of the sentences completely, and don’t be overwhelmed at the sight of kanji you don’t know the readings for.

私はアメリカのウエストサイド大学の三年生です。 専攻は歴史とフランス語です。でも、日本語も勉強しています。

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城東大学 Joto University
じょうとう

Scan the following reading and circle the words you don’t know. Then read the passage and try to guess from context what the unknown words mean.

じょうとう せん にん

城 東 大学は東 京 にあります。学生は三 万人 ぐらいいますが、 教 授 は
とうきょう さんまんにん きょうじゅ ふる

千 人 ぐらいです。とても古 い大学です。キャンパスはあまり大きくあ
たてもの こうえん

りませんが、きれいな建 物がたくさんあります。公 園もあります。そ れから、大学の図 書 館 はとても有 名です。 城 東 大学には経 済 学 部 と文 学 部 と 商 学 部 と法 学 部 があります。 留 学生センターもあります。 アメリカとオーストラリアからたくさん 留 学生が来 ます。
りゅう き ぶんがく ぶ しょうがく ぶ ほうがく ぶ りゅう と しょ かん ゆうめい じょう とう けい ざい がく ぶ

読んだ 後で Comprehension
よ あと

Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. 城 東 大学は どこに ありますか。
じょうとう じょうとう じょうとう じょうとう じょうとう

2. 城 東 大学は あたらしい 大学ですか。 3. 城 東 大学の キャンパスは どんな キャンパスですか。 4. 城 東 大学には ゆうめいな たてものが ありますか。 5. 城 東 大学には どんな 学生が たくさん いますか。

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164

Chapter 4

総合練習
Integration
そうごうれんしゅう

学校しょうかい

School introductions

Form groups of three or four. Have each person create one or two sentences about your school such as its location, size, things you see on campus, famous buildings, etc. Then work together to write a brief paragraph describing your school to students in Japan who are interested in studying abroad.

ロールプレイ

Role Play

With a partner, act out each of the following scenarios, then switch roles. 1. You want to go to a hospital. You see a white building in the distance as you pass a police box. Ask the police officer if it is a hospital. 2. You are looking for a bank. Approach a passerby and ask if there is a bank in the neighborhood. 3. You have invited a Japanese friend to your neighborhood. Show your friend around your house.

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Chapter 5

第 五
い だ






Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar

Japanese Culture Japanese houses I. Referring to people, places, and things using この, その, あの, どの II. Using location nouns: 中 , そと, となり, よこ, ちかく, う しろ, まえ, なか 上 , 下 , みぎ , ひだり
うえ した

Listening Kanji

Communication Getting someone’s attention (2) Kanji derived from pictures and symbols (1) 山 川 田 人 上 中 下 小 日 本 Using visual clues

Reading

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日 本 の うち
Japanese Homes Asking about places; stating location and distance Campus facilities, objects in the room and classroom, nature, more adjectives リーさんの アパート Mr. Li’s apartment
に ほん

III. Referring to things mentioned immediately before, using noun/ adjective + の (pronoun) IV. Expressing distance and duration using the particles から, まで, and で and the suffix 〜ぐらい V. More about the topic marker は and the similarity marker も (double particles and は vs. が) Distinguishing sounds in words and phrases

166

Chapter 5

単語
Vocabulary
Location nouns うえ うしろ した そと ちかく となり なか ひだり まえ みぎ よこ Nouns いす いぬ え おしいれ がくしょく がくせいかいかん かわ き きょうしつ くるま こ くばん コンピュータ じてんしゃ 椅子 犬 絵 押し入れ 学食 学生会館 川 木 教室 車 黒板 自転車 chair dog picture Japanese-style closet, storage space school cafeteria (a shortened form of 学生しょくどう) student union river tree classroom car chalkboard computer bicycle
たん ご

上 後ろ 下 外 近く 隣 中 左 前 右 横

on, above, over behind, in back of under, beneath outside near, in the vicinity of next to in, inside to the left, left side in front of, in the front to the right next to, at the side of

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167

しゃしん ソファ たいいくかん たんす つくえ テーブル でんわ ドア トイレ とけい ところ ねこ バス ビデオ ひと ふとん ベッド へや ほんだな まど もの やま ラボ う -verb かかります

写真 体育館 箪笥 机 電話 時計 所 猫 人 布団 部屋 本棚 窓 物 山

photograph sofa gym chest, drawers desk table telephone door toilet, restroom clock, watch place cat bus video person futon bed room bookshelf window thing (tangible) mountain laboratory

to take (time), it costs; the dictionary form is かかる .

Demonstrative words この その あの どの this [+ noun] that [+ noun] that [+ noun] over there which [+ noun]?

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168

Chapter 5

い -adjectives あかるい く らい せまい はやい ひろい な -adjective しずか ( な ) Particles から で まで Suffixes 〜ぐらい/ くらい 〜じかん Expressions あがってください あるいて いらっしゃい おじゃまします 上がって下さい 歩いて お邪魔します
Please come in. on foot Welcome! Come in. Thank you. (literally, I will intrude on you.) (said before going inside someone’s house or apartment) Excuse me, Anyone home?

明るい 暗い 狭い 速い 広い

bright dark cramped, narrow fast, quick spacious, wide

静か ( な )

quiet

from by means of, by, with until, to

about 〜 (duration or quantity)

〜 hours

ごめんください Question word

御免下さい

どのぐらい/どのくらい

how long, how much, how many

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Japanese Homes

169

単語の練習 Vocabulary Practice
たん ご れんしゅう

A. キャンパス

College campus

WC

WC

101

102

103

WC

104

105

106

107

学生会 館
かいかん

student union school cafeteria classroom

たいいくかん gym ラボ トイレ laboratory restroom

学食
がくしょく

きょうしつ

メディアセンター media center Activity 1 しつもんに こたえて下 さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.
くだ

1. ラボで なにを べんきょうしますか。 2. コンピュータのラボは どこに ありますか。 3. 学生会 館に どんなものが ありますか。 4. たいいくかんは どこに ありますか。 5. 学生会 館に 学 食 が ありますか。 6. よく 学 食 で べんきょうしますか。 7. 学生会 館に きょうしつが ありますか。 8. トイレは どこに ありますか。
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かいかん

かいかん

がくしょく

がくしょく

かいかん

170

Chapter 5

B. へやと きょうしつ

Rooms and classrooms

ドア まど おしいれ いぬ ねこ つくえ いす ソファ テーブル 本 棚
ほんだな

door window Japanese-style closet dog cat desk chair sofa table bookshelf

ふとん たんす ビデオ コンピュータ でんわ とけい え しゃしん こくばん ベッド

futon chest, drawers video computer telephone clock, watch picture photograph chalkboard bed

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Activity 2
Look at the pictures on page 170 and name all the objects you see. Example: ドアが あります。

Activity 3
Answer these questions in Japanese. しつもんに こたえて 下 さい。
くだ

1. きょうしつに どんな ものが ありますか。 2. 〜さんの へやに どんな ものが ありますか。 3. としょかんに どんな ものが ありますか。 4. ラボに どんな ものが ありますか。

C. しぜん

Nature

山 mountain
やま

き tree

川 river Activity 4
Answer these questions in Japanese. しつもんに こたえて 下 さい。
くだ
かわ

1. このへん (this area) に 山 が ありますか。 2. このへん (this area) に 川 が ありますか。 3. 大学の キャンパスに 川 が ありますか。 山 が ありますか。 4. キャンパスに 大きい きが ありますか。どこに ありますか。
かわ やま かわ やま

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D. のりもの

Transportation

くるま car じてんしゃ bicycle バス bus Activity 5
In small groups, guess who owns a car or a bicycle and write the number in the column, YOUR GUESS. Then ask each person in your group whether he/she has a car or a bicycle, and write the correct total in the ANSWER ( こたえ ) column. Example: A: 〜さんは くるまが ありますか。 B: ええ、あります。〜さんも くるまが ありますか。 or いいえ、ありません。〜さんは くるまが ありますか。 A: ええ、あります。 or いいえ、ありません。 B: そうですか。 YOUR GUESS ANSWER ( こたえ )

くるま じてんしゃ

E. Describing buildings and rooms
あかるい bright dark くらい quiet しずか Activity 6
Work with the entire class. Ask each other what kinds of rooms your classmates have. Example: A: 〜さんの アパートは どんなところですか。 B: あまり ひろくありません。でも、あかるいです。

ひろい spacious, wide せまい cramped, narrow

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ダイアローグ
Dialogue

はじめに Warm-up
しつもんに こたえて 下 さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.
くだ

1. 今 どんなところに すんでいます ( to live) か。アパートですか。 りょうですか。うちですか。 (〜にすんでいます = to reside in 〜) 2. 〜さんのへやは どんな へやですか。 3. 〜さんのへやに どんな ものが ありますか。
いま

リーさんの アパート

Mr. Li’s apartment

Ueda pays a visit to Li’s apartment.

上 田 : ごめん 下 さい。
うえ だ くだ

リー: あ、上 田さん。いらっしゃい。どうぞ あがって 下 さい。
うえだ くだ

上 田 : おじゃまします。
うえ だ うえ だ

上 田 : わあ、とても あかるいですね。 リー: ええ。この アパートは たかい ところに ありますから。 上 田 : あそこに りっぱな たてものが ありますね。あれは
うえ だ

大学ですか。

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リー: ええ、あれは じょうとう大学の たいいくかんですよ。 上 田 : え、じゃあ、たいいくかんの となりの ちゃいろい ビルは
うえ だ

なんですか。 リー: あれは としょかんです。そして、その まえのが 学生会 館 です。
うえ だ かいかん

上 田: そうですか。ここから 大学まで どのくらい かかりますか。

リー: バスで にじゅっぷんぐらい かかります。 でも、ぼくは たいてい じてんしゃで いきますよ。 上 田 : そうですか。じてんしゃでは どのくらい かかりますか。
うえ だ

リー: じゅうごふんぐらいです。 上 田 : へえ、はやいですね。
うえ だ

Dialogue Phrase Notes

• ごめん下 さい means Is anyone home? It is used when you have くだ • arrived at the entrance of someone’s residence and need to get his or her attention. いらっしゃい means welcome. あがって下 さい means please enter. Both are common expressions to invite someone inside.
くだ

• おじゃまします means thank you and is used when you enter • Sentence + から means It’s because 〜.
このアパートは たかいところに ありますから。
It’s because this apartment is high up (on a hill). someone’s house or room.

• へえ means, Is that so? or Really? へえ indicates the speaker’s

mild surprise about what has just been said. はやい means fast. Ueda expresses her surprise about how fast Li can get to school by はやいですね (Really, that fast?). saying へえ、

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ダイアローグの後で Comprehension
あと

Answer the following questions in Japanese.

1. リーさんの アパートは どんな ところですか。 2. リーさんの アパートから 大学まで じてんしゃで どのくらい かかりますか。 3. たいいくかんは どんな たてものですか。 4. としょかんは どこに ありますか。

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Chapter 5

日本の文化
Japanese Culture
Japanese houses
A traditional Japanese house is made of wood with heavy ceramic tiles, or かわら. Although it is being replaced with more modern westernstyle houses or a combination of Japanese and western-style houses, the traditional Japanese house can still be found in many parts of Japan, especially in rural areas. Some elements of traditional houses have been incorporated into western-styles houses as well. For example, both traditional and contemporary houses have a mudroom, or げん かん , where you must take off your shoes inside the entrance. Typically, this area is lower than the main portion of the house. After taking off your shoes, it is polite to put them down facing the door. A host or hostess of the house usually invites people in by saying あがって下 さい (please come in) or its polite form, おあがり下 さい . These phrases literally mean please come up, because the main portion of the house is above the area where the shoes are left. Many contemporary homes contain one or more traditional Japanese rooms as well. These rooms are divided by a sliding door, ふすま , or by a paper screen, しょうじ . The flooring consists of straw mats called たたみ . The room may have an area ( とこのま ) where a flower arrangement is placed and a scroll is hung. Traditional Japanese rooms also contain a large closet, called おしいれ , to store ふとん (Japanese bedding). ふとん are spread on the たたみ mats at bedtime, then folded and put away in the morning, so that the room can be used for multiple purposes. A futon sofa is an American invention. Most contemporary rooms have wood floors. Carpet is not a popular choice because the high level of humidity in summer poses a potential hazard for bacteria and germs. The
くだ くだ

に ほん

ぶん か

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door to a room, whether Japanese or Western style, is almost always closed. A closed door doesn’t necessarily mean don’t disturb, so knock to find out if anyone is in the room. Still, don’t be surprised if a Japanese person comes into your room without knocking. It happens often among family members.

Japanese bathrooms

Most Japanese people prefer to take a bath every night, instead of taking a shower in the morning. The Japanese bathroom, or おふろ, is a room only for bathing. The toilet is in a separate room. The bathroom has a tiled area for washing and rinsing prior to entering the tub. The water is usually very hot (about 110°F/41– 42°C). Cold water may be added from the faucet if it is too hot, but overdoing it means that the water won’t be warm for the rest of the family, who will use the same hot water. When finished, instead of draining the tub, the cover is replaced to retain the heat. Although Japanese-style toilets are still used in Japan, western-style toilets are now more common in private homes, and often come equipped with a cleansing device called a Washlet® (ウォシュレット). These operate similarly to bidets, but offer a range of high-tech features. Most models have seat-warming controls, and some even have sensors to raise and lower the toilet lid automatically. A pair of slippers is usually placed inside the restroom. Be careful not to walk out with these slippers on! The door to a restroom, public or private, should be kept closed at all times. Always knock on the door to see if the room is occupied, and do not forget to close the door afterward. Public restrooms are often marked W.C. (water closet) or with the Japanese term お手洗い / 御手洗い (literally, handwashing). The sign for the men’s room is usually indicated by a male icon or the character for man ( 男 ). A female icon or the character for woman ( 女 ) indicates the women’s room. In some women’s restrooms, an electronic device called 音 姫 ® conveniently provides
おとひめ おんな おとこ て あら お て あら

the white noise of running water or air. While it’s sometimes necessary to press a button, most 音 姫 ® are sensor-activated.
おとひめ

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文法

Grammar
I. Referring to people, places, and things using この, その, あの, どの
The words この, その, あの, どの constitute another series of demonstrative words that indicate the location of an object in relation to the speaker and listener, but they are adjectives that must modify nouns and cannot be used by themselves. In contrast, これ, それ, あれ, どれ and ここ, そこ, あそこ, どこ are nouns that must be used alone. この + Noun その + Noun あの + Noun this [Noun] (close to the speaker) that [Noun] (away from the speaker and close to the listener, or somewhat away from both the speaker or the listener.) that [Noun] over there (far away from both the speaker and the listener.)

ぶんぽう

Speaker

Noun

この

へや



あかるいですね。

This room is bright, isn’t it?

Speaker

Noun

その

ひと





田 中 さんですか。
た なか

Is that person Mr./Ms. Tanaka?
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Speaker

Adjective

Noun

すずきさんの うちは

どの

たてもの

ですか。

Which building is your house, Ms. Suzuki? Noun

あの

うち

です。

It’s that house over there.

山 中: 本 田 さんの うちは どの うちですか。
やまなか

Which house is your house, Mr. Honda? It’s that one. Oh, it’s splendid, isn’t it! Not at all.

ほん だ

本 田 : それです。
ほん だ やまなか

山 中: りっぱな うちですね。 本 田 : いいえ。
ほん だ



これ, それ, あれ, どれ are not used to refer to people unless you are discussing people in a photo or drawing, but この, その, あの, どの can be used to refer to people without being impolite, such as この人 , その人 , あの人 , どの 人 .
ひと ひと ひと ひと

Notes

• A more polite way to refer to people is to say このかた ,
そのかた , あのかた , どのかた instead of この人 , その人 , ひと ひと あの人 , どの 人 . Use かた to refer to someone you don’t know well, whom you want to treat politely.
ひと ひと

• その can be used to refer to something previously mentioned. 山 中: 上 田 さんは ウエストサイド大学の 学生です。
やまなか

Ms. Ueda is a student at Westside University. Is she (literally, that person) a Japanese?
ひと に ほんじん

うえ だ

チョイ: その 人 は 日 本 人 ですか。

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180

Chapter 5

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Look at the drawing of the bedroom. 上 田 さん is standing on the left side of the room (A), and you are at location B. You are making comments about the room to
うえ だ

上 田 さん . Change the following sentences into your comments addressed to 上 田 さん , using この, その, あの, どの .
うえ だ うえ だ

Example: いい ベッドですね 扌 その ベッドは いいですね。

1. あかるい へやですね。 2. 大きい きですね。 3. ひろい つくえですね。 4. りっぱな テレビですね。 5. ふるい とけいですね。 6. 大きい いぬですね。

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. Look at the drawing of the living room. You are sitting on the sofa (location A) and your partner is at location B. Your partner will name some items. Create statements about each item using この, その, あの. Example: Your partner: ソファ You: この ソファは きれいですね。

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Chapter 5

II. Using location nouns: 中 , そと, となり, よこ, ちかく, うしろ, まえ, 上 , 下 , みぎ, ひだり
うえ した なか

Location nouns such as まえ (front) and うしろ (back) are used to describe the location of an object relative to another object, such as X is in front of Y and Z is behind Y.

つくえの まえ つくえの うしろ つくえの 上 つくえの 下 つくえの みぎ つくえの ひだり つくえの ちかく
した うえ

in front of behind on/above below/under to the left of close to

the desk the desk the desk the desk the desk the desk

to the right of the desk

うちの 中 うちの そと うちの となり うちの よこ
なか

inside outside next to next to/adjacent to

the house the house the house the house

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Both となり and よこ mean next to. Use となり if two things next to each other are of the same type, such as two houses or two desks. Use よこ if two things belong to different categories such as a dog next to a house.

わたしは こ くばんの まえに/へ いきました。 ドアの まえまで きました。

I went to the chalkboard. (literally, I went to the front of the chalkboard) I came to the door. (literally, I came to the front of the door)

チョイ どこで ひるごはんを たべますか。 :
Where do you eat lunch?

高 田 : わたしは よく その きの 下 で たべます。
たか だ

I usually eat it under that tree.

した

ブラウン: 山 田 さんは どこですか。
やま だ

Where is Mr. Yamada? I saw him near the gym.

大 川 : たいいくかんの ちかくで みましたよ。
おおかわ

中 山: そこに いぬが いますか。
なかやま

Is there a dog there?

ジョンソン: ええ、つくえの 下 に いますよ。
Yes, it is under the desk.
した

アリソン: 学 食 は どこですか。
がくしょく

Where is the school cafeteria?

山 本: 学生会 館の 中 です。
やまもと かいかん なか

It’s inside the student union.

Notes

• •

Expression with location nouns can be used with any place particles, such as に, へ, で. Location nouns can be used with the Noun の Noun construction. For example:

うちの うしろの 山 うちの まえの 川 となりの うち となりの 人 上 の アパート
うえ ひと かわ やま

the mountain behind my house the river in front of my house the house next door a person next to me, my next-door neighbor the apartment above my floor

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Chapter 5

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Look at the drawing of a classroom. Answer the following questions, using location nouns and 〜は 〜に あります/います . Example: こ くばんは どこに ありますか。 /こ くばんは どこですか。

先生の うしろに あります。/先生の うしろです。

1. コンピュータは どこに ありますか。 2. いぬは どこに いますか。 3. 先生の かばんは どこに ありますか。 4. ノートは どこに ありますか。 5. まどは どこに ありますか。 6. テレビは どこに ありますか。 7. えんぴつは どこに ありますか。 8. けしゴムは どこに ありますか。

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Activity 2
Look at the drawing of the room. Some objects are missing and their locations are indicated with question marks. Ask your partner what is in each location, then write in the names of the objects in the appropriate locations. Your partner will answer the questions using the drawing on page 180. Example: A: つくえの 上 に なにが ありますか。 B: でんわが あります。
うえ

1

6

Ex 3 4 5

2

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Chapter 5

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Have your partner draw the following objects in the picture. As you ask your partner about their locations, write the items in your own copy of the house. When you are done, check your drawing with your partner’s.

Example: A: じてんしゃは どこに ありますか。/じてんしゃは

どこですか。

B: ドアの みぎに あります。

1. まど 2. ドア 3. 山 4. 川 5. き
かわ やま

6. くるま 7. いぬ 8. ねこ 9. じてんしゃ

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Activity 4
Look at the drawing of the campus. Your partner will ask you where the following buildings are. Answer his/her questions based on the picture. Example: A: あのう、すみません。学生会 館は どこですか。
かいかん

B: その 大きい きの うしろに あります。 A: そうですか。どうも ありがとう ございます。

Cafe

1. 留 学生センター 2. たいいくかん 3. コンピュータのラボ 4. 学 食 5. としょかん Activity 5
Ask a partner about the location of various buildings on your campus. Take notes, then check your partner’s answers against a campus map. Example: A: あのう、すみません。
がくしょく りゅう

ラボは どこに ありますか。/ラボは どこですか。
なか なか

B: この ビルの 中 に あります。 /この ビルの 中 です。 A: あ、そうですか。どうも ありがとう ございます。

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Chapter 5

III. Referring to things mentioned immediately before, using noun/adjective + の (pronoun)
The pronoun の means one or ones in English, as in “red one” and “big one.” の usually refers for things and is rarely used for people. It must be directly preceded by an adjective or a noun.

い - adjective + の ちゃいろいの な -adjective + の きれいなの Noun + の スミスさんの
Whose is this nice bag? That big one?

brown one pretty one Mr. Smith’s

イアン: この りっぱな かばんは だれのですか。 中 本: その 大きいのですか。
なかもと

それは 田 中 さんの かばんですよ。
It’s Mr. Tanaka’s.
た なか

いしかわ

石川: この あかい ソファは きれいですね。 This red sofa is pretty.

中田: ええ、でも、あのくろいのも いいですよ。 なか だ Yes, but that black one over there is nice, too.
いしかわ

石川: あの 大きいのですか。 Do you mean, that big one over there?

中田: ええ。 なか だ Yes.
いしかわ

石川: ああ、あれも いいですね。 Oh, that one is nice, too.

あの or どの.

Note that the pronoun の cannot be used with the particle の or with この, その,

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Use の to state what belongs to whom. Follow the model. Start your sentences with この or あの . Example: スミスさんの りっぱな かばん/わたしの 小 さい かばん
ちい

この りっぱな かばんは スミスさんのです。 あの 小 さいのは わたしのです。
ちい た なか

1. スミスさんの ふるい つくえ / 田 中 さんの あたらしい つくえ 2. わたしの あおい ボールペン / 先生の あかい ボールペン 3. すずきさんの ひろい へや / わたしの せまい へや 4. 上 田 さんの しろい とけい / キムさんの くろい とけい 5. リーさんの あかるい へや/ スミスさんの くらい へや Activity 2
Work with the class. Look around at various belongings in the classroom. Ask who owns what to complete the chart below. Example: A: あのう、すみません、この あかい ボールペンは
うえ だ

だれのですか。

B: 先生のですよ。 A: あ、そうですか。どうも。 Item Owner

あかい ボールペン

先生

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IV. Expressing distance and duration using the particles から, まで and で and the suffix 〜ぐらい/くらい
The particles から (from) and まで (until, to) express starting and end points in time and space. The particle で specifies a tool or means such as transportation, craft tools, and kitchen utensils. The suffix ぐらい/くらい (about, approximately) indicates approximate distance, duration of time, or amount. These expressions are often used to talk about how long someone does something or how long it takes to get from one place to another. Note that くらい and ぐらい are interchangeable.

A. 〜から (from), 〜まで (to, until)
アパートから ここから 月 曜 日 から
げつよう び

学生 会 館 まで
かいかん

いきました。 I w ent from the 10ぷん かかります。 じゅぎょうが あります。 やすみです。

apartment to the student union.

あの 川 まで
かわ

It will take ten minutes from here to the river. I have a class from Monday through Friday. I have a break from 5 o’clock to 6 o’clock.

きんよう び

金 曜 日 まで 6じまで

5じから

B. で (by means of, with, by) なんで バスで テレビで え んぴつで あるいて きましたか。 かえります。 みました。 かきます。 いきます。
How (literally, by what means) did you come? I go home by bus. I saw it on TV. I write with a pencil.

Note that the particle で cannot be used to express on foot. Use あるいて instead. I go on foot. / I walk.

C. 〜ぐらい (about, approximately)
I slept about eight hours. 8 じかんぐらい/くらい ねました。 どのぐらい/くらい かかりますか。 How long does it take? 3 0ぷんぐらい/くらい かかります。 It will take about 30 minutes.

やまもと

山本: ここから 小川さんの うちまで どのぐらい かかりますか。
How long does it take from here to your house, Mr. Ogawa? It’s about five minutes by bicycle. I see. That’s fast.
お がわ

小 川 : じてんしゃで 5ふんぐらい かかります。
お がわ

山本: そうですか。はやいですね。
やまもと

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Notes

• 〜じ as in いちじ, にじ means o’clock. To indicate duration, use
〜じかん . いちじかん (for one hour) にじかん (for two hours) にじかんはん
(for two and a half hours)

• 〜ふん can be used to indicate both a specific time as in いちじ •
じゅっぷん (1:10) and duration, as in じゅっぷん (for ten minutes). Omit ぐらい/くらい if you want to talk about precise duration of time:

大学から えきまで バスで 23ぷん かかります。
It takes 23 minutes by bus from the university to the station.

たいいくかんまで あるいて 5ふん かかります。
It takes five minutes to get to the gym on foot.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
State how long it takes to get to each destination in the chart below. Follow the model. Example: うち 学校 じてんしゃ about 5 minutes

うちから 学校まで じてんしゃで ごふんぐらいかかります。
Destination Transportation Time
5 minutes About 10 minutes 15 min 4.5 hours About 4 hours

Starting point

うち ここ としょかん ボストン ボストン

学校 としょかん びょういん ニューヨーク ニューヨーク

じてんしゃ あるいて くるま バス くるま

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Activity 2
Working with a partner, ask how long it takes to get from location A to B and fill out the information. Example: A: うちから 学校まで あるいて どのぐらい/ らい く

かかりますか。

Location A

B: 20 ぷんぐらい/くらい かかります。 A: そうですか。 Location B

あるいて

じてんしゃ

バス

くるま

うち としょかん うち このまち Activity 3

学校 たいいくかん びょういん となりのまち

Ask your partner what he/she is planning to do after class today. Use から〜まで〜 as well as the time expressions and daily routine vocabulary that you have learned in earlier chapters. Example: A: 今日は これから なにを しますか。
きょう

B: そうですね。3じから 4じまで じゅぎょうが

あります。そして、5じごろ かえります。

A: そうですか。 B: 〜さんは? A: わたしは うちに かえります。

そして、ばんごはんまで べんきょうします。

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V. More about the topic marker は and the similarity marker も (double particles and は vs. が )
As explained in the supplementary note in Chapter 2, the particle は specifies the topic. Because it is the part of a sentence about which the speaker wishes to make some statement, it usually appears at the beginning of the sentence. The particle は can be used to mark any type of noun as the topic of a sentence, including the subject or direct object, a location, or a time expression. This section introduces more uses of は in relation to particles that have some related characteristics, such as the similarity marker も and the subject marker が.

A. Double particles with the topic marker は and the similarity marker も
Both は and も may replace を (direct object) or が (subject) but they must follow after other particles. Subject Direct Object Place of action で

わたしは 学生です。 上 田 さんも 学生です。
うえ だ

I am a student. Ms. Ueda is a student, too. I drink coffee in the morning. I drink juice in the morning, too. I studied in the library I studied in the lab, too. There is a cat under the chair. There is one on the chair, too. I got a phone call from the teacher. I got one from my friend, too.

コーヒーは あさ のみます。 ジュースも あさ のみます。 としょかんでは べんきょうしました。 ラボでも べんきょうしました。

いすの 下 には ねこが います。 Place of した existence に いすの 上 にも います。
うえ

Starting point から

先生からは でんわが ありました。 ともだちからも でんわが ありました。

Occasionally, some particles such as に (point in time) and に/へ (goal) may be deleted if they are easily recoverable from the context. For example, the time particle に is often deleted when the noun indicates a day of the week. Time に Goal

火 曜 日 (に)は クラスが あります。
もくよう び

I have a class on Tuesday. I have one on Thursday, too. I will go to the hospital tomorrow. I will go to the bank, too.

木 曜 日 (に)も あります。
あした

か よう び

に/へ

びょういん(に/へ)は 明日 いきます。 ぎんこう(に/へ)も いきます。

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ペギー: しゅうまつは なにを しましたか。
What did you do on the weekend? I went to the mountains.
やま やま

下 田 : 山 に/へ いきました。
しも だ

ペギー: いいですね。山 (に/へ)は よく いきますか。
That’s nice. Do you go to the mountains often?

下 田 : ええ、らいしゅうの 土 曜 日 (に)も いきます。
しも だ

Yes, I am going there next Saturday, too.

ど よう び

アリソン: 大学までは あるいて どのぐらい かかりますか。
How long does it take to get to school on foot? It takes about an hour.

川中: 1 じかんぐらい かかります。
かわなか まいにち

アリソン: え、そうなんですか。毎日 あるいて きますか。
Is that so? Do you walk to school every day?

川中: いいえ、バスで きます。
かわなか

No, I come to school by bus.
きょう

も follow the noun directly.
きょう

Note: Relative time expressions such as 今日 and 明日 do not take a particle. は and
あした

今日は びょういんに いきます。 明日も いきます。
I will go to the hospital today. I will go tomorrow as well.
あした

B. は vs. が
The particle は cannot be used with a question word, because は specifies the topic of a sentence, which is information already known to the speaker. Use は when there is a question word in the comment (the part of the sentence that follows the topic).

学生会 館は どこですか
かいかん やま だ

Where is the student union? Which person is Mr. Yamada? Where is the gym?

山 田 さんは どの人 ですか。
ひと

たいいくかんは チョイさんは

どこに ありますか。

どこへ いきましたか。 Where did Ms. Choi go?

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The particle が marks the grammatical subject of a sentence. Always use が when the subject is, or contains, a question word.

ど の人 が 先生ですか。
ひと

Which person is the teacher? What is there? Who will go?

そ こに なにが ありますか。 だれが いきますか。

Also use が when information about a subject is important or situationally new to the listener and/or the speaker. This use of が generally occurs when the speaker introduces a situation or scene he/she has just noticed.

あ、あそこに ねこが いますよ。 Look, there is a cat over there! Ah, Ms. Nakamoto has just arrived. あ、中 本さんが きました。
なかもと

Once a subject noun has been mentioned, は is often used when referring to the same subject in subsequent sentences. For example:

本 田 : あそこに いぬが いますね。
ほん だ

There is a dog over there. Yes, that’s my dog.

小 川 : ええ、あれは わたしの いぬです。
お がわ

Note: それ can also be used to refer to something mentioned previously. In this usage, それ means it in English. Likewise, その〜 and そこ can be used in the same way.

あそこに かばんが あります。
There is a bag over there.

それ/そのかばんは 田 中 さんのです。
It is Mr./Ms. Tanaka’s.
かいかん がくしょく た なか

学生会 館に 学 食 が あります。
There is a cafeteria in the student union.

そこは とても きれいです。
It (that place) is very clean/nice.

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
First circle the question words, then complete the following sentences with が or は . Example: だれ が 学生ですか。

1. リーさん どの 人 ですか。 2. どれ びょういんですか。 3. どの コンピュータ あたらしいですか。 4. 学 食 どこですか。 5. アリスさん どんな 人 ですか。 6. だれ いますか。
ひと がくしょく ひと

7. デパート どこに ありますか。 8. すずきさん どちらから きましたか。 9. あの きれいな たてもの なんですか。 Activity 2
Create two sentences based on each sentence below. One should express a similarity with the first sentence; the other should contrast with the first sentence. Example: あさごはんを たべます。

ばんごはんも たべます。でも、ひるごはんは たべません。

1. バスは じゅうじに きました。 2. 留 学生は 日 本 から きます。 3. バスで 大学に いきます。 4. 昨日 おふろに はいりました。 5. 昨日の ばん シャワーを あびました。
きのう きのう りゅう に ほん

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Activity 3
Work with a partner. Ask your partner a question using the words supplied in column A. Your partner will answer the question using the words in column B to create a topic from the subject of the question (underlined in the example). Example: A B

いつ/コーヒーを のみます。
A: いつ コーヒーを のみますか。

あさ

B: コーヒーですか。コーヒーは あさ のみますね。 A
ほん

B

1. どこ/その 本 を みました。 2. なに/びょういんに いきました。 3. いつ/その えいがを みました。 4. どこ/ジョンソンさんと いきました。 5. なに/えきから いきました。 6. だれ/いました。 7. いつ/しゅくだいを します。 8. どんな くるま/きました。 Activity 4

大学の 本 や くるま 昨日 バス 先生 しゅうまつ トヨタ
きのう ほん

きっさてん

Work with a partner. Choose two cities with which you’re both familiar and write their names in the following chart. First discuss, then list, the aspects they share in common. Think of as many things as you can. Example: とうきょう, シカゴ Similarity A: とうきょうには いい レストランが ありますよ。 B: そうですか。シカゴにも たくさん ありますよ。 A: そうですか。日 本 の レストランも ありますか。 B: ええ、たくさん ありますよ。 City 1: City 2:
に ほん

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Interrogative Expressions
You have learned a lot of question words. Here is a summary of Japanese interrogative expressions.

だれ なに/なん いつ どこ どの + noun どれ どんな + noun

who what

だれの へやですか。
Whose room is it?

おなまえは なんですか。
What is your name?

when where which

なんねんせいですか。
What year are you in school?

いま なんじですか。
What time is it now?

山 田 さんは いつ きますか。
When will Mr. Yamada come? Where is Mr. Yamada? Which person is Mr. Yamada?
やま だ やま だ やま だ

山 田 さんは どこに いますか。 山 田 さんは どの 人 ですか。
ひと

which one

ですか。
Which building is Mr. Yamada’s dormitory?

やま だ

山 田 さんの りょうは どの たてもの

山 田 さんのりょうは どれですか。
Which one is Mr. Yamada’s dormitory?
やま だ

what kind of 山 田 さんの へやは どんな ところ

やま だ

ですか。
What kind of place is your room, Mr. Yamada?

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聞く 練習


Listening

れんしゅう

上手な聞き方 Listening Strategy
じょうず き かた

Distinguishing sounds in words and phrases
Listening to conversations in Japanese can seem like reading long sentences without kanji or other clues to distinguish word boundaries. It takes practice to be able to distinguish words and phrases from a succession of sounds. Listening for repeated words, familiar words, intonation, and pauses can help you to identify word boundaries. If you are listening to an announcement, anticipate what to expect and try to listen for important information.

ひっこしを てつだう (Helping a friend move into a new apartment)

Useful Expressions
おきます おいて下 さい
くだ

to place please place/put

聞く 前に Warm-up
き まえ

When you’re moving into a new place, what kinds of words do you expect to use? Circle the terms you are most likely to use.

き ま え ベ ッ ド 山 バ ス よ こ テ レ ビ たいいくかん ぎんこう いす みぎ ひだり ちかく
Now listen to the conversation and write down words you hear repeatedly. 1. _________________________________________________________________ _ 2. _________________________________________________________________ _ _ 3. _________________________________________________________________ _ 4. _________________________________________________________________ _ 5. _________________________________________________________________ _ 6. _________________________________________________________________
やま

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聞いた後で Comprehension
き あと

Listen to the conversation again. Then verify the layout of the apartment. Are all the objects in the room properly described?

Describe each object in the room as thoroughly as you can, using different location nouns. Now describe the place where you live in a few sentences.

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聞き上手 話し上手


Communication

じょうず

はな

じょうず

Communication Strategy Getting someone’s attention (2)
Talking to someone in your non-native language can be a strain, especially if the person is a stranger. This is certainly true in Japan as well, where people tend to be less open with strangers. One explanation for this is that Japan was isolated from the Western world for over 250 years under the government’s seclusion policy, from the seventeenth to the mid-nineteenth century. During that period Japan virtually remained a relatively homogeneous nation. Moreover, under the feudal order, a strong sense of hierarchy was developed. The sense of hierarchy and distinction between in-group and out-group remains strong in modern Japan. In-group refers to one’s family, people at one’s place of work, classmates, etc. The Japanese are very aware of the difference in intimacy that should be maintained between those in the in-group and out-group, and act accordingly. Any non-Japanese by definition belongs to the out-group, and thus, along with the fear of not being able to communicate, a Japanese person might deliberately avoid contact with a non-Japanese, even at the risk of appearing indifferent. This of course is a generalization, and there is a great deal of variation in individual behavior. It is important, however, to understand this background, and to use the appropriate phrases in approaching a stranger or someone you don’t know well. The following is a summary of some useful expressions and other strategies you can employ.

Approaching people: あのう (ちょっと) すみませんが/しつれいですが。 あのう すみませんが/しつれいですが。 ちょっと すみませんが/しつれいですが。 あのう ちょっと すみませんが/しつれいですが。 おねがいします。 (used to get the attention of someone who provides services, such as a store clerk)

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Thanking someone: すみません。 ありがとう ございます。 Giving feedback as a listener:
Nodding Avoiding prolonged eye contact

ええ/いいえ
れんしゅう

練 習 Practice
A. Imagine that you are in Japan and want to ask someone the time. Approach the person to get attention. Ask the time. Thank him/her. Try to act out the scene with a partner. B. Imagine that you are at a party on a college campus and want to meet someone from Japan. There are many Asian students at the party, but you are not sure if they are Japanese. Approach someone and find out if he/she is Japanese. If the person is from Japan, introduce yourself.

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漢字
かん じ

Kanji

Kanji derived from pictures and symbols (1) Kanji derived from pictures
The number of kanji derived from pictures and symbols totals to only about 200, but these characters tend to represent basic or core meanings. Many of them also appear in more complex characters. Therefore, it is important to become familiar with their shapes and meaning.

山 mountain 川 river

日 sun, day 田 rice paddy

人 person

学 study, learn (A child in a school)

生 life, to live

Some kanji that represent abstract ideas have been created from symbols.

上 on, up, above 中 in, middle, center 大 big, large

下 under, below 本 root, book 小 small

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mountain

river

rice paddy

person

on, up, above

in, middle, center

under, below

small

sun, day

root, book

An asterisk (*) indicates an irregular reading.

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よめるようになったかんじ (kanji and compounds you can now read) 山 川 田中 日本人 上 下 中 小さい 日本 本 本棚 本屋 毎日 中国 今日 明日 明後日 昨日 一昨日 日曜日 上がって下さい
まい ごく きょう あした あ さ っ て きのう お と と い よう あ くだ だな や

日本人のなまえ (Japanese family names): 山 川 田 中 中 田 川中 山 中 上 田 本 田 小 川 大 川 中川 下 田 中 本 山 本
うえ だ ほん だ お がわ おおかわ なかがわ しも だ なかもと やまかわ た なか なか だ かわなか やまなか やまもと

練 習 Practice
れんしゅう

Read the following sentences.

1. 山田先生は日本大学の先生です。 2. 「上田」は日本語 のなまえですが、上田さんはアメリカ人です。 3. きょうしつの中に小さいとけいがあります。 4. ふとんの下にねこがいます。 5. 日本にはきれいな山と川がたくさんあります。 6. なまえをかいて下さい。


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Chapter 5

読む 練習


Reading

れんしゅう

上手な読み方
じょうず よ かた

Reading Strategy

Using visual clues
Photos, illustrations, and graphs can often help you understand what you read. For example, it’s much easier to understand a description of a room or a house while looking at a floor plan. Such visuals not only help create context for a text, but they may also provide additional information not included in the text.

読む 前に Pre-reading
よ まえ

Look at the picture of an office, and determine what kinds of information it conveys.

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Japanese Homes

207

田中先生の研 究 室
Vocabulary

おく

けんきゅうしつ

Professor Tanaka’s Office

the inner part of a building, room, etc. this side (side closer to the speaker) potted plant

手前 鉢 植
はちうえ て まえ

たくさん many, a lot

田中先生の研 究室はとても広 いです。部屋の右 には大きい本 棚
けんきゅうしつ ほんだな まど ひろ へ や みぎ

ほんだな まど

があります。本 棚には本 がたくさんあります。本 棚の横 には 窓
ほん ほんだな よこ へ や みぎ まど そと

があります。窓 は部屋の右 にあります。窓 の外 には小さい鉢 植
まど ちか つくえ つくえ

はちうえ

があります。そして、窓 の近 くには先生の机 があります。机 の上 には本がたくさんあります。机 は部屋の左 側 にあります。机 の
つくえ へ や ひだりがわ つくえ

上にはコンピュータと電 話 があります。部屋の手 前 には小さい
でん わ へ や て まえ

ソファがあります。ソファの上にも本がたくさんあります。ソフ ァの横 に小さい椅 子があります。ソファの下にねこがいます。
よこ い す

読んだ後で Comprehension
よ あと

Identify four discrepancies between the text and the drawing, and write them on the lines below. 1. __________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________

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208

Chapter 5

総合練習
Integration
そ う ご う れ ん しゅう

アパートさがし Looking for an apartment
1. You are a Tokyo real estate agent. Bring to class or draw a floor plan of an apartment indicating the location of the door, windows, bedrooms, kitchen (キッチン ), bathroom, and any other rooms. Then complete the information below. Number of bedrooms_______________________________________________ Apartment location ________________________________________________ Distance from campus ______________________________________________ Facilities near the apartment ________________________________________ 2. Your instructor will divide the class into two groups. Half of the class will act as real estate agents, and the other half will try to rent an apartment. Prospective tenants should talk to as many agents as possible, take notes on each rental property, and decide which apartment to rent.

ロールプレイ Role Play
1. You are showing around a visitor from Japan who doesn’t speak English. Tell the visitor about your campus as he/she asks you questions. 2. Your host family asks you what kind of place you live in. Describe your dorm or apartment.

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Chapter 6

第 六
い だ


っ か



Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Japanese Culture Grammar

Listening Communication Kanji Reading

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休 みの 日
Leisure Time
Describing routine and leisure activities Routine activities (2), leisure activities, adjectives of emotion and condition
しゅうまつ や す

What did you do over the weekend? 週 末 は どうでしたか。 Using the particles と and に

Japanese colleges and college life I. II. Commenting about the past, using polite past adjectives and the copula verb です III. Connecting verb and adjective phrases and sentences using the て form of verbs; making requests using the て -form IV. Connecting phrases, using the て -forms of verbs and adjectives V. Extending an invitation using ませんか Making sense of missing pronouns Using そうですか and そうですね Kanji derived from pictures and symbols (2) 今 私 月 火 水 木 金 土 曜 何 週 末 休 Identifying missing nouns

210

Chapter 6

単語
Vocabulary
たん ご

Nouns アルバイト うんどう おんがく かいもの ゲーム コンサート こんど ざっし さんぽ しごと しつもん ジョギング しんぶん せんたく そうじ てがみ テニス ともだち パーティ ピクニック 運動 音楽 買い物 今度 雑誌 散歩 仕事 質問 新聞 洗濯 掃除 手紙 友達 part-time job exercises

うんどう (を) します to exercise ( を is commonly deleted) music shopping game concert next time magazine walk, stroll

さんぽ ( を ) します to take a walk job question

しつもん ( を ) します (to) ask a question jogging newspaper laundry cleaning letter tennis

テニスを します to play tennis friend party picnic

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Leisure Time

211

プール メール やすみ やすみのひ りょうしん りょうり う -verbs あいます あそびます あるきます いいます およぎます かきます ききます はなします まちます よびます

休み 休みの日 両親 料理

pool e-mail rest, absence, a day off a day off, holiday parents cooking, cuisine

りょうり (を) します to fix a meal

会います 遊びます 歩きます 言います 泳ぎます 書きます 聞きます / 聴きます 話します 待ちます 呼びます

(to) meet; the dictionary form is あう .
(to) play; the dictionary form is あそぶ . (to) walk, ~まで あるきます (to) walk (up) towards; the dictionary form is あるく . (to) say; the dictionary form is いう . (to) swim; the dictionary form is およぐ . (to) write; the dictionary form is かく . (to) ask ; (聞きます , (to) listen to( 聴きます) the dictionary form is きく . (to) talk; the dictionary form is はなす. (to) wait; the dictionary form is まつ . (to) call (someone), (to) invite; the dictionary form is よぶ .

る -verbs かけます でかけます い -adjectives いそがしい うれしい おもしろい 忙しい 嬉しい 面白い busy happy interesting

出かけます

(to) make (a phone call); the dictionary for is かける .

でんわを かけます
(to) go out; the dictionary form is でかける .

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212

Chapter 6

かなしい さびしい たのしい つまらない むずかしい やさしい な -adjectives げんき ( な ) ざんねん ( な ) だいじょうぶ ( な ) たいへん ( な ) にぎやか ( な ) ひま ( な ) Adverbs いっしょに ぜひ ゆっく り Particles と と に に Expressions

悲しい 寂しい 楽しい 難しい 易しい、優しい

sad lonely fun boring difficult easy , (易しい) kind (優しい)

元気 ( な ) 残念 ( な ) 大丈夫 ( な ) 大変 ( な ) 賑やか ( な ) 暇 ( な )

healthy, cheerful, lively (person) sorry, regrettable all right, no problem tough lively (place or event) free, idle, unscheduled

一緒に 是非

together By all means. / I’d love to. slowly, ゆっく りします, to relax, to take it easy

with, together with (association) and (exhaustive listing) in order to, for (purpose) to (goal, receiver)

ちょっと つごうが わるくて ちょっと ようじが あって

ちょっと都合が悪くて ちょっと用事があって

I’m a little busy. (literally, Sorry, it’s a little inconvenient.) Sorry, I have some errands/ business to attend to.

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Leisure Time

213

単語の練習 Vocabulary Practice
たん ご れんしゅう

A. 毎週すること Household chores and other activities
まいしゅう

りょうりを します
(to) fix a meal

せんたくを します
(to) do laundry

そうじを します
(to) clean /dust a room

アルバイトを します
(to) have a part-time job

しごとを します
(to) work

しんぶんを よみます
(to) read a newspaper

かいものに いきます
(to) go shopping

メールを かきます
(to) write e-mail

先生に ききます to ask the teacher

しつもんします
(to) ask a question

日本語 で はなします でんわを ご します/かけます
(to) talk in Japanese (to) make a phone call

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214

Chapter 6

Activity 1
Charades. Work in groups of three or four. Take turns performing an action from the list below while the rest of the group try to guess the expression.

ごはんを たべます りょうりを します せんたくを します そうじを します シャワーを あびます おふろに はいります しゅくだいを します コーヒーを のみます Activity 2

アルバイトを します しんぶんを よみます かいものに いきます メールを かきます 日本語 で はなします テレビを みます ともだちに でんわを かけます 先生に しつもん します


Work in pairs. Ask each other what things you do every day, sometimes, not very often, and never. List each of your partner’s activities in the appropriate box. Example: A: ~さんは 毎 日 あさごはんを たべますか。
まいにち

B: いいえ、たべません。 A: そうですか。じゃあ、ひるごはんは たべますか。

パートナーの こたえ 毎 日 します。
まいにち

ときどきします。

あまりしません。

ぜんぜんしません。

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Leisure Time

215

B. 休 みの日に すること
やす

Things to do on a day off

おんがくを ききます
(to) listen to music

コンサートに いきます
(to) go to a concert

ピクニックに いきます
(to) go on a picnic

うんどうします
(to) exercise

テニスを します
(to) play tennis

ジョギングを します
(to) go jogging

プールで およぎます
(to) swim in the pool

でかけます
(to) go out

ともだちに/と あいます (to) meet a friend

ともだちを まちます
(to) wait for a friend

さんぽを します
(to) take a walk

あそびます
(to) play, (to) have fun

ゲームを します
(to) play a game

うちで ゆっくりします
(to) relax at home

てがみを かきます
(to) write a letter

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216

Chapter 6

ざっしを よみます
(to) read a magazine

パーティを します
(to) have a party

ともだちを うちに よびます
(to) invite / call a friend over

C. きもちや ようすを あらわす ことば and condition
いそがしい
busy happy うれしい interesting おもしろい sad かなしい ざんねん(な ) sorry, regrettable free, idle, with nothing to do ひま(な) だいじょうぶ ( な ) all right, no problem

Adjectives of emotion
つまらない boring やさしい むずかしい たのしい 大 変 (な)
たいへん

easy, kind difficult fun tough

Vocabulary Notes

• (お) げんきですか

げんきですか and its polite version おげんきですか can be

translated as How are you?, but this expression is not used in the same way as in English. げんきですか/おげんきですか is used when you have not seen someone you know for an extended period of time. In function, its sense is closer to How have you been? For (ございます) こんにちは, , daily greetings, use おはよう こんばんは .

• ざんねん vs. すみません

Both ざんねん and すみません may be translated as sorry, but their usage is very different. すみません is used for apologizing, but ざんねん merely expresses regret, disappointment, or sympathy (and may also function as an adjective). For example, if you are not able to finish your homework by the due date, you might say すみません to your teacher. The teacher might then reply ざんねんですね , to express his/her disappointment. すみません can also be used to approach someone (meaning Excuse me. / Pardon me.), or to express thanks. ざんねん cannot be substituted in these instances.

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Leisure Time

217

ダイアローグ
Dialogue

はじめに Warm-up
Answer these questions in Japanese. しつもんに こたえて下さい。

1. 週 末 は うちで よく 何 を しますか。 2. 週 末 は よく どこに あそびに いきますか。 3. 休 みの日に よく でかけますか。どこへ いきますか。 4. 休 みの日に よく 何 を しますか。
やす なに やす しゅうまつ しゅうまつ なに

週末は どうでしたか。 What did you do over the weekend?
しゅうまつ

Ueda and Li meet in class on Monday.

田: リーさん、おはようございます。 上 ー: あ、上田さん、おはようございます。 週 末 は リ
しゅうまつ

どうでしたか。 田: とても たのしかったです。 上 ー: それは よかったですね。 リ 田: ええ、みちこさんと しぶやに かいものに いって、 上 ー: ええ、 リ 田: コンサートへ いきました。 上
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5

218

Chapter 6

ー: そうですか。 リ 上 田 : リーさんの 週 末 は どうでしたか。
しゅうまつ

10

ー: いそがしくて あまり おもしろくなかったです。 リ 先 週 は しゅくだいが たくさんあって、大 変でした。
せんしゅう たいへん

田: そうですか。じゃあ、 週 末 は うちに いましたか。 上
しゅうまつ

ー: ええ、うちで ずっと べんきょうしました。 リ 田: それは 大 変でしたね。 上
たいへん

15

リー: ええ。 上 田:

じゃあ、来 週 の 週 末も いそがしいですか。
らいしゅう らいしゅう しゅうまつ

リ ー :

いいえ、来 週 は あまり いそがしくありません。

田: じゃあ、うちに あそびに きませんか。 上 ー: ありがとう。ほんとうに いいんですか。 リ 田: ええ。土 曜 日 は どうですか。 上
ど よう び ど よう び

20

ー: ええ、土 曜 日 は 大 丈 夫 です。 リ
だいじょう ぶ

上 田; じゃあ、土 曜 日 の あさ、でんわしてくれませんか。
ど よう び

ー: わかりました。じゃあ、でんわします。 リ

24

Dialogue Phrase Notes



The それ in それは よかったですね in line 5 refers to Ueda’s statement that she had fun. It does not refer to any physical object in the scene. Similarly, the それ in それは 大 変 でしたね in line 15 refers to Li’s having studied all weekend. Li interjects ええ while Ueda is talking in line 7. This ええ is the あいづち you learned about in Chapters 2 and 3. In this case, he is signaling to Ueda that he is following her story and wants her to continue. Similarly, Ueda says ええ in line 21 after Li’s utterance. あいづち are generally used at phrase boundaries, for example, immediately after the て -form of verbs as shown in this dialogue, or after the conjunction が . ずっと means for a long time. In this context, it suggests all day long. ほんとうに いいんですか means Are you sure? あとで means later. In Japanese, あそびに きませんか is often used to invite a friend to get together or hang out, as in Ueda’s invitation in line 23.
たいへん



• • • •

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Leisure Time

219

ダイアローグの後 で
あと

Comprehension

A.

Read each statement and circle はい if the statement is true or いいえ if it is false.

1. はい 2. はい 3. はい 4. はい 5. はい
B.

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

リーさんは 日 曜 日 に べんきょうしました。 リーさんは 土 曜 日 に でかけました。 リーさんは おもしろい えいがを みました。 上田さんは キムさんと コンサートに いきました。 上田さんは 先 週 の 週 末 に かいものを せんしゅう しゅうまつ しました。
ど よう び にちよう び

しつもんに こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions.
せんしゅう なに

1. 上田さんは 先 週 何 を しましたか。 2. リーさんは 何 を しましたか。 3. リーさんは 来 週 の 週 末 いそがしいですか。 4. リーさんは 来 週 何 を しますか。
らいしゅう なに らいしゅう しゅうまつ なに

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220

Chapter 6

日本の文化
Japanese Culture
ぶん か

Japanese Colleges and College Life
According to a 2005 government survey, nearly all Japanese students (97.6%) attend high school after completing junior high, and about a half of them (51.5%) will continue on to college or junior college. Most of those who do enroll in college attend school full-time, spending four to five days a week in class, and depend financially on their parents. Japanese college class sizes tend to be large. As there are few graduate teaching assistants, professors themselves do most of the teaching. Undergraduates usually spend four years at college. Though most liberal arts students earn the necessary credit hours to graduate by the end of their junior year, they usually continue their course work through senior year. Job hunting starts junior year, and most students enter the workforce immediately upon graduation. Traditionally, graduate schools in Japan have been regarded as institutions dedicated to producing academicians and researchers. Since Japanese law and medical schools accept students directly from high schools, in contrast with the

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Leisure Time

221

U.S. system, these are not considered graduate programs. Professional degrees were not available in Japan before 2002. Due to a series of educational reforms, however, over 120 institutions now offer MBAs as well as master’s degrees and PhDs in a range of other fields. As a result, the number of graduate students in Japan is on the rise—currently, about 15% of college graduates. Over 80% of graduate students do not take a break from their studies after earning an undergraduate degree. Another factor that has shaped college life in Japan today is the economic depression that began in the early 1990s and lasted through 2005. A decadelong job shortage caused many students to prioritize their studies much higher than their social lives at school. (Zenkoku Daigaku Seikatsu Kyoodoo Kumiai 2005). Still, most Japanese college students engage in a variety of extracurricular activities, such as participating in college clubs, doing volunteer work, hanging out with friends, and traveling domestically and internationally. Over three-quarters of students work part-time during the school year as well as on spring break and summer vacation. The average student has a weekly budget of approximately 37,000 yen (about US$320 in 2006) that is put toward dining out, clothing purchases, online communications, and savings. (Tokyo FM, 2005).

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222

Chapter 6

文法
Grammar
I. Using the particles と and に A. Particle と
The particle と has two separate usages that are conceptually related.
ぶんぽう

1. と , together with, with
The first usage indicates association between two items and is translated as with or together with. For example:

私は リーさんは 私は
わたし わたし

チョイさんと べんきょうしました。 田中さんと えいがを みました。

I studied with Ms. Choi.

中山さんは 2. と , and

Mr. Li watched a movie with Mr. Tanaka. ペギーさんと でんわで はなします。 I talk with Peggy on the phone. ともだちと かいものに いきます。 Mr. Nakayama goes shopping with a friend.

The second usage is to connect two or more nouns.

スミスさんと

そうじと せんたくを しました。 しんぶんと ざっしを よみました。 金 曜 日 と
きんよう び ど よう び

わたし

私 は 学生です。

Mr. Smith and I are students. I did cleaning and laundry. I read a newspaper and a magazine. Saturday.

土 曜 日 に ここへ きます。 I will come here on Friday and
(I) eat with a knife and a fork.

ナイフと フォークで たべます。

All of the above examples show that the particle と connects nouns only. It cannot be used to connect two or more sentences, or verb or adjective phrases. Use the て-form of verbs (see p. 230, Grammar III) or the conjunction そして to connect sentences and verb phrases.

そうじを して、 せんたくも しました。
I did the cleaning and the laundry.

そうじをしました。 そして、せんたくも しました。
I cleaned the house. Then I did the laundry.

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Leisure Time

223

B. The particle に
So far, you have learned three functions of the particle に : に for time as in 土 曜 日 に (on Saturday) and いちじに (at one o’clock); に for goals/destinations, as in 学校に いきます (go to school) ; and に for the location of a person or object, as in うちに あります/います (It/Someone is in my house.) This chapter introduces two more usages of the particle に , but they are related to に used for goals.
ど よう び

1. に to (recipient, target, goal, destination) に can indicate the recipient or the target person to which an action is directed.
Noun Particle

私は
わたし

ともだち



てがみを かきます。

I will write a letter to a friend.

ともだちに りょうしんに 先生に 先生に 先生に ともだちに

でんわを かけます。 メールを かきます。 ききます。 しつもんします。 はなします。 あいます。

I make a phone call to a friend. I write e-mail to my parents. I ask my teacher. I ask my teacher a question. I talk to/tell my teacher. I meet my friends.

Notes

• に in this usage indicates the endpoint of an action, so it is



conceptually related to the goal ~に/へ いきます/きます/ かえります. However, unlike the above usage, ~に/へ いきます/きます/かえります cannot take a person as a goal. In some cases, the particle と association (with) is used instead of に with verbs like あいます and はなします. Although the English translation does not differentiate between に or と, the meaning is very different in Japanese. When に is used, the action is uni-directional, so 先生に はなします indicates that the speaker is telling something or speaking to the teacher, but not having a conversation. Conversely, と indicates bi-directional orientation, so 先生と はなします indicates that the speaker and the teacher collaboratively engage in conversation.

先生に はなします 先生と はなします

I speak to/tell something to the teacher. I converse with the teacher.

Similarly, ともだちに あいます is used when the speaker goes to the friend to talk or bumps into the friend on the street, but ともだちと あいます suggests that the speaker and the friend have made a prior arrangement before meeting each other.
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Chapter 6

2. Purpose に いきます /きます /かえります /でかけます に can also indicate the purpose for going somewhere. It is used with the verbs いきます, きます, かえります and でかけます. The purpose may be a noun indicating an activity such as かいもの and コンサート. アリソンさんは かいものに でかけました。 Alison went shopping. Mr. Li is going to a concert. リーさんは コンサートに いきます。
When purpose is represented by a verbal expression such as テニスを します or ごはんを たべます に should be attached to the verb stem (the part of verb that comes before ます ). Verb stem Particle Verb of movement

ごはんを
I’m going out to eat.

たべ



でかけます。

Note いきます, きます, かえります and でかけますare commonly used with an expression of a desination such as としょかんに/へ いきます. When combined with the purpose, the sentence can have more than one に , such as としょかんに べんきょうしに いきます (go to the library to study) . I am going home to take a nap. うちに ねに かえります。 I came to see Ms. Ueda. 上田さんに あいに きました。 上田さんに あいに ここに きました。 I came here to see Ms. Ueda.

キム: あ、どこへ いきますか。
Where are you going?

田中: たいいくかんに およぎに いきます。
I am going to the gym to swim. I see.

キム: そうですか。

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Leisure Time

225

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
The pictures below show what Mr. Suzuki did last week. Complete the following statements using the appropriate particles.

Example:

鈴 木 さん/ともだち/でんわ/かけました。
すず き すず き

鈴 木 さんは ともだちに でんわを かけました。

1

2

3

4

5
すず き すず き すず き すず き すず き すず き すず き

6

7

1. 鈴 木 さん/ともだち/としょかん/べんきょうしました。 2. 鈴 木 さん/ともだち/デパート/かいもの/いきました。 3. 鈴 木 さん/かのじょ (girlfriend) /でんわ/はなしました。 4. 鈴 木 さんの かのじょ/ 鈴 木 さんの うち/あそび/きました。 5. 鈴 木 さんの かのじょ/ 鈴 木 さん/りょうり/しました。 6. 鈴 木 さんの かのじょ/ 鈴 木 さん/ゲーム/しました。 7. 鈴 木 さん/かのじょ/メール/かきました。
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すず き すず き すず き

226

Chapter 6

Activity 2
Based on each situation, create a sentence stating a purpose, using a verb stem + に いきます/きます/かえります . Example: 昨日 スーパーへ いきました。 そして、 アルバイトを しました。
きのう きのう

昨日 スーパーへ アルバイトを しに いきました。 1. たいいくかんへ いきました。およぎました。 2. アパートに かえります。そして、ゆっくり します。 3. ここに きました。そして、りょうりを しました。 4. としょかんへ いきました。そして、しんぶんを よみました。 5. 先生の けんきゅうしつ (office) に いきます。そして、しつもんします。 6. このカフェに よく きます。そして、ともだちに あいます。 Activity 3
Work in groups of three. One person chooses a place in the box but does not tell anyone. The other two ask questions about the purpose of going there and try to figure out which place it is. The person who has chosen the place will answer はい or いいえ. Take turns.

としょかん たいいくかん ぎんこう デパート スペイン

ラボ

きょうしつ 本屋


こうえん

ゆうびんきょく カフェ コンビニ ともだちのうち 日本 中国
ごく

びょういん こうばん かんこく アメリカ フランス イギリス

オーストラリア カナダ メキシコ

Example: B chooses としょかん A: うんどうしに いきますか。 B: いいえ。 C: 本を よみに いきますか B: はい。 C: としょかんですか。 B: はい、そうです。

Activity 4
Based on the sentences you completed in Activity 1, narrate Mr. Suzuki’s day. Try to use transition words like そして, when you can. To make the story sound more natural, try to fill in some information such as when Mr. Suzuki went out and came back, and when his girlfriend visited him and went home.

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Leisure Time

227

II. Commenting about the past, using polite past adjectives and the copula verb です
In Chapter 4, adjectives were introduced to describe the physical characteristics of an object. Another common use of adjectives is to comment on objects and events in the present and the past. This chapter introduces the past tense forms of adjectives and the copula verb です. Like the present forms, the formation of past tense forms differs depending on the adjective type.

A. い -adjectives
The past affirmative form of い -adjectives is formed by replacing い with かったです. The past negative form is formed by replacing い with くありません でした or くなかったです. いい becomes よかったです in the affirmative form and よくありませんでした or よくなかったです in the negative form. Dictionary form
あかい
(red)

Polite affirmative forms Present Past

Polite negative forms Present Past

あかいです あかかったです あかくありません あかくありませんでした あかくないです あかくなかったです
(It is red.) (It was red.) (It is not red.) (It was not red.)

いい
(good)

いいです
(It is good.)

よかったです
(It was good.)

(It is not good.)

よくありません よくないです

(It was not good.)

よくありませんでした よくなかったです

B. な -adjectives and the copula verb です
The ending of the な-adjectives and the copula verb are very similar. In both cases, you will change です to でした for the past affirmative form, じゃありません/ じゃないです to じゃありませんでした/じゃなかったです for the past negative form. Dictionary Polite affirmative forms form Present Past
きれい
(pretty)

Polite negative forms Present Past

(It is pretty.)

きれいです きれいでした きれいじゃありません きれいじゃありませんでした きれいじゃないです きれいじゃなかったです
(It was pretty.) (It is not pretty.) (It was not pretty.)

ゲーム
(game)

(It is a game.) (It was a game.) (It is not a game.)

ゲームです ゲームでした ゲームじゃありません ゲームじゃありませんでした ゲームじゃないです ゲームじゃなかったです
(It was not a game.)

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228

Chapter 6

スミス: 週 末 は どうでしたか。
しゅうまつ

How was your weekend? It was really fun.

山下 とても たのしかったです。 :

スミス: そうですか。よかったですね。

I see. I’m glad to hear that. (literally, that was good.)

上田: パーティは どうでしたか。
How was the party? It was very lively.

リー: とても にぎやかでした。 上田: 山田先生と はなしましたか。

Did you talk with Professor Yamada? No, he wasn’t there.

リー: いいえ、先生は いませんでした。 上田: そうですか。ざんねんでしたね。
I see. That’s too bad.

チョイ 今日、いそがしいですか。 :
Are you busy today?
きょう

本田: ええ、テストが あります。
Yes, I have a test.
たいへん

チョイ そうですか。大 変ですね。 :
I see. That’s tough!

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Change the adjectives into both the past tense affirmative form and the past tense negative form. Pay attention to the two kinds of adjectives, い -adjectives and な -adjectives. Use とても with the affirmative form and あまり with the negative form. Example: 大きい

とても 大きかったです。 あまり 大きくありませんでした。 1. おもしろい 2. きれい 3. うれしい 4. いい 5. たのしい 6. かなしい 7. ざんねん 10. げんき 8. 大 変 11. にぎやか 9. ひま
たいへん

12. むずかしい

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Leisure Time

229

Activity 2
Chat with a partner about events and occasions listed in the chart below. Discuss which ones were interesting, easy, difficult, etc., and complete the chart. Examples: 1. A:

日本語 の テストは どうでしたか。


B: とても やさしかったです。 A: そうですか。よかったですね。 2. A: 日本語 の テストは どうでしたか。


B: あまり よくなかったです。/

とても むずかしかったです。

A: そうですか。ざんねんでしたね。/大 変でしたね。
たいへん

私 日本語 の テスト


パートナー

日本語 の じゅぎょう


週末
しゅう まつ

パーティ Activity 3
With your partner, take turns asking about life in high school ( 高 校生 活 ) as well as about your high school classes and teachers. Fill in the chart as you ask and answer questions. Example: A: 高 校生 活 は どうでしたか。 B: とても たのしかったです。 A: そうですか。よかったですね。 B: ~さんの 高 校生 活は どうでしたか。
こうこうせいかつ こうこうせいかつ こうこうせいかつ

A: わたしの 高 校生 活も とても よかったです。
こうこうせいかつ

わたし



パートナー

高 校生 活
こうこう せいかつ

じゅぎょう 先生

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230

Chapter 6

III. Connecting verb and adjective phrases and sentences using the て -form of verbs; making requests using the て -form
Chapter 1 introduced request forms such as きいて下さい and みて下さい, in which 下さい roughly means please. The forms きいて and みて are the て-forms of the verbs ききます and みます, respectively. Also, Chapter 5 introduced the phrase あるいて いきます, in which あるいて is the て-form of あるきます (to walk) and indicates how the speaker goes from one place to another. You may have also noticed headings such as はなして みましょう (Let’s try speaking) and きい て みましょう (Let’s try listening) in the chapters of this textbook. The form みま しょう means let’s try, and the preceding て-forms indicate what to try out. These are only a few uses of the て-form. As you continue to study Japanese, you will learn a variety of structures that use this form. This section explains the formation of the て-form of verbs and three request forms using the て-form and 下さい/ 下さいませんか/くれませんか.

A. Verb て-forms
The て-form of る -verbs and irregular verbs is easy to form. All you have to do is to replace ます with て. Verb class to eat る -verbs to watch to make a phone call Irregular verbs to come to do to study Polite affirmative form て -form

たべます みます かけます きます します べんきょうします

たべて みて かけて きて して べんきょうして

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Leisure Time

231

The て -form of う-verbs is more complicated. There are five basic patterns and they are , -form of the determined by the sound before ます as shown in the chart below. The て verb いきます is いって though it is an う-verb. This is considered an exception. Verb class to talk to listen to swim to take (a bath), enter Polite affirmative form

て -form

Formation Patterns

はなします はなして し扌して ききます きいて き扌いて およぎます およいで ぎ扌いで はいります はいって り、い、ち扌って いいます まちます よみます よびます しにます いきます いって まって よんで み、び、に扌んで よんで しんで いって Exception

う -verbs

to say to wait to read to call to die to go

B. 〜て下さい/〜て下さいませんか/〜てくれませんか
~て下さい, ~て下さいませんか and ~てくれませんか are all used to make a request. Each expression generally indicates a polite request, but ~て下さい is the most forceful form among the three forms because it is a command form. While a social superior such as your teacher or someone much older than you may use ~て下 さい to ask you to do something, it would be rude for you to say ~て下さい to your social superior. Instead, use ~て下さいませんか, a more polite request form commonly used for a social superior. ~てくれませんか is less formal than ~て下さいませんか, so it can be used with someone of equal social status or similar age.

To a social inferior: CD を こくばんを 本を きいて下さい。 みて下さい。 よんで下さい。
Please listen to the CD. Please look at the chalkboard. Please read the book.

To a social superior: 先生、 かんじを かいて下さいませんか。
Could you write the kanji? Could you say it again?

先生、もういちど いって下さいませんか。 先生、あしたまで まって下さいませんか。
Could you wait until tomorrow?
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232

Chapter 6

To a peer: 上田さん、あした メールしてくれませんか。
Could you e-mail me tomorrow? Could you go to the library? Could you read this letter?

上田さん、としょかんへ いってくれませんか。 上田さん、この てがみを よんでくれませんか。

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Your teacher gives you one of the following commands in Japanese. Act out the command. Example: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Your teacher says ここに きて下さい . You walk toward the teacher.

Come here. Go to the back of the room. Read the textbook. Look at the chalkboard. Write your name in Japanese. Speak Japanese to a classmate next to you. ) Turn in your work. (しゅくだいを だします。 Make a phone call.

Activity 2
Working with a partner, make the requests in Activity 1, using ~てくれません か . Your partner will act out. You can create your own request if you like. Example: You say ここに きてくれませんか. Your partner walks toward you.

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Leisure Time

233

Activity 3
Use the table below to make a request to the addressee. Pay attention to the relationship between you and your addressee and choose ~て下さい or ~て下さいませんか or ~てくれませんか. Example: 先生 wants students to speak Japanese.

日本語 で はなして下さい。


You Example 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Your addressee

Request Speak Japanese Invite/call Tanaka-san Write e-mail to you Read this letter Turn in the homework Clean up the room Relax at home Meet me next week Write a letter to school

先生 学生 学生 学生 先生 学生 いしゃ (doctor) いしゃ (doctor) 大学院 生
いんせい

学生 学生 先生 先生 学生 学生 かんじゃ (patient) 大学の先生 学校2の先生
(teacher at another school)

かんじゃ (patient) Walk every day

学校1の先生
(teacher at a school)

Activity 4
Work with a partner. Create dialogues in which you make requests in each of the following situations, using ~て下さい or ~てくれませんか. Example: You are a teacher, and you are taking our students on a field trip tomorrow. So you want them to come to school at 7 a.m.

明日のあさ 7じに 学校へきて下さい。
あした

1. You are sick and can’t go to school. You want your roommate to call your teacher. 2. You want to use kanji to write your name. Ask your teacher to write your name in kanji. 3. You are a teacher. Your students performed very poorly on the test and you want them to study. 4. You have a visitor, who looks younger than you. But you are busy with work so you want him/her to wait for you here. 5. Your neighbor comes to your house to discuss a neighborhood dispute with you. She/he is at the door. Invite him/her in.

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234

Chapter 6

IV. Connecting phrases, using the て -forms of verbs and adjectives A. The て-form of verbs indicating “and”
Another basic usage of the て-form is to connect phrases. As was mentioned in Grammar I, A-2 (p. 223), the particle と cannot be used to connect two or more sentences or phrases. The て-form is used instead. Note that the て-form by itself does not express when the action takes place or has taken place. The timing of the action is determined by the phrase at the end of the sentence. For example, テレビを みて、 ねます indicates that the speaker goes or will go to bed after watching TV, ねました indicates that he/she went to bed after watching TV. but テレビを みて、

I read the newspaper and go to school . I listen to the music and go おんがくを きいて、 ねます。 to bed. I went home and relaxed. うちに かえって、 ゆっくりしました。 ともだちを よんで、 ゲームを しました。 I called my friend and played a game. I walked my dog and went いぬの さんぽを して、 でかけました。 out. アルバイトが あって、 いそがしかったです。 I had to work part-time and was busy. Mr. Tanaka was there, and/ 田中さんが いて、 にぎやかでした。 so it was lively. Phrases connected by the て-form may indicate a chronological relationship or a cause-effect relationship, because the て-form loosely connects phrases without specifying how they should be related.

しんぶんを よんで、 学校に いきます

B. The て-form of adjectives indicating “and”
The て-form of adjectives and the copula verbs can connect phrases as well. The (です) replaced by is formation of the adjective て-form is relatively simple. い くて for い -adjectives, です is replaced by で for な-adjective and the copula verb. The て-form of いい is よくて. い -adjectives
たのしいです (it is fun.) たのしくて

な -adjectives
にぎやかです (it is lively.)
やす やす

Copula verb
休 みです (It is a day off.)

(it is fun, and) にぎやかで

(it is lively, and) 休 みで (It is a day off, and)

上田さんは やさしくて、 きれいです。
Ms. Ueda is kind and pretty.

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Leisure Time

235

リーさんは げんきで、 おもしろいです。
Mr. Li is cheerful and interesting. Kanji is difficult and tough. The party was lively and fun.

かんじは むずかしくて、 大 変です。
たいへん

パーティは にぎやかで、 たのしかったです。 ひまで、 うちに います。

I have nothing to do and stay at home.

しごとで、 フランスへ いきます。
I am going to France for work.

さびしくて、 ともだちに でんわしました。
I was lonely, and/so I called my friend.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
The following illustrations show what Ms. Yamamoto did last Sunday. Describe her activities using the て -form of verbs. Example: あさ 8じに おきて、うんどうを しました。

8:00 a.m.

8:30 a.m.

about 9:00 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

about 10:00 a.m.

11:00 a.m.

about 11:30 a.m.

12:00 p.m.

12:15 p.m.

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236

Chapter 6

12:30 p.m.

about 4:00 p.m.

6:00 p.m.

7:00 p.m.

8:00 p.m.

about 11:00 p.m.

Activity 2
Comment on the following things using the て -form of adjectives. Example: えいごのじゅぎょう

えいごのじゅぎょうは やさしくて、おもしろいです。 1. 日本語 2. そうじ 3. せんたく 4. アルバイト Activity 3
With a partner, discuss a movie, a TV program ( テレビばんぐみ ) you’ve seen, a concert you’ve attended, or some music you have listened to recently. Comment on the experiences using the て -form. Then complete the chart. Example: A: さいきん (recently) どんな えいがを みましたか。 B: ハリー・ポッターを みました。 A: どうでしたか。 B: とても おもしろくて、よかったですよ。 Category Type/Title How was it?


5. おんがく 6. うんどう 7. コンピュータ・ゲーム

えいが コンサート テレビばんぐみ おんがく

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Leisure Time

237

V. Extending an invitation using ませんか
The negative question form of a verb ~ませんか is often used to extend an invitation. It conveys the idea in English of won’t you ~ , or why don’t we ~. ~ませんか is often used with the phrase いっしょに (together) when the speaker wants to invite someone for an activity.

いっしょに ジョギングを しませんか。
Why don’t we go jogging together?
こん ど やす

今 度 の 休 みに いっしょに ピクニックに いきませんか。
Why don’t we go to a picnic on the next day off?

私 と いっしょに べんきょうしませんか。
わたし

Won’t you study with me?

Notes



Before extending an invitation, the speaker often checks the listener’s availability or interest, or willingness. Because an overt rejection can often strain a relationship, Japanese people tend to avoid creating a situation in which a person may have to reject an offer or an invitation.

ジョンソン: 今 度 の 休 みは いそがしいですか。
こん ど やす

Are you busy during the next holiday?

木 村 : いいえ、いそがしくありません。
き むら

No, not really. Then, why don’t we go swimming?

ジョンソン: じゃあ、およぎに いきませんか。

山田: テニスは よく しますか。
Do you play tennis often?

上田: ええ、しますよ。
Yes, I do.

山田: じゃあ、土 曜 日 に テニスを しませんか。
ど よう び

Well, why don’t we play tennis on Saturday?



Japanese people often avoid saying no explicitly to an invitation in order not to hurt other people’s feelings. When you cannot accept an invitation, it’s customary to apologize for not being able to accept it, and then give a reason. If you don’t want to give a specific reason, use the following phrases.

すみません、ちょっと つごうが わるくて。
Sorry, I’m a little busy. (literally, Sorry, it’s a little inconvenient.)

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238

Chapter 6

すみません、ちょっと ようじが あって。
Sorry, I have some errands/business to attend to.



Some common expressions for accepting an invitation are:

いいですね。 ええ、ぜひ。

That sounds great. Yes, I’d love to. (literally, Yes by all means.)

ええ、いいですよ。 Yes, that would be fine.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Work with a partner. Look at the following drawings and extend an invitation to each activity. Your partner will accept your invitation by saying ええ、 いいですよ , いいですね or ええ、ぜひ.

Example: A: ~さん、いっしょに かいものに いきませんか。 B: ええ、いいですよ。

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

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Leisure Time

239

Activity 2
Work with the class. In the chart below, write three activities that you want to do with someone on each day of this weekend. Invite at least one person for each activity. If someone invites you to do an activity, either accept using one of the phrases you’ve just learned, or decline the invitation politely if you’re not interested. Example: You have written えいがを みる for 金曜日 . A: 金 曜 日 に えいがを みませんか。 B: ええ、いいですよ。 or すみません、ちょっと つごうが わるくて。
きんよう び きんようび

ちょっと ようじが あって。

〜 曜 日 すること (Activities to invite for) なまえ (Person who has agreed)
よう び

金 曜日
きんよう び ど よう び

土曜日 日曜日
にちよう び

Activity 3
Invite a partner to do the following activities together. Before extending your invitation, ask about his/her availability and/or interest. Example: A: 今 週 の 金 曜 日 は いそがしいですか。 B: いいえ、いそがしくないですよ。 A: じゃあ、いっしょに パーティに いきませんか。 B: いいですね。
こんしゅう きんよう び

1. いっしょに かいものに いきます。 2. いっしょに おんがくを ききます。 3. いっしょに しゅくだいを します。 4. いっしょに えいがを みます。 5. いっしょに こうえんの そうじを します。

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240

Chapter 6

Supplementary Note
In Japanese, verbal expressions can be abbreviated using です when the meaning can be guessed from context. This use of です appears often in response to a wh-question.

田中: だれを よびましたか。
Who did you invite?

ペギー: 上田さんと アリソンさんです。
Ms. Ueda and Alison.

木 村 : いつ かえりますか。
き むら

When will you come back?
らい しゅう か よう び

リー: 来 週 の 火 曜 日 です。
Next Tuesday.

山中: だれと はなしましたか。
Who did you talk to?

チョイ: スミスさんです。
Mr. Smith. In English, you can simply use nouns such as people’s names without a verb, but in Japanese it sounds abrupt and can be rude to omit the verb, especially in formal conversations. In cases like this, です can be used instead of more specific verbal expressions. This is true in the classroom where the instructor asks many questions. You should try to respond to your teacher with the verb from the question or with です when it is appropriate to do so. (But be careful not to overuse です because excessive repetition may be interpreted as a lack of interest in class!)

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Leisure Time

241

聞く練習
Listening
上手な聞き方 Listening Strategy
じょうず き かた



れんしゅう

Making sense of missing pronouns
Just as in writing, pronouns are often omitted in a conversation when they can be inferred from the context. Imagine that two people are talking with each other. If one person asks a question without an overt subject pronoun, the missing subject is likely to be you. If that person then makes a statement without a subject, the subject is most likely to be the speaker himself/herself. As you become more proficient with the language, you will understand who is mentioned without having to listen for subject pronouns.

A. だれの はなし? Whose story is it?
Listen to the following short dialogues. In each of the conversations, the subject in the man’s speech is either I or you, but it’s missing. Identify the missing subjects. 1. I 2. I 3. I
わたし

you you you
せいかつ

4. I 5. I

you you

B. 私 の 生活
Listen to the following conversations, then the statements about them. Circle はい if a statement is true, or いいえ if it is false.

1. a. はい b. はい c. はい 2. a. はい b. はい c. はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

d. はい e. はい f. はい d. はい e. はい f. はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

g. はい h. はい

いいえ いいえ

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242

Chapter 6

聞き上手 話し上手


Communication

じょうず

はな

じょうず

Communication Strategy Using そうですか and そうですね
The expressions そうですか and そうですね are used often in conversation. These expressions are instrumental in making a conversation go smoothly. However, it is sometimes difficult to know which one to use. There are two そうですか : one with a falling intonation and one with a rising intonation. そうですか with a falling intonation means “I see” (and I didn’t know that). It is used when you have just received new information. It is often preceded by ああ. そうですか with a rising intonation means “Is that so?” It is used to question what you have just heard, and is commonly preceded by えっ (What!?). そうですね is usually spoken with a falling intonation. It means “That’s right” so it would not be appropriate to say そうですね when you have just heard something new. そうですね is often preceded by ええ or はい.

練 習 Practice
れんしゅう

1. Listen to the six short conversations. After each one, put a check mark in the box that corresponds to the correct meaning of そうですか/そうですね in the context of the conversation. 1 I see. Is that so? That’s right. 2. Working with a partner, read the sentences below one at a time, and choose one of these three phrases as your reply. More than one answer may be correct, as long as you know why you have chosen it. 2 3 4 5 6

ああ、そうですか。 えっ、そうですか。 ええ、そうですね。 1. 山田先生は いい 先生です。 2. 山田先生は れきしの 先生です。 3. ブラウンさんは 日本人のともだちと でかけました。 4. このしゅくだいは むずかしかったですね。 5. 昨日は いそがしかったですね。 6. 明日 日本に いきます。
あした きのう

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Leisure Time

243

漢字
Kanji
Kanji derived from pictures and symbols (2) かん じ

月 (moon)

火 (fire)

水 (water) 金 (gold)

木 (tree)

土 (earth)

末 (end; tree with a focal point at the top)

now

I; private

moon, month

fire

water

tree

gold, money, metal

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244 Chapter 6

earth, soil, ground

day of the week

what

week

end

to rest

読 めるようになった漢 字 (Kanji and compounds you can now read).
よ かん じ ばん

今 今日 今日は 今晩 今週 来 週 先週 私 月曜日 火曜日 水曜日 木 曜日 木 金曜日 土曜日 日曜日 何をしますか。 何ですか。何曜日 何時 週末 今 度 大 変な 大 丈 夫 です 毎 週 休みの日
こん ど たいへん だい じょう ぶ まい じ きょう こんにち らい

日本人の名 前 :金 田 鈴 木
な まえ かね だ すず き

練 習 Practice
れんしゅう

Read the following.

1. 日曜日 月曜日 火曜日 水曜日 木曜日 金曜日 土曜日 : 2. 大 川 「中田さんは今週の週末に何をしますか。 」 」 本田: 「土曜日に山にいきます。 3. 先週の月曜日は休みでした。 4. 上田: 「本田さんは何年生ですか」 。 本田: 「私は日本大学の3年生です。 」 5. 中川: 「今日のごご、何をしますか。 」 山中: 「アルバイトがあります。 」

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Leisure Time

245

読む練習


Reading

れんしゅう

上手な読み方 Reading Strategy
じょうず よ かた

Identifying missing nouns
In Japanese, it is not necessary to repeat nouns or pronouns in writing if they can be inferred from context. These omitted nouns are most likely to be either the subject or the topic, although they can be any other type of noun such as an object, place, or 三年生です。the topic of the , time. For example, in the sentences, 私は 学生です。 second sentence, 私は is missing because it is mentioned in the first sentence and can be inferred. This type of deletion makes a paragraph more cohesive. As you become more proficient with the language, this will become second nature to you.

読 む前 に Pre-reading
よ まえ

A. Identify any missing nouns in the following sentences.

1. 先週の日曜日は はちじに おきました。そして、くじごろ でかけました。 2. キムさんは 昨日 しゅくだいを しませんでした。でも、今日 きのう しました。 3. アリスさんに でんわを かけました。てがみも かきました。 4. パーティには 鈴 木 さんを よびました。でも、田中さんは よびませんでした。
B. In Japanese, jot down five activities that you do often on weekends.
すず き

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246

Chapter 6

大川さんの週末
ことばの リスト (Vocabulary)
[Sentence +] から
きたな

Because [+ sentence] dirty so early

汚 い

ですから はやく

先週の土曜日に両 親 が私に会 いに来 ました。とてもうれしか
りょうしん あ き

ったですが、忙 しくて大 変でした。木曜日と金曜日にテストがあ
いそが たいへん

って時 間 がなかったから、アパートはとても汚 かったです。です
じ かん きたな

から、土曜日の朝 早 く起 きて、掃 除 と洗 濯をしました。それか
あさはや か お そう じ せんたく

ら、スーパーに買 い物 に行 きました。
もの い

1 ごろに両 親 が私のアパートに来 ました。少し話 をして、 2時
じ りょうしん き すこ はなし

アパートの近 くのショッピング・センターに行 って、昼 ご飯 を
ちか い ひる はん

食 べました。その後 、買 い物 をして、 キャンパスに行 きました。
た あと か もの い

図 書 館 で上田さんに会 いましたから、いっしょに図 書 館 のカフ
と しょかん い あ と しょかん

ェに行 って、コーヒーを飲 んで話 をしました。両 親 は5時 ごろ
の はなし りょうしん じ

帰 りました。
かえ

読 んだ後 で Comprehension
よ あと

A. しつもんに こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. 大川さんの 週末は どうでしたか。 2. 大川さんは 金曜日に 何を しましたか。 3. 大川さんは 土曜日の あさ 何を しましたか。 4. 大川さんは だれと 昼 ご 飯 を 食 べましたか。 ひる はん た 5. どこで 食 べましたか。 た 6. 土曜日の ごご、何を しましたか。
B. Identify any missing nouns for each sentence of the reading. C. Write a letter to a friend in Japan describing your weekend activities.

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Leisure Time

247

総合練習
Integration
山田さんとさとうさんの一日 A Day in the Lives of Ms. Yamada and Mr. Sato
The illustration below shows a typical day for two Japanese college students, Ms. Yamada and Mr. Sato. Ms. Yamada lives with her parents. Mr. Sato lives in an apartment because he is from another area of Japan. In groups of four or five, complete the following tasks. 1. Describe what each student does in a day. 2. Compare and contrast Ms. Yamada’s and Mr. Sato’s routines. 3. Discuss simlarities and differences between their daily routines and your own.
そうごうれんしゅう

7:00 a.m.

8:00 a.m.

9:00 a.m.

9:30 a.m.

10:00 a.m.

10:30 a.m. noon

1:00 p.m.

1:00 p.m.

2:30 p.m.

3:00 p.m.

6:00 p.m.

6:30 p.m.

7:30 p.m.

8:00 p.m.

9:00 p.m.

9:00 p.m.

9:30 p.m.

10:00 p.m.

11:00 p.m.

11:30 p.m.

12:30 p.m.

1:00 a.m.

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248

Chapter 6

ロールプレイ Role Play
You are conducting a telephone survey of people’s daily routines. With a partner, come up with five questions that you would like to ask. Then, pretend to make a phone call. Ask to speak with someone (your partner) politely. Once he/she comes to the phone, say すみません。アンケートちょうさなんですが、いいですか。 (Excuse me. I am doing a survey. May I . . . ?) Ask the five questions and take notes. Once the call is complete, reverse roles with your partner. Compare notes with several people in the class to see if your routines share anything in common.

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Chapter 7

第 七
い だ


な か



Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar

Japanese Culture Popular leisure activities and consumer goods in Japan I. Expressing likes or dislikes using 好 き or きらい and the particle や


Listening Kanji Reading

Communication Giving positive feedback with も; making contrasts with は 時 間 分 半 毎 年 好 語 高 番 方 新 古 安 友 Understanding word formation

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好 きなものと 好 きなこと
す す

Favorite Things and Activities Describing likes, dislikes, and preferences Food, beverages, sports, music, leisure activities 上田さんと リーさんのしゅみ Ms. Ueda’s and Mr. Li’s Hobbies

II. Forming noun phrases using の and plain present affirmative verbs (dictionary form) III. Making contrasts using the particle は, and expressing but using が IV. Making comparisons using 一 番 and 〜 (の) 方 が 〜より, and 〜も〜も and expressing lack of preference V. Giving reasons using the plain form + ので Identifying conversation fillers
いちばん ほう

250

Chapter 7

単語
Vocabulary
たん ご

Nouns うた エアロビクス おちゃ オレンジ カラオケ くだもの クラシック こ うちゃ コーラ こと ゴルフ さかな ジャズ ジュース しゅみ しょくじ スキー スポーツ たべもの たまご つり トマト ドライブ にく 歌 お茶 果物 紅茶 魚 趣味 食事 食べ物 卵/玉子 釣り 肉 song aerobics tea, green tea orange Karaoke, sing-along fruit classical music black tea cola thing (intangible) golf fish jazz juice hobby dining しょくじする dine skiing sports food egg fishing tomato driving (for pleasure) meat

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Favorite Things and Activities

251

にんじん のみもの ハイキング バスケットボール バナナ ヒップホップ ビール フットボール ポップス みず ミルク やきゅう やさい ラップ りょこう りんご レタス ロック ワイン う -verbs うたう おわる つくる とる はじまる

飲み物 水 野球 野菜 旅行

carrot beverage, drink hiking basketball (abbreviated as バスケッ or バスケ) ト banana hip-hop music beer (American) football ( アメフト ) pop music water milk baseball vegetable rap music traveling りょこうする to travel apple lettuce rock and roll wine

歌う 終わる 作る 撮る 始まる

to sing (for something) to end

えいがが おわる the movie is over. to make to take (a photograph) しゃしんを とる (for something) to begin

じゅぎょうが はじまる the class begins

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252

Chapter 7

い -adjectives おいしい たかい やすい な -adjectives きらい ( な ) すき ( な ) Question words どうして Adverbs もっと Particles や

高い 安い

delicious, good, tasty expensive (Chapter 4: high, tall) inexpensive

嫌い ( な ) 好き ( な )

dislike, hate like

why

more

and (when listing examples)

おちゃや コーヒー tea, coffee, and so on

Prefixes だい Conjunctions それから たとえば でも Expressions すきでもきらいでもありません 〜 ( は ) どうですか 好きでも嫌いでもありません I neither like nor dislike it. How about 〜 ?



very much, 大すき like very much

例えば

and, in addition, then for example but

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Favorite Things and Activities

253

単語の練 習 Vocabulary Practice
たん ご れんしゅう

A. たべもの Food
Name each item in the picture.

1. さかな 2. にく 3. たまご 4. やさい 5. くだもの 6. レタス 7. にんじん 8. トマト 9. バナナ 10. オレンジ 11. りんご Activity 1

fish meat egg vegetable fruit lettuce carrots tomato banana orange apple

1 4

2

5

しつもんに 日本語 で こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.


1. にくを よく たべますか。さかなは どうですか。 2. スーパーで よく 何を かいますか。 ( かいます to buy) 3. 何を あまり たべませんか。 4. 今 どんなものが 高 いですか。 ★ Ask your instructor the word for any other food that you want to know how to say in
Japanese.
たか

Supplementary Vocabulary: Food
えび 海老 キャベツ ぎゅうにく 牛肉 きゅうり たまねぎ 玉ねぎ とりにく 鳥肉 ねぎ ぶたにく 豚肉 ほうれんそう ピーマン みかん メロン いちご 苺 ぶどう shrimp cabbage beef cucumber onion chicken green onion pork spinach green pepper tangerine melon strawberry grape

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B. のみもの Beverages
Look at the pictures below and read each word in Japanese.

おちゃ tea, green tea

ジュース juice ミルク milk ( お ) さけ

コーヒー coffee こうちゃ black tea

rice wine / alcoholic beverage

コーラ cola ワイン wine ビール beer water

みず



Notes

• お in おちゃ is a polite prefix for the noun ちゃ, but it is rather •

rare to use ちゃ alone. Most people say おちゃ to refer either to green tea or tea as a general category of beverages. お in おさけ is also a polite prefix for the noun さけ. Although people say both おさけ and さけ, the latter tends to sound more masculine. (お)さけ can mean either Japanese rice wine or alcoholic beverages in general.

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Activity 2
Answer these questions in Japanese. しつもんに 日本語 で こたえて下さい。


1. おさけを のみますか。のみませんか。 2. どんなおさけを のみますか。 3. よく おちゃを のみますか。のみませんか。 4. どんなおちゃを のみますか。 5. どんなのみものを よく のみますか。どんなのみものは あまり のみませんか。 6. 学 食 には どんなのみものが ありますか。
しょく

7. スーパーには どんなのみものが ありますか。

C. スポーツ

Sports

テニス

バスケットボール

フットボール (アメフト)

ゴルフ

つり

スキー

ハイキング

やきゅう

ジョギング

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Activity 3
Match the Japanese words with their English equivalents in the above list.

_______1. エアロビクス _______2. バスケットボール _______3. フットボール _______4. ゴルフ _______5. つり _______6. スキー _______7. ハイキング _______8. やきゅう _______9. ジョギング Activity 4

a. golf b. football c. jogging d. fishing e. hiking f. skiing g. aerobics h. basketball i. baseball

しつもんに 日本語で こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.


1. どのスポーツを よく しますか。 2. どのスポーツを よく みますか。 3. 〜さんの 友 達 は どのスポーツを よくみますか。
ともだち

Supplementary Vocabulary: Sports
からて サッカー じゅうどう すいえい スケート ソフトボール たいそう バレーボール ボーリング 空手 柔道 水泳 体操 karate soccer judo swimming skating softball calisthenics, gymnastics volleyball bowling

D. おんがく Music

クラシック classical ジャズ jazz ロック rock and roll

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ポップス pop music

ラップ、ヒップホップ rap, hip-hop

Activity 5
Find the above words in the grid and circle them.

ク ジ ポ ッ ノ シ ズ ク ジ

ラ ク プ ズ ノ ラ ロ ギ ロ

シ ッ ラ ッ プ プ ッ シ プ

ラ ギ ピ シ ア ジ ク ッ ス

ク タ ャ ポ ッ ノ ス ク ラ

ズ シ ア ャ ズ ク ッ ポ ッ

ロ ポ ッ プ ス ラ ジ ジ ス

ッ ラ ジ ポ ッ ク ャ ラ ズ

プ ク ズ ロ ッ ズ ク プ ク

E. レジャーと しゅみ Hobbies and leisure activities
Starting with this chapter, verbs are presented in dictionary form (plain present affirmative form).

りょこうする/ りょこうに いく to travel

ドライブに いく/ ドライブを する to go for a drive

うたを うたう to sing songs

えを かく to draw

りょうりを する/つくる to cook

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カラオケに いく to go sing karaoke

しゃしんを とる to take pictures

そとで しょくじする to dine out

Activity 6
Charades. Work in groups of three or four. Take turns acting out one of the activities listed above while the rest of the group tries to guess what it is in Japanese.

Activity 7
Say as many leisure activities as you can, using the following review expressions.

コンサート、 おんがく、 レストラン、 かいもの、 ビデオ、 でんわ、 テレビ、 ゲーム、パーティ、およぐ(およぎます) 、さんぽ、こうえん、 あそびます(あそぶ) 、メール

Supplementary Vocabulary: Hobbies and Leisure activities
いけばなを する

生け花をする

to do ikebana (Japanese flower arrangement) (to) go dancing (to) play guitar (to) collect stamps (to) cycle, bike (to) talk about politics (to) enjoy gardening (to) go on a picnic (to) write a blog (to) play with a pet (to) participate in a volunteer activity

おどりに いく ギターを ひく きってを あつめる サイクリングに いく せいじについて はなす ガーデニングを たのしむ ピクニックに いく ブログを かく ペットと あそぶ ボランティアかつどうに さんかする

踊りに行く ギターを弾く 切手を集める サイクリングに行く 政治について話す ガーデニングを楽しむ ピクニックに行く ブログを書く ペットと遊ぶ ボランティア活動に 参加する

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ダイアローグ
Dialogue

はじめに Warm-up
しつもんに 日本語で こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.


1. しゅみは 何ですか。 2. よく スポーツを しますか。 3. よく スポーツばんぐみ (program) を みますか。 4. どんなおんがくを ききますか。

上田さんと リーさんのしゅみ

Ms. Ueda’s and Mr. Li’s Hobbies

田: リーさんのしゅみは 何ですか。 上 ー: そうですね。スポーツと おんがくが 好 きですね。 リ


田: そうですか。どんなスポーツが 好 きですか。 上


ー: やきゅうや バスケットボールが 好 きですね。上田さんは? リ


田: 私は すいえいが 一 番 好 きです。でも、バスケットも 上
いちばん す

好 きですよ。


ー: そうですか。バスケットは よく しますか。 リ 田: いいえ、 上 バスケットは するより みる 方 が 好 きですね。
ほう す

リーさんは バスケットを よく しますか。
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ー: ええ、バスケットは みるのも するのも 大 好 きです。 リ
だい す

田: そうですか。いいですね。 上 ー: ところで、上田さんは おんがくが 好 きですか。 リ


田: ええ、好 きですよ。 上


ー: そうですか。どんなおんがくが 好 きですか。 リ


田: しずかなおんがくが 好きなので、ジャズを よく ききます。 上


ー: そうですか。ぼくも ジャズが 大 好 きです。 リ
だい す

田: そうですか。じゃあ、クラシックは どうですか。 上 ー: ざんねんですが、 クラシックは あまり。ぼくには ちょっと リ むずかしくて。

Dialogue Phrase Notes

• ところで means by the way. • ぼくには means to me. 大 • When used before 好 き , だい does not mean big, but very. す • すいえい means swimming and it is used to indicate a catagory of sport rather than the act of swimming.

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ダイアローグの後で
あと

Comprehension

A. Circle はい if the following statement is true, and circle いいえ if it is false.

1. はい 2. はい 3. はい 4. はい 5. はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

リーさんは やきゅうが 好 きです。


上田さんと リーさんは バスケットが 好 きです。


上田さんは バスケットを するのが 好 きです。


上田さんは ジャズが 好 きです。


リーさんは クラシックの 方 が ジャズより ほう 好 きです。


B. Complete the following passage by filling in an appropriate word in each blank.

リーさんは よく します。 上田さんは が 好 きです。 も 好 きです。
す す

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日本の文化
Japanese Culture
Popular leisure actvities
A recent survey indicates that the following are the most popular leisure activities among Japanese between 18 and 30. The ranking of activities is based on the number of people who participated in the activities, not on frequency of participation.
ぶん か

おとこの人 1. ドライブに いく 2. おさけを のみに いく 3. インターネットを する 4. カラオケで うたう 5. そとで しょくじを する 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

おんなの人 ドライブに いく そとで しょくじを する おんがくを きく カラオケで うたう ビデオを みる

Japanese ideas about sports have evolved in recent years. Where people once saw sports as a leisure activity they now see them as a lifestyle. Sports are no longer only to watch, but are for participation. A survey conducted by Hakouhodo, Inc., in 2006 found that 76.9 percent of the people surveyed had participated in some sort of sport over the past year, and that 65.7 percent hope to participate in the future.
Play, Watch, or Go? Sports and Japanese Lifestyle

100 90 80 70 60 % 50 40 30 20 10 0

watch play go

1998

2000

2002 2004 Year

2006

The same survey found that yoga and aerobics are the most popular sports, followed by jogging and track.
Monthly Sports Participation

frequency

(track and field)

0

1

2

Times

3

4

5

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Traditional arts such as いけばな (flower arrangement), さどう (tea ceremony), and しょどう (calligraphy) ranked very low in terms of the number of participants.

Popular Consumer Goods
Cellular phones are extremely popular among Japanese. Young Japanese frequently use them to exchange e-mail, photos, and video clips. Cell phones are also used to download music, surf the Internet, play games, watch TV, and read books. Some phones can even be used like a debit card to make purchases in retail stores. As a result of such widespread cell-phone use, the number of public phones has greatly diminished, and it can be difficult to travel in Japan without a cell phone. Both Japanese travel agencies and phone companies with airport locations in Japan offer cell phone rentals to visitors. Another well-known obsession of the Japanese, particularly among women, is their love of luxury goods by such designers as Gucci, Chanel, and Prada. Most major Japanese department stores have designer goods sections. Wherever you walk in Japan, you will see women carrying designer handbags and wearing expensive scarves and belts. This popularity has continued for more than three decades and does not seem to be affected by economic conditions in Japan. For example, in the middle of an economic depression in 2002, Louis Vuitton sold over one billion dollars’ worth of merchandise in Japan—a 15% increase in profit over the previous year, and about half of the company’s total sales for that year. Why do the Japanese love brand-name items so much? One explanation is that Japanese people traditionally place a high value on quality. After the Meiji Restoration (1868–1912), many expensive foreign goods were imported from Europe, creating the association between quality and European luxury items. Today, brand names imply high quality, impeccable service, luxury, and status. Unlike a house or even furniture, these items are still within reach of the average consumer. Owning them gives some people the satisfaction of possessing something valuable and unique. At the same time, many others consider a preoccupation with brand names to be shallow.

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文法
Grammar
I. Expressing likes or dislikes using 好き or きらい and す the particle や
In Japanese, 好 き (like) and きらい (dislike, hate) are used to express one’s likes and dislikes. In English, like, dislike, and hate are verbs, but in Japanese 好 き and
す ぶんぽう

きらい are な - adjectives. Therefore, the negative form is じゃありません or じゃないです . The object of 好 き and きらい cannot be indicated by を because they are not verbs. Instead, use が to mark the object. Topic (person, animal) Noun (thing that s/he likes) Particle




私の 友 達

ともだち



テニス



好 きです。


My friend likes tennis. To list two or more items you like or dislike, use the particle と (and) as introduced in Chapter 5. However, と indicates that you like only the specific items you mentioned. For more items that you like or dislike, and for which you wish to show an example, use the particle や.

私は りんごと オレンジが 好 きです。
I like apples and oranges (but nothing else).


私は りんごや オレンジが 好 きです。
I like apples and oranges (and other food).


スミスさんは にんじんと たまごが きらいです。
Mr. Smith dislikes carrots and eggs.

スミスさんは にんじんや たまごが きらいです。
Mr. Smith dislikes carrots and eggs (and other things).

キム: はやしさんは どんなのみものが 好 きですか。
What kinds of drinks do you like, Ms. Hayashi?


はやし: そうですね。私は こうちゃや 日本のおちゃが 大 好 きですね。
だい す

Well, I love black tea and Japanese tea (and so on).

キム: じゃあ、おさけは どうですか。
How about alcoholic beverages?

はやし: おさけは ちょっと。
Alcohol is a bit . . . ( = I don’t like alcoholic beverages very much. )

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Notes

• 好 き and きらい can also be used before nouns. In this case, 好 き す す means favorite and きらいな is the opposite of favorite.

私の好 きな くだものは りんごです。
My favorite fruit is the apple.


私のきらいな くだものは バナナです。
The fruit that I don’t like is the banana.

• You might want to avoid using きらい in an answer to a question because it has a strong negative connotation. You can use expressions such as 〜は ちょっと (〜 is a bit) and あまり.

• In Chapters 2 through 5, 〜は どうですか meant “How is 〜?”
Another meaning of 〜は どうですか is “How about 〜?”

大 木 : 私は ワインが 好 きです。
おお き

I like wine.



水 田 : じゃあ、 ビールは どうですか。
みず た

Well, how about beer? I like beer, too.


大 木 : ビールも 好 きですよ。
おお き

大 大 • The prefix だい is commonly used with 好 き and きらい . だい好 き す す
だい だい す だい

means love or really like, and 大 きらい means hate or really don’t

like. 大 好 き and 大 きらい are more commonly used than とても

好 き or とても きらい .



If you don’t like or dislike something, use 好 きでも きらいでも



ありません or 好 きでも きらいでも ないです. (I neither like nor dislike it.)




話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
The following chart indicates what Mr. Yamada and Ms. Brown like and dislike. Express what they like or dislike, using 好 き , きらい . Use the particles と or や す wherever appropriate. Example: 山田さんは りんごが 好 きです。


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山田さん 好き


ブラウンさん 好き


きらい carrots and eggs milk football classical music

きらい vegetables, fruit, etc. juice, black tea, etc. golf, jogging, etc. classical music

たべもの のみもの スポーツ おんがく Activity 2

apples juice and coffee golf, tennis, etc. pop, jazz, etc.

meat, fish, etc. wine, beer, etc. football rap and rock

Ask a partner what types of food, drinks, sports, and music he/she likes and dislikes. Your partner will give you examples using や. Example: A: 〜さんは どんなたべものが 好 きですか。


たべもの のみもの スポーツ おんがく

B: りんごや オレンジが 好 きです。 A: そうですか。




パートナー

Activity 3
Now work with the class. Ask your classmates what kinds of food, drinks, sports, and music they like and dislike. See if you can determine the most popular item in each category. Example: A: 〜さんは どんなたべものが 好 きですか。


B: 〜が 好 きです。


A: そうですか。じゃあ、どんなたべものが きらいですか。 B: 〜は あまり 好 きじゃありません。


好き


きらい

たべもの のみもの スポーツ おんがく

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II. Forming noun phrases using の and plain present affirmative verbs (dictionary form)
The plain present affirmative form of a verb is also called the dictionary form because this is the form used for dictionary entries. This form also appears in time expressions, relative clauses, gerunds, and other structures. It is used in casual conversation, newspapers, expository writing, and other contexts. Learning when to use it appropriately can take some time. In this section, you will learn to use the plain present affirmative form with の to convert verb phrases into noun phrases. This use of の is different from the pronoun の (one) and from the particle の in the structure Noun の Noun.

A. Plain present affirmative verbs (dictionary form)
The charts below show how to create the dictionary forms of verbs from their polite forms.

う -verbs
Remove ます from the polite verb form and change the vowel sound of the last letter to u. ます -form Plain present affirmative (dictionary) form yomi + masu → kaki + masu → ai + masu → hanashi + masu → nomi + masu → yomu kaku au hanasu nomu

よみます (read) かきます (write) あいます (meet) はなします (talk) のみます (drink) る -verbs
Change ます to る. ます -form

よむ かく あう はなす のむ

Plain present affirmative (dictionary) form

たべます ねます います おきます

(eat) (sleep) (be, exist) (get up)

→ → → →

たべる ねる いる おきる

Irregular verbs
ます -form Plain present affirmative (dictionary) form

します (do) きます (come)

→ →

する くる

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268 Chapter 7

Once you know the plain affirmative form, it is relatively easy to identify the group to which it belongs (う-verb, る -verb, or irregular verb) by using the following three steps: 1. Remember that する and くる are the only irregular verbs. 2. If a dictionary form ends in -Xiru or -Xeru (X represents any consonant here), it is a る -verb. For example, since たべる ends in beru and おきる ends in kiru, they are る-verbs. However, つくる, おわる, and はじまる are not る verbs, because they end in -Kuru, -Waru, and -Maru, and not -Xiru or -Xeru. 3. The rest are all う-verbs. There are some exceptions to this rule. Among them, the ones you have learned are かえる (return) and はいる (enter). These are う-verbs.

B. The plain present affirmative form + のが 好 きです ・きらい す です (like/dislike doing 〜 )
The plain present affirmative form (dictionary form) + のが 好 きです/きらい the gerund (-ing) form of a verb and the infinitive (to + verb) may be used as nouns, as in examples such as seeing is believing or to play a musical instrument is fun. In a similar manner, Japanese adds の to the plain present affirmative form to create a noun phrase. Noun phrase Verb (dictionary form) Particle

です is used to express one’s likes or dislikes in terms of doing something. In English,



私は

本を

よむ





好 きです。


I like reading books. Here are some more examples.

私は えいがを みるのが 好 きです。
I like watching movies. Watching movies is fun.


えいがを みるのは おもしろいです。 スミス: 田中さんは 何を するのが 好 きですか。
What do you like to do, Ms. Tanaka?


田中: そうですね。私は インターネットで あそぶのが 好 きですね。スミスさんは どうですか。


Let’s see. I like to surf the Internet. How about you, Mr. Smith?

スミス: ぼくは クラシックおんがくを きくのが 好 きです。
I like to listen to classical music.


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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Create questions using the following expressions and 〜のが 好 きですか .


Example: てがみを かきます

ともだち

てがみを かくのが 好 きですか。


1. 友 達 のしゃしんを とります 2. そとで しょくじを します 3. ジョギングを します 4. カラオケに いきます 5. うたを うたいます Activity 2

6. ごはんを つくります 7. えを かきます 8. 日本語 を はなします


9. おふろに はいります 10. およぎます

Work with a partner. Using the questions you created in Activity 1, ask your partner which activities he/she likes to do. Example: たべます

A: たべるのが 好 きですか。 B: ええ、大 好 きです。
だい す す

or いいえ、あまり 好 きじゃないです/好 きじゃありません。
す す

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Activity 3
The following pictures illustrate activities that Kimura-san likes to do. Describe them using 〜のが 好 きです.


Example: 木村 さんは テニスを するのが 好 きです。
むら す

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Activity 4
Ask a partner what he/she likes to do during school breaks. Example: A: 〜さんは やすみの日に 何を するのが 好 きですか。


B: そうですね。ねるのが 好 きですね。


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III. Making contrasts using the particle は , and expressing but using が A. Using は for contrast
Besides indicating a topic, は can indicate a contrast between two items. In both of the following sentences, the second は in the example puts りょうり and そうじ in contrast.

私は よく りょうりを します。でも、そうじは あまり しません。
I cook often but I don’t do the cleaning very often.

キムさんは りょうりが 好 きです。でも、そうじは 好 きじゃ す す ありません。
Mr. Kim likes cooking but he does not like cleaning. The particle は for contrast is often used in sentences ending with negative forms. Often, there is no explicit item of contrast in this case.

田中: 明日も きますか。
あした

Are you coming tomorrow?

スミス: いいえ、明日は きません。 No, I am not coming tomorrow. あした (but I may come some other time).

The use of は for contrast may appear in more than one sentence or clause to make the contrast explicit. In the following example sentences, the topic of the first sentence is 私 , so it is marked with the topic marker は . And although this first sentence does not end in a negative form, コーヒー also takes は , because it is in contrast with コーラ in the second sentence.

私は コーヒーは 好 きです。 でも、コーラは あまり 好 き す す じゃありません。
I like coffee. But I don’t like cola very much.

は for contrast can be used with any type of noun as well. Like は for topic, and も for similarity, は replaces を (direct object) or が (subject), but it is usually added to another particle, as in the examples below. Some particles, such as に (point of time) ・へ (goal) may be deleted if they can be easily understood from context. and に よく としょかんで べんきょうします。でも、学生会 館では かいかん しません。
I often study in the library. But, I don’t (study) in the student union.

ここに ねこが います。 あそこには いません。
There is a cat here. It’s not over there.

山田さんは 今日は きません。でも、土曜日 ( に ) は きます。
Mr. Yamada does not come today. But, he will come tomorrow.

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B. Expressing but using が
The particle が can be used to connect two sentences or clauses that oppose each other. が is attached at the end of the first sentence. Clause Particle (but) Clause

こうちゃは 好 きです


が、

おちゃは あまり 好 きじゃないです。


I like black tea but I don’t like green tea very much. Since が often connects two clauses in a contrasting or negative relationship, the contrast marker は is often used with が as well. For example:

ゴルフを するのは 好 きですが、みるのは あまり 好 き す す じゃありません。
I like playing golf but I don’t like watching it.

あさは ごはんを たべませんでしたが、ひるは たべました。
I did not eat breakfast but I did eat lunch.

そうじは しましたが、せんたくは しませんでした。
I did the cleaning but I didn’t do laundry.

友 達 と えいがは みませんでしたが、テレビは みましたよ。
ともだち

I didn't watch a movie with my friends, but we did watch TV.

ゆうびんきょくには いきませんでしたが、ぎんこうには いきました。
I didn’t go to the post office, but I did go to the bank.

Note

• が can also be used to open a conversation, or to introduce a topic of conversation. This is called a “weak but.” It does not introduce a strong negative relation, and it is similar to the use of but in English as in: “Excuse me, but could you turn on the TV?”

あのう すみませんが、今 何時 ですか。
Excuse me, but what time is it?


私のうちは あれですが、田中さんのは どれですか。
My house is that one over there, but which one is Ms. Tanaka’s?

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Look at the drawings below and describe what Yamada-san likes, doesn’t like very much, and positively dislikes. Use は to contrast his likes and dislikes.

Example: 山田さんは りんごが 好 きですが、トマトは あまり

好 きじゃありません。




好 きです


あまり 好 きじゃありません


きらいです

Activity 2
Work with a partner. Referring to the items in the table below, ask questions to determine your partner’s preferences. Try to use both particles も and は correctly in your follow-up questions. Example: A: 〜さんは どんなたべものが 好 きですか。

B: レタスが 好 きです。 Follow-up questions:




A: そうですか。にんじんも 好 きですか。 B: いいえ、にんじんは あまり 好 きじゃありません。 A: じゃあ、トマトは どうですか。 B: はい、トマトは 好 きです。

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Categories

Items

たべもの どうぶつ のみもの スポーツ おんがく Activity 3

トマト にんじん レタス バナナ オレンジ いぬ ねこ さかな くま (bear) とり (bird) さる (monkey) ビール ワイン コーラ こうちゃ コーヒー ミルク ジュース 水
みず

エアロビクス ハイキング テニス フットボール ゴルフ クラシック ジャズ ポップス ロック ラップ ヒップホップ

For each statement below, create two sentences. One should express a similarity with the statement; the other should express a contrast. Example: 私は あさごはんを たべます。

ばんごはんも たべます。でも、ひるごはんは たべません。

1. 私は よく テレビを みます。 2. 月曜日に アルバイトを します。 3. 昨日 山本さんに メールを かきました。
きのう

4. スミスさんは 先生に しつもんしました。 5. 山本さんの 友 達 は 週末 よく おんがくを ききます。
ともだち

6. 毎 日 りょうりを します。
まい

Activity 4
Describe what each person likes and does not like to do. Example: 山田さんは パーティに いくのが 好 きですが、


パーティを するのは あまり 好 きじゃありません。


山田 パーティに いきます 小 川 あそびます
お がわ

パーティを します べんきょうします うちで たべます ゲームを します うたを うたいます えを かきます

山本 そとで しょくじを します 大川 えいがを みます 金 田 コンサートに いきます
かね だ

田中 しゃしんを とります

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IV. Making comparisons using 一番 and 〜(の)方が いちばん ほう 〜より, and 〜も〜も and expressing lack of preference
In English, preference can be expressed by changing the form of an adjective into a superlative (e.g., the best, the prettiest, the nicest, the most wonderful) or a comparative (e.g., better, prettier, nicer, more wonderful). Japanese has a similar set of expressions, but the adjective forms do not change. Instead, preference is expressed in other parts of the sentence. This chapter introduces the superlative with the adverb 一 番 , the comparative with 〜の方 が 〜より, and lack of preference using
いちばん

〜も〜も.

ほう

A. Superlatives using 一番
いちばん

一 番 means number one or first, and it is used to form a superlative, such as the nicest person, prettiest house, the best movie, and I like X the best. 一 番 must be followed by an adjective or adverb. For example, the best movie should be expressed as 一 番 いい えいが . 一 番 えいが is a common mistake that native English speakers make.
いちばん いちばん いちばん いちばん

としょかんは 一 番 大きい たてものです。
いちばん

The library is the biggest building.

このたまごが 一 番 安 いです。
いちばん やす

These eggs are the cheapest.

ジャズが 一 番 好 きです。
いちばん す

I like jazz the best.

山本さんが 一 番 よく べんきょうします。
いちばん

Ms. Yamamoto studies the hardest.

私の一 番 好 きな たべものは バナナです。
いちばん す

My most favorite food is bananas. To indicate the scope of a preference, use the phrase 〜の中で.

スポーツの中で 何が 一 番 おもしろいですか。
いちばん

Which sport is the most interesting among sports?

くだものの中で 何を 一 番 よく たべますか。
Which fruits do you eat most?
いちばん

のみものの中で コーヒーが 一 番 好 きです。
Coffee is the beverage I like best.
いちばん す

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If the preceding noun is a place noun, 中 is omitted:

このクラスで 山田さんが 一 番 よく べんきょうします。
いちばん

Mr. Yamada studies the hardest in this class.

富 士山 は 日本で 一 番 高 い 山です。
ふ じ さん いちばん たか

Mt. Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan.

田中: このクラスで どの人が 一 番 よくべんきょうしますか。
いちばん

Which person studies the most in this class?

石 田: 山田さんが 一 番 よく べんきょうします。
いし

/山田さんです。
Mr. Yamada studies the hardest. / It’s Mr. Yamada.

いちばん

スミス: たべものの中で 何が 一 番 好 きですか。
いちばん す

Which type of food do you like best?

大田: さかなが 一 番 好 きです。
いちばん す

I like fish the best.

B. Comparatives using 〜 ( の )方 が 〜より
ほう

The expression 〜 ( の ) 方 が 〜より is used to compare two items. The item preceding 〜 ( の ) 方 が is emphasized or preferred over the item that precedes
ほう

〜より. These items can be either noun phrases or verb phrases ending in the dictionary form. Noun (Preferred) Particle Noun Particle Noun (Less preferred) Particle

ほう

きょうと



ほう





(とうきょう より) きれいです。

Kyoto is prettier than Tokyo.

とうきょうの方 が ニューヨークより 大きいです。
ほう

Tokyo is larger than New York.

このさかなの方 が にくより 安 いです。
ほう やす

This fish is cheaper than meat.

りょうりは つくる方 が たべるより 好 きです。
ほう す

I like cooking more than eating.

やきゅうは みるより する方 が たのしいです。
ほう

Playing baseball is more fun than watching it.
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In order to ask one’s preference between two items, use 〜と〜と どちらの方 が.
ほう

Noun Particle Noun Particle Question Particle Noun Particle (Choice A) (Choice B) word とうきょう と きょうと と どちら の
ほう





きれいですか。

Which is prettier, Tokyo or Kyoto?

とうきょうと ニューヨークと どちらの方 が 大きいですか。
Which is larger, Tokyo or New York? Which is cheaper, fish or meat? in 〜のが 好 きです.
す ほう やす ほう

さかなと にくと どちらの方 が 安 いですか。
To ask about two actions, use the dictionary form + の . This の is the same one used

テニスを みるのと するのと どちらの方 が 好 きですか。
ほう す

Which do you like better, watching tennis or playing it?

ここに いるのと でかけるのと どちらの方 が いいですか。
Which is better, staying here or going out?
ほう

リー: 大川さんと 山本さんと どちらの方 が よく りょうりを しますか。
ほう

Who cooks more often, Mr. Okawa or Ms. Yamamoto?

上田: 山本さんの方 が よく りょうりを します。
ほう

Ms. Yamamoto cooks more often.

リー: 上田さんは どうですか。
How about you, Ms. Ueda?

上田: そうですね。私は りょうりを するより たべる方 が ほう いいですね。
Well, eating is better than cooking in my case. When you want to compare the preference between two actions, use the dictionary form of verb + 方 が .
ほう

Notes

• •

If 〜より is obvious from the context, then it can be omitted, as in the above example conversation between Mr. Li and Ms. Ueda. The adverb もっと is used with adjectives or verbs, and it means more or even more.

もっと たべませんか。

Why don’t you eat more?

私のいぬは もっと 大きいです。 My dog is bigger.
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C. Expressing lack of preference (comparisons of equality)
If you do not have preference for one item over another, use 〜も 〜も. Items can be two noun phrases or two verb phases ending with の. Noun A Particle Noun B Particle

とうきょう



きょうと



好 きです。


I like both Tokyo and Kyoto. Noun A Particle Noun B Particle

とうきょう



きょうと



好 きじゃありません。/ 好 きじゃないです。
す す

I don’t like either Tokyo or Kyoto.

田中: ペプシと コカコーラと どちらの方 が おいしいですか。
ほう

Which is more delicious, Pepsi or Coca-Cola?

中 山 : ペプシも コカコーラも おいしいです。
なかやま

Both Pepsi and Coca-Cola are delicious.

でも、私は ペプシの方 が 好 きです。
But I like Pepsi better.
ほう す

ペギー: うちで たべるのと そとで しょくじするのと どちらの方 が 好 きですか。
ほう す

Which do you like better, eating at home or dining out?

あやか: そうですね。うちで たべるのも そとで しょくじするのも 好 きですが、


Well, I like both eating at home and dining out.

たいてい うちで たべます。
But I usually eat at home.

Note

• 〜も 〜も can be used in either a positive or negative statement.
A も B も+ affirmative statement means both A and B. A も B も + negative statement (or in a negative statement) means neither A nor B.

やきゅうも バスケットも 好 きです。
I like both baseball and basketball.


ロックも ジャズも 好 きじゃありません。
I don’t like either rock or jazz very much.
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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Answer the questions. Example: おんがくの中で 何が 一 番 好 きですか。

ジャズが 一 番 好 きです。
いちばん す いちばん す

いちばん



1. スポーツの中で 何が 一 番 好 きですか。 2. たべものの中で 何が 一 番 きらいですか。
いちばん

3. のみものの中で 何を 一 番 よく のみますか。
いちばん

4. どんなおんがくを 一 番 よく ききますか。
いちばん

5. このクラスで だれが 一 番 よく 日本語 を はなしますか。
いちばん ご

Activity 2
Ask a partner about places and things that have the most in some attribute, using the nouns and adjectives provided. Follow the example. Example: アメリカ/川/大きい

A: アメリカでは どの川が 一 番 大きいですか。
いちばん

B: ミシシッピー 川 が 一 番 大きいです。
がわ いちばん

1. アメリカ/まち/ 古 い
ふる

4. キャンパス/たてもの/ 新 しい
あたら

2. 日本/山/ 高 い
たか

5. アメリカ/しゅう (state) /小さい

3. せかい (world) /まち/きれい 6. アメリカ/たべもの/おいしい Activity 3
First determine the order of the two items in parentheses using the adjectives provided. Then form a comparative sentence. Examples: 好 き ( こうちゃ/コーヒー )


こうちゃの 方 が コーヒーより 好 きです。
ほう す

むずかしい (日本語 で かく / はなす) 日本語 で かく 方 が はなすより むずかしいです。
ご ほう ご

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1. いい (いぬ/ねこ)

5. 大きい (ニューヨーク /とうきょう)
ご ご

2. しずか (日本語 /スペイン語 ) (としょかん/ラボ) 6. むずかしい 3. いそがしい (先生/学生) 7. きらい


(りょうりをする/そうじを する) (べんきょうする/しごとを する)
たいへん

4. 好 き (たべる/ねる) Activity 4

8. 大 変

Work with a partner. Using the items in Activity 3, taking turns asking each other three comparative questions. Example: 好 き ( こうちゃ/コーヒー )


Activity 5

A: こうちゃと コーヒーと どちらの 方 が 好 きですか。 B: コーヒーの 方 が 好 きです。
ほう す ほう す

A: 日本語 で かくのと はなすのと どちらの 方 が むずかしいですか。
ほう ご ほう

B: かく 方 が はなすより むずかしいです。

Work with a partner. Ask your partner about at least two things he/she likes, and then ask him/her to rank them. If he/she likes both equally, write both words in Column 1. Example: A: どんなくだものが 好 きですか。


Category

B: りんごや オレンジが 好 きです。


A: じゃあ、りんごと オレンジと どちらの 方 が 好 きですか。
ほう す

B: そうですね。オレンジの 方 が 好 きです。
ほう す

or りんごも オレンジも 好 きです。


1

2

くだもの のみもの スポーツ おんがく

りんご

オレンジ

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V. Giving reasons using the plain form + ので
The conjunction ので indicates a reason, and it is attached to the end of the clause that expresses the reason. If a sentence contains both a reason and result, the clause for the reason must come before the clause indicating the result. For example, in the sentence 来 週から テストが はじまるので、今週はよく べんきょうします。 (I will study hard this week because exams begin next week.), the reason is stated at the beginning of the sentence and it ends with ので ; the cause is mentioned in the latter half of the sentence. Clause (reason) Particle (reason) Clause (result)
らい

いちごが 好 きな


ので、

よく かいます。

I like strawberries, so I often buy some.

しごとが もうすぐ おわるので、ここで まって下さい。
My job will be finished soon, so please wait here.

J −ポップが 好きなので、よく J −ポップのうたを うたいます。


I like J-pop (Japanese pop music), so I often sing J-pop songs. The 〜ので construction is preceded by a clause ending with the plain form of a verb or adjective. The following charts show the plain affirmative and negative forms of verbs and adjectives. In these charts, I, it, he, and she are given as subjects in English, but these forms can also be used to indicate you, we, and they, depending on context.

Plain form + ので / noun or な-adjective + な + ので
な -adjectives
In the case of な-adjectives, the affirmative is expressed by using the stem + ので. Dictionary form Prenominal form Plain negative

〜ので (because 〜 )
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

きれい

きれいな ( もの ) pretty thing

きれい じゃない ( もの ) not pretty thing

きれいなので きれいじゃない ので because it is pretty because it is not pretty

pretty

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Noun + です (copula verb)
Noun + な expresses the affirmative. Dictionary form Noun + な Plain negative form

〜ので (because 〜 )
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

日本人
Japanese

日本人な be Japanese

日本人じゃない not Japanese

日本人なので

日本人 じゃないので

because he/she is because he/she is Japanese not Japanese

い -adjectives
The plain affirmative form of an い -adjective is the same as its dictionary form. The plain negative form is created by deleting です from the polite version. Dictionary form / Plain negative Plain affirmative form form happy, be happy

〜ので (because 〜 )
Affirmative (Plain) because he/she is happy Negative (Plain) because he/she is not happy

うれしい

うれしくない not happy

うれしいので うれしくないので

う -verbs
To form the negative of a う-verb, delete ます from the ます-form, change the vowel sound of the last letter [i] to [a], and add ない.

ます -form

Dictionary Plain negative form form / Plain affirmative form

〜ので
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

よみます
/yom/+/i/+/masu/ read

よむ
/yom/+/u/ read

よまない

よむので

よまないので

/yom/+/a/+/nai/ because he/she because he/she not read reads does not read

かきます
/kak/+/i/+/masu/ write

かく
/kak/+/u/ write

かかない

かくので

かかないので

/kak/+/a/+/nai/ not write because he/she because he/she writes does not write

はなします
/hanash/+/i/+ /masu/ talk

はなす
/hanas/+/u/ talk

はなさない

はなすので

/hanas/ +/a/+ /nai/ because he/she because he/she not talk talks does not talk

はなさない ので

おわります
/owar/+/i/+/masu/ end

おわる
/owar/+/u/ end

おわらない
/owar/+/a/+/nai/ not end

おわるので because it ends

おわらない ので because it does not end

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If there is no consonant before the [i] sound of the ます-form, as in あいます, change [i] to [wa] instead of [a]. The plain present negative form of あります is ない.

ます -form あいます
/ai /+ /masu/ meet

Dictionary form/ Plain affirmative form

Plain negative form

〜ので
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

あう meet あわない
/awa/ +/nai/ not meet

あうので because he/she meets

あわないので because he/she does not meet

あります
/ari/+ /masu/ be, exist*

ある be, exist

not be, exist because there is 〜 because there isn’t 〜

ない /nai/

あるので

ないので

*Remember that あります is used only for inanimate objects or events.

る -verbs
Change ます to ない to form the plain negative form.

ます -form たべます eat Plain Dictionary negative form/ Plain form affirmative form

〜ので
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

たべる eat たべない not eat

たべるので because he/she eats

たべないので because he/she does not eat

ねます sleep ねる sleep ねない not sleep

ねるので because he/she sleeps because there is 〜

ねないので because he/she does not sleep

います be, exist*

いる be, exist

いない not be, exist

いるので

いないので because there isn’t 〜

*Remember that います is used only for live beings such as people and animals.

Irregular verbs
-form

ます

Dictionary form/ Plain affirmative form

Plain negative form

〜ので
Affirmative (Plain) Negative (Plain)

します do する do しない not do

するので because he/she does

しないので because he/she does not do

きます come くる come こない not come

くるので because he/she comes

こないので because he/she does not come

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284

Chapter 7

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Combine the following pairs of sentences using 〜ので . Make sure to start with the sentence that expresses a reason and is followed by ので . Example: にくを たべます。さかなは きらいです。

まい

さかなは きらいなので、にくを たべます。

1. 毎 日 しごとを します。いそがしいです。 2. よく デパートに いきます。かいものが 好 きです。 3. 七 時 に おきます。 八 時 に じゅぎょうが はじまります。
しち じ はち じ す

4. トマトが たくさん あります。トマトで りょうりを します。 5. うちで ゆっくりします。今日は いそがしくありません。 6. 今日は じゅぎょうが ありません。ひるまで ねます。 Activity 2
Work with a partner. The following table shows what Mr. Tanaka dislikes and why. Create a conversation using the table and the dialogue model below. Note that もの refers to a tangible object such as food, drinks, and places and こと refers to an intangible thing like an activity and event. Example: A: 私の きらいな ものは さかなです。

Example: 1 2 3 4 5

B: え、どうしてですか。 A: ほね (bone) が あるので、きらいです。 B: そうですか。

きらいなもの・きらいなこと さかな
たか

りゆう (reason) ほね (bone) が あります 人と はなすのが 好きじゃありません。


レストランに いきます。 高 いです パーティ 大きいまち カラオケに いきます。 ハイキングを します。

しずかな ところが 好 きです。


うたを うたうのが きらいです。 あるくのが 好 きじゃありません。


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Activity 3
Work with a partner. Invite your partner to do an activity together. He/She will refuse the invitation and give a reason using ので . Example: A: 来 週の水曜日に コンサートに いきませんか。
らい

B: ありがとうございます。でも、水曜日は、りょうしんが

あいに くるので。

A: あ、そうですか。ざんねんですね。 B: すみません。あの、また さそってくれませんか。 to invite) ( さそう A: いいですよ。じゃあ、また、今度 。


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286

Chapter 7

聞く練 習
Listening
上手な聞き方 Listening Strategy
じょうず き かた き れ ん しゅう

Identifying conversation fillers
In conversations in English, you hear many empty words and expressions such as hmm, uh, and well. Their approximate equivalents in Japanese are えーと, あのう, and そうですね . These words are referred to as conversation fillers. While the words themselves have little meaning, they are used to keep the conversation flowing when the person speaking does not know what to say.

練習

れん しゅう

Practice

Listen to the following statements and short conversations. Circle the fillers you hear.

1. あのう 2. あのう 3. あのう 4. あのう

えーと えーと えーと えーと

そうですね そうですね そうですね そうですね

日本人学生に きく Interviews with Japanese students
Listen to the interviews between a reporter for a student newspaper and four Japanese students who are visiting the college campus. Fill in the chart with their names and what each one likes to do.

なまえ
Interview 1 Interview 2 Interview 3 Interview 4

好き


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聞き上手 話し上手


Communication

じょうず はな

じょうず

上手な話し方 Communication Strategy
じょうず はな かた

Giving positive feedback with も ; making contrasts with は
Like そうですか and そうですね , the particles も (similarity) and は (contrast) can be used to carry on a conversation more smoothly. If a person mentions something that you have in common, use も to give that person positive feedback.

中田: 大川さんは どんなスポーツが 好 きですか。 大川: やきゅうが 好 きですね。
す す

中田: ああ、そうですか。私も やきゅうが 大 好 きですよ。
だい す

By establishing that you both like baseball, the conversation can now progress to subtopics, such as which teams you do like. In cases where you do not share common interests, you can use は to mark a contrast.

スミス: 高 山さんは どんなスポーツが 好 きですか。
たかやま す

そ 高 山: うですね。やきゅうが 好 きですね。
たかやま す だい す

スミス: ああ、そうですか。私は テニスが 大 好 きです。
Be careful not to focus too much on your differences, however, since this may become disruptive or seem unfriendly. Instead, you might want to follow up with other questions to find something you do have in common.

上田: リーさんは どんなスポーツが 好 きですか。 リー: そうですね。やきゅうや ゴルフが 好 きですね。 上田: そうですか。じゃあ、サッカーも 好 きですか。 す or サッカーは どうですか。 リー: ええ、サッカーも よく みますよ。 or そうですね、サッカーは ちょっと。
Carrying on a conversation in any language is like playing catch. You must take turns speaking and listening while sustaining common topics. It is especially important to be aware of these strategies while trying to speak a second language. Being a good listener is key to participating successfully in a conversation.
す す

練習

れんしゅう

Practice

With a partner, choose a topic below or one of your own. Discuss your individual preferences, incorporating the communicative strategies you have learned. 1. leisure activities 2. music

3. sports
4. movies

5. food 6. books

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288

Chapter 7

漢字
Kanji
History of the Japanese Writing System
Historically Chinese characters are classified into the following six categories called 六 書 . The first four categories are based on structural composition and the last two
りくしょ かん じ

are based on usage. The distinction among them is not clear-cut because some belong to more than one category and the definitions are not always clear.
しょうけい も じ

象 形 文 字 (Pictographs) are based on pictures of objects they represent, as

explained in Chapter 5. For example, 大 in Chapter 4, 人 , 山 , 川 , 田 in chapter 5, and 月 , 火 , 水 , 木 , 金 , 土 , and 日 are all in this category. Some of them are very different from the original illustration, and are often hard to see the origin. The number of kanji in this category is only a few hundreds. 指 事文 字 (Logograms or ideographs) are originated from simple graphic representation of an abstract concept. The number of kanji in this category is extremely limited as they are primarily used for direction 上 and 下 and numbers 一, 二 , 三 , 四 , 八 , 十 , and 百 . Others include 本 and 末 . pictographs and logograms to repent an overall meaning. For example, the combination of 人 (person) and 木 (tree), becomes 休 (to rest), and the combination of 日 and 月 becomes 明 (bright). Other examples are 学 and 先 . 形 声 文 字 (semantic-phonetic characters, phonetic-ideographic characters) are by far the largest kanji category, including kanji such common as 曜 , 時 , and 週 . The proportion of kanji varies depending on the total number of kanji considered, but it is usually estimated as between 80 to 90 percent of characters. They usually consist of phonetic component, which indicates on-reading of the kanji, and the semantic component, which indicates the categorical meaning of the kanji. For example, the left side of 語 , 言 means to say, indicating 語 has something to do with speech or language. The right side 吾 provides pronunciation /go/ for this kanji. The combination of the two indicates that 語 refers to language and it is pronounced as ご. Other semantically related words such as 話 (/wa/ story, talking) 読 (/doku/ reading), 訳 (/yaku/ translation) and 説 (/setsu/ explanation) all have 言 but have different pronunciation. 転 注 文 字 (delivative characters) is not a well-defined category and thus is rather problematic. It refers refer to kanji where the original meaning has become extended from its original usage. For example, 楽 (music, comfort, ease) is thought by some to have began as a picture of a drum, and by others to have represented bells on a plank of wood. The number of kanji in this category is extremely limited. 仮 借 文 字 (phonetic loan characters) are characters from pronunciation in Chinese is imported into Japanese but not the meaning. For example, 来 was a
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し じ も じ

かい い も じ

会 意 文 字 (compound ideographs or ideographs ) are a combination of

けいせい も じ

てんちゅう も じ

か しゃ も じ

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pictograph that meant wheat in the ancient Chinese. When this kanji was imported, its pronunciation /rai/ was adopted but the meaning was not. Since one of the meanings of /rai/ is to come in Japanese, 来 is used to indicated to come and has the on-reading /rai/. Other common characters in its category are 今 , 五 , 六 , and 七 but the number in this category is also very limited.

time, hour

interval, duration

to divide, to understand, minute

half

every

year

to like

language, word

high, expensive

number, order, turn

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290

Chapter 7 direction, person (polite)

new

old

inexpensive, cheap

friend

読 めるようになった漢 字 (Kanji and compounds you can now read)
よ かん じ

一時 八 時半 時 々 時計 三 時間 二週間 三 十 分 分かりました 毎日毎 朝 毎 晩 毎週 毎年 毎月 来 年 好き 大好き 日本語
えい はち ときどき とけい さん に さんじゅっ

英 語中国語 高い 高校 一 番 新しい 新 聞 古い 安い 友達 水
ちゅうごく いち しんぶん だち みず たかやま ふるやま おお き おお た かね だ なかやま みず た いし だ

あさ

ばん

らい

日本人のなまえ: 高 山 古 山 大 木 大 田 金 田 中 山 水 田 石 田

練習

れんしゅう

Practice

Read the following sentences written in hiragana, katakana, and kanji.

1. 私の友 達 は毎日5時半におきます。
だち

2. 小川さんは古いきっさてんも新しいカフェも大好きです。 3. 大川さんは毎週テニスを二 時間します。 4. 本田: 「安いワインと高いワインとどちらの方が好きですか。 」 金田: 「安いワインや高いワインより、おいしいワインが 一 番 いち 好きです。 」 5. スミスさんは日本の高校で 一 年間べんきょうしました。その時、 日本語もべんきょうしました。 6. 古山: 「 今、何時ですか。 」 高田: 「8時1 5分です。 」
いち に

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291

読む練習
Reading
上手な読み方
じょうず よ かた よ れ ん しゅう

Reading Strategy

Understanding word formation
Many words are made up of one or more words as well as prefixes and suffixes. It is important to examine the components of a word to guess its meaning and increase your vocabulary. For example, the suffix 〜や indicates a store or a shop in Japanese, and さかな means fish. So what does さかなや mean? How about にくや and くだものや?

読む前に
よ まえ

Pre-reading

Take apart the following words and give their meanings. Follow the example. Example: 大学院 生
いん いんせい

大学 院 and 生 , graduate school + student = graduate student 4. 大学生 5. 三年生 6. 毎日 7. のみもの 8. 大好き

1. フランス人 2. しょくじする 3. そうじする

本田さんのしゅみ
言 葉 のリスト
こと ば

おそい モーツァルト ベートーベン 時間がかかる

slow Mozart Beethoven to take time

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292

Chapter 7

私の趣 味 はスポーツと音 楽 です。スポーツの中ではテニスが
しゅ み おん がく

一番好きです。それから、エアロビクスとスキーも大好きです。 でも、野 球 やゴルフは時間がかかるので、あまり好きじゃない
や きゅう

のです。 バスケットボールは 見 るのは 好きですが、 するのは


あまり好きじゃありません。 音 楽 はにぎやかな 音 楽 の方が好きなので、 クラシックより
おん がく おん がく

ポップスやロックをよく 聞 きます。 クラシックは 好 きなのも


ありますが、 きらいなのもあります。 たとえば、 モーツァルト はよく 聞 きますが、 ベートー ベンはあまり好きじゃないので、


聞 きません。


読んだ後で
よ あと

Comprehension

A. しつもんに 日本語で こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. 本田さんのしゅみは 何ですか。 2. 本田さんは スキーと バスケットと どちらの方が 好きですか。 3. 本田さんは どんなスポーツが きらいですか。 4. 本田さんは どんなおんがくを よく ききますか。 5. 本田さんは だれのおんがくを ききますか。
B. Underline the following transitional words in the text, and observe how they help indicate relationships between sentences.

それから in addition, also, and but でも たとえば for example
C. Write a short paragraph about your hobbies. Describe at least two hobbies and provide details such as where, when, how often, and with whom you do them.

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Favorite Things and Activities

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総合練習
Integration
A. Work with a partner. You need to pick out a birthday present for your partner from a mail-order catalogue. In order to do so, you want to find out his/her hobbies, favorite things, and things that he/she wants. Ask your partner questions to come up with as many options as you can. Example: A: 〜さんのしゅみは 何ですか。
そ う ご う れ ん しゅう

B: そうですね。私は しゃしんを とるのが 好きですね。 A: そうですか。しゃしんですか。いいですね。

ほかにも (In addition) しゅみが ありますか。

B: ええ、スポーツが 好きですよ。 A: どんなスポーツが 好きなんですか B: ハイキングや ゴルフが 好きですね。 A: そうですか。たべものは どうですか。 B: たべものですか。 ケーキ (cake) や くだものが 好きですね。

B. Work with a new partner. Look at the following items in a mail-order catalogue. Ask each other about each person’s previous partner’s hobbies and favorite things. Then discuss and decide on what to buy for the previous partner. Compare at least two items. Example: A: 〜さん (previous partner) は 何が 好きですか。

B: そうですね。しゃしんを とるのが 好きです。そして、

ゴルフと ハイキングも 好きです。

A: たべものは どうですか。 B: ケーキ (cake) や くだものが 好きです。 A: そうですか。じゃあ、誕 生 日 (birthday) には

どんなものが いいですか。

たんじょう び

B: そうですね。このフォ フレーム (photo frame) は どうですか。 ト A: いいですね。でも、新しいデジカメも ありますよ。 B: そうですね、でも、フォトフレームの方が デジカメより

安いので、フォトフレームの方が いいです。

A: じゃあ、このフォトフレームは どうですか。 B: そうですね。いいですね。

一番安いですよ。

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294

Chapter 7

ピクチャーカラー フォトフレーム S 定価 700 円

パーカー クラシック GT ボールペン 定価 4,000 円

ミ ラ ッ ク ス デ ジ タ ル カメラ ウルトラミニ50 万画素 定価 25,000 円

マグカップ 200 定価 750 円

お ま か せ フ ラ ワ ー アレンジ 定価 4,000 円

トラベル キャリーケース 定価 3,000 円

ロールプレイ
1. Work with a partner. Using the dialogue as a model conversation, create a new conversation in which you ask your partner about his/her favorite things and hobbies. 2. You are at a party. Introduce yourself to someone and start a conversation. Find out whether he/she shares some of your interests. 3. You are planning a blind date for a friend. Find out what kind of person she/ he likes. 4. You are looking for an apartment. Tell your real estate agent what kind of place you’d like. Mention your preferences for size, rooms, location, and other details that are important to you.

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Chapter 8

第 八
い だ


ち か



Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar

Japanese Culture Shopping in Japan, Japanese department stores, payment practices I. Requesting and giving explanations or additional information, and creating harmony and shared atmosphere using 〜んです II. Expressing desire using ほしい・ほしがっている and 〜たい・ 〜たがっている III. Expressing quantities with numbers and the counters まい, 本, ひき, and さつ IV. Expressing quantities using Japanese-origin numbers V. Talking about prices using 円 ; indicating floor levels with かい
えん

Listening Kanji

Communication Asking for paraphrases and repetition Using kanji for numbers 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十 百 千 万 円 店 Scanning

Reading

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買 い物


Shopping Making requests, expressing quantities and numbers, talking about prices, shopping Clothing, accessories and departments; numbers 100 and above, expressions related to merchandise, prices, and activities in a store デパートで At a department store

もの

Recognizing the characteristics of speech

296

Chapter 8

単語
Vocabulary
たん

Nouns アクセサリー アクセサリーうりば イヤリング うでどけい うりば CD/DVD うりば かさ くつ くつした コート ジーンズ ジャケット シャツ しょくひん しょくひんうりば しんしふく しんしふく うりば スーツ スカート ストッキング ズボン セーター セール たんじょうび 腕時計 売り場 CD/DVD 売り場 傘 靴 靴下 食品 食品売り場 紳士服 紳士服売り場 誕生日 accessories アクセサリー売り場 accessory department earring wristwatch department, section (of a store) CD/DVD section umbrella shoes socks coat jeans jacket shirt food food department menswear menswear department suit skirt stockings, pantyhose (primarily men’s) trousers sweater sale birthday

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ちか Tシャツ ドレス ネクタイ ネックレス はこ パンツ ハンドバッグ ふく ふじんふく ふじんふく うりば ブラウス ぶんぼうぐ ぶんぼうぐうりば ベルト ぼうし みせ ゆびわ う -verbs かう とる

地下 箱 服 婦人服 婦人服売り場 文房具 文房具売り場 帽子 店 指輪

basement ちかいっかい B 1 T-shirt dress tie necklace box (primarily women’s) trousers, shorts handbag clothing woman’s clothing women’s clothing section blouse stationery stationery section belt hat, cap store, shop ring

買う 取る

to buy to take

取る is a general equivalent for to take, but 撮る is used when one takes a picture, records a video, or makes a copy.

る -verbs いれる みせる Adverbs すこし たくさん 少し a little, a few a lot, many, much

入れる 見せる

to put はこに いれる to put in a box to show

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ちょっと もう もう すこし もう ちょっと Counters 〜えん 〜かい 〜つ 〜ひき 〜ほん 〜まい 〜さつ

もう少し

a little, a few (more casual than すこし) ~ more, another ~ a little more a little more

〜円 〜階 〜匹 〜本 〜枚 〜冊

counter for Japanese currency counter for floors of a building general counter (Japanese origin number) counter for fish and small four-legged animals counter for long, cylindrical objects (e.g., bottles, films, pens, pencils) counter for thin objects (e.g., film, paper, plates, shirts) counter for bound objects (e.g., books, magazines)

Question words いかが いくつ いく ら Expressions いらっしゃいませ ぜんぶで 〜は ありませんか 〜を ください 全部で 〜を下さい
Welcome all together Do you have ~ ? Do you carry ~ ? (literally, Isn’t there ~ ?) Please give me ~ Please say it in easier words

how (polite form of どう ) how many how much (money)

やさしい ことばで いっ ください て

やさしい言葉で言って下さい

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単語の練習 Vocabulary Practice
たん れんしゅう

A. ふくとアクセサリー

Clothing and accessories

シャツ shirt T- シャツ
T-shirt

セーター sweater ブラウス blouse ジャケット jacket ドレス dress コート coat パンツ・ズボン pants ジーンズ jeans スカート skirt スーツ suit ネクタイ tie ベルト belt くつした

靴 下 sock ストッキング stockings, pantyhose

くつ shoes かばん bag, luggage

ハンドバッグ handbag ぼうし hat/cap wristwatch

うで どけい

腕 時計

ネックレス necklace イヤリング earrings ゆびわ ring かさ umbrella Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

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Activity 1
Name the clothing that the following people are wearing.

チェイス

ジョーダン

山田

ブラウン

大木 Activity 2

リー

キム

フォード

Work with a partner. Name the clothing and accessories that your partner is wearing and list them.

Activity 3 しつもんに 日本語で こたえて下さい。 Answer the questions in Japanese. 1. さいきん (recently) どんなふくを かいましたか。 2. さいきん (recently) どんなアクセサリーを かいましたか。 3. アクセサリーの中で 何が いち番好きですか。 一 4. ふくの中で 何が いち番好きですか。 一

Supplementary Vocabulary: clothing
あさ 麻 ウ−ル きもの 着物 サンダル したぎ 下着 スーツ シルク スカーフ スニーカー ブーツ ブレスレット コットン linen wool kimono (traditional Japanese clothing)

sandal underwear suit silk scarf sneaker(s)

boot(s) bracelets cotton

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B. うりば Store Departments ふじんふくうりば しんしふくうりば かばんうりば アクセサリーうりば しょくひんうりば ぶんぼうぐうりば CD / DVD うりば Activity 4
Imagine where various sections of a large department store in your country might be located in the store. Then jot down a few items that you would find in each section. Example: A: 一 かいに 何が ありますか。
いっ

women’s clothing section mensware section luggage section accessory section food section stationery section CD/DVD section

B: アクセサリーうりばが あります。

Floor

A: そうですか。アクセサリーうりばには どんなものが

ありますか。

B: ハンドバッグやネックレスが あります。

うりば
(6F) (5F) (4F) (3F) (2F) (1F)

Items

ろっかい ごかい よんかい さんがい にかい いっかい

C. 100 から上の数 字 Numbers above 100
すう じ

100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

ひゃく にひゃく さんびゃく よんひゃく ごひゃく ろっぴゃく ななひゃく はっぴゃく きゅうひゃく

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000

せん にせん さんぜん よんせん ごせん ろくせん ななせん はっせん きゅうせん

10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 60,000 70,000 80,000 90,000

いちまん にまん さんまん よんまん ごまん ろくまん ななまん はちまん きゅうまん

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Notes

• •

Like ふん (minute), ひゃく (hundred) and せん (thousand) change their pronunciation with some numbers. Numbers like 346, 995, and 6,126 are formed by combining the thousands digit, hundreds digit, tens digit, and ones digit. 346 995 6,126

さんびゃくよんじゅうろく きゅうひゃくきゅうじゅうご ろくせんひゃくにじゅうろく いちまん じゅうまん ひゃくまん にまん にじゅうまん にひゃくまん さんまんごせん さんじゅうごまん さんびゃくごじゅうまん



For numbers 10,000 or larger, まん becomes the base unit. 10,000 100,000 ,000,000 1 20,000 200,000 ,000,000 2 35,000 350,000 ,500,000 3

Activity 5
Say the following numbers in Japanese. Example: 100 ゃく ひ

1. 200 2. 300 3. 400 4. 500

5. 600 6. 700 7. 800 8. 900

9. 1,000 10. 2,100 11. 3,333 12. 20,600

13. 88,666 14. 142,918 15. 153,000

Activity 6
Write the following mathematical problems in Japanese. The plus sign (+) is pronounced たす, and the minus sign (-) is pronounced ひく. The topic marker は is used for the equal sign (=). Example: 100+200=300 ひゃく たす にひゃくは さんびゃくです。

1. 300 + 9,500 = 2. 660 - 40 = 3. 12,350 + 45 = 4. 3,900 + 700 =

5. 45,000 - 870 = 6. 3,210 + 28 = 7. 7,600 - 283 =

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Activity 7
Work with a partner. Your partner will write a three-digit number on your back. Say the number. Example: Your partner writes 100 on your back. You say: ひゃく.

Activity 8
Work in groups of three or four. Each member writes five-digit numbers on two different cards. Show one card to the other members of the group, and have them read it aloud as quickly as they can. Give the card to the winner.

Activity 9
Work in groups of three or four. One person writes a number between 100 and 90,000 on a sheet of paper. The rest of the group guess the number using comparative expressions. Example: A: そのすう (number) は 百 よ 大きいですか。 じ り 小さいですか。
みせ ひゃく

B: 大きいです。 B: 小さいです。 E: 大きいです。
ひゃく ご じゅう に ひゃく

C: じゃあ、二 百 より 大きいですか。小さいですか。 D: 百 五 十 より 大きいですか。小さいですか。

D. 店 で つかう ことば Useful expressions in a store
〜を みせて下さい 〜を とって下さい 〜を はこに いれて下さい 〜は ありませんか 〜を 下さい セール Money/time します Activity 10
Work with a partner. Take turns asking questions or making requests using one of the expressions from the table. Your partner either acts out or responds to the question. かさを とる セールが ある 10 ドル する 本を かばんに いれる ジャケットを みせる ネックレスを はこに いれる シャツを みせる 腕時計を とる
うでどけい

Please show me ~ ( みせる to show) Please get, pick up ~ ( とる to pick up) Please put ~ in a box ( いれる to put) Do you have 〜 ? Please give me ~ sale It costs/takes ~ ( する to cost/to take)

くつした

靴下を みせる

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Activity 11
Work with a partner. Take turns playing the roles of customer and store clerk. Each of you should make at least two requests. Example: あのコートを とって下さい。 Your partner pretends to get a coat for you.

E. サイズ、りょう、ねだん Size, quantity, and price
たくさん もっと たくさん もっと 高い もっと 安い もっと 大きい もっと 小さい すこし/ちょっと a lot more quantity more expensive less expensive larger smaller a little, less ( すこし and ちょっと are interchangeable.) a little more a little bigger a little smaller

もう すこし/もう ちょっと もう すこし 大きい/もう ちょっと 大きい もう すこし 小さい/もう ちょっと 小さい Activity 12

Work with a partner. Complete the following conversation using the appropriate quantity and size expressions. There may be more than one possible answer. Example: A: コーヒーを のみますか。 B: ええ、大好きなので、たくさん のみます。

1. A: このセーターは いかがですか。 B: 小さいですね。 のは ありませんか。 2. A: このシャツは いかがですか。 B: すこし 高いですね。 のは ありませんか。 3. A: このくつは いかがですか。 B: ちょっと 大きいです。 のを みせて下さい。 4. A: このストッキングは あまり よく ありませんね。 B: じゃあ、 ですが、こちらは いかがですか。

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ダイアローグ

はじめに

Warm-up

Answer these questions in Japanese. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. よく デパートに いきますか。

2. デパートで 何を よく かいますか。 3. アメリカのデパートには どんなものが ありますか。 4. よく どんな 店 に かいものに いきますか。
みせ

デパート で At a department store
今日は 石 田さんの誕 生 日 (birthday) です。上田さんは デパートに いきました。
いし たんじょう び

あんないがかり (information assistant): いらっしゃいませ。 上田: すみません。 しょくひんうりばは どこに ありますか。
ち か いっ

あんないがかり: しょくひんうりばは 地 下 一 かいで ございます。
(Clerk at information desk)

上田: そうですか。じゃあ、しんしふくうりばは 何かい ですか。

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あんないがかり: しんしふくうりばは 三 かいで ございます。
さん

上田さんは しょくひんうりばに いきました。 の人 (sales clerk): いらっしゃいませ。 店
みせ

みせ

上田: あのう、このりんごを 三 つ 下さい。それから
みっ

そのオレンジを 五 つ 下さい。
いつ

店 の人: はい。 りんごを 三 つと オレンジ 五 つですね。
みっ いつ

ぜんぶで 863 円 に なります。
えん

上田さんは しんしふくうりばに います。
みせ みせ みせ みせ みせ

店 の人: いらっしゃいませ。 上田: あのう、 そのネクタイを みせて下さい。 店 の人: これですか。 どうぞ。 上田: いくらですか。 店 の人: 一 万 円 です。
いちまんえん

上田: そうですか。もうすこし 安いのは ありませんか。
みせ

店 の人: じゃ、こちらは いかがでしょうか。 上田: これは いくらですか。 店 の人: 四 千 円 です。
よんせんえん

上田: いいですね。じゃあ、これ 下さい。
みせ

店 の人: かしこまりました。では、 万 円 おあずかりします。 一
いちまんえん

おくりもので ございますか。 上田: はい、そうです。

店 の人は ネクタイを はこに いれました。
みせ

店 の人: 六 千 円 の おかえしで ございます。どうも
ろくせんえん

ありがとうございました。

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Dialogue Phrase Notes

• 〜で ございますis a polite form of 〜です. • 〜に なります is commonly used by store clerks instead of です. • いかがでしょうか。 is a polite expression for どうですか. • おあずかりしますis a polite expression for あずかる, which means • • to keep or to hold temporarily. おく りもの means present or gift. おかえし is a polite expression for change (money returned).

ダイアローグの後で
あと

Comprehension

A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words.

上田さんは に いきました。 で りんごと を かって、 で を かいました。ぜんぶで 円 でした。
えん

B. Circle はい if the a statement is true and いいえ if it is false.

1. はい いいえ 2. い いいえ は 3. はい いいえ 4. はい いいえ

上田さんは オレンジを 三 つ かいました。
みっ

しんしふく うりばは 三 かいに あります。
さん

上田さんは 一万円の ネクタイを かいました。
いちまんえん

しょくひんうりばは 地下に あります。
ち か

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日本の文化
Japanese Culture
買い物
か もの ぶん か

Shopping

In addition to high-tech goods and high-fashion apparel, Japan is famous for its sheer silks, top-quality pearls, fine ceramics, lacquerware, colorful and historic woodblock prints, handcrafted bamboo ware, and other crafts. Although the cost of living in Japan is high, there are many places to shop inexpensively. The Akihabara District in Tokyo, for example, is full of discount stores specializing in electronics, household appliances, CDs, DVDs, and anime merchandise. There are also many 百 円 ショップ
ひゃくえん

(100-yen shops) around Japan, where you can purchase inexpensive household gadgets. Shopping hours in Japan are usually from 10 or 11 a.m. to 7 or 8 p.m., and most retail stores are open on weekends and holidays.

デパート Department Stores
Japanese department stores are fun places to shop. They carry the latest fashions, traditional Japanese goods, gourmet foods, books, CDs, DVDs, and other merchandise. Some of the large department stores contain restaurants, spas, beauty salons, and amusements for children. Semiannual store sales are usually held in July and August, and December and January. To ask where something is sold, simply add the word う りば to the item you are looking for. For example, food is しょくひん in Japanese, so the food section would be しょくひんうりば .

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Visit the Nakama 1 student website to learn more about Japanese department stores.

Customer Service
As in other countries, customer service is very important in Japan. Some department stores even have uniformed elevator operators who announce each floor as well as sales and special events. Salespeople are trained to use very polite Japanese when speaking to customers. Here are some commonly used phrases :

いらっしゃいませ。 何か おさがしでしょうか。 何〜/いくつ さしあげましょうか。 〜は いかがですか。 このセ−タ−は いかがですか。 〜で ございます。 このコ−トは 一万円で ございます。 はい、かしこまりました。 しょうしょう おまち下さい。
いちまんえん

Welcome, good of you to come. May I help you? (literally, Are you looking for something?) How many 〜 do you need? (literally, Shall I give you?) How about/is 〜 ? (polite form of 〜は どうですか ) How about this sweater? a polite form of 〜です This coat is 10,000 yen. Yes, I shall do as you say. Please wait a moment.

Methods of payment
For retail transactions, cash is still the most common method of payment, although many stores do accept credit cards. A 5% consumption tax is applied throughout Japan. Some stores give discounts for cash payments. Personal checks are not used. There are also prepaid rechargeable contactless smart cards, which are similar to debit cards and can be used at participating stores, vending machines, and websites. Payment by smart card works just like cash. Some cell phones can be used just like a smart card. Charges to smart-card accounts can also be made online using a cell phone.

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文法
Grammar
I. Requesting and giving explanations or additional information, and creating harmony and shared atmosphere using 〜んです
The structure 〜んです is frequently used in conversation instead of 〜ます. The use of 〜んです helps to establish or maintain rapport with the listener. By using 〜んです the speaker treats the addressee as a member of his/her own social group rather than as an outsider. On the other hand, 〜ます merely conveys a fact as it is observed, so statements with 〜ます sound more neutral or impersonal in tone. Japanese people often use 〜んです to sound friendly and show concern for each other, as a way to be polite. The charts below show how 〜んです can be used.
ぶんぽう

Comment
Verb (plain form)

あまり Response
Topic

たべない

んですね。

You don’t eat much.

Adjective (plain form)

にくは

あまり

好きじゃない

んですよ。

I don’t like meat very much. Although 〜んです is used in many different situations, there are a few situations where 〜んです is most commonly used. First, 〜んです is used to invite additional information or explanations beyond the simple answer. For example, おんがくが 好きなんですか indicates that the speaker not only wants to know whether the addressee likes music but also wants to learn more about it. On the other hand, おんがくが 好きですか merely asks the listener’s likes and dislikes about music. This use of 〜んです can express the speaker’s interest to the addressee and friendliness. If overused, however, it sounds nosy or imposing.

水 本: あのシャツ いいですね。
みずもと

That shirt’s nice. I really like it, but it’s a bit expensive.

田中: ええ、とても 好きなんですが、ちょっと 高いんですよ。 水 本: そうですか。いくらぐらいですか。
みずもと

Really? How much is it? It’s 20,000 yen on sale.
に まんえん

田中: セールで 二 万 円 です。

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水 本: 二 万 円 ! それは 高いですね。
みずもと に まんえん

20,000 yen! That’s really expensive.

Notes

• 〜んです can be also used to make an excuse or to explain the reasons for a situation without indicating it explicitly. In the following example, Mr. Kim gives a vague excuse when Ms. Smith approaches him.

スミス: あのう、すみませんが。
Excuse me.

キム: すみません。今 ちょっと いそがしいんです。
Sorry, I’m tied up now.





The 〜んです structure is also used for confirming the speaker’s assumption, or giving and requesting an explanation or reason. For example, if the speaker assumes that the listener is going home, he/she would likely use かえるんですか instead of かえりますか. In addition, 〜んです can a imply surprise or irritation. In the following example, Ms. Lopez expresses her surprise by using 〜んですか in her second utterance.

ロ ペス: どこに いくんですか。
Where are you going?

山田: びょういんです。
To the hospital.

ロ ペス: えっ、びょういんへ いくんですか。
What? Are you going to the hospital?



The structure 〜のです ・のだ is used in writing instead of 〜んです. In casual speech, 〜んです becomes の in a question or statement. A male speaker may use 〜んだ・のだ in a statement as well.

ロ ペス: どこに いくの?
Where are you going?

山田: びょういんに いくの。 びょういんに いくんだ。
To the hospital.



The question word どうして (why) is frequently used with 〜んです, implying that an explanation is being asked for. The answer to such a question will also be given with 〜んです as well as ので indicating that the explanation is being given. どうしてですか means why is that? どうして tends to imply surprise about someone’s response or behavior and the demand for an explanation, so it can sound rather aggressive or accusatory.

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
You have heard various things about different people. Ask questions to confirm whether your understanding is correct. Example: 大田さんは 新しいかれし (boyfriend) が います。

えっ、かれしが いるんですか。

1. 高山さんは やさいを たべません。 2. 古 田 さんの 店 は 山の中に あります。 3. 山本さんは パンツ/ズボンが 好きです。 4. 友 田 さんは ぜんぜん りょうりをしません。 5. 大川さんのジーンズは 五 万 円 します。 [money] + する means to cost.) ( 6. 高田さんのジーンズは 古いです。 7. 上田さんは スカートが 好きじゃありません。 Activity 2
Work with a classmate. Extend an invitation for this weekend. Your partner will refuse the invitation. Follow up by asking 何か あるんですか。 (Do you have something to do?) Find out why your invitation was refused. Example: A: 今週の週末に あそびに きませんか。 B: ありがとう。でも、ちょっと つごうがわるくて。 A: そうなんですか。何か ( something) あるんですか。 B: ええ、月曜日に テストが あるんですよ。 A: そうですか。それは 大 変 ですね。
たいへん ご まんえん とも だ ふる た みせ

Activity 3
Work with a partner. You bump into each other on the street. Both of you are going shopping today. First decide the place, the item, and/or your reason for shopping. Then ask each other about your plans. Example: A: おでかけですか (Are you going out?) B: ええ、ちょっと 友 達 と デパートまで。 A: そうですか。 おかいものですか。 (おかいもの is a polite form of かいもの) B: ええ、今日は セールが あるんですよ。
だち

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II. Expressing desire using ほしい・ほしがっている and 〜たい・〜たがっている
Japanese has two ways to indicate desire. ほしい means I want something, and たい means I want to do something. ほしい and たい express only what you (the speaker) want. To talk about what someone else wants, ほしい and たい are attached to other expressions such as 〜がっている (showing a sign that 〜 ), 〜んです(it is the case that 〜 ), and 〜そうです (I heard that 〜).

A. ほしい I want (something)
ほしい is an adjective that indicates the speaker wants something (a physical object). The subject of ほしい must be the speaker in a statement and either the speaker or the listener in a question. The object of ほしい takes the particle が. Question
Topic (subject) スミスさん は Noun (object) 何 Particle が

い -adjective
ほしいです か。

What do you want, Ms. Smith?

Answer
Noun (object) ジャケット I want a jacket. Particle が

い -adjective
ほしいです。

おきゃくさん ( customer): あのう、しろいブラウスが ほしいんですが。
Excuse me, I want a white blouse.

みせ

店 の人: はい、こちらに ございますが。
Yes, here it is.

As shown in the chart, ほしい is an い -adjective and takes が to mark the object, though が is often replaced by the contrastive marker は in negative form.

くろいきれいな ストッキングが ほしいです。
I want pretty black pantyhose.

ストッキングは ほしくありません。/ほしくないです。
I don’t want pantyhose.

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B. ほしがっている Someone else wants (something)
To express what someone else wants, ほしい is often followed by the suffix 〜がっている (he/she is showing signs of 〜). When the suffix 〜がっている is used, the object is marked by the particle を. Topic (subject) Noun (object) Particle は ジャケット を

い -adjective
(stem) ほし

Auxiliary verb がっています。

スミスさん

Ms. Smith wants a jacket.

私の友達 は 誕 生 日 に 腕 時 計を ほしがっている。
My friend wants a wristwatch for his birthday. This 〜がっている form is used because the Japanese language considers that one’s emotional state is known only by that person. Others can only guess about another person’s feelings. For this reason, expressions of emotive states, such as 〜ほしい and 〜たい, are reserved for the speaker. To talk about other people’s emotions, always use expressions that imply an understanding or a guess on the part of the speaker, such as 〜がっている (showing a sign of), 〜んです (it is the case that 〜), and そうです(I heard) (see chapter 12, grammar IV, for a detailed explanation). Note that with 〜んです and そうです, the direct object particle remains が, because the phrase 〜が ほしい is part of a clause embedded in the main clause with 〜んです and そうです.
だち たんじょう び うで ど け い

山本さんは しろいドレスが ほしいそうです。
I heard that Ms. Yamamoto wants a white dress.

鈴 木さんは くろいコートが ほしいんですよ。
すず

It is the case that Mr. Suzuki wants a black coat.

C. 〜たい I want (to do something)
Unlike ほしい, 〜たい indicates the speaker’s wish to do something (an action). This is conveyed using verb-masu stem + たい. Compare these two examples.

このケーキが ほしい。
I want this cake .

このケーキが/を たべたい。
I want to eat this cake. Topic (subject) Direct object Particle Verb (stem) Auxiliary ( い -adjective)





コーヒー

が/を

のみ

たいです。

I want to drink some coffee.

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山田 : 日本で 何が したいですか。
What do you want to do in Japan?

トム : そうですね、富 士山 が みたいですね。
Well, I want to see Mt. Fuji.
ふ じ さん

それから、きょうとにも いきたいですね。
I want to go to Kyoto, too.

Notes



With たいです, the direct object marker を can be replaced with が. The first two sentences below are identical in meaning. Other particle usages remain unchanged.

私は そのくつを かいたいです。
I want to buy those shoes .

私は そのくつが かいたいです。
I want to buy those shoes.

私は おふろに はいりたいです。
I want to take a bath.

私は ここで まちたいです。
I want to wait here.



It is impolite to use 〜たいですか to your superior when asking if a superior wants to do something. Use 〜ますか or 〜いかが ですか instead.

ごはんを たべますか。
Would you like to eat (rice/a meal)?

ケーキは いかがですか。
Would you like some cake? As with ほしい, add 〜たがっている to express what someone else wants to do, and use を for the direct object marker. Topic (subject) Direct object Particle Verb (stem)

山田さん



スーツ



かい

たがっている ( る -verb) たがっています。

Mr. Yamada wants to buy a suit.

キム : ジョンソンさんは 四 月 に 日本に いくんですか。
Is Ms. Johnson going to Japan in April?
し がつ

高 子 : ええ、日本で 日本語を べんきょうしたがっているので。
たか こ

Yes, because she wants to study Japanese in Japan.

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You can also use 〜たいんです and 〜たいそうです. The direct object particle can be が or を.

田中さんは その本が/を かいたいんです。
It is that Mr. Tanaka wants to buy the book.

田中さんは その本が/を かいたいそうです。
I heard that Mr. Tanaka wants to buy the book.

話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Each of the following people wants certain gifts for certain occasions. Assume the identity of each person to tell others what you would like. Use ほしい . Example: Assume you are Mr./Ms. Smith.

私は 誕 生 日 に いぬが ほしいです。
たんじょう び

スミス 誕生日
たん じょう び

リー 腕時計
うで ど け い

ジョーンズ
じてんしゃ ぼうし ネクタイ

キム
ジャケット スーツ ゆびわ

いぬ

クリスマス/ ハンドバック ハヌカ (Hanukkah) バレンタインデー イヤリング

ネックレス ベルト

Activity 2
Now look at the chart again and use ほしがっている and/or ほしいんです to say what each person wants for the various occasions. Example: スミスさんは 誕 生 日 に いぬを ほしがっています。
たんじょう び たんじょう び

スミスさんは 誕 生 日 に いぬが ほしいんです。

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Activity 3
Work with a partner. You are a customer and your partner is a salesperson in a clothing department in a department store. First think about a few clothing items you want. Then ask for his/her assistance. Example: おきゃく さん: あのう、 すみません。 ジャケッ トが ほしいんですが。

おきゃくさん: ああ、いいですね。
Or ちょっと 小さいですね。もっと 大きいのが

みせ

店 の人 : ジャケッ ですか。 ト じゃあ、 こちらは いかがですか。

みせ

ほしいんですが。

店 の人: じゃあ、こちらは いかがですか。

おきゃくさん: ああ、いいですね。

Activity 4 Conjugate the verbs using the phrases 私は 〜たいです and スミスさん は 〜たがっています . Example: うちに かえる

私は うちに かえりたいです。スミスさんは うちに かえりたがっています。 4. 日本で べんきょうする 5. ゲームを する 6. おふろに はいる

1. りょこうに いく 2. 新しいふくを かう 3. おちゃを のむ Activity 5

In pairs, say what you want to do in each of the following situations. Note that だったら means if 〜 is 〜 . Example: A: お 金 持 ち (rich person) だったら、何が したいですか。 かね も B: そうですね。大きい うちを かいたいですね。

1. 大学の先生だったら、何が したいですか。 2. おとこ ( male) だったら/おんな ( female) だったら、何が したいですか。 3. 日本人だったら、何が したいですか。 4. 有名人 ( celebrity) だったら、何が したいですか。
ゆうめいじん あした

5. 明日 休みだったら、何が したいですか。

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Activity 6
Work with the class. Ask your classmates what they want and what activities they want to do on their birthdays. Then decide which items or activities are most popular and which is the most unusual. Example: A: 〜さんは 誕 生 日 に どんなことが したいですか。 B: そうですね。うちで パーティが したいですね。 A: そうですか。いいですね。
たんじょう び

じゃあ、プレゼントは どんなものが いいですか。

B: そうですね。新しいくつが ほしいですね。

なまえ

したいこと

ほしいもの

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III. Expressing quantities with numbers and the counters まい , 本 , ひき , and さつ
You have already learned some expressions with numbers such as 〜時, 〜時間 , and 〜分. These are called counter expressions. In this chapter, you will learn more of them and how they work. In counting things, and even people, a counter must be attached to the number. Some English equivalents of Japanese counters are expressions such as “two cups of coffee” or “three sheets of paper.” Japanese uses a number of different counters. The type, shape, and size of an object determines which counter should be used. Counter Object Type thin objects long cylindrical objects bound objects Examples paper, plates, T-shirts, CDs, DVDs pencils, pens, bottles, cans, belts, ties, trousers, movies/films books, dictionaries, magazines

〜まい 〜ひき 〜本 〜さつ

fish, small four-legged animals dogs, cats, mice

The following chart illustrates how to combine numbers with counters. As you have seen in 分 , 百 , and 千 , combining counters with numbers sometimes changes the pronunciation of both the numbers and the counters themselves. The underlined expressions in the chart are examples of these changes. Pronunciation changes for 本 ほん and ひき follow the same pattern.
Thin, flat objects Cylindrical objects Fish, animals Bound objects
ひゃく せん

〜まい
? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

〜ほん(本) ※なんぼん ※いっぽん にほん ※さんぼん よんほん ごほん ※ろっぽん ななほん ※はっぽん

〜ひき ※なんびき ※いっぴき にひき ※さんびき よんひき ごひき ※ろっぴき ななひき ※はっぴき

〜さつ なんさつ ※いっさつ にさつ さんさつ よんさつ ごさつ ろくさつ ななさつ ※はっさつ

何 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十

なんまい いちまい にまい さんまい よんまい ごまい ろくまい ななまい はちまい きゅうまい じゅうまい

きゅうほん きゅうひき きゅうさつ ※じゅっぽん ※じゅっぴき ※じゅっさつ

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The counter expressions come immediately after the object and its particle. Noun + Particle Number + Counter
いち

Verb

セーターを 一 まい 水を 四 本
よん ほん

かいました。 I bought one sweater. のみました。 I drank four bottles of water. います。 下さい。
There are ten cats. Give me two magazines.

ねこが 十 ぴき
じゅっ に

そのざっしを 二 さつ ベルトを 何本
ぼん

かいますか。 How many belts will you buy? ありますか。 How many books are there?

本は 何さつ

山田: このTシャツを 三 まい 下さい。
さん

Please give me these three T-shirts.

店 の人: 三 まいですね。かしこまりました。
みせ さん

Three of them. Certainly, sir.

田中: そこに えんぴつが 何本 ありますか。
ぼん

How many pencils are there?

スミス: 六 本 あります。
ろっぽん

There are six.

山田: ねこを 何びき みましたか。
How many cats did you see?

山本: 二 ひき みました。
I saw two.


上田: としょかんには 日本語の本が たくさん ありますか。
Are there a lot of Japanese books in the library?

川口: ええ。四 千さつぐらい ありますよ。
よんせん

Yes, there are about four thousand. When talking about multiple items in a single sentence, the particle と comes after the counter expression.

大きいノートを 三 さつと、小さいのを 二 さつ 下さい。
さん に

Please give me three large notebooks and two small ones.

そのシャツ 二 まいと、ベルトを はこに いれて下さい。


Please put two shirts and a belt in the box.

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Describe each picture using an appropriate counter expression. Example: ネクタイが 一 本 あります。
いっぽん

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

Activity 2
Work in groups of three or four. Ask your classmates how many of the following items they own. Find out who owns the most of each item. Then write down the name of the person and the quantity. Example: A: 〜さんは セーターが 何まい ありますか。 B: そうですね。 十 まいぐらい ありますね。
じゅう

なまえ セーター 日本語の本 ペット ( いぬ/ねこ / other) ベルト Activity 3

私( )

Work with a partner. Ask what kind of clothing and how many items your partner would have if he/she were a famous movie star. Note that おもちですか is a polite expression that means to own. Take turns. Example: A: あのう、どんなふくを おもちですか 。 B: そうですね。パンツ/ズボンが 六 十本と シャツが

ひゃく

百 まいぐらい ありますね。

ろくじゅっぽん

A: すごいですね。( Wow!).

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IV. Expressing quantities using Japanese-origin numbers
Numbers such as いち, に , and さん are Chinese-origin numbers. There is another series of numbers called Japanese-origin numbers. These numbers do not require counter expressions and are usually used for round, discrete objects, such as apples, oranges, or pebbles, or for objects that do not fit any specific category. Japaneseorigin numbers only go up to ten. For numbers larger than ten, Chinese-origin numbers are used. The corresponding question word is いくつ. Japaneseorigin numbers 1 一 2 二 3 三 4 四 5 五 6 六 7 七 8 八 9 九 10 十 Chineseorigin numbers 11 十一 じゅういち 12 十二 じゅうに 13 十三 じゅうさん ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ 30 三十 100 百 Chineseorigin numbers

ひとつ ふたつ みっつ よっつ いつつ むっつ ななつ やっつ ここのつ とお

さんじゅう 45 四十五 よんじゅうご ひゃく

・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・

・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・

20 二十 にじゅう

タン: ぼうしは いくつ ありますか。
How many hats are there?

モリル: 十 二 あります。
じゅう に

There are twelve.

店 の人: いらっしゃいませ。
みせ

Welcome.
いつ ご ほん

リー: あのう りんごを 五 つと バナナを 五 本 下さい。
Could you give me five apples and five bananas.

店 の人: りんごを 五 つと バナナを 五 本 ですね。はい。
みせ

Five apples and five bananas. Here they are.

いつ

ご ほん

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話してみましょう Conversation Practice
はな

Activity 1
Describe the following pictures using the appropriate counter expression. Example: ゆびわが 一 つ あります。
ひと

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

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Activity 2
Classify the following words using the appropriate counter. Then make a sentence for each item with the counter.

えんぴつ、 かばん、 CD、 きょうかしょ、 けしゴム、 じしょ、 ノート、 ペン、 ボールペン、本、木、ねこ、いぬ、ざっし、コーラ、さかな、たまご、 トマト、にんじん、セーター、バナナ、ビール、りんご、レタス、ワイン
Example: えんぴつ えんぴつを 十 本 下さい。
じゅっぽん

Counter

Item

まい さつ 本 ひき
Japanese-origin numbers

えんぴつ

Activity 3
Work with a partner. You are going shopping and your partner is the clerk at each of the stores in the table below. First make out a shopping list. Then go to each store and ask for the items on your list. Your partner will ask how many you need of each item and write down your purchases. Example: A: いらっしゃいませ。 B: あのう、りんごを 下さい。 A: いくつ さしあげましょうか。 B: 一 つ 下さい。
ひと

スーパー

デパ−ト

コンビニ

Activity 4
Work with a different partner. Say what you have bought in Activity 3, and compare your purchases. Follow the example. Example: 私は スーパーで りんごを 二 つ かいました。
ふた

〜さんは りんごを 二 つ かいました。
ふた

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V. Talking about prices using 円 ; indicating floor levels えん with かい A. Asking about and stating prices with 円
えん

You are probably familiar with the ¥ symbol for Japanese currency. Yen can also be written as 円 . Numbers that precede 円 are pronounced in the same way as with the counter まい , except that four yen becomes よえん . The question word for price is
えん えん

いくら .
1(一) いちえん 2(二) 6(六) 7(七) 8(八)

ろくえん ななえん はちえん

にえん

3(三) さんえん 4(四) *よえん 5(五)

9(九) きゅうえん 10(十) じゅうえん

ごえん

上田: これは いくらですか。
How much is this?

店 の人: 百 五 十 円 です。
みせ ひゃく ご じゅうえん

It is 150 yen.

スミス: きれいなイヤリングですね。
You have pretty earrings on.

田中: ありがとう。でも 安かったんですよ。
Thanks, but they were inexpensive.

スミス: そうですか。いくらだったんですか。
Really? How much were they?

田中: 二 千 円 です。
に せんえん

2000 yen.

スミス: それは いい かいものですね。
That’s a good buy!

B. Indicating floor levels with かい
Numbers before the counter かい are pronounced in the same way as with the counter 本 . Both さんかい (third floor) and なんかい (what floor?) can be pronounced as さんがい and なんがい , respectively. Use 地下〜 (underground) to indicate a basement floor. 地下いっかい = B1) (
ち か ち か ほん

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Chapter 8

なんかい なんがい 1(一) いっかい
2(二)



6(六) 7(七) 8(八)

ろっかい ななかい はちかい

にかい

3(三) さんかい

さんがい 4(四) よんかい
5(五)

9(九) きゅうかい 10(十) じゅっかい

ごかい

Because floor levels indicate location, かい is used with a variety of location particles, such as に (place of existence), に (goal), で (place of action) , まで (to), and から (from).

リー: アクセサリーうりばは 何かいに ありますか。
Which floor is the accessory department on?

店 の人: 一 かいに ございます。
みせ いっ

It’s on the first floor.

山本: すみません。ぶんぼうぐうりばは どこですか。
Excuse me. Where is the stationery section?

店 の人: 六 かいに ございます。
みせ ろっ

It’s on the sixth floor.

二 かいまで あるいていきます。


I will walk up to the second floor.

三 がいで あいませんか。
さん

Why don’t we meet on the third floor?

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話してみましょう
はな

Conversation Practice

Activity 1
Look at the following pictures of Japanese currency and say how many yen each one is worth. Example: 一円

いちえん

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Activity 2 Look at the following items and say how much each one costs. Example:

えんぴつは 二 十 五 円 です。
に じゅう ご えん

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

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Chapter 8

Activity 3
Work with a partner. You want to buy items in the chart and your budget is 20,000 yen. Your partner is a salesperson, and he/she decides on the price of each item. Ask your partner how much each item costs and say whether you will buy it. Make sure to stay within your budget! Example: A: すみません、この靴下は いくらですか。 B: 〜 円 です。
えん くつした

A: じゃ、これを 下さい。( if buying) or そうですか。じゃ、また きます。( if not buying)

〜円
えん

かう ?

くつした

靴下

シャツ ジ−ンズ ジャケット ベルト Activity 4
Look at the floor directory below, and answer the following questions using 〜かい . Example: くつうりばは 何がいに ありますか。

いっ

一 かいに あります。

おくじょう (R) ゆうえんち ( amusement center) 8F 7F 6F 5F 4F 3F 2F 1F B1 レストラン ぶんぼうぐ 本 CD / DVD おもちゃ ( toys) でんきせいひん ( electrical appliances) かぐ ( furniture)しょっき ( tableware) だいどころようひん ( kitchenware) こうげいひん ( traditional Japanese crafts and giftware) きもの ( kimonos) ふじんふく しんしふく ハンドバッグ ( handbags) くつ ネクタイ かばん アクセサリー けしょうひん ( cosmetics) しょくひん

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1. レストランは 何がいに ありますか。 2. どこで つくえを かいますか。 3. どこで パンツ/ズボンを かいますか。 4. ぶんぼうぐうりばは どこに ありますか。 5. どこで スカートを かいますか。 6. 何がいで にくを かいますか。 Activity 5
Work with a partner. You are the customer and your partner works at the information desk on the first floor of a department store. Your partner will make a floor directory. Ask where the following sections or facilities are and write the information in the chart below. Example: A: いらっしゃいませ。 B: すみませんが、かばんうりばは どこですか。 A: かばんうりばは 一 かいに ございます。
いっ

A: 一 かいですね。どうも ありがとう。
いっ

1. かばんうりば 2. トイレ 3. CD うりば 4. レストラン 8F 7F 6F 5F 4F 3F 2F 1F B1F

5. ふじんふくうりば 6. しんしふくうりば 7. しょくひんうりば 8. アクセサリーうりば

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330

Chapter 8

聞く練 習


Listening Practice
上手な聞き方 Listening Strategy
じょうず き かた

れ ん しゅう

Recognizing the characteristics of speech
Being aware of the characteristics of spoken language will help you to understand it better. Spoken language is highly redundant; that is, it repeats the same information more than once. It also contains hesitations, false starts, incomplete sentences, interruptions, and over-talk. These are all integral parts of authentic speech.

練習
れんしゅう

A. Listen to two conversations. For each one, write in English whether the customer is willing to buy the items. Then try to identify which characteristics of speech indicate the customer’s intent. 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ B. 何を かいましたか。 You will hear three conversations. Listen to each one and list in Japanese the items the customer bought and the quantity of each item. Then write the total amount the customer paid.


1 2 3

ねだん ( price per item)

いくつ

ぜんぶで いくら

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聞き上手 話し上手


Communication

じょうず はな

じょうず

上手な話し方 Communication Strategy
じょうず はな かた

Asking for paraphrase and repetition
So far, you have learned some strategies for providing feedback to indicate that you are listening to the speaker and understanding what is being said. For example, you nod your head and say はい or ええ . There will be times when you find yourself in situations where you don’t understand what the speaker is saying and can’t respond, because you don’t know the words used or you didn’t hear what was said. In these cases it is important to know how to ask for repetition or paraphrasing, and how to ask someone to speak more loudly or more slowly. Chapter 1 introduced these phrases using おねがいします, but you can also use 〜てくれませんか (Chapter 6) to articulate your request even more clearly. The following is a list of some useful expressions to employ in these situations. Asking for repetition:

もう 一 度 いってくれませんか。
いち ど

Please say it again. Asking for paraphrasing: Asking someone to speak slowly: Asking someone to speak more loudly:

やさしいことばで いってくれませんか。
Please say it in easier words.

ゆっくり いってくれませんか。 ゆっくり はなしてくれませんか。
Please say it / speak slowly.

大きいこえで いってくれませんか。 大きいこえで はなしてくれませんか。
Please say it / speak more loudly.

あのう and すみませんが before making a request. These phrases not only soften a request—an essential part of communicating in Japanese—but give you time to think of your next phrases.

Also remember that it is a good strategy to add conversation fillers and phrases like

練習

れんしゅう

Work with a partner. Imagine that you are a store clerk. Find polite expressions used by sales staff in this chapter. Say those expressions to your partner and have your partner respond with the expressions above.

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Chapter 8

漢字
Kanji
Using kanji for numbers
Although you can write any number in kanji, you don’t normally see numbers written in a long string of kanji, such as 六万三千五百二十二円 (¥63,522). In general, relatively simple numerical expressions are written in kanji, while long expressions are written in Arabic numerals. The following are some common examples: Prices with simple numbers such as 100, 100, 2000, etc.:
ひゃくえん さんぼん かん じ

百 円 千 円 二 千 円
せんえん よん はっかい

に せんえん

Counter expressions with single- or double-digit numbers: 三 本 四 八 階 Dates: 六 月 二 十 五 日 十 二 月 三 十 日
ろくがつ に じゅう ご にち いち じ じゅう に がつさんじゅうにち

Times: 一 時 三 時 二 十 分

さん じ に じゅっぷん

Pronunciation changes for kanji with numbers
Pronunciations of kanji sometimes change slightly. For example, 一 ( いち ) is pronounced いっ when it is used in the word 一本 . 本 ( ほん ) in this example is いっぽん pronounced ぽん .

えんぴつを 一本 下さい。
いっぽん

えんぴつを 二 本 下さい。
に ほん

When you read a sentence, you don’t see any markings indicating such changes, because the reader makes the adjustment automatically. By the same token, you don’t add any markings when you write them. (Note that the furigana accompanying new kanji is intended as a learning aid here.) one two

three

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four

five

six

seven

eight

nine

ten

hundred

thousand

ten thousand

yen (Japanese currency)

store, shop

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334 Chapter 8

読 めるようになった 漢 字 (Kanji and compounds you can now read)
よ かん じ

一時 一本 一つ 一 緒に もう一 度 二時 二本 二つ 三時 三本 三つ 四時 四本 四つ 五時 五本 五つ 六時 六本 六つ 七時 七本 七つ 八時 八本 八つ 九時 九本 九つ 十時 十本 十 百円 千円 一万円 店の人 喫 茶 店 腕 時 計 靴 下 誕 生 日 地 下 婦 人 服
くつした たんじょう び ち か かわぐち とも だ きっ さ てん うで ど け い ふ じんふく いっしょ いちど

日本人のなまえ:川 口 友 田 古 田 水 本
ふる た

みずもと

練習
れんしゅう

Read the following sentences with numerical kanji.

1. 田中さんは十一時三十分に学生 会 館 にきます。 2. としょかんには日本の本が四千五百さつぐらいあります。 3. 山川さんのつくえの上に二万八千円あります。 4. 私は六時にごはんをたべます。そして、七時に大学にいきます。 5. そこに小さい店があります。
かいかん

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読む練 習
Reading Practice
上手な読み方 Reading Strategy
じょうず よ かた よ れ ん しゅう

Scanning
It is not always necessary to read an entire text when you are looking for specific information. For example, when you want to find out which floor of a department store sells food, you do not read the entire floor directory. You would look for a specific character such as the kanji 食 (eat). By employing this strategy, you will be able to find the information you need more quickly. The same is true when you read a text looking for particular information. You can skip through the passage to find the specific information you need. This method of reading is called scanning.

練習

れんしゅう

Read the following advertisements and find out what is being sold in each ad.

1.

2.

3.

4.

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336

Chapter 8

きんじょのスーパー Neighborhood supermarket
言 葉 の リスト
こと ば

タオル スリッパ 洗 剤
せんざい

towel slippers soap

私の家 の近 くに大きいスーパーがあります。そのスーパーの地 下
うち ちか ち

一階 には食品売 り場 があります。高いものはありませんが、私
かい しょくひん う ば

はそこでよく野 菜 や魚 を買 います。二階 は日用品売 り場 です。
や さい さかな か かい にちようひん う ば

タオルやスリッパやシャンプーや洗 剤があります。 三階 には本や
せんざい かい ぶんぼう ぐ

文 房具 があります。昨日、私はこのス−パ−でノ−トを三冊 と
きのう さつ か

ボールペンを五本買 いました。

読んだ後で
あと

Comprehension

A. しつもんに 日本語で こたえて下さい。 Answer these questions in Japanese.

1. この人は このスーパーで 何を よく かいますか。 2. このスーパーの 三 階 に 何が ありますか。 3. 三 階 に 何が ありますか。 4. 魚 は 何 階 に ありますか。 5. 日用品って 何ですか。 6. 昨日 この人は 何を かいましたか。それは どこに ありましたか。
きのう にちようひん さかな かい かい かい

B. Write a short passage about a department store you know. Use the following questions as a guide for what information to include.

1. デパートは どこに ありますか。 2. デパートは 大きいですか。小さいですか。 3. いいデパ−トですか。 4. デパートに どんなうりばが ありますか。 6. いりぐち ( entrance) のちかくに 何が ありますか。 7. そのデパートで 何を よく かいますか。どうしてですか。

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総合練習
Integration
A. デパートのうりば Department Store Sections The following is the floor directory of a full-scale department store in Tokyo. Work with a partner to describe the types of items available on different floors. Try to guess the meanings of the words written in katakana. Next, your instructor will give you a list of specific items to purchase. Figure out where each item would be located.
そうごうれんしゅう

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338

Chapter 8

ロールプレイ
1. Work in a group of six. You and one other person are customers in a department store with 50,000 yen each to spend. The other classmates of the group are salesclerks in different departments, and your instructor will give them a price list of items for their department. Go to as many departments as you can, and make one or more purchases. Before leaving each department, note what you have bought and how much you paid. You must buy at least four different items. Try to spend all your money. Whoever is left with the smallest amount of change wins. Examples:

店の人: いらっしゃいませ。
Or

おきゃくさん Customer): あのう、 ( あかいハンドバッグが ほしいんですが。 そのあかいハンドバッグを みせて下さい。

店の人: はい、どうぞ。 おきゃくさん: ちょっと小さいですね。もっと大きいのは ありますか。 店の人: じゃあ、こちらはいかがですか。 おきゃくさん: ああ、いいですね。いくらですか。 店の人: 四万円です。 おきゃくさん: ああ、ちょっと高いですね。 店の人: いらっしゃいませ。 おきゃくさん: しろいシャツが ほしいんですが。 店の人: こちらは いかがですか。 おきゃくさん: いいですね。
Or

ちょっと高いですね。もうすこし 安いのは ありますか。

2. You have run out of fruits and vegetables. Go to a market and buy the following items. Item Amount 1 3 5 12 6

レタス トマト にんじん たまご バナナ

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Chapter 9

第 九
い だ




Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Japanese Culture Grammar

Listening Communication Kanji Reading

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レストランとしょうたい
Restaurants and Invitations
Extending invitations, ordering at a restaurant Dishes, types of cuisine, food expressions レストランで I. At a restaurant Eating habits in Japan, Japanese restaurants Indicating choices using 〜にします; making requests using 〜をおねがいします

II. Eliciting and making proposals using 〜ましょうか and 〜ましょう III. Using question word + か + (particle) + affirmative and question word + (particle) +も + negative IV. Giving reasons using から; expressing opposition or hesitation using けど V. Making inferences based on direct observation using verb and adjective stems + そうだ Using context Introducing a new topic Creating inflectional endings with okurigana 行 来 帰 食 飲 見 聞 読 書 話 出 会 買 起 寝 作 入 Understanding Japanese e-mail formats

340

Chapter 9

単語
たん

Nouns アイスクリーム あぶら イタリア うどん ランチ カレーライス カロリー クッキー ケーキ ( お ) さしみ サラダ サンドイッチ スープ ( お ) すし ステーキ スパゲティ セット そば チーズ チキン チャーハン ちゅうかりょうり ちゅうもん 蕎麦 中華料理 注文 油 (oil) /脂 ( fat) 御刺身 御寿司/鮨 ice cream oil あぶらが おおい fatty, oily Italy

イタリアりょうり Italian cuisine
Japanese wheat noodles lunch, lunch set A ランチ Lunch A Japanese curry and rice dish

(abbreviation: カレー ) calorie cookie cake sashimi ( fillet of fresh raw fish, usually preceded by お ) salad sandwich soup sushi (usually preceded by お ) steak spaghetti a Western-style fixed menu, ハンバーガーセット hamburger set Japanese buckwheat noodles cheese chicken Chinese- style fried rice Chinese cuisine order ちゅうもんする to order

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Restaurants and Invitations

341

チョコレート ていしょく デザート てんぷら トースト ハンバーガー パン ビーフ ピザ フライドチキン ポーク ようしょく ライス

定食 天ぷら / 天麩羅 洋食

chocolate a Japanese or Asian-style dish set,

さしみていしょく sashimi set dessert tempura ( fish, shrimp, and vegetables battered and deep- fried) toast hamburger bread beef pizza fried chicken pork Western- style cuisine rice

ライス is served on a plate, not in a bowl. ごはん is a generic term for cooked rice. ラーメン ランチ わしょく う -verbs いる い -adjectives あたたかい あつい あまい おおい かたい 温かい 熱い 甘い 多い 固い warm hot sweet a lot, much hard, tough

和食

ramen (Chinese- style noodles in broth) lunch A ランチ lunch set A Japanese cuisine (also 日本りょうり )

要る

to need something

ソースがいる (It needs sauce.)

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Chapter 9

からい しょっぱい すくない すっぱい つめたい にがい ひくい やわらかい Prefixes ご〜 Expressions 〜に します 〜を おねがいします

辛い 少ない 酸っぱい 冷たい 苦い 低い 柔らかい

spicy salty little (in number), few sour cold bitter low, カロリーがひくい low in calories soft

御〜

polite prefix ごちゅうもん

to decide on 〜 I would like to have 〜

〜をお願いします

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343

単語の練習
たん

れんしゅう

A. りょうり Types of food

( お ) すし sushi ( お ) さしみ sashimi てんぷら tempura うどん udon noodles

そば buckwheat noodles

ラーメン
Chinese noodles

チャーハン
Chinese fried rice

カレーライス
Japanese curry and rice

スパゲティ spaghetti ステーキ steak サラダ salad フライドチキン fried chicken

サンドイッチ sandwich スープ soup チーズ cheese ハンバーガー hamburger A ランチ
Lunch A (Western-style)

さしみ 定 食
ていしょく

sashimi set (Japanese or Asian style)

デザート dessert アイスクリーム ice cream

クッキー cookies ケーキ cake Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

344 Chapter 9

おぼえていますか

Do you remember these words?

さかな、にく、たまご、やさい、くだもの、レタス、トマト、にんじん、 バナナ、 オレンジ、 りんご、 おちゃ、 ジュース、 ミルク、 (お)さけ、 コー ヒー、こうちゃ、ワイン、ビール、水、コーラ Activity 1 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. レストランでよく何をちゅうもんしますか。 2. あさは、よく何を食 べますか。よく何を飲 みますか。
た の

3. おひるごはんには、よく何を食 べますか。よく何を飲 みますか。
た の

4. ばんごはんはどうですか。 5. どんなりょうりを よく 作 りますか。
つく

6. 今何が食 べたいですか。


7. あなたのくにには (in your country) どんなランチセットや 定 食 がありますか。
ていしょく

B. りょうりのタイプ

Types of cuisine

Country names are often, but not always, used to identify types of dishes, as shown メキシコりょうり、 かんこ くりょうり、 in the table below. スペインりょうり、 インド (Indian) りょうり are commonly used terms in Japanese, but Japanese has no specific terms for “American” or “Canadian” cuisine.

Activity 2
In the table below, write the names of some dishes that belong to each category and say them aloud. タイプ りょうり

和 食 /日本りょうり Japanese cuisine
わ しょく

中 華 りょうり Chinese cuisine
ちゅう か

イタリアりょうり Italian cuisine フランスりょうり French cuisine そのほかの (other) 洋 食
よう しょく

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Activity 3 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。
Example: A: おさしみは何りょうりですか。

B: 和 食 です。
わ しょく

1. どのくに (country) のりょうりが好きですか。 2. 何りょうりのレストランによく行 きますか。 3. どのくに (country) のりょうりは好きじゃないですか。 4. ちかくにどんなレストランがありますか。


C. 食 べ物 をせつめいすることば
た もの

Food expressions hot (temperature) cold (comfortably) warm hard, tough soft not oily low-calorie

あまい からい しょっぱい すっぱい にがい あぶらがおおい カロリーが高い おぼえていますか。 Activity 4

sweet spicy salty sour bitter oily, fatty high-calorie

あつい つめたい あたたかい かたい やわらかい あぶらがすくない カロリーがひくい

おいしい

Work in groups of four. Discuss the dishes of the countries listed in the table, then fill in the right-hand column with the adjectives or expressions that you feel best describe the cuisine of each one.

〜のりょうり 日本 中国
ごく

どんなりょうりですか。

かんこく イギリス フランス メキシコ アメリカ イタリア

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Activity 5
Ask a partner about his/her food preferences. Example: あまい/からい A: あまいものとからいものと、どちらの方が好きですか。 B: あまいものの方が好きです。

1. あまいもの/からいもの 2. あぶらが おおいもの/あぶらが すくないもの 3. つめたいスープ /あたたかいスープ 4. あついコーヒー/つめたいコーヒー 5. かたいりんご/やわらかいりんご 6. からいカレー/あまいカレー 7. すっぱいもの/からいもの 8. すこししょっぱいチップス (chips)/ すこしにがいチョコレート 9. カロリーが高いもの/カロリーがひくいもの

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ダイアローグ

はじめに Warm-up
A. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. 週末に友達 と何をよくしますか。 2. 和 食 のレストランにはどんなものがありますか。 3. 中 華 りょうりのレストランにはどんなものがありますか。 4. どんな洋 食 が好きですか。
ようしょく ちゅう か わ しょく だち

B. Make a phone call inviting a partner out to eat somewhere. Remember to use 〜ませんか and the expressions you’ve learned to identify yourself when calling and responding to a caller.

レストランで

At a restaurant

今 日 は 土 曜 日 で す。石 田 さ ん と 上 田 さ ん と 山 本 さ ん は し ぶ や に あ そ び いし に来 ました。


いし

石 田: あのう、上田さん、山本さん。 石 田: そろそろ十二時ですから、何か食 べませんか。


上田と山本: はい。
いし

山本: いいですね。じゃあ、あそこはどうですか。 上田: イタリアりょうりですね。いいですよ。

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348 Chapter 9

田: じゃあ、あそこへ行 きましょう。 石
いし い

いし

石 田さんと上田さんと山本さんはレストランでメニューを見ています。

田: 何にしましょうか。 上 田: そうですね。このピザはどうですか。 石
いし

本: おいしそうですね。上田さん、どうですか。 山 田: ええ。私もピザは大好きです。 上 本: じゃあ、そうしましょう。ほかに何がいいですか。 山 田: フライドチキンはどうですか。 上 田: いいですね。じゃあ、飲 み 物 は? 石
いし の もの

本: のどが かわきましたから、ビールにしませんか。 山 田: いいですね。じゃあ、ぼくもそうします。上田さんはどう 石
いし

しますか。 田: 私は水でいいです。 上 ウェイターが来 ました。


ウェイター: いらっしゃいませ。ごちゅうもんは。
いし いし

石 田: このピザとフライドチキンとビールをおねがいします。 ビールは何本にしましょうか。

ウェイター: ピザを一まいとフライドチキンをお一つですね。 石 田: 一本おねがいします。 上田: あ、それから、私はお水を下さい。

ウェイター: 一本ですね。かしこまりました。 ウェイター: はい、かしこまりました。

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Dialogue Phrase Notes

• • • • •

そろそろ十二時です means it’s about 12 o’clock. ほかに means in addition. のどがかわきました means I am thirsty. ごちゅうもんは ? means What would you like to order?” かしこまりました (Yes, I shall do as you say) was introduced in the Japanese Culture section for Chapter 8. This phrase is used in restaurants as well as in shops.

ダイアローグの後で
あと

A. Circle はい if the statement is true, or いいえ if it is false.

1. はい いいえ 上田さんは何か食 べたがっています。


2. はい いいえ 石 田さんは山本さんとレストランに行 きました。
いし いし い

3. はい いいえ 石 田さんと山本さんはレストランでビールを飲 みました。


4. はい いいえ 山本さんはピザとフライドチキンをちゅうもんしました。 5. はい いいえ 上田さんは何も飲 みませんでした。


B. Complete the following passage by filling in the appropriate particle for each blank.

石 田さん 上田さん 山本さんは、土曜日 しぶや
いし

あそび 行 きました。おなかがすきましたから、イタリアりょうりの


レストラン 行 って、ピザ フライドチキン 食 べました。
い た

石 田さん 山本さん ビール 飲 みました。
いし の

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350

Chapter 9

日本の文化
ぶん か

日本の食 生活
しょくせいかつ

Eating habits in Japan

For many Japanese, not a day goes by without eating some rice. A traditional Japanese breakfast consists of a bowl of rice, miso soup, a raw egg with some soy sauce, seaweed, pickles, and a small piece of fish. Western-style breakfasts consisting of buttered toast, an egg, green salad, and coffee or tea are also very popular. Many restaurants and cafes offer special breakfast sets for commuters. These are called モーニングサービス or モーニングセット, and the breakfast may be either Japanese- or Western-style. At lunchtime, some people bring a box lunch ( おべんとう ), go to the company or university cafeteria, or eat at restaurants and cafes that offer a choice of special lunch sets of the day ( 日 替 りランチ ). Popular lunches include noodles, Italian pasta, curried rice, fried rice, or bowls of rice topped with stewed beef, pork cutlet, and eggs, or tempura. Local eateries, convenience stores, supermarkets, and department stores also sell a variety of おべんとう. Most primary schools provide lunch for the children, while students at secondary schools usually bring their own. For most Japanese, dinner is the largest meal of the day, and is eaten around 6 or 7 p.m. A wide range of dishes (tempura, sashimi, grilled fish, sukiyaki [stewed pork]) as well as other foreign dishes are cooked at home. Many local food shops offer a variety of prepared dishes for working mothers and businesspeople. Small local restaurants usually offer free delivery, so sushi, noodles, and Chinese dishes, can be ordered by phone as well. The most popular international dishes are Chinese, Italian, and French. Some Korean and Indian dishes, such as grilled beef and curry, are also popular. American franchise stores like McDonald’s have Western fast food. Hamburgers, pizza, and fried chicken are popular,
ひ がわ

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particularly among young people. Mexican cuisine is still not well known in Japan. Before a meal, the Japanese say いただきます (literally, I humbly receive this). After the meal, they say ごちそうさまでした (literally, It was a feast). Both are expressions of gratitude to those who made the meal possible (farmers, fishermen, cooks), as well as for natural phenomena, like rain.

日本のレストラン
Restaurants in Japan range from the very inexpensive to outrageously expensive places. Many restaurants display realistic-looking models of food in the front window to give an idea of the dishes they serve and their prices. Moderately priced restaurants tend to have free seating, that is, you don’t have to wait to be seated. As soon as you are seated, a waiter or waitress often brings a steaming hot towel called おしぼり to wipe your hands and face. Since the service charge is included in the bill, it is customary not to tip. Dining out or going for drinks is very common among Japanese business people and students. Instead of hosting parties at home, Japanese people prefer to hold parties in restaurants, pubs, and hotels. The organizer often sets the menu and collects cash from the guests ahead of time. At the beginning of a party, it is customary to have a toast, or かんぱい. Pouring a drink into your own glass or drinking directly from a bottle is not polite. Instead, you should fill other people’s glasses and let them fill yours. If you are treated to a restaurant meal, thank the person after the meal ( ごちそうさまでした ), and again the next time you meet. You might say 昨日 /先日はどうもごちそうさまでした . (Thank you for the feast yesterday/the other day.) And remember that the reciprocation of invitations and other favors plays a vital role in relationships among the Japanese.
せんじつ

きのう

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Chapter 9

文法
ぶんぽう

I. Indicating choices using 〜にします ; making requests using 〜をおねがいします
When ordering something in a restaurant, you may say 〜にします or 〜をおねが いします as well as 〜を下さい, as you learned in Chapter 8. します in the 〜にし ます construction does not mean do but something like decide on ~. It may also be used in other contexts, as in トヨタにします (decide on a Toyota when you buy a car).

ウェイター: お 飲 みものは、何に しますか。
What would you like to drink? (literally, As for drinks, what will you decide on?)


きゃく (customer): オ レンジジュースに します。
I will have orange juice. (literally, I decide on juice.)

オレンジジュースを おねがいします。
I will have orange juice. (literally, I request orange juice.)

オレンジジュースを 下さい。
Please give me orange juice.

With 〜をおねがいします and 〜を下さい (but not with 〜にします ), you can use a number of quantity expressions depending on what it is you are asking. Use 〜つ (Japanese origin number) to order dishes and drinks and 〜本 for bottles. The quantity expression directly follows the particle を. When two or more items are listed, the sentence takes the form of “X を Quantity Expression と Y を Quantity Expression . . .” おねがいします。

コーヒーを一つ下さい。
Please bring one coffee.

ビールを二本おねがいします。
Please bring two bottles of beer.

こうちゃを一つとコーヒーを一つおねがいします。
Please bring one tea and one coffee.

すず

鈴 木: 何、飲 みますか。


What would you like to drink?

リン: そうですね。鈴 木さんは?
すず

Let’s see. How about you, Mr. Suzuki?
すず

鈴 木: ぼくはコーラにします。
I will have some cola.

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リン: そうですか。じゃあ、私もコーラにします。
Well then, I will have cola, too.
すず

鈴 木: (to the waiter) すみません。コーラを二つおねがいします。
Excuse me. We will have two colas.

話してみましょう
はな

Activity 1
Place an order using 〜を おねがいします. Use すみません to get the server’s attention. Example: そば/1 すみません。そばを一つおねがいします。

1. コーラ/1 2. サンドイッチ/2 3. こうちゃ/1 4. ハンバーガー/3 Activity 2

5. 6. 7. 8.

ラーメン/5 A ランチ/1 おさしみ/ 4 うどん/2

Work with a partner. You are going to a restaurant with your partner. Think about a dish that you would like to order. Discuss with your partner and decide on the restaurant. Example: A: 今、何が食 べたいですか.


B: そうですね。スパゲティが食 べたいですね。


A: そうですか。じゃあ、イタリアりょうりのレストランに

しませんか。

B: あ、いいですね。

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Chapter 9

Activity 3
Work with a new partner. You are a customer and your partner is the waiter or waitress. Circle one item that you would like to have from each category in the table below. The waiter/waitress will ask for your order by saying ごちゅうもん は ? (Your order?). Place your order. Example:

ウェイター: ごちゅうもんは?

うちゃとサンドイッチとケーキを おきゃくさん ( customer): こ おねがいします。 飲 み物
の もの

ウェイター: こうちゃとサンドイッチとケーキですね。 かしこまりました。 ミルク オレンジジュース おちゃ 水 ワイン ビール コーヒー こうちゃ スープ サンドイッチ ハンバーガー サラダ スパゲティ ピザ ( お ) すし ( お ) さしみ てんぷら チャーハン カレーライス ステーキ

食 べ物
た もの

デザート ケーキ アイスクリーム クッキー Activity 4
Work in groups of three. One person is the waiter/waitress at a restaurant. The other two are customers. Look at the menu to decide what you are going to order. The waiter/waitress will ask ごちゅうもんは , then write down your orders ? and confirm them by saying X と Y ですね。かしこまりました . Change roles and repeat the role play until everyone has had a turn taking orders. Example:

ウェイター: ごちゅうもんは?
A: 飲 み 物 はどうしますか。 B: ぼくはビ−ルにします。
の もの

A: 私はオレンジジュースにします。じゃあ、

ビールを一本とオレンジジュースを一つ おねがいします。

ウェイター: ビールを一本とジュース一つですね。 かしこまりました。

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メニュー
オードブル
オードブル取り合わせ スモークサーモン シュリンプ • カクテル
¥800 ¥1,000 ¥900

スパゲティ
スパゲティ・ナポリタン ¥900 スパゲティ・ミートソース ¥1,000

スープ
コンソメスープ

¥400

サラダ ¥500 ¥500 ¥700

グリーンサラダ ミックスサラダ チキンサラダ

オニオングラタンスープ ¥600

魚料理
エビフライ エビグラタン カニコロッケ
¥1,200 ¥1,200 ¥1,000

米飯料理
カレーライス オムライス エビピラフ
¥800 ¥900 ¥800

肉料理
サーロインステーキ ビーフシチュー ハンバーグステーキ ポークソテー チキンコロッケ
¥3,500 ¥3,000 ¥1,000 ¥1,200 ¥1,000

サンドイッチ
ハムサンド タマゴサンド やさいサンド ミックスサンド
¥600 ¥500 ¥500 ¥600

飲み物 ビール オレンジジュース
¥400 ¥500

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II. Eliciting and making proposals using 〜ましょうか and 〜ましょう
In Chapter 6, the negative question form of a verb 〜ませんか is used for extending an invitation or making a suggestion. 〜ましょうか (shall we) and 〜ましょう (let’s 〜 ) are used to elicit or make proposals. Eliciting proposal Making proposals

きょうとへ行 きませんか。 どこへ行 きましょうか。
い い

Why don’t we go to Kyoto?

Where shall we go?

きょうとへ行 きましょう。


Let’s go to Kyoto.

和 食 にしませんか。 何を食 べましょうか。
た わ しょく

Why don’t we have Japanese food?

What shall we eat?

和 食 にしましょう。
わ しょく

Let’s have Japanese food.

えきで会 いませんか。 どこで会 いましょうか。
あ あ

Why don’t we meet at the station?

Where shall we meet?

えきで会 いましょう。


Let’s meet at the station.

リー: 上田さん、今週の金曜日にコンサートに行 きませんか。


Ms. Ueda, why don’t we go to a concert together this Friday?

上田: ええ、ぜひ。何時にどこで会 いましょうか。


Yes I would love to. Well, what time and where shall we meet?

リー: そうですね。三時十五分ごろに学生会 館のまえはどうですか。
かいかん

Let’s see, how about around three fifteen in front of the student union?

上田: いいですね。じゃあ、三時十五分に学生会 館のまえで。
かいかん

That would be fine. Okay then, in front of the union at three fifteen.

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話してみましょう
はな

Activity 1
Work with a partner. Extend an invitation by rephrasing the following sentences with the 〜ませんか form. Your partner will accept your invitation saying ええ、〜ましょう. Then switch roles. Example: A: 〜さん、明日こうえんに行 って、テニスをしませんか。 B: ええ、しましょう。
あした い

1. 木曜日に一 緒 にえいがを見 る 2. アイスクリームを食 べに行 く 3. 明日一 緒 にべんきょうする 4. うちに来 て、コーヒーを飲 む 5. あのカフェに 入 る
はい き の あした しょ た い しょ み

6. 今日ばんごはんを一 緒 に食 べる 7. 一 緒 に 帰 る
しょ かえ しょ た

Activity 2
Invite a new partner to do the following activities. Then decide on the time and place together. Example: A: 一 緒 に買 い 物 に行 きませんか。 B: ええ、いいですね。いつ行 きましょうか。 A: 明日はどうですか。
あした い しょ か もの い

B: いいですよ。どこに行 きましょうか。 A: 〜に行 きませんか。
い い

B: ええ、いいですよ。 じゃあ、〜に行 きましょう。


いつ 一緒 に買 い物 に行 く
しょ

どこ



もの



コンサートに行 く


一緒 にしゅくだいをする
しょ

一緒 にばんごはんを作 る
しょ つく

おちゃを飲 む


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Chapter 9

Activity 3
Work in small groups. You want to go on a trip for vacation. Think about a fun place to go, then invite a few people to come along, and negotiate the details of when to meet, where to go, what to do, etc. 今度 の休みに means the next ど vacation. Example: 鈴 木 :
すず

木 村 さん、スミスさん、今度 の休みにハワイに あそびに行 きませんか。
い むら ど

木村 :
むら

ハワイですか。いいですね。 そうですね。私も、ぜひ行 きたいです。


スミス : 鈴 木 :
すず

じゃあ、そうしましょう。 いつ行 きましょうか。


木村 :
むら

どんなホテルにしましょうか。 何をしましょうか。

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III. Using question word + か + (particle) + affirmative and question word + (particle) + も + negative
Question words can be combined with other words to form new expressions in Japanese. This chapter introduces both indefinite and negative expressions using question words.

A. Using question word + か + (particle) 〜 affirmative statement or question.
Indefinite expressions are formed by adding か to a question word. なに + か = なにか something

どこ + か = どこか だれ + か = だれか いつ + か = いつか

somewhere someone sometime

Question word + か is used with affirmative sentences and in questions. (I) eat something. 何か 食 べます。

あ そこに だれか いますか。



Is there someone over there?

Question word + か can also be used with 〜ませんか, as in the following examples. Although the verbs here are in the negative form, their meanings are not negative. 何か 食 べませんか。 Why don’t we eat something?

どこか 行 きませんか。 Why don’t we go somewhere?
The particles は , も, or に (of time) are not used with indefinite expressions. The particles が and を are usually omitted with indefinite expressions, and the particles へ/に (of direction) are optional. Other particles are added after か.




だれか 何か いつか どこか ( へ/に ) どこかで だれかと 山本: 中川: 山本: 中川:

来ました。 食べます。 帰ります。
かえ い あ た き

someone came eat something come/go back sometime went somewhere met somewhere talk with someone

行きました。 会いました。 話します。
はな

Why don’t we drink something? 何か飲 みませんか。 の Sure. (literally, Yes, that would be fine.) ええ、いいですよ。 What will you have? 何にしましょうか。 私はジュースにします。 I’ll have some juice.
しんぶん

山田: どこかに今日の新 聞はありませんか。
Is today’s paper somewhere?

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中山: そこにありますよ
It’s right there.

Notes



Questions that employ question word + か + (particle) are はい/ いいえ questions, even though they appear to be information questions:

友 田 : 何か飲 みますか。 の Are you going to drink something? 中本 : いいえ、どうぞ おかまいなく。
No, please don’t bother.

友 田 : 何を飲 みますか。
What are you going to drink?


中 本 : コーヒーを飲 みます。


I will drink coffee.



To decline an offer of food or drinks, use the following phrases.

いいえ、どうぞおかまいなく。 No, please don’t bother. No, thank you. いいえ、けっこうです。

• To form indefinite expressions such as something delicious, add adjective + noun after question + か

何かおいしいものを作 ります。
I will make something good.
つく

だれか好きな人がいるんですか。
Is there someone you like?

どこかしずかなところへ行 きましょう。
Let’s go somewhere quiet.




Notice that in Japanese, unlike the equivalent English expressions, you must include a noun (もの, 人 , ところ) after the modifying adjective.

B. Using question word + (particle) + も〜 negative statement.
Question word + (particle) + も〜 followed by a negative statement means “not 〜 any” or “no 〜 .” The expression must be used with a negative statement.

何も 食 べませんでした。 I did not eat anything.
There isn’t anyone/There is no one. だれも いません。 どこも よくありません。 There isn’t any good place. (literally, None of the places is good.)


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The particles は , も, , が and を are not used with question word + (particle) + も. Other particles are added before も. No one came. だれも 来 ませんでした。
き か き い

何も 買 いません。 いつも 来 ません。

I am not going to buy anything. (He) never comes.

どこ ( へ/に ) も 行 きませんでした。 I didn’t go anywhere. だれとも 話 しませんでした。 I didn’t talk to anyone.
はな

山本: 昨 日、どこかへ出 かけましたか。
Did you go somewhere yesterday?
きのう で

中川: いいえ、どこへも行 きませんでした。
No, I didn’t go anywhere.


いし

石 田: 何か飲 みますか。
Would you like to drink something? No, thanks. I don’t need anything.


ペギー: いいえ、今はいいです。何もいりません。

Notes

• いつも in an affirmative sentence means always, as introduced in
Chapter 3.

いつも 来 ます。
き き

(He) always comes.

いつも 来 ません。 (He) never comes.

• どこでも (どこ + で + も) is an exception to this pattern. It means everywhere and is always used with a positive statement.

話してみましょう
はな

Activity 1 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。
Examples: 今日何か食 べましたか。


ええ、食 べました。 or いいえ、食 べませんでした。
た た

今日何を食 べましたか。


サンドイッチを食 べました。


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1. いつか日本に行 きたいですか。 2. よくどこで 食 事 をしますか。 3. いつうちに 帰 りますか。 4. 今日だれかに会 いますか。 5. 週末どこかへ出 かけますか。 6. よくだれと話 しますか。
はな で か かえ しょく じ い

Activity 2
Create questions that correspond to each of the following answers. Example: ええ、コーヒーをおねがいします。

何か飲 みませんか。
の た い

1. ええ、食 べました。 レストランに行 って、おいしいフランスりょうり を食 べました。 2. 十一時に寝 ました。 3. ざっしを買 いましょう。 4. いいえ、うちにいました。 5. ええ。田中さんに会 って、 話 しました。 6. 六時ごろ起 きます。
お と しょかん い あ はな か ね た

7. ええ、図 書 館 に行 って、日本語の本を読 みました。


Activity 3
Fill in the chart below, then extend invitations to a partner for food, drinks, places to go, and things to do. Example: A: 何か飲 みませんか。 B: いいですね。/ええ、いいですよ。 A: 何を飲 みましょうか。 B: こうちゃはどうですか。/こうちゃにしませんか。 Items / Places / Things
の の

飲み 物
の た い

もの もの

食べ 物

行 くところ (place to go) すること (thing to do)

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Activity 4
Answer the following questions using いいえ、 question word + (particle) + も 〜 negative. Example: (in a dark place) そこに だれか いますか。

いいえ、だれも いません。

1. (At a party, your friend is going to a bar counter and says) 〜さん、何か いりますか。 2. うちのねこをどこかで見 ましたか。 3. そのことについて (about that matter)、だれかと 話 しましたか。 4. 昨日だれかにメールを書 きましたか。
きのう か き はな み

5. しゅくだいについて (about homework)、何か聞 きましたか。 Activity 5
You are conducting a survey on breakfast habits. Ask your classmates if they have eaten or drunk anything today. If they have, find out what they had. Then determine how many people in all didn’t have anything in the morning and what the most popular breakfast was for the class. Example: A: スミスさん、今日のあさ、何か食 べましたか。 B: いいえ、何も食 べませんでした。 A: 何か飲 みましたか。 B: ええ、カフェに行 って、コーヒーを飲 みました。
い の の た た

なまえ スミス -------

食べ 物


もの

飲み 物


もの

コーヒー

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IV. Giving reasons using から ; expressing opposition or hesitation using けど
In Chapter 7, you learned that the conjunction ので expresses a reason and が expresses a contrast or opposition. This chapter introduces an additional set of conjunctions that are commonly used in conversational Japanese.

A. The conjunction から (because)
The conjunction から indicates a reason, and it is attached to the end of the clause that expresses the reason. If a sentence contains both a reason and a result, the clause containing the reason precedes the clause indicating the result. から tends to reflect the speaker’s personal opinion or judgment more than ので. Reasons expressed with から may sound a little stronger and those using ので. ので, thus, may sound softer and more polite, especially in formal speech. Clause with から (reason) Clause (result)

日本のおちゃが好きですから、
I like Japanese tea, so I often buy some.

よく買 います。


〜から can be used with both polite and plain forms. The plain form that precedes から is similar to the forms preceding 〜ので and 〜んです except that だ is used instead of な for the copula verb and な-adjectives. よく食べます/食べるから、げんきです。 He is healthy because
た た

Verbs

he eats a lot.

あまり寝ません/寝ないから、ねむい
(sleepy) です。
ね ね

He is sleepy because he doesn’t sleep much. Why don’t you eat this because it’s sweet? I don’t want it because it isn’t warm. I want it because I like cats.

いた adjectives これ、あたたかくありません/ あたたかくないから、いりません。 ねこが好きです/好きだから、 ほしいです。 (ねこが好きなので、ほしいです。 ) いぬは好きじゃありません/好き じゃないから、いりません。

これ、あまいです/あまいから、 食べませんか。

adjectives

な-

I don’t want it because I don’t like dogs.

Copula verbs

I am going because my じゅぎょうです/じゅぎょうだから、 行きます。 (じゅぎょうなので、 きます。 class is starting. 行 )
い い

水じゃありませんから/水じゃない から、いりません。

I don’t want it because it is not water.

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Notes

• 〜から can be used without a main clause expressing results. A: デザートはいりませんか。
You don’t want any dessert?

B: ええ、カロリーが高いですから。
That’s right, because they’re high in calories.

• Plain form + からです is also commonly used for reasons. いし

石 田さんと田中さんは、今、学校にいます。スミスさんは 今日はやく帰 りました。
かえ かえ

いし

石 田: スミスさん、今日ははやく帰 りましたね。
Mr. Smith went home early today, didn’t he?

田中: 明 日のあさ、日本に行 くからですよ。
あした い

It’s because he is going to Japan tomorrow morning.

いし

石 田: ああ、そうなんですか。
Oh, I see.

B. The conjunction けど (but, although)
Like が, the conjunction けど is used to connect two sentences or clauses that oppose each other, and is attached to the end of the first sentence. けど tends to sound more colloquial than が and is often used in casual conversation. Clause with けど (reason) Clause (result)

ちょっとにがいです/にがいけど、
I like Japanese tea although it is slightly bitter.

日本のおちゃが好 きです。


〜けど can be used with both polite and plain forms. The plain form that precedes けど is the same as that used with から.

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その人にはよく会います/会うけど、
Verbs

なまえはわかりません。 げんきです。
ね ね





Although I meet him often, I don’t know his name. He is energetic although he doesn’t sleep much. This steak is tender but it’s a bit fatty.

あまり寝 ません/寝 ないけど、 このステーキはやわらかいです/ やわらかいけど、ちょっとあぶらが おおいですね。 あまりほしくありません/ ほしくないけど、買 いました。


いadjectives

I bought it though I did not really want it. The library is not very bright but it is pretty.

図 書 館 はきれいだけど、あまり なと しょかん

あかるくありません。 adjectives キムチは好きじゃありません/好き I don’t like Korean じゃないけど、かんこくは好きです。 pickles but I like Korea. I am going to school even 休みです/休みだけど、学校へ though it’s a holiday. 行きます。
Copula verbs


水じゃありません/水じゃないけど、 I drank it even though it 飲 みました。


wasn’t water.

Notes

• 〜けど can be also used without a main clause expressing results. A: よくテレビを見 ますか。
Do you watch TV often?


B: ええ、いそがしいですけど。
Yes, though I am busy.



Like が, 〜けど can be used to open a conversation, or to introduce a topic of conversation as well. It does not introduce a strong negative relation, and it is similar to the use of but in English as in: Excuse me, but could you turn on the TV?

あのう、すみませんけど、今何時ですか。
Excuse me, but what time is it?

明 日 食 事 に行 くんですけど、田中さんも来 ませんか。
あ し た しょく じ い き

We are going to eat out tomorrow, so why don’t you join us?

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話してみましょう
はな

Activity 1
Combine the following pairs of sentences using 〜から . Make sure to start with a sentence containing a reason and followed by から . Example: 明日テストがあります。今日べんきょうします。
あした あした あした

明日テストがあるから、今日べんきょうします。 明日テストがありますから、今日べんきょうします。

1. このワインは古いです。すっぱいです。 2. 水がいります。このスープはしょっぱいです。 3. 七時に起 きます。八時にじゅぎょうがあります。 4. 水にします。今日はくるまで 帰 ります。 5. 週末はどこにも行 きませんでした。まだ (yet) 友 達 がいません。 6. トマトがたくさんあります。イタリアりょうりを 作 ります。 7. あぶらがおおいりょうりは好きじゃありません。さかなをちゅうもん します。 Activity 2
Invite your partner to do one of the activities in the chart below. Your partner will refuse using the corresponding reason and だめなんです。 can’t). Create a (I conversation using the table and the dialogue model in the example, then switch roles. Example: A: 明日あそびに来 ませんか。 B: すみません、明日は友 達 がうちに来 るから、だめなんです。 A: そうですか。それは、ざんねんですね。 B: すみません。今度 またよんで下さい。
ど あした だち く あした き つく い だち かえ お

Invitation

Reason for refusal

明 日あそびに来 る。
あした


友達 がうちに来 ます。
だち き い

金曜日にえいがを見 に行 く。


びょういんへ行 きます。


今晩一緒 にしゅくだいをする。
ばん しょ

アルバイトがあります。 今日はとてもいそがしいです。 今からじゅぎょうです。 おさけはあまり好きじゃありません。

一 緒 にテニスをする。
しょ

今からひるごはんを食 べる。


ビールを飲 みに行 く。
の い

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Activity 3
Draw lines between the expressions in Column A and Column B that you feel are in opposition to each other. Then create a sentence for each set using けど . Example: にくはきらいだけど、やさいは好きですよ。

にくはきらいですけど、やさいは好きですよ。
Column A Column B

1 さかなはきらいです。 2 高いです。


カロリーが高いから、食 べません。


てんぷらはあぶらがおおいです。


3 あまりからいものは食 べません。 おすしはよく食 べます。 4 和 食 はカロリーがひくいです。
わ しょく

カレーは大好きです。 よくフランスりょうりのレストラン に行 きます。


5 コーヒーはにがいです。 6 バター (butter) クッキーをよく
つく

作 ります。

ブラック (black) で飲みます。


Activity 4
Work with a partner. Using the same situation in Activity 2, invite your partner for an activity. Your partner will refuse the invitation but provide an alternative using けど and the example. Make a conversation and take turns. Example: A: 明日あそびに来 ませんか。
あした き

B: すみません。

明日はいそがしいんですけど、明 後日はどうでしょうか。
あした あさって あさって

A: じゃあ、明 後日にしましょうか。 B: いいですか。ありがとうございます。 Invitation Solution

明 日あそびに来 る。
あした


金曜日にえいがを見 に行 く。
み い

今晩 一緒 にしゅくだいをする。
ばん しょ

一緒 にテニスをする。
しょ

今からひるごはんを食 べる。


ビールを飲 みに行 く。
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V. Making inferences based on direct observation using verb and adjective stems + そうだ
Verb/adjective stem + そうだ expresses an impression or an inference based on what the speaker has seen or felt. The degree of certainty in such statements is fairly low. In some cases, information is visual, but it can be auditory as well. Its meaning is similar to the expressions to look (like) or to appear. そうだ cannot be used with adjectives of shape, color, and other exressions that show the result direct visual observation, not inferences. That is, anyone can tell if something is pretty, red, or round by just looking at it, so you cannot say きれいそうです, あかそうです, or まるそうです (looks round).

わあ、このステーキおいしそうですね!
Wow, this steak looks delicious!

この水、つめたそうですね。
This water looks cold.

あの人、もうすぐ寝 そうです。
It looks like that person might fall asleep at any time.


あかちゃんが起 きそうです。
The baby appears to be waking up. Affirmative Plain Plain negative Negative そう affirmative そう (doesn’t look like 〜 ) form (look like 〜 ) form Verbs


いる
(to be)

いそう しずかそう からそう よさそう

いない しずかじゃ ない からくない よくない

Adjectives (quite)

な-

しずかな からい

Adjectives いい (good)

い-

(spicy)

いなさそう いそうにない しずかじゃなさそう しずかそうじゃない からくなさそう からそうじゃない よくなさそうだ よさそうじゃない

大田: カレーがありますけど、食 べますか。
There is curry. Would you like to have some?


リー: わあ、おいしそうですね。いいんですか。
Wow, it looks delicious. Are you sure?

大田: もちろん、はい、どうぞ。
Of course, here you are.

リー: いただきます!
Thank you (literally, I humbly receive)

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Notes



To negate a phrase with そう, you can either negate そう itself or negate the verb or adjective before そう. Because そう is a なadjective, its negative form is そうじゃない, except that そうにない should be used for verbs. To negate the verb or adjective, change the negative ending ない to なさ before そう. For example, “It does not look fun,” using the adjective たのしい (fun), could be stated as either たのしそうじゃない or たのしく なさそう. The verb 来 る becomes 来 そうにない/来 なさそう (He/She does not appear to come). The affirmative form of the adjective いい becomes よさ before そう. Since そう is a な- adjective, it can be used to describe nouns.
く き こ

• • はな

あまそうなアイスクリーム ice cream that looks sweet たのしそうなアルバイト むずかしそうなテスト a part-time job that looks fun a test that looks difficult

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Look at the following pictures and state what appears to be taking place. Example: このアイスクリーム、おいしそうですね。

おいしそうなアイスクリームですね。

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. Choose an adjective from the box below and act it out. Have your partner guess the adjective and comment on your condition using 〜そうですね . Then create a dialogue to explain why you feel the way you do.

た の し い う れ し い か な し い つ ま ら な い ひ ま い そ が し い さびしい たいへん
Example: B is singing and smiling while cooking.

Activity 3

A: たのしそうですね。 B: ええ、今日は私の誕 生 日だから、今 晩 パーティが

あるんですよ。

たんじょう

ばん

A: そうですか。それはいいですね。

Work with a partner. Based on the above pictures, create as many short conversations as you can using から or けど . Example: A: おいしそうなアイスクリームですね。

B: ほんとに (really) おいしいですよ。すこし食 べませんか。

A: ありがとうございます。食 べたいけど、今ダイエット 中



なんです。



ちゅう

B: そうですか。

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聞く練習
き れんしゅう

上手な聞き方
じょうず き かた

Using context
It is not necessary to understand every single word of a conversation to be able to comprehend what is going on. If you can get the gist or pick up key words, you will probably be able to guess the words you miss. Context provides many clues that help you to figure out the words you don’t completely understand.

練習
れんしゅう

You are on the phone with Mr. Li, who is telling you about his vacation in Florida, but the connection isn’t very good. Each time you hear static, indicating that the line has cut out, write the word or part of the word you miss by guessing from the context.

言 葉のリスト
こと ば

オーランド マイアミ ディズニーワールド 1. 2. 3.

Orlando Miami Disneyworld

レストランの会話 Restaurant conversations
かい わ

Listen to each conversation and fill in the blanks to complete the sentences below.

1. このレストランは りょうりのレストランです。 この人は を食 べます。


2. このレストランは りょうりのレストランです。 おとこの人は今日 を食 べます。 おんなの人は をちゅうもんしました。 おんなの人は をちゅうもんしました。 さしみていしょくは 円です。 おとこの人は をちゅうもんしました。


3. このレストランは りょうりのレストランです。

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聞き上手話し上手
き じょうずはな じょうず

上手な話し方
じょうず はな かた

Introducing a new topic
After greeting someone or getting their attention (あのう、 (すみません) , the ) next step is to introduce a topic of conversation. An unfinished sentence ending with a conjunctive particle such as けど and が as well as んです is often used to introduce a topic. For example, the following phrases may be used as introductory remarks to extend an offer or invitation.

おいしいケーキがあるんですけど、食 べませんか。
I have a delicious cake, so would you like to have some?


土曜日は山田さんの誕 生 日なんですが、何かしませんか。
Saturday is Mr. Yamada’s birthday, so why don’t we do something? This function of けど and が is different from their original meaning (but) because what follows these words does not contrast with the preceding statement. Phrases such as 〜のことなんですけど/が and 〜についてなんですけど/が are also commonly used to introduce conversational topics. For example:
たんじょう

日本語のプロジェクトのことなんですけど、一緒 にしませんか。
About the Japanese project, would you like to do it with me?
しょ

クラスのパーティについてなんですが、来 週の金曜日はどうですか。
As for the class party, how does next Friday sound?
らい

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In some cases けど and が are used to end an utterance without finishing the sentence:

山田: あのう、スミスさん。
Well, Mr. Smith.

スミス: はい。
Yes?

山田: 明 日のミーティングなんですけど、
あした

About tomorrow’s meeting.

スミス: ええ。
Yeah?

山田: すみませんが、キャンセルしたいんです。
I’m sorry but I want to cancel it.

スミス: え、どうして ?
Why?

山田: 明 後日、大 変なテストがあるんです。
あさって たいへん

I have a difficult exam the day after tomorrow. Following these steps and allowing your listener to respond is considered polite speech in Japanese.

練習
れんしゅう

A. Work with a partner. Think of a fun event. Then initiate a conversation with some small talk and invite your partner to the event by introducing your topic as shown in the examples above. B. Work with a new partner, who will pretend to be your Japanese instructor. Think of some requests that you can make. Role-play a situation where you approach the instructor, introduce a topic, and make a request. Then switch roles.

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漢字
かん じ

Creating inflectional endings with okurigana
Okurigana are the hiragana that follow verbs and adjectives written in kanji. For example, the きい in 大きい and the く in 行 く are okurigana. One of the main functions of okurigana is to indicate inflectional endings of verbs and adjectives, as shown below.


う - verbs: る - verbs:

行 く、行 かない、行 きます、行 って 買 う、買 わない、買 います、買 って 見 る、見 ない、見 ます、見 て 寝 る、寝 ない、寝 ます、寝 て
ね ね ね ね み み み み か か か か い い い い

い - adjectives: 古い、古くない、古かったです 安い、安くない、安かったです
たいへん たいへん たいへん

な - adjectives: 大 変 な、 大 変 じゃない、 大 変 でした
Cases in which okurigana are used for more than just the final verb and adjective endings need to be learned individually.

食 べる、食 べない、食 べます、食 べて 大きい、大きくない、大きかったです 新しい、新しくない、新しかったです
(All い -adjectives ending in しい follow this pattern.)
た た た た

好きな、好きじゃない、好きでした
All of the kanji presented in this chapter are used in verbs with okurigana. to go

to come, coming

to return, to go home

to eat

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to drink

to look at, to watch

to listen, to ask, inquire

to read

to write, writing

to talk, to speak

to come out, to leave, to mail, to turn in

to meet, to see

to buy

to get up

to go to bed, to lie down

to make

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to enter

読めるようになった漢 字
かん じ

行く 銀 行 旅 行 来る 来週 来年 帰る 食べる 食べ物 食 事
ぎんこう りょこう もの しょく じ

和 食 洋 食 定 食 食 品 飲む 飲み物 見る 聞く 新 聞 読む
わ しょく ようしょく ていしょく しょくひん もの しんぶん

書く 図 書 館 教 科 書 辞 書 話す 電 話 出る 出かける 会う
と しょかん きょう か しょ じ しょ でん わ

学生会 館 会 話 買う 買い物 起きる 寝る 作る 入る
かいかん い かい わ もの

押 し入 れ 中 華
お ちゅう か

練習

れんしゅう

1. 昨日、日本食のレストランで、ビールをすこし飲んで、ばんごはんを 食べました。 2. カフェでフランス人の友達 と日本語で話しました。
だち

3. 先週インド人の友達 が来たので、カレーを作って、インドの おんがくを聞きました。 4. 新 宿 に出かけて、買いものをしました。そして、友 達 と会って、
しんじゅく だち

えいがを見に行きました。

だち

5. (私の一日)私は毎日六時半に起きて、新聞を読みます。八時に 大学に行って、たいてい五時ごろ帰ります。よるはテレビを見て、 メールを書いて、十時ごろおふろに入ります。たいてい十一時に 寝ます。

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読む練習
れ ん しゅう

上手な読み方
じょうず

かた

Understanding Japanese e-mail formats
The format of Japanese e-mail programs for the PC is very similar to their counterparts in English, except that all of the English words are written in Japanese. However, Roman letters in parentheses such as (F) and (E) remain part of the menu commands, which will give you some clue as to what a menu is about. For example, (F) often represents File option and (E) usually stands for Editing options. So you can guess the contents of some of the fields using your knowledge of English e-mail.

abcdef@nakama.ac.jp

練習
れんしゅう

Look at the e-mail screen above and try to guess the meaning of the following words.

挿入 (そうにゅう) 書式 (しょしき) メッセージ ツール 送信者 (そうしんしゃ) 宛先 (あてさき) 件名 (けんめい)
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E - メールが来ました

takako@westside.ac.jp Sara Jones sjones@hotmail.com

読んだ後で Comprehension
あと

A. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. このメールはだれが書きましたか。 2. このメールはだれに書きましたか。 3. どうしてメールを書きましたか。 4. だれのパーティがありますか。 5. パーティはいつどこでありますか。 6. 一人 (per person) いくらかかりますか。
B. Imagine that you are the recipient of this e-mail and write a response.

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総合練習
そ う ご う れ ん しゅう

Your instructor will give you a card with a day of the week written on it to indicate which day you have off from class. On the card, write in Japanese an activity you’d like to do with someone. Your instructor will then divide the class into two groups. Everyone in the first group must find someone in the second group with a matching card and extend an invitation to do the activity. Together, negotiate the details, such as where to go, what time to meet, and where. Remember to use the expressions and strategies you have learned in this chapter to introduce a topic and extend an invitation. Example: You are free on: Activity:

水曜日 えいがを見る

ロールプレイ
1. You are with a friend at a Japanese department store and want to have lunch. You go up to the eighth floor, where there are a variety of restaurants ( めいてんがい ). Discuss your options ( 和 食 、洋 食 、 中 華 りょうり わ しょく ようしょく ちゅう か etc.) and decide where to eat. 2. You have gone out to eat with your friend. Place your orders and find out how long they will take. If any one of the dishes require more than 15 minutes to prepare, order something else.

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Chapter 10

第 十
い だ




私の家 族
My family
Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Grammar

か ぞく

Describing people, addressing family members Kinship, parts of the body, physical appearance, personality, verbs of resultant states, age, number of people, and order in a family There are five people in my family. 私の家 族 は五 人 家 族 です。
か ぞく ご にん か ぞく

Japanese Culture The Japanese family I. Stating the order within a family using 番 ( 目 )


II. Describing a resultant state using verb て- form + いる III. Describing physical appearance and skills using 〜は 〜が IV. Describing people and things using nouns and modifying clauses V. Expressing opinions using 〜とおもう Using one’s background knowledge about a person Kanji derived from pictures; kanji for kinship terms and parts of the body 男 女 目 口 耳 足 手 父 母 姉 兄 妹 弟 家 族 両 親 子 Creating charts and figures

Listening Kanji

Communication Being modest about yourself and your family

Reading

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単語
たん

Nouns あし あたま あに あね いもうと いもうとさん おかあさん おくさん おこさん おじいさん おとうさん おとうと おとうとさん おとこ おにいさん おねえさん おばあさん おんな かいしゃいん かお かぞく かみ きょうだい くち けっこん 足 頭 兄 姉 妹 妹さん お母さん 奥さん お子さん お祖父さん お父さん 弟 弟さん 男 お兄さん お姉さん お祖母さん 女 会社員 顔 家族 髪 兄弟 口 結婚 leg, foot head, あたまがいい smart, intelligent older brother (the speaker’s) older sister (the speaker’s) younger sister (the speaker’s) younger sister (someone else’s) mother (someone else’s) wife (someone else’s) child (someone else’s) grandfather (someone else’s) father (someone else’s) younger brother (the speaker’s) younger brother (someone else’s) male, おとこの人 man older brother (someone else’s) older sister (someone else’s) grandmother (someone else’s) female, おんなの人 woman businessperson face family, speaker’s family hair sibling(s) mouth marriage, 〜とけっこんする to marry 〜 ,

けっこんしている to be married
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383

こ ごかぞく ごきょうだい ごしゅじん こども しゅじん せ そふ そぼ ちち つま て とし はな はは ひとりっこ ブロンド まんなか みみ め めがね う -verbs かぶる すむ はく ふとる わかる る -verbs かける

子 ご家族 ご兄弟 ご主人 子供 主人 背 祖父 祖母 父 妻 手 年 鼻 母 一人っ子 真ん中 耳 目 眼鏡

child, おとこのこ boy, おんなのこ girl family (someone else’s) siblings (someone else’s) husband (someone else’s) child husband (the speaker’s) back (part of the body), height (of a person) grandfather (the speaker’s) grandmother (the speaker’s) father (the speaker’s) wife (the speaker’s) hand age としうえ elder, older としした younger nose mother (the speaker’s) only child blond center, middle, middle child ear eye glasses

to put on (a hat or cap)

住む 太る 分かる

to reside, 〜にすんでいる to live in 〜 to put on (skirt, pants, socks, shoes) to gain weight, ふとっている to be fat to understand, 〜がわかる

to put on (glasses)

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きる つとめる やせる Irregular verbs する Auxiliary verbs 〜ている い -adjectives あかるい かっこいい かわいい しかくい ながい ほそながい まるい みじかい な -adjectives じょうず (な) しんせつ (な) Question words いくつ Prefixes しょう〜 ちゅう〜

着る 勤める

to put on (sweater, shirt, jacket) to become employed

〜につとめている to be employed at, work for to lose weight, やせている to be thin

to put on (accessories)

resultant state

明るい

cheerful (Chapter 4, bright) good-looking, cool, neat

可愛い 四角い 長い 細長い 丸い 短い

cute, adorable square long long/elongated round short (length)

上手 (な) 親切 (な)

good at, skillful kind

How old 〜 ? おいくつ (polite form)

小〜 中〜

elementary, 小学生 elementary school student,

小学校 elementary school middle, 中学生 middle school student,

中学校 middle school, junior high school
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385

Suffixes 〜さい 〜にん 〜ばん (め) 〜かた Expressions いいえ、そんなことはありません。 いいえ、まだまだです。
No, that’s not the case. No, I still have a long way to go.

〜歳/才 〜人 〜番 (目) 〜方

〜 years old 〜 people

〜 th (ordinal suffix) person (polite form of 人 )

いいかた (nice person)

単語の練習
たん か ぞく

れんしゅう

A. 家族 Kinship terms
Japanese has two sets of kinship terms. One is used to refer to one’s own family and the other is used to refer to someone else’s. Your own family member Someone else’s family member (humble form) (polite form) family father mother parents older brother older sister younger brother younger sister brothers and sisters grandfather grandmother husband wife child/children

家族 父
ちち

か ぞく

ご家 族
とう

か ぞく

お父 さん お母 さん
かあ


はは

両親 兄
あに

りょう しん

ご両 親
にい

りょう しん

お兄 さん お姉 さん
ねえ


あね



おとうと

弟 さん
おとうと

いもうと



妹 さん
いもうと

兄弟 祖父
そ ふ そ ぼ

きょう だい

ご兄 弟
じ い ば あ

きょう だい

お祖 父さん お祖 母さん ご主 人
しゅじん

祖母
しゅじん

主人

つま 子供
こ ども

おくさん お子 さん


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Note that 子供 , 兄 弟 , 家族 and 両 親 can be used in general statements.
こ ども きょうだい か ぞく りょうしん

日本の子 供 はよくあそびます。
こ ども か ぞく

Japanese children play a lot.

ハワイには日本人の家 族 がたくさんいます。 There are many Japanese families in Hawaii.

Activity 1
Look at the family trees. Note that each family member is represented by a letter. Now, form groups of three. One of you will write the letters A through T in random order on a piece of paper and read a letter on the list. The other two will give the kinship term that corresponds to the letter. Remember to say 私の〜 or 山田さんの〜. Whoever calls out the correct term first gets a point. The person with the most points wins. Take turns reading the letters. Example: T he dealer says H. Player 1 says 私の 弟 first. Player 1 gets a point.
おとうと
A B

K

L

C

D

]
H

M
E

N

]
R

O

F

G

I

]
私の家 族
か ぞく

P
J

Q

S

]

T

山田さんのご家 族

か ぞく

Supplementary Vocabulary: cousin nephew uncle aunt relatives niece grandchild

親 族 (Kinship terms)
しんぞく

Your own family member (humble form)

Someone else’s family member (polite form)

いとこ おい おじ おば めい まご

従兄弟 甥 叔父/伯父 叔母/伯母 姪 孫

いとこさん おじさん おばさん

従兄弟さん 叔父さん/伯父さん 叔母さん/伯母さん

おいごさん 甥子さん

しんせき 親戚

ごしんせき ご親戚 めいごさん 姪子さん おまごさん お孫さん

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B. 人 People head face eye ear nose mouth

hand/arm

leg

Activity 2
Work with in class. Everyone claps their hands twice and immediately after that, your instructor will say a body part in Japanese. Touch the part he/she says.

Activity 3
“Simon Says.” Work with a partner. Using the vocabulary in this chapter, take turns calling out and identifying parts of the body in Japanese.

Supplementary Vocabulary: からだ The Body
あご うで おなか からだ くちびる くび こし せなか どう つめ のど は ひげ ほっぺた まつげ まゆげ ゆび 顎 腕 体 唇 首 腰 背中 胴 爪 咽 歯 髭 睫 眉毛 指 chin arm belly body lip(s) neck waist back torso, trunk, body nail throat tooth mustache, beard cheek eyelash eyebrow finger

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C. からだのとくちょう Physical features
せが高い せがひくい 手 がながい 足 がみじかい
あし て

tall (height) short (height) have long reach have short legs have a round face have a narrow face have a square face have blue eyes have a small mouth have a big nose good-looking have black hair blond hair fat, chubby thin

かおがまるい かおがほそながい かおが四 角 い 目 があおい 口 が小さい
くち め し かく

はなが高い かっこいい かみがくろい ブロンド ふとっている やせている おぼえていますか。 きれい(な) Activity 4 ちゃいろい

あかい

しろい

みどり

Write your guess for the opposite of each attribute listed below.

1. せがひくい 2. ふとっている 3. かみがくろい 4. かおが小さい 5. 足 がみじかい 6. 手 がながい 7. 口 が小さい 8. はなが高い 9. 耳 が大きい 10. あたまが小さい
みみ くち て あし

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Activity 5
Take a moment to think about your own physical features. Then state as many as you can in sixty seconds.

D. Verbs used with clothing and accessories
シャツをきる スカートをはく くつをはく ぼうしをかぶる めがねをかける イヤリングをする うでどけいをする おぼえていますか。 コート ストッキング ネックレス Activity 6
Classify the above articles of clothing and accessories that are used with the following verbs: Verbs Articles of clothing and accessories put on a blouse put on a skirt put on shoes put on a hat put on glasses put on earrings put on a wristwatch

ジ−ンズ スーツ ジャケット シャツ セーター Tシャツ ドレス ネクタイ パンツ/ズボン ふく ゆびわ ベルト

きる はく する

E. せいかくとのうりょく
親切 ( な )
しんせつ

Personality and ability

kind cheerful cute, adorable smart, intelligent understand Japanese good at sports

あかるい かわいい あたまがいい 日本語が分かる スポーツが上 手 ( な )
じょうず

おぼえていますか。 やさしい さびしい おもしろい たのしい げんきな りっぱな いい しずかな つまらない にぎやかな むずかしい

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Activity 7 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. お 父 さんはどんな人ですか。 2. お 母 さんはどんな人ですか。 3. どんな人が好きですか。 4. 一番いい友 達 はどんな人ですか。
だち かあ とう

Supplementary Vocabulary: せいかく Personality
うちき(な) きがつよい きがながい きがはやい きがみじかい きがよわい くらい たんき ( な ) のんびりしている 内気(な) 気が強い 気が長い 気が早い 気が短い 気が弱い 暗い 短気(な) shy, introverted strong-minded patient impatient, hasty, rash short-tempered weak-minded somber, nerdy short-tempered easygoing, carefree

F. しごととちい Work and social status
〜と けっこんする 〜に すむ 〜に つとめる 会社員
かいしゃいん

to get married to reside to get a job at business person elementary school student middle school student

小 学生
しょう

中学生

おぼえていますか。 しごと 学生 大学生 Activity 8

大学院 生
いん

高校

高校生

しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. けっこんしたいですか。いつけっこんしたいですか。 2. 今、どこにすんでいますか。 3. どんなところにすみたいですか。 4. 日本の 会 社 につとめたいですか。 5. どんなところにつとめたいですか。 6. ご家 族 に 小 学生がいますか。 中学生がいますか。 高校生がいますか。 7. お 父 さんは/お 母 さんはどこかにつとめていますか。
とう かあ
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かいしゃ

か ぞく

しょう

My Family 391

Supplementary Vocabulary: Occupations
いしゃ エンジニア かんごし きょうし こうむいん サラリーマン

医者 看護士 教師 公務員

medical doctor engineer nurse, medical assistant teacher government official white-collar worker (from the Japanese term “salary man”) self-employed college professor dentist lawyer manager

じえいぎょう だいがくきょうじゅ はいしゃ べんごし マネージャー

自営業 大学教授 歯医者 弁護士

G. としと人 数 Age and number of people
にんずう

〜 人 ( 〜 people)
にん

〜さい ( 〜 years old)

何 0 一 二 三 四 五 六 七 八 九 十 百 千 一万

なんにん (お)いくつ/なんさい れいさい ※ ひとり ※ いっさい ※ ふたり にさい さんにん さんさい ※ よにん よんさい ごにん ろくにん ※ しちにん はちにん きゅうにん じゅうにん ひゃくにん せんにん いちまんにん
よ にん か ぞく

ごさい ろくさい ※ ななさい ※ はっさい きゅうさい ※ じゅっさい ※ じっさい ひゃくさい

Note: 四 人 家 族 means a family of four including yourself. 兄 弟 が二人います
きょう だい ふたり

however, means that you have two brothers and sisters excluding yourself.

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392 Chapter 10

Activity 9
Sing a version of this popular counting rhyme in Japanese!

Activity 10
Form groups of varying sizes according to the directions your instructor calls out. Try to join each group as quickly as possible so that you won’t be left behind. Example: 三人 のグループを作って下さい。
にん

Activity 11
Write down three numbers on a piece of paper. Your instructor will call out an age. Cross out a number if it corresponds to what you hear. Whoever crosses out all the numbers first wins.

Activity 12 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. この大学には学生が何人 ぐらいいますか。
にん

2. この大学には先生が何人 ぐらいいますか。
にん

3. 日本語の先生は何人 いますか。
にん

4. 日本語の学生が何人 ぐらいいますか。
にん

5. 今、きょうしつにクラスメートが何人 いますか。
にん

6. ご 兄 弟 がいますか。何人 いますか。
きょうだい にん

7. 何 人 家 族 ですか。
にん か ぞく

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My Family 393

Activity 13
Work in groups of five or six. Make up a number representing a classmate’s age, write it down on a piece of paper, and tape it to the back of someone else in your group. Take turns asking about your ages. Then line up from the “youngest” to the “oldest.”

Activity 14
The following table lists typical age ranges for children and young adults who attend school or day care in Japan. The information about Japan is provided. Fill in the information about your country and compare the two. Example: 日本では れいさいから三さいの子供 がたく じしょに行きます。
ども

アメリカでは/も、〜さいから〜さいの子供 がたくじしょ ども に行きます。 日本

たくじしょ
(nursery)

0 さいから 3 さい 0 さいから 6 さい 3 さいから 6 さい 6 さいから 12 さい 12 さいから 15 さい 15 さいから 18 さい 18 さいから 22 さい

( ( ( ( ( ( (

) さいから ( ) さいから (

) さい ) さい ) さい ) さい ) さい ) さい ) さい

(day care center) (kindergarten)

ほいくえん ようちえん 小 学校
しょう

) さいから ( ) さいから ( ) さいから ( ) さいから ( ) さいから (

中学校 高校 大学

Activity 15 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. お 父 さんはおいくつですか。
とう かあ

2. お 母 さんはおいくつですか。 3. 〜さんは、今何さいですか。

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Chapter 10

ダイアローグ

はじめに

Warm Up

A. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. 何人 家 族 ですか。 2. お 兄 さんがいますか。お 姉 さんはどうですか。 3. 妹 さんがいますか。 弟 さんはどうですか。
いもうと おとうと にい ねえ にん か ぞく

私の家族は五人家族です。 There are five people in my family
か ぞく にん か ぞく

上田さんの友達 の川口さんがあそびに来ています。上田さんと 川口さんは、上田さんのへやにいます。 川口: あ、あのしゃしん、上田さんのご家 族 ですか。
か ぞく だち

上田: ええ、そうです。これが父 で、これが母 です。
ちち はは

川口: かっこいいお父 さんですね。それにとてもきれいなお母 さん
とう かあ

ですね。 上田: ああ、でも、父 も母 も四十九さいなんですよ。
ちち はは
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395

川口: そうですか。とてもわかく見えますけど。 上田: 父はくるまの会 社につとめていて、母 は英 語の先生なんです。
かいしゃ はは えい

川口: そうなんですか。じゃあ、この帽 子をかぶっている 男 の子は
ぼうし おとこ おとうと

弟 さんですか。
しょう

上田: ええ、そうです。なまえはデービッドで、今、 小 学三年生です。 川口: かわいいですね。じゃあ、この人はお 姉 さんですか。
ねえ

上田: いいえ、それは 妹 のパムです。パムはまだ十七さいなんですが、
いもうと

パムのほうが私よりせが高くて大きいから、よく年 上に
としうえ

見られるんですよ。 川口: そうなんですか。

Dialogue Phrase Notes

• • •

It is rude to refer to people using これ , それ , あれ , but you can do so when you talk about a person in a photograph or drawing because they are not actual human beings. わかく見えます means look young. わかい means young, and it is usually used for teenagers or adults but not for children. 年上に見られる means to be mistaken for an older (sibling).
としうえ

ダイアローグの後で
あと

1. Look at the picture of a family tree on page 138. Using it as an example, draw Ms. Ueda’s family tree. 2. Based on the dialogue, complete the following paragraphs using appropriate words and phrases.

上田さんの家 族 は五人 家 族 です。お父 さんとお母 さんと
か ぞく にん か ぞく とう かあ

と がいます。上田さんの は四十九さいで、 くるまの会 社につとめています。上田さんの も
かいしゃ

四十九さいです。 は 英 語の先生です。上田さんの
えい

のなまえは で、高校生ですが、せがとても高 いです。上田さんの のなまえはデービッドで、 小 学校の
しょう

です。とてもかわいいです。

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Chapter 10

日本の文化
ぶん か

日本の家族
か ぞく

According to a 2005 government survey, about 60 percent of Japanese families fall under the category of nuclear families, and 27 percent are single-person households. Only 13 percent are three-generation families. Since the end of World War II, the number of children in a Japanese family has decreased substantially. The average for 2006 was only 1.3 children per household, compared with 2.0 for the same year in the U.S. and France. Some reasons for the decline are economic; others are social, such as later marriages and a lack of support for women to continue to work after having children. According to 2005 statistics from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, the average age for a man to marry was 29.8 years. For a woman, it was 28 years. Nearly 90 percent of women work before getting married, but only 65 percent continue to work after marriage. After a child is born, the percentage plummets to a scant 23 percent. Traditionally, wives are expected to take care of the house and children, even while holding down a job. Despite recent efforts to update traditional roles, the current support infrastructure, such as day-care facilities and baby-sitting services, is still inadequate to allow many women to work. Conversely, Japanese husbands are expected to support the family financially, and they tend to work long hours. For example, according to a 2004 ILO survey, over 28 percent of Japanese workers logged more than 50 hours a week, which is much higher than the European average of 1.4 to 15.5 percent or the U.S. average of 20 percent. Although some companies offer parental leave for men in addition to maternity leave, new fathers rarely take advantage of this benefit, as it would lower their income significantly, could inconvenience their co-workers, and might even affect chances for promotion.

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397

Despite these pressures, the divorce rate in Japan is extremely low. Until 1972, it was less than one percent. After climbing to a high of 2.3 percent in 2002, the rate as of 2005 declined to under 2.1 percent.

ウチとソ Insiders and Outsiders ト
The Japanese rarely praise members of their own family when they are talking to someone outside the family. They are very conscious of the distinction ト between “in-groups” (ウチ) and “out-groups” (ソ ). It is very important to be polite to those who are not in one’s in-group, and praising members of your own family—the primary in-group—is considered impolite. Accordingly, you may often hear a Japanese man complaining that his wife is not good at cooking when in fact she is an excellent cook, or you may hear a woman say that her husband is impractical and inept at household matters. Similarly, boasting about yourself is considered socially inappropriate. Within one’s own family, お父 さん , お母 さん , お兄 さん , お姉 さん
とう かあ にい ねえ

and similar terms are used to address senior members. First names are used only to address younger members. A daughter or son would address their mother as お母 さん , お母 ちゃん ( ちゃん being the more familiar form), or ママ (Mom); older brothers as お兄 さん or お兄 ちゃん ;
にい にい かあ かあ

and a younger sister named Michiko as みち子 ちゃん . Senior members tend to refer to themselves using


their kinship terms when talking to a younger member of the family. Instead of using their first names with their children, parents usually call each other お父 さん/パパ (Dad, Papa) , and お母 さん/ママ .
とう かあ

In addition, Japanese forms of address do not distinguish between biological parents and stepparents. Using the Japanese equivalent of terms such a stepfather and stepmother can imply a distant relationship between the stepchild and the stepparents, so both biological and stepparents are addressed in the same way.

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Chapter 10

文法
ぶんぽう

I. Stating the order within a family using 番 ( 目 )


Expressing the order within a family using 番 ( 目 )


converts cardinal numbers into ordinal numbers, and it is used to describe 番 (目) one’s standing in his/her family such as:


一番上 上から二番目 め

oldest (literally, the first from the top, the highest) second oldest (literally, the second from the top, the second highest) right in the middle

まん中 下から二番目 め

second youngest (literally, the second from the bottom, the second lowest) youngest (literally, the first from the bottom, the lowest)

一番下

(め) is regular and follows the same The pronunciation of numbers preceding ばん pattern as the pronunciaiton for counter 〜まい. 〜番(目 ) (ordinal, 〜 th)


何 一 二 三 四 五
いえもと か ぞく

なんばん いちばん にばん さんばん よんばん ごばん
にん か ぞく

( ( ( ( ( (

め め め め め め

) ) ) ) ) )

六 七 八 九 十 百

ろくばん ななばん はちばん きゅうばん じゅうばん ひゃくばん

( ( ( ( ( (

め め め め め め

) ) ) ) ) )

家 本: 私の家 族 は五人 家 族 です。
My family consists of five members.

小 山 : そうですか。ゆみ子 さんは何番目 ですか。
こ やま

Where do you come in the family (literally, what order are you), Yumiko? I am the oldest. I see. Who is the youngest?
いもうと





家 本: 一番上です。
いえもと

小 山 : そうですか。じゃあ、一番下はだれですか。
こ やま

家 本: 妹 のみかです。みかは、今十五さいです。
いえもと

My younger sister Mika. She is fifteen years old now. Note that the term for only child is 一人っ子 .
ひとり こ

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My Family 399

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Take turns asking your classmates how many people are in their family. Then compare the results. Whose family is the largest or the smallest? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of coming from large and small families. Example: A: 〜さんのご家 族 は何 人 家 族 ですか。 B: 四 人 家 族 です。
にん か ぞく はは いもうと ふたり か ぞく にん か ぞく

or 母 と私と 妹 が二人います。

Activity 2
Work in groups of four or five. Take turns asking your classmates how many siblings they have and their order in the family. Then compare the results. Who is the oldest or the youngest? Example: A: 〜さんはご 兄 弟 がいますか。 B: はい、二人います。 A: 〜さんは何番目 ですか。 B: 私は一番上です。
め ふたり きょうだい

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Take turns describing your family members in terms of name and age, and complete the table with your partner’s descriptions. Example: 私の家 族 は三 人 家 族 です。 兄 が一人います。なまえは

トーマスで、二十五さいです。 父 のなまえはジョンです。今、 五十二さいです。 ご兄 弟
きょう だい

か ぞく

にん か ぞく

あに

ひとり

ちち

おなまえ

〜さい

ご両 親

りょう しん

おなまえ

〜さい

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Chapter 10

II. Describing a resultant state using verb て - form + いる
The verb て - form + いる describes a state (of being) that is the result of a past action. For example, めがねをかける means to put on (glasses), and めがねをか けている means as the result of putting glasses on, the person is now wearing them.

めがねをかける

めがねをかけている

Similarly, けっこんする means to get married whereas けっこんしている means to be married. Action: けっこんする (get married) Resultant state: けっこんしている (is married)

Action: ふとる (gain weight)

Resultant state: ふとっている (is fat)

山本: 田中さんはめがねをかけていますか。
Does Ms. Tanaka wear glasses?

チョイ: いいえ、めがねはかけていませんが、イヤリングを していますよ。
No, she doesn’t, but she wears earrings.

Notes



The past form 〜ていました describes a (resultant) state at a specified time in the past.

たくさん食べて、ふとりました。
I ate a lot and gained some weight.

私は小さい 時 、ふとっていました。
I was fat (chubby) when I was small.
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とき

My Family

401

• 〜ている can be used to describe a person who wears something habitually. 田中さんはよくジーンズをはいています。
Mr. Tanaka often wears jeans.

山田さんはいつもネクタイをしています。
Mr. Yamada always wears a tie.

• The verbs すむ and つとめる are usually used with 〜ている. The particle に is used to indicate a location, company or organization.

私はとうきょうにすんでいます。
I live in Tokyo.

山田さんはアパートにすんでいました。
Mr. Yamada used to live (was living) in an apartment.

ぼくはじょうとう大学につとめています。
I work for Joto University.

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Describe what each person is wearing, using the verb ている form. Example: さとうさんはスーツをきています。 そして、 ネクタイを

Activity 1: 答え : 個 人により異なる。

しています。

さとうさん Activity 2

山本さん

こんどうさん

木村 さん
むら

Work with a partner. Pick a classmate and have your partner guess who it is by asking what the person is wearing, using はい/いいえ questions. Example: A: その人は 帽 子 をかぶっていますか。
ぼう し

B: いいえ、 かぶっていません。 A: その人はスカートをはいていますか。 B: はい、 はいています。

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Chapter 10

Activity 3
Your instructor will ask the class to walk around the classroom observing what the others are wearing. When he/she tells the class to stop, each student will stand back to back with the person who is closest and describe his/her clothing. How many items can you describe correctly?

ジーンズを Example: 〜さんはあかいセーターをきていて、 はいています。

Activity 4
Work with a series of partners. Take turns finding out where your classmates have lived up until now. Note that 〜 の 時 means at the time of 〜 or when I とき was / am 〜 . Example: A: 〜さんは、 どこにすんでいますか。 今、 B: ハリソン・ホールにすんでいます。 A: ずっと (for a long time) そこにすんでいますか。 B: いいえ、高校の時は 両 親 の 家 にすんでいました。 A: そうですか。ご 両 親 はどこにすんでいますか。 B: バーリントンにすんでいます。
りょうしん りょうしん うち

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My Family 403

III. Describing physical appearance and skills using 〜は 〜が
The 〜は 〜が construction is used to describe the characteristics of a variety of things such as people, places, and other physical objects. This chapter introduces how 〜は 〜が can be used to describe people’s physical appearance, skills, and personality.

A. Describing physical appearance
The construction “person は body parts が adjectives” is used to describe a person’s physical appearance.

山下さんは はなが リーさんは 目が


高いです。 ながいです。 四 角 いです。
し かく あし

Mr. Yamashita has a large nose.

ちゃいろいです。 Ms. Li has brown eyes.
Ms. Ueda has long hair. Mr. Kim has a square face.

上田さんは かみが キムさんは かおが
もと き

本 木 : あの人はせが高くて、 足 がながくて、かっこいいですね。
That person over there is good-looking. She is very tall, and has long legs. Oh yes, that’s because she is a model.

山口 : ああ、あの人はモデルですからね。
ぐち

B. Describing skills and ability
〜は 〜が can be used with other personal traits such as personality and ability. In the following example, いい and 上手 are adjectives and 分かる is an intransitive verb. Unlike a transitive verb, an intransitive verb does not take a direct object or the direct object marker を . Instead, the particle が is used.
じょうず

チョイさんは
いし

あたまが テニスが

いいです。 上手です。
じょうず

Mr. Choi is smart. Mr. Ishida is good at tennis.

石 田さんは

山田さんは フランス語が
ぐち

分かります。 Mr. Yamada understands French.

田口 : あの人は日本語が分かりそうですね。
That person over there appears to understand Japanese.
じょうず

三 上 : ええ、でも、あまり上 手じゃなさそうです。
み かみ

Yes, but it does not look like he is good at it.

Notes



Like 好き and きらい , the plain present affirmative form of a verb + の can be used with 上手 .

アリソンさんはうたをうたうのが上 手です。
Allison is good at singing songs.
じょうず

じょうず

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話してみましょう
Activity 1
Using the following chart listing various physical characteristics, describe the persons named. Example: 私

私はせがひくいですが、手 と 足 はながいです。 かおがまるくて、かみがながいです。そして、目 もはなも 口 も め くち 小さいです。 からだ 大きい 小さい せ 高い ひくい 手 ながい みじかい きれい て 足
あし



あし

ながい みじかい きれい まるい 四角い ほそながい たまごがた (egg-shaped)
し かく

かお かみ 目


ながい みじかい く ろい あかい 大きい 小さい 高い ひくい 大きい 小さい 1. 私 2. 父 3. 母
ちち はは

ちゃいろい ブロンド みどり

大きい 小さい あおい ちゃいろい ろい く

はな 口
くち

4. 一番いい友 達

5. Other members of your family

だち

Activity 2
Work with a partner. Pick one face in the drawing and describe it to your partner. Have him/her identify the face by the number on the illustration. Example: この人はかおがまるいです。 この人は目 が大きいです。


1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

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405

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Draw a person’s face. Then, describe the face to your partner. Your partner will try to draw the face according to your description. Compare the two faces. Example: この人はかおがほそながくて、目 が小さいです。


Activity 4
Work with the class. Find out which languages your classmates can speak, who knows the most languages, and any other talents they may have. List the information you obtain in the chart. Example: 1. A: 〜さんはどんなことばが分かりますか。 B: かんこ く語が分かります。 A: そうですか。 かっこいいですね。
じょうず

2. A: 〜さんはどんなことをするのが上手ですか。 B: かんじを書くのが上手です。
じょうず

A: そうですか。いいですね。私はかんじを書く

のが上手じゃないんです。
じょうず

クラスメートの なまえ

ことば (language)

上 手 なこと
じょうず

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IV. Describing people and things using nouns and modifying clauses
A noun may be modified by another noun, an adjective, or a modifying clause. The modifier always comes before the noun. In a noun-modifying clause, the verb must be in the plain form. The negative forms of adjectives and the copula verb must be in the plain form as well.

ブロンドの 日本のくるまじゃない きれいな きれいじゃない りょうりが上 手な そうじが上 手じゃない 小さい 小さくない かみがながい かみがながくない 英 語が分かる 新聞をよく読む けっこんしている けっこんしていない
えい じょうず じょうず

かみ くるま 家
うち うち

blond hair a car that is not a Japanese car a clean house a house that is not clean a person who is good at cooking a person who is not good at cleaning small shoes not so small shoes a person who has long hair a person who does not have long hair a person who understands English a person who often reads the paper a person who is married a person who is not married
かた



人 人

くつ くつ 人 人 人 人 人 人
かあ

ホン: 田中さんのお 母 さんはどの方 ですか。
Which (person) is Mr. Tanaka’s mother?

木 村 : あそこにいる人ですよ。せが高くてかみがながい人です。
むら

(She is) the person over there—the tall person with long hair. Oh, that person? She’s very beautiful, isn’t she?
かた かた

ホン: ああ、 あの 方 ですか。とてもきれいな方 ですね。 木 村 : 本 当にそうですね。
むら

Indeed.

ほんとう

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Look at the drawing and answer the questions using a noun-modifying clause wherever appropriate.

さとうさん

山本さん

こんどうさん

木 村 さん
むら

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Example: さとうさんはどの人ですか。

スーツをきている人です。 1. さとうさんはどの人ですか。 2. こんどうさんはどの人ですか。 3. 木 村 さんはどの人ですか。 4. 山本さんはどの人ですか。 5. ジーンズをはいている人は木 村 さんですか。 6. ネックレスをしている人はどの人ですか。 7. めがねをかけている人はこんどうさんですか。 Activity 2
Fruit Basket. Work with the class. Arrange your chairs in a circle so that everybody except for one person has a place to sit. That person stands in the center of the circle and calls out a physical descriptor. Anyone who fits the description must move to another seat. Whoever is left without a seat then takes the center and calls out another descriptor. Example: The person in the center says: めがねをかけている人 People who wear glasses must move to another seat.
むら むら

Activity 3
Take turns finding out how many in the class fall into the categories listed in the chart. Then check your answers with each other. Note that 私のデータでは means according to my data. Example: 1. A: 〜さんはけっこんしていますか。 B: いいえ、 していません。 2. A: けっこんしている人は何人 いますか。 B: 二人います。/ぜんぜんいません。 A: そうですか。私のデータでは一人です。
ひとり ふたり にん

はい けっこんしている お姉 さんがいる
ねえ

いいえ

妹 さんがいる
いもうと

一 人っ子 だ
ひとり こ

りょうにすんでいる スポーツが上 手だ
じょうず

スペイン語が分かる
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Activity 4
Work in groups of four. One student thinks of a classmate but does not say his/ her name. The other members ask questions about his/her characteristics to find out who he or she is. They can ask up to six questions. Anyone who guesses the answer after the first question receives six points. After the second question, he/ she receives five points. If no one is able to get the correct answer after the sixth question, the person who has chosen the name receives six points. The person who earns the most points wins. Example: A: 女 の人ですか。 B: はい。 C: かみがながい人ですか。 B: いいえ、 かみはみじかいです。 D: じゃあ、 ブロンドですか。 B: いいえ、 ちゃいろいかみの人です。
おんな

Activity 5
With a partner, take turns asking what kind of person appeals to each of you. Have your partner describe the person in terms of physical appearance, personality, interests, and ability, using noun modifiers. Take turns. Take detailed notes on the information that your partner gives you. Example: A: スミスさんはどんな人が好きですか。 B: せが高くて、 かみがブロンドの人が好きです。

そして、やきゅうが 上 手 な人がいいですね。
じょうず

おいしいものを食べるのが好きな人もいいですね。 A: せいかくは (personality) どんな人がいいですか。 B: そうですね。 あたまがよくて、 やさしい人がいいですね。

Activity 6
You are a dating consultant looking for the best match for your partner from the previous activity. Take turns asking about your classmates’ favorite types. They will give information about their previous partner’s preferences. Example: A: どの人のデータ (data) がありますか。 B: スミスさんのデータがあります。 A: スミスさんはどんな人が好きなんですか。 B: せが高くて、 かみがブロンドの人が好きです。

そして、あたまがよくて、やさしい人が好きです。

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V. Expressing opinions using 〜とおもう
〜とおもう expresses the speaker’s opinion about things or events. The subject of おもう, the speaker, is often deleted. The clause before とおもう must end in the plain form. Copula verb

ご主 人は 会 社員 だと おもいます。 I think her husband is a
しゅじん かいしゃいん

businessman.

ご主 人は
しゅじん

日本人じゃないと おもいます。 I think her husband is not い - adjectives

Japanese./ I don’t think her husband is Japanese.

上田さんは かわいいと おもいます。 I think Ms. Ueda is cute. このテストは むずかしくないと おもいます。 I think this test isn’t diffiな - adjectives 先生は とても親 切だと おもいます。 I think my teacher is very
しんせつ

cult./ I don’t think this test is difficult.

kind.

弟 は さしみが好きじゃないと おもいます。 I think my younger brother
おとうと

doesn’t like sashimi./ I don’t think my younger brother likes sashimi.

Verbs

友田さんは けっこんしていると おもいます。 I think Mr. Tomoda is married. 山田さんは 明 日来ないと おもいます。 I think Ms. Yamada is
あ し た

not coming tomorrow./I don’t think Mr. Yamada is coming tomorrow.

The speaker can be specified for emphasis to clarify the context.

私はアリソンさんは明 日来るとおもいます。
I think Allison is coming tomorrow.
あした

私はこの本はいいとおもいます。
I think this book is good.

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When the subject of the main clause is someone other than the speaker, the form おもっている is used instead of おもう.

トムさんは 足 がながいと おもっています。
あし

Tom thinks he has long legs.

トムさんは 足 がながいと おもいます。
あし

I think Tom has long legs.

木 村 さんはふとっていないと おもっています。
むら

Mr. Kimura doesn’t think he is fat.

木 村 さんはふとっていないと おもいます。
むら

I don’t think Mr. Kimura is fat.

ペギーさんは和 食 は高いと おもっています。
わ しょく

Peggy thinks Japanese food is expensive.

私も和 食 は高いと おもいます。
わ しょく

I also think that Japanese food is expensive. To form an information question, use a question word and end the sentence and か. To ask for a general impression or opinion, use 〜をどうおもいますか, what do you think of 〜.

高田: キム:

このクラスでだれが一番せが高いとおもいますか。
Who do you think is the tallest in this class?

イアンさんが一番高いとおもいます。
I think Ian is the tallest.

さとう: どの新聞がいいとおもいますか。
Which newspaper do you think is good?

もり: 朝 日 新聞がいいとおもいます。
あさ ひ

I think Asahi Newspaper is good.

ゆみ: トム:

田中さんをどうおもいますか。
What do you think of Ms. Tanaka?

ちょっとしずかだけど、いい人だとおもいます。
I think she’s rather quiet but a nice person.

いし

石 田: 大川:

この本、どうおもいますか。
What do you think of this book?

むずかしくて、あまりおもしろくないとおもいます。
I think it’s difficult and not very interesting.

いし

石 田:

ぼくもそうおもうんですよ。
I think so, too!

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Notes



The plain form とおもう cannot express the speaker’s wish or intention without an additional suffix attached to the verb. You will learn how to express intentions in Nakama 2.

日本に行くとおもいます。
I think (someone, in context) is going to Japan.

キムさんは日本に行くとおもいます。
I think Ms. Kim is going to Japan.

• 〜たいとおもいます

to express a wish is often used instead of たいです in conversation, because it sounds softer and more polite.

私は日本に行きたいとおもいます。
I would like to go to Japan.

キムさんは日本に行きたいとおもっています。
Ms. Kim would like to go to Japan.

話してみましょう
Activity 1
A friend of Mr. Ishida is thinking about applying to your school. Answer his/her questions using plain form +とおもう. Example: 〜さんの大学は大きいですか。

いいえ、 あまり大きくないとおもいます。 1. 〜さんの大学には日本人がたくさんいますか。 2. 大学があるまちには日本のレストランがありますか。 3. 大学のじゅぎょうは 大 変 ですか。 4. どんな大学ですか。
たいへん

5. 大学があるまちはどんなまちですか。

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. Look at the following pictures and guess what kind of people they show. Example: A: この 男 の子 はどんな子 だとおもいますか。 B: げんきな子 だとおもいます。 or げんきそうな子 だとおもいます。
こ こ おとこ こ こ

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Think about the strengths (ちょうしょ) of each one of your classmates and write down your opinions using 〜とおもう. Example: A: スミスさんのちょうしょは何だとおもいますか。 B: そうですね。スミスさんはかんじがとても上 手だ

とおもいますね。 A: ええ、私もそうおもいます。 Activity 4

じょうず

Work with the class. Think of a famous person or cartoon figure, and write out a description, including your opinion of the person or character. After reading your description to the class, have them guess who it is. Example: A: この人は高いところが好きだとおもいます。そして、

スポーツが上手だとおもいます。あかいマスク (mask) を していて、あかくてあおいスーツをきています。 B: スパイダーマンですか。 A: はい、 そうです。
じょうず

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413

聞く練 習
れ ん しゅう

上手な聞き方
じょうず かた

Using one’s background knowledge about a person
Besides visual cues, background knowledge about a person such as his/her age, sex, and occupation can help you to understand better what is being said or asked.

練習

れんしゅう

Look at the photo below. Then listen to each question and circle the letter of the answer you think is correct. The questions will be repeated.

1. a 2. a 3. a

b b b

c c c

d d d

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私たちの家族 Our family
か ぞく

テープを聞いて、家 系 図 (family tree) を書いて下さい。 そして、 「はい」
(Then circle はい if a statement below か 「いいえ」にまるをつけて下さい。 is true or いいえ if it is false.)
か けい ず

1. 中山あやかさんの家 族 家系図
か けい ず

か ぞく

はい はい はい はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ いいえ

中山さんはお 兄 さんがいます。 中山さんの 弟 さんはせが高いです。 中山さんのお 母 さんはびょういんに つとめています。 中山さんのお 姉 さんは大学生です。
ねえ かあ おとうと にい

2. 吉 田 けい子 さんの家 族
よし だ こ

か ぞく

家系図
か けい ず

はい はい はい

いいえ いいえ いいえ

けい子 さんは兄 弟がいます。
こ きょうだい

けい子さんのお祖父さんは七十五さいです。
こ こ じ い

けい子さんのお父さんはふとっています。
とう

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415

聞き上手 話し上手
じょうず じょうず

上手な話し方
じょうず

かた

Being modest about yourself and your family
As noted earlier in this chapter, the Japanese generally refrain from praising or bragging about their families. Again, if someone praises a family member, they usually deny the compliment or try to steer the conversation in another direction. For example, when someone says to a Japanese person that his mother is beautiful, he will say something like No, she isn’t. or Do you really think so? This is not an attempt to milk the compliment, and may seem strange to people from cultures where praise is received in a straightforward manner. In Japan, however, it is best to observe this protocol. If you receive a compliment in Japanese, try using the following standard replies:

いいえ、そんなことありません/ないですよ。
No, that isn’t the case.

いいえ、まだまだです。
No, I still have a long way to go.

練習

れんしゅう

Work with a partner. Respond to each compliment appropriately. Ask your instructor to check your manner of delivery.

1. 〜さんは日本語が上手ですね。 2. 〜さんのお母 さんはとてもきれいな 方 ですね。 3. 〜さんはあたまがいいですね。
あし かあ かた じょうず

4. 〜さんは足 がながくて、かっこいいですね。 5. 〜さんのおじいさんはりっぱな 方 ですね。 6. 〜さんの家 は大きくてりっぱですね。
うち かた

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漢字
かん じ

Kanji derived from pictures (3)

(Rice field and an strong arm came to mean male.)

(女 , “female” with breasts came to mean mother.)

(An axe and a strong hand → man → father)

(A person with a big head → bigger brother)

(A pig under a roof. → house. Pigs were important livestock. )

male, man

female, woman

eye

mouth

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417

ear

foot, leg

hand

father

mother

older sister

older brother

younger sister

younger brother

house

tribe

both

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parent

child

読めるようになった漢 字
かん じ

男の人 男の子 女の人 女の子 目 〜 番目 口 耳 足 手 上 手 父 お父さん お祖 父さん 祖 父 母 お母さん お祖 母さん 祖 母 姉 お姉さん 兄 お兄さん 妹 弟 兄弟 家族 私の家 両親 親 切 子 供 お子さん 一 人っ子 帽 子 いい方 一人 二人 三人 何人 ご主人 会社員 真ん中 四角い 小 学生 小 学校
にん にん しゅじん かいしゃいん こ やま ま なか し かく しょう しょう しんせつ ども ひとり こ ぼう し かた ひとり ふたり そ ば じょうず じ い そ ふ ば あ め

日本人のなまえ:家本 小山 田口 山口 三上 吉田
いえもと た ぐち ぐち み かみ よし だ

練習
れんしゅう

Read the following sentences written in a mixture of hiragana, katakana, and kanji.

1. 父は先週の月曜日に川につりに行きました。弟はえいがを見に行き ました。私と母は家にいました。 2. 中山さんのお父さんはせが高くて、目が大きいですね。 3. 妹は小学生で、弟は中学一年生です。 4. 高田 「 ご兄弟は何人いますか。 : 」 川口 「 三人います。 : 」 5. めがねをかけている女の人が山田さんのお姉さんで、スーツをきて いる人がお兄さんです。 6. 山本 「 川口さんは何人家族ですか。 : 」 川口 「 両親と弟の四人家族です。 : 」 7. 田中さんのお子さんは目が大きくて、口が小さくて、とてもかわい いですよ。 8. 本田さんの親子はよくにていますね。 (にている = resemble) 9. A: あの男の人は手と足がながくて、スタイルがいいですねえ。 「 」 B: そうですか。あの人は、私の兄なんですよ。 「 」
( 10. 父はこのごろ耳がとおくなりました。 耳がとおい = hard of hearing)
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My Family 419

読む練習
れ ん しゅう

Creating charts and figures
People usually read with a specific purpose in mind, such as to gather specific information or to skim for the main ideas. When reading an assignment, you might jot down only the information that you need. If you organize your notes systematically, you may understand the assignment better and retain the information longer. One way to organize material is to make charts or tables.

練習

れんしゅう

A. Review the dialogue on pages 394–95 and complete the following table.

上田さんの家族

なまえ

しごと

Physical appearance

B. Now read the following passage. It was written by Ms. Ueda, but some of the information is different from what the dialogue contains on pages 394–95. Circle the discrepancies or write them on a separate piece of paper. Don’t worry about any unfamiliar words or kanji you may encounter.

上田さんの家族
私の家族は五人家族です。父は四十五歳 の会 社員で、銀 行に勤 めて
さい かいしゃいん ぎんこう つと

います。父は目があまりよくないので、たいていめがねをかけています。 ゴルフが大好きで、日曜日にはよくゴルフに行きます。母は四十三歳 で、
さい

大学で英 語を教 えています。背 があまり高くないので、たいていハイ
えい おし は せ

ヒールの靴 を履 いています。母はとても優 しくて明 るい人です。弟のト
くつ やさ あか

ムは十三歳 で、中学生です。背 が高くて、目がとても大きいです。スポ
さい せ

ーツは好きなんですが、勉 強 がきらいなので、こまります。そして、妹
べんきょう せ

の名 前 はパムです。パムは背 が高くありませんが、とてもかわいいで
な まえ あたま

す。 頭 がよくて、勉 強 もスポーツも大好きな高校一年生です。
べんきょう

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C. Underline all the sentence and clause connectors in the above passage. D. Describe your ideal family (りそうの家族 ). Use the following questions as cues.

1. 何人家族がいいですか。 2. 子 供 は何人がいいですか。 3. どんな子供 がいいですか。 4. お父さんとお母さんはどんな人ですか。 5. どんなところにすみたいですか。 6. お父さんは/お母さんはどんなしごとをしますか。
ども ども

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My Family 421

総合練 習
そ う ご う れ ん しゅう

Work with the class. Your instructor will give you a card similar to the one in the example below. It will have a description of two people, A and B. You are A. You are looking for B. Go around the class and ask your classmates questions using B’s description. After you find B, check his/her identity card against yours. Example: Features A Your identity B The person you are looking for

かみ 目 すんでいる 上手

ながい あおい とうきょう 日本語

くろい みどり ニューヨーク
えい

英語

A: その人はかみがくろいですか。 B: はい、 くろいです。 A: その人は目があおいですか。 B: いいえ、 あおくありません。 A: そうですか。 それじゃあ、 また。 (Go to a different person.)

ロールプレイ
1. You are introducing a member of your family to your instructor. Your instructor will praise the person. Respond appropriately. 2. You are looking for a new roommate. Tell your partner what type of person you are looking for and ask for help.

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Chapter 11

第 十
い だ

一 課


Seasons and Weather
Objectives Vocabulary Dialogue Japanese Culture Grammar
Describing the weather Weather, climate, temperature, compass directions 寒 いですね。 It’s cold.
さむ

きせつと天 気 てん き

Japan’s climate I. Expressing ongoing and repeated actions using the て form of verbs + いる

II. Plain past forms and casual speech III. Describing characteristics of places, objects, and time using 〜は 〜が IV. Expressing manner of action or outcome of a change using the adverbial forms of adjectives and noun + に V. Expressing uncertainty using 〜でしょう, 〜かもしれない, and 〜かな

Listening Communication Kanji Reading

Understanding the organization of prepared speech Expressing agreement and solidarity using ね and も Component shapes of kanji 1—Introduction 天 気 雨 雪 風 晴 温 度 東 西 南 北 寒 暑 多 少 冷 Getting used to vertical writing

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単語
たん

Nouns あき あめ かぜ きおん きこ う きせつ きた きょねん くも くもり けさ ことし さいきん たいふう つゆ てんき てんきよほう なつ なんせい なんとう にし にわかあめ のち はる はれ ひがし 秋 雨 風 気温 気候 季節 北 去年 雲 曇り 今朝 今年 最近 台風 梅雨 天気 天気予報 夏 南西 南東 西 にわか雨 後 春 晴れ 東 fall, autumn rain wind air temperature climate season north last year cloud cloudy this morning this year recent, recently typhoon rainy season weather weather forecast summer southwest southeast west shower ( rain) after spring sunny weather east

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Seasons and Weather

425

ふゆ ほう ほくせい ほくとう マイナス みなみ ゆうがた ゆき よる う -verbs あがる くもる さがる しる つづく ふく ふる る -verbs はれる い -adjectives あたたかい あつい さむい すずしい つよい はやい

冬 方 北西 北東 南 夕方 雪 夜

winter direction northwest northeast minus south evening snow night

上がる 曇る 下がる 知る 続く 吹く 降る

to rise, to go up to become cloudy to fall, to go down to come to know しっている to know しらない don’t know to continue to blow to fall

晴れる

to become sunny

暖かい/温かい 暑い/熱い 寒い 涼しい 強い 早い

warm 暖かい (air temperature) 温かい (other objects such as water, food, heart, etc.) hot 暑い (air temperature) 熱い (other objects such as water, food, heart, etc.) cold cool strong early

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Chapter 11

よわい むしあつい わるい な -adjectives きゅう(な) いや(な) Suffixes 〜ど 〜がつ Expressions 〜のち〜

弱い 蒸し暑い 悪い

weak humid bad

急 (な) 嫌 (な)

sudden, きゅうに suddenly unpleasant, yuck

〜度 〜月

degree, temperature month

after, あめのちはれ sunny after rain truly, really, indeed

ほんとう (に)/ ほんと(に) 本当 (に)

ほんと (に) is more conversational than ほんとう (に)

単語の練習
たん

れんしゅう

A. 天 気 予 報
てん き

よ ほう

Weather forecast

晴れ sunny は

くもり cloudy rain, rainy

あめ



snow, snowy

ゆき



晴 れのちくもり sunny then cloudy


くもり時 々 雨

cloudy with occasional rain

ときどき あめ

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Seasons and Weather

427

Activity 1
Write the readings of the following weather symbols.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

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428

Chapter 11

Supplementary Vocabulary: Nouns to indicate regions
たいへいようがわ にほんかいがわ さんがくぶ にしかいがん ちゅうせいぶ なんぶ なんせいぶ ひがしかいがん おんど かし きあつ こうすいりょう さいこうきおん さいていきおん しつど せっし てんきず 太平洋側 日本海側 山岳部 西海岸 中西部 南部 南西部 東海岸 温度 華氏 気圧 降水量 最高気温 最低気温 湿度 摂氏 天気図
Pacific ocean side (east side) of Japan Sea of Japan side (west side) of Japan mountain area (in any country) West coast region (USA) Midwest region (USA) South region (USA) Southwest region (USA) East coast region (USA)

Supplementary Vocabulary: Nouns expressing weather temperature Fahrenheit air pressure amount of precipitation highest temperature lowest temperature humidity Celsius weather map

B. 天 気
てん き

Weather hot cold cool warm humid good weather

暑い
あつ さむ

晴 れる くもる
かぜ あめ ゆき は

to clear up to become cloudy wind blows to rain to snow

寒い すずしい あたたかい むし暑 い 天 気 がいい
てん き てん き あつ

風 がふく 雨 がふる 雪 がふる 台 風 が来る
つ ゆ あめ

にわか 雨 がふる sudden showers
たいふう

天 気 がわるい bad weather くもが多 い 風 がつよい
かぜ かぜ おお

a typhoon comes the rainy season comes heavy rain falls heavy snow continues

cloudy strong winds mild winds

梅 雨になる 大 雨 がふる
おおあめ

風 がよわい

大 雪 がつづく
おおゆき

おぼえていますか。 多 い 少 ない 少 し 冷 たい
おお すく すこ つめ

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429

Notes



Both 寒 い and 冷 たい mean cold, but 寒 い refers to cold temperatures, as in 今日は 寒 い (It is cold today). On the other hand, 冷 たい refers to objects that are cold, e.g., 水が 冷 たい,
さむ さむ つめ さむ

風 が 冷 たい .
かぜ つめ

つめ

つめ

• 梅雨 refers to the rainy season particular to Japan. It usually starts つ ゆ in early June and ends in mid-July.

Supplementary Vocabulary: 天 気の言 葉
てん き こと ば

あらし あられ いなびかり かみなり きり こうずい こさめ たつまき つなみ どしゃぶり ハリケーン ひでり ふぶき みぞれ ゆうだち Activity 2

嵐 稲光り 雷 霧 洪水 小雨 竜巻 津波 どしゃ降り 日照り 吹雪 夕立ち

storm hail lightening thunder fog flood light rain tornado tidal wave, tsunami downpour hurricane drought snowstorm sleet evening shower

Imagine that the following chart shows tomorrow’s weather in some of the major cities in the world. そして、下のしつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 Example: 明日、カイロの天 気 はいいですか。
あした てん き

ええ、明日は晴 れますよ。
あした は

まち 天気
てん き

とうきょう

東京

ニューヨーク モスクワ

シドニー

カイロ

気温
かぜ

61.9/48.9° F 16.6/9.4° C SSW 5 mph

49.8/39.0° F 9.9/3.9° C NE 20 mph

34.7/26° F

75.2/58.1° F

98.2/60.3° F 36.8/15.7° C E 3 mph

き おん

1.5/-3.3° C 24/14.5° C NE 15 mph SE 10 mph



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Chapter 11

1. 明日、モスクワは天 気 がいいですか。
あした てん き

2. 東 京は明日晴 れますか。ニューヨークはどうですか。
とうきょう あした あした は

3. 明日、どこで 雨 がふりますか。
あめ

4. シドニーとカイロとどちらの方が暑 いですか。
あつ

5. ニューヨークと東 京とどちらの方が寒 いですか。
とうきょう さむ

6. どこがあたたかいですか。 7. どこがすずしいですか。 8. 明日、東 京は風 がつよいですか。ニューヨークはどうですか。
あした とうきょう かぜ かぜ

9. カイロは風 がつよいですか。よわいですか。 10. モスクワではつよい風 がふきますか。
かぜ

Activity 3
Select the item that describes recent weather in your area.

1. 寒 い/すずしい/あたたかい/ 暑 い/むし 暑 い
さむ あつ あつ

2. 天 気 がいい/ 天 気 がよくない
てん き てん き

3. いやな 天 気 がつづく/いやな 天 気 がつづかない
てん き てん き

4. 雨 がぜんぜんふらない/ 雨 があまりふらない/ 雨 が時々ふる
あめ あめ あめ あめ ときどき

5. 雨 がよくふる/毎日 雨 がふる
あめ

6. にわか 雨 が 多 い/にわか 雨 が 少 ない
あめ おお あめ すく

7. 雪 がぜんぜんふらない/ 雪 があまりふらない/ 雪 が時々ふる
ゆき ゆき ゆき ゆき ときどき

8. 雪 がよくふる/毎日 雪 がふる
ゆき

9. 大 雪 になる/ 大 雪 にはならない
おおゆき おおゆき

10. よく 風 がふく/あまり 風 がふかない
かぜ かぜ

11. 風 がつよい/ 風 がよわい
かぜ かぜ

Activity 4
Describe the recent weather in your area using your answers from Activity 2. It is unnecessary to use all of your responses, but make sure that your description is cohesive. Example: このへんは、さいきん天 気がよくて、むし暑 いです。雨 は
てん き あつ あめ

ぜんぜんふりません。そして、 風 もあまりありません。
かぜ
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Seasons and Weather

431

C. きせつ Seasons

January December winter November March February

October

autumn

spring April

September May summer August July June

Activity 5
Complete the following statements about Japanese seasons. Example: 日本では、六月に梅 雨がはじまって、七月におわります。
つ ゆ

1. 日本では にはるがはじまって、 におわります。 2. 日本では になつがはじまって、 におわります。 3. 日本では にあきがはじまって、 におわります。 4. 日本では にふゆがはじまって、 におわります。 5. このへんは にはるがはじまって、 におわります。 6. このへんは になつがはじまって、 におわります。 7. このへんは にあきがはじまって、 におわります。 8. このへんは にふゆがはじまって、 におわります。

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432

Chapter 11

Activity 6
For each season, write five things that describe where you live. Example: このへんは ふゆに 雪 がたくさんふります。
ゆき

はる なつ あき ふゆ

D. 気温
き おん さ あ き おん き おん

Air temperature air temperature falls air temperature rises

気 温 が下 がる 気 温 が上 がる 何度 −1度 0度 1度 2度 3度 4度 5度 6度 7度 8度 9度 10度

なんど マイナスいちど れいど いちど にど さんど よんど ごど ろくど ななど、しちど はちど きゅうど、くど じゅうど

Japan uses the Celsius scale for temperature, and the metric system for other measurements. The following table shows equivalent temperatures for Celsius and Fahrenheit.

せっし (Celsius)
0℃ 10℃ 20℃ 30℃ 40℃

かし (Fahrenheit)
32℉ 50℉ 68℉ 86℉ 104℉

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433

Activity 7 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 今の気 温 は何度 ぐらいですか。
き おん ど

2. 今 朝の気 温 は何度 ぐらいでしたか。
け さ き おん ど

3. あさから何度 ぐらい気 温 が上 がりましたか。
ど き おん あ

4. 今 晩 、何度 ぐらいまで気 温 が下 がるとおもいますか。
ばん ど き おん さ

5. 寒 い日は何度 ぐらいまで気 温 が下 がりますか。
さむ あつ ど ど き おん き おん さ あ

6. 暑 い日は何度 ぐらいまで気 温 が上 がりますか。 7. せっし (Celsius) 0度 はかし (Fahrenheit) 何度 ですか。
ど ど

8. かし (Fahrenheit) 0度 はせっし (Celsius) 何度 ですか。
ど ど

Activity 8
Using your answers from Activity 5, give a short description of your town in its four seasons.

E. 方角

ほうがく

Compass directions

〜の方
きた

ほう

toward 〜 to the north

北 の方

ほう

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434 Chapter 11

Activity 9
Write the appropriate direction word in each blank. Example: オー ストラリアは日本の 南 にあります。
みなみ

1. カナダはアメリカの にあります。 2. 日本はかんこ くの にあります。 3. メキシコはアメリカの にあります。 4. フランスはスペインの にあって、 ドイツの にあります。 5. 中国 はかんこ くの にあります。
ごく

Activity 10 えを見て、しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. このまちの 北 の 方 には何がありますか。南 の 方 には何がありますか。 2. 学校はどこにありますか。
ひがし ほう にし きた ほう みなみ ほう

3. 学校の 東 の 方 に何がありますか。 西 の 方 に何がありますか。
ほう

4. こうえんはどこにありますか。 5. 図 書 館 はどこにありますか。
と かん

6. えきの 北 には何がありますか。
きた
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Seasons and Weather

435

ダイアローグ
はじめに
しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 今日のお 天 気 はどうですか。
てん き

2. ふゆの 寒 い日の気 温 は何度 ぐらいですか。
さむ き おん ど

3. ふゆのあたたかい日の気 温 は何度 ぐらいですか。
き おん ど

寒いですね。 It’s cold.
さむ

鈴 木道 子さんは石 田さんにきょうしつで会いました。
すず みち いし

鈴 木: あ、 石 田さん。おはよう。
すず いし すず いし すず いし すず いし いし すず

石 田: あ。 鈴 木さん。 寒 いね。
さむ

鈴 木: ええ、今日は 風 がつよいから。
かぜ ばん ゆき

石 田: たしかに、今 晩 は 雪 かな。 鈴 木: そうね。くもってるから、ふるかもしれないね。 石 田: でも、まだ十一月だよ。 今 ざんねんだけど。 鈴 木: そうね。 年はいつもよりはやく寒 くなりそうね。
ことし さむ

石 田: いやだなあ。

先生がきょうしつにいらっしゃいました。
(The professor has come to the classroom.)

鈴 木: あ、先生。おはようございます。
すず

先生: あ、 鈴 木さん、 石 田くん。おはよう。 寒 いね。
すず いし さむ いし

石 田: ええ、それにくもっていますね。
ゆき てんき

先生: そうだね。 雪 がふりそうな天 気だね。 鈴 木さんはまどのそとを見ました。雪 がふっています。
すず ゆき

鈴 木: あ、先生、 雪 がふっていますよ。
すずき ゆき

先生: 本 当 だね。みんな風 邪ひかないように気 をつけるんだよ。
ほんとう か ぜ き
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436 Chapter 11

Dialogue Phrase Notes

• • • •

たしかに means certainly. いつもより means 〜 than usual. いやだなあ means unpleasant. みんな風 邪ひかないように気 をつける means Everybody, take care so that you don’t catch cold. 風 邪 means cold. Note that the kanji is different from 風 , wind.
かぜ か ぜ か ぜ き

ダイアローグの後で
あと

1. The following manga frames are scrambled—they are not in the order described in the dialogue. Read the dialogue and unscramble the frames by writing their correct order in the box located in the upper right corner of each frame.

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437

2. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. 今、何月ですか。時間はいつごろですか。 2. 今どんな 天 気 ですか。
てん き

3. 天 気 予 報 によると今日の天 気はどうですか。
てん き よ ほう いし てんき

4. 石 田さんはふゆが好きだとおもいますか。
3. Work with a partner. The following conversation is a simplified version of the dialogue. You meet each other in the classroom in the morning. Decide on a season and the weather, and complete the following conversation using appropriate phrases. A: あ、

さん。おはよう。 さん。今日は ね。 ね。

B: あ、 A: ええ、 B:

かもしれないね。

A: そうだね。

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438 Chapter 11

日本の文化
ぶん か

気候 Climate
Japan lies in the temperate zone and has four distinct seasons. The climate is predominantly temperate, but it varies from subarctic to subtropical because the country extends so far from north to south. Southeast winds blow across Japan from the Pacific in summer, bringing humidity to the Pacific side of the country ( たいへ いようがわ ). The northwest winds blow across from continental Asia in winter, bringing sunny and dry weather to the Pacific Ocean side but heavy snow to the Japan Sea side ( 日 本 海 側 ).
に ほん かい がわ

き こう

Between June and July, there is a period of predominantly rainy weather, called tsuyu ( 梅 雨 ) , in all parts of Japan except 北 海道 . Typhoons ( 台風 ) occur most frequently from August
ほっかいどう たいふう つ ゆ

through October. Japan’s climate is further divided into six principal zones because of its geographical features. On the northernmost island, 北 海道 ,
ほっかいどう

spring and summer are short, and it is cool with little rain throughout the year. Although precipitation is not heavy, winters are severe with deep snow banks from November through April. The Japan Sea side of the northern main island, such as 北 陸 region and the east coast of

東 北 , experiences heavy snowfall in the winter,
とうほく

ほくりく

but it is cooler than the Pacific Ocean side in

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439

the summer. The Pacific Ocean side, such as 関 東 , 東 海 , and きんき, is
かんとう とうかい

generally sunny, cold, and dry in winter, but the summer is hot and humid. Temperatures in the central highland region, 中部 , range widely between
ちゅう ぶ

summer and winter, and between day and night, although precipitation is generally light. Southwestern regions such as 四 国 , 中 国 and 九 州 tend to have mild weather throughout the year, especially in せとないかい (Seto-Inland Ocean) area, the area surrounded by these three regions. The southern islands, おきなわ and いしがきじま , have a subtropical climate and are known for high temperatures and precipitation throughout the year. The rainfall is heavy during 梅 雨 , and 台風 are very common.
つ ゆ たいふう し こく ちゅう ごく きゅうしゅう

Sea of Japan

Pacific Ocean

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440

Chapter 11

文法
ぶんぽう

I. Expressing ongoing and repeated actions using the て - form of verbs + いる
In Chapter 10, you learned the verb て- form + いる, which expresses resultant state. This interpretation is common for verbs used to express wearing clothes or accessories. 田中さんはめがねをかけている。 Mr. Tanaka has glasses on.

田中さんはネクタイをしている。

Mr. Tanaka has a tie on.

Also, if the verb indicates an instantaneous change of state or transfer (e.g., 行く, けっこんする), then the verb て-form + いる will express a resultant state.

田中さんはけっこんしている。

Mr. Tanaka is married.

田中さんは高校につとめている。 Mr. Tanaka works for a high school. Mr. Tanaka has gone to school and is 田中さんは学校に行っている。 there. 田中さんはここに来ている。

Mr. Tanaka has come here and is here now.

田中さんはその人をしっている。 Mr. Tanaka knows that person. 今日は晴 れている。 くもっている。


It is sunny today. It is cloudy.

In the above example, the て-form of the verb しる (to come to know) , しっている (to know), expresses the result of one’s discovery of information. In addition to this usage, the verb て-form + いる can express ongoing action and repeated action. This chapter introduces these two usages of the verb て-form + いる.

A. Ongoing action
The verb て-form + いる can express ongoing action when used with certain action verbs. The verbs indicate activities that take place for a period of time. For example, the act of eating, drinking, raining, etc., can take place for a long time.
いし いし

石 田さんはおすしを食べている。 石 田さんはおちゃを飲んでいる。
いし

Mr. Ishida is eating sushi. Mr. Ishida is drinking tea. Mr. Ishida is reading. It is raining. The wind is blowing.

石 田さんは本を読んでいる。
あめ かぜ

雨 がふっている。 風 がふいている。

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441

The verb て-form + いる is often contracted to the verb て-form + る in conversation (in both formal and casual styles).

ドレスをきています。 けっこんしています。 しゅくだいをしています。 さとみさんをしっている。 ごはんを食べている。 かおり:何、しているの。

ドレスをきてます。 けっこんしてます。 しゅくだいをしてます。 さとみさん、しってる。 ごはん、食べてる。
What are you doing?

まさお:しゅくだい、してるんだ。 I am doing homework. リン:どうしたんですか。
What’s wrong?

鈴 木: 雨 がふっているんですが、かさがないんです。
すず

It’s raining but I don’t have an umbrella. I see. Well, why don’t we take my car?

あめ

リン:そうですか。じゃあ、私のくるまで行きませんか。 鈴 木:いいんですか。
すず

Is that okay? Yeah, sure.

リン:ええ、どうぞ。

B. Repeated action
Many verbs, including action verbs or change-of-state verbs, can be used to express habitual action with the verb て-form + いる.

鈴 木さんはよくあかいジャケットをきている。
すず

Ms. Suzuki often wears a red jacket.

田中さんは 時 々 バスでびょういんへ行っています。
ときどき

Mr. Tanaka sometimes goes to hospital by bus.

毎週土曜日にテニスをしています。
I play tennis every Saturday.

健 一: ブラウンさんはよくサングラスをかけているけど、どうして?
けん

Ms. Brown often wears sunglasses, but why? Because Sarah has weak eyes. Oh, I see.

道 子: サラは目がよわいからよ。
みち

健 一: そうなんだ。
けん

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442

Chapter 11

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Make sentences from the following expressions using the verb て -form + いる. Then say whether the sentence indicates an ongoing action or a resultant state. Example: ごはんを食べる

ごはんを食べています。 Ongoing action 1. 雪 がふる 2. くもる 3. 気 温 が下 がる 4. 本を読む Activity 2
Work with a partner. Your partner will write a name for each person in the picture. Ask your partner who is who by describing what the people are doing. Example: A: コーヒーを飲んでいる人はだれですか。 B: スミスさんです。
き おん さ ゆき

5. 家に帰る 6. つよい 風 がふく 7. 手 紙 を書く 8. 気 温 が三十度 まで上 がる。
き おん ど あ て がみ かぜ

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Activity 3
Work with a partner. Think of five actions, then act them out and have your partner guess what you are doing by asking questions using 〜ている. Example: You act as though you are drinking coffee. A: おちゃを飲んでいるんですか。 B: いいえ。 A: コーヒーを飲んでいるんですか。 B: はい。

Activity 4
Work as a class. Ask your classmates what kinds of things they practiced or learned recently for fun or personal improvement. Example: A: さいきん、どんなことをよくしていますか。 B: テニスをよくしています。

なまえ

さいきんよくしていること

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444 Chapter 11

II. Plain past forms and casual speech
The plain forms are used in a variety of structures and contexts in Japanese. For example, they are used in the structure ので (because) in Chapter 7, 〜んです in Chapter 8, から and けど in Chapter 9, and とおもう and noun modification in Chapter 10. So far the plain present forms have been used with these structures, but the plain past forms can be used with all of them. This chapter introduces the plain past forms of verbs and adjectives. It also introduces another usage of the plain form, namely casual and self-directed speech.

Plain past forms
1. Plain past affirmative form
The plain past affirmative form of the verbs is formed by taking the て-form of a verb and replacing it with た (or だ). Verb types

う -verb る -verb
Irregular verb

て -form つづく (to continue) つづいて 読む (to read) 読んで 晴 れる (to become sunny) 晴 れて
Dictionary form
は は

Plain past affirmative form

つづいた (continued) 読んだ (read) 晴 れた (became sunny)


食べる (to eat) する (to do) 来 る (to come)


食べて 食べた (ate) して した (did) 来 て 来 た (came)
き き

The plain past affirmative form of い -adjectives is formed by deleting です from the polite past affirmative form. Dictionary form Polite past affirmative form Plain past affirmative form

暑 い (hot)
あつ

暑 かったです
あつ

暑 かった (was hot)
あつ

いい (good)

よかったです

よかった (was good)

The plain past affirmative form of な-adjective and the copula verb is formed by adding った to the plain present affirmative form. Dictionary form Polite past affirmative form Plain past affirmative form

な -adjective
Noun + copula

好き (like) 好きだ 元 気 (healthy) 元 気 だ
げん き げん き

好きだった (liked) 元 気 だった (was healthy)
げん き

台 風 (typhoon) 台 風だ
たいふう たいふう

台 風だった (was typhoon)
たいふう

くも (cloud)

くもだ

くもだった (was a cloud)

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2. Plain past negative form
The plain past negative form of the verbs and adjectives of all types is formed by replacing the plain present negative ending ない with なかった. Dictionary form Plain present negative form Plain past negative form

行く (to go) う -verb 飲む (to drink) ある (to exist) 起きる (to get up) る -verb 食べる (to eat) Irregular する (to do) verb 来る (to come) わるい (bad) adjective いい (good) 元 気 (healthy) なげん き いadjective Noun + Copula

行かない 飲まない ない 起きない 食べない しない 来ない


行かなかった 飲まなかった なかった 起きなかった 食べなかった しなかった


(didn’t go) (didn’t drink) (didn’t exist) (didn’t get up) (didn’t eat) (didn’t do)

来なかった (didn’t come) わるくなかった (wasn’t bad) よくなかった (wasn’t good) 元 気じゃなかった (wasn’t healthy)
げん き

わるくない よくない 元 気じゃない
げん き

きれい (pretty) 雪 (snow)
ゆき

きれいじゃない 雪じゃない
ゆき

きれいじゃなかった (wasn’t pretty) 雪じゃなかった (wasn’t snow)
ゆき

南 (south)
みなみ

南じゃない
みなみ

南じゃなかった (wasn’t south)
みなみ

梅 雨がながかったので、今 年のなつはむし 暑 いとおもいます。
つ ゆ ことし あつ

Because the rainy season was long, I think this summer will be humid.

いい 天 気 がつづかなかったので、ざんねんでした。
てん き

I was disappointed because the nice weather did not last long.

風 が 冷 たかったから、ジャケットをきました。
かぜ つめ

I put on a jacket because the wind was cold.

元 気 がよくなかったから、家にいました。
げん き

I stayed home because the weather was not good.

お母さんは親 切だったけど、お父さんはあまり話しませんでした。
しんせつ

The mother was kind but the father did not talk much.

そのアパートはきれいじゃなかったけど、安かったです。
The apartment was not very clean but cheap.

元 気 そうだったけど、本 当は 病 気 でした。
げん き ほんとう びょう き

He looked healthy, but he was actually sick.

去 年の三月はあたたかかったとおもいます。
きょねん

I think last March was warm.

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446

Chapter 11

図 書館 はまちの北 の 方 にあったとおもいます。
と かん きた ほう

I think the library is on the north side of the town.

今 年の梅 雨はあまりながくなかったんです。
ことし つ ゆ

This year’s rainy season was not very long.

あれは台 風じゃなかったんです。
That was not a typhoon.
たいふう

昨 日ふった大 雪 ででんしゃがストップしました。
きのう

The train stopped because of the heavy snow that fell yesterday.

おおゆき

日本へ帰った友達 にメールを書きました。
I wrote a letter to a friend who went back to Japan.
だち

Plain forms in casual conversation
Plain forms are used in conversations among close friends and family members, because the plain forms indicate closeness, intimacy, and carefree attitudes. On the other hand, です/ます indicates that the speaker is more aware of the listener’s presence and intends to maintain a proper social distance. The use of plain and polite forms is not always determined by the degree of formality. For example, in relatively casual situations such as a home party and going out after work, a person may use です/ます toward someone who holds a higher social status or someone who is much older, in order to show respect. In this situation, です/ます signals that the speaker is aware of the social difference and does not consider his/her interlocutor a true equal. Conversely, the social superior may use the plain form toward the junior interlocutor in order to show close carefree attitudes. Also, it is very common for two people of the same age group who meet for the first time to start conversation in です/ます forms but switch to plain forms as the conversation progresses. In other words, the choice between です/ます and the plain form depends on the speaker’s perception about his/her social relationship with his/ her interlocutor. For this reason, it is common for a teacher to use the plain form to show familiarity to his/her students while the students use です/ます toward the teachers to show respect in the same conversational context.

子 供: お母さん、かさ、いるよ。 Mom, I need an umbrella. お母さん: え、どうして? 子 供: 雨 、ふってるよ。 お母さん: ええっ!
ども あめ ども

Why? It’s raining. Oh, really?

In answering a yes-no question, use うん (the casual form of はい or ええ) or ううん (the casual form of いいえ). Mr. Li and Ms. Ueda are friends:

リー:ねえ、上田さん、今日いそがしい?
Hey, Ms. Ueda, are you busy today?
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上田:ううん、ひまだけど。
No, not really.

学生:先生、少 し寒 くありませんか。 Professor, isn’t it a bit cold here? 先生:うん、ほんとに寒 いね。 学生:ヒーター、入 れましょうか。 先生:うん、そうして。
い さむ すこ さむ

Yeah, it’s really cold. Shall I turn on the heater? Yes, please.

Notes



The thematic particle は、 subject particle が, and the direct the object particle を are not used in conversations often.

今日、すずしいね。 あ、雪 、ふってる。 雨 、ふった。
ゆき

It’s cool today. Gee, it’s snowing. It rained.



あめ

In casual conversation, the question marker か is often omitted in questions. It usually has a rising intonation toward the end. Are you cold? リー:寒 い?

上田:うん、ちょっと寒 い。 Yes, a little bit. リー:これ、きる? 上田:ありがとう。
さむ

さむ

Do you want to put this on? Thank you.



The copular verbs だ and だ in な- adjective are also deleted in questions. Deleting だ before particles like ね and よ makes the speech sound feminine.

リー:大 丈 夫 ?
だいじょう ぶ

Are you OK? Yes, I am. Is he a student? Yes, he is.

上田:うん、大 丈 夫 (だ)よ。
だいじょう ぶ

リー:あの人、学生? 上田:うん、学生(だ)よ。



The plain form of んです is んだ or の. In questions の is usually used. In statements, both の and んだ can be used.

上田:昨 日どうしたの?
きのう びょう き

What happened yesterday?

リー:あ、 病 気 で寝てたんだ。 I got sick and stayed in bed.
: • 〜てください is 〜て

リー:わるいけど、あれとって。 Sorry, but can you take that? 上田:ああ、いいよ。
Sure.

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448 Chapter 11

話してみましょう
Activity 1
The following conversations take place between two acquaintances. Change the style so that the conversation takes place between close friends. Example: A: 昨日はすずしかったですね。 B: ええ。 A: 昨日はすずしかったね。 B: ええ/うん。 1. A: 先週の火曜日は休みでしたか。 B: いいえ、じゅぎょうはありましたよ。 2. A: 昨日は本当にあつかったですね。 B: ええ、気 温 が三十五度 まで上 がりましたからね。 3. A: 今 朝、 雨 がふっていましたか。 B: いいえ、ふりませんでしたよ。昨日のばん、雪がふっ ていましたけど。 4. A: 去 年 のはるは 寒 い日がつづきましたけど、今 年はあたたかい日が
きょねん おお きのう ゆき け さ あめ き おん ど あ きのう ほんとう きのう きのう

多 くていいですね。
きょねん き おん

さむ

ことし

B: そうですね。 去 年 の三月と四月は気 温 がぜんぜん上 がりません

でしたから、寒 かったですね。
さむ



5. A: 昨日の台風は大きかったですね。
きのう たいふう

B: ええ、雨 はあまり多くありませんでしたけど、風 がとても

つよかったですね。

あめ

かぜ

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. One person restates the following questions using the plain form, and the other person responds to them using 〜とおもいます。 Example: 日本のなつをどうおもいますか。 A: 日本のなつ (を)どうおもう。 B: そう (だ)ね。アメリカよりむし暑 いとおもう。

1. 今 朝の気 温 は何度 ぐらいでしたか。
け さ き おん ど き おん ど あ

あつ

2. 今日は気 温 が何度 ぐらいまで上 がりますか。 3. 昨日のばんは気 温 が何度 ぐらいまで下 がりましたか。
きのう きのう きのう き おん ど さ

4. 昨日と今日とどちらの方があたたかいですか。 5. 昨日と一 昨日とどちらの方があたたかかったですか。
おととい

Activity 3
Work with partner. Ask and answer questions using the sentences provided. Example: 今までいろいろなえいがを見ましたが、〜が一番おもしろかったです。 ( いろいろな = various) A: 今まで見たえいがの中で何が一番おもしろかったですか。 B: 〜です。

1. 今までいろいろなところに行きましたが、 〜が一番たのしかったです。 2. 今までいろいろなりょうりを食べましたが、〜が一番おいしかったです。 3. 今までいろいろな本を読みましたが、〜が一番おもしろかったです。 4. 今までいろいろな先生に会いましたが、〜先生が一番よかったです。 5. 今までいろいろなアルバイトをしましたが、〜が一番大 変でした。
たいへん

パートナーのこたえ 一番たのしかったところ 一番おいしかったりょうり 一番おもしろかった本 一番よかった先生 一番大 変だったアルバイト
たいへん

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450 Chapter 11

III. Describing characteristics of places, objects, and time using 〜は〜が
In addition to describing physical appearance, as you learned in Chapter 10, 〜は 〜が is used to describe other characteristics or to comment on things and concepts. The particle は indicates what the rest of the sentence is going to be about. You can interpret 〜は as as for 〜.

十二月は雨 が少 ない。 あきは食べものがおいしい。 ふゆは水が冷 たい。 ハワイは気 候 がいい。 東 京はものが高い。
とうきょう き こう つめ あめ すく

We have little rain in December. Food tastes good in fall. Water is cold in winter. Hawaii has a nice climate. Things are expensive in Tokyo. Japan is mountainous. The south (side) is good for a window. When it comes to Japanese food, tempura is good. Mt. Fuji is No.1 of all mountains. The water is clean here. The wind is strong today. Indeed.

日本は山が多 い。 まどは 南 の方 がいい。 和 食 は天 ぷらがおいしい。 山は富 士山 が一番だ。 ここは水がきれいだ。 リー:今日は 風 がつよいね。 かぜ 上田:ほんと。
ふ じ さん わ しょく てん みなみ ほう おお

山中:このへんはどのきせつがいいですか。
Which season is the best around here?

高山:はるが一番きれいですね。
Spring is the nicest.

話してみましょう
Activity 1 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。
Example: アメリカはどのまちが一番好きですか。

ニューヨークが一番好きです。 1. 〜さんの大学は何がゆうめいですか。 2. 〜さんは何が上手ですか。 3. 〜さんのまちはどのきせつが一番いいですか。 4. アメリカはどの大学が一番大きいですか。 5. 先生はどんな人がいいですか。 6. 日本語は何が 大 変 ですか。むずかしいですか。
たいへん
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Activity 2
The following charts indicate average temperature or precipitation in various cities. Describe the climate in each city, using 〜は〜が . Find similarities among different cities. Example: 東 京 は八月が 暑 いです。 シンガポールは 雨 が 多 いです。
とうきょう あつ あめ おお

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Choose a town you like. One person will ask the following questions about his /her partner’s favorite town and take notes. Then write a short description about the partner’s favorite town using the 〜は〜 が forms. Speak casually. Example: A: 〜さん、どのまちが好き? B: メルボルンが好きだね。 A: そう。メルボルンのどんなところが好きなの? B: メルボルンはこうえんが多 くてきれいだから。 A: いいねえ。じゃあ、気 候 はどう? B: そう (だ)ね。なつは 暑 いけど、 ふゆはあまり寒 くないよ。
あつ さむ き こう おお

〜さんが好きなまちはメルボルンです。メルボルンはこうえんがたくさん あって、きれいです。なつは 暑 いですが、ふゆは 寒 くありません。
あつ さむ

1. 〜さんはどのまちが好きですか。 2. どうしてそのまちが好きなんですか。 3. そのまちの気 候 はどうですか。
き こう

4. そのまちはどのきせつがいいですか。どうしてですか。 5. そのまちは何がゆうめいですか。どこがおもしろいですか。

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Activity 4
Work in groups of three or four. One person will select a city in the box without telling the rest of the group. The others will take turns asking questions about various characteristics of the city to find out which it is.

ニューヨーク ホノルル アテネ
とうきょう

シカゴ デンバー ローマ きょうと
おお

アンカレッジ ロサンゼルス シドニー ロンドン

東京

Example: A: そのまちは古いたてものが 多 いですか。 B: いいえ。 C: くるまや人が 多 いですか。
おお

B: ええ、 多 いです。
おお

D: そのまちは日本にありますか。 B: ええ。 C: 東 京ですか。
とうきょう

B: はい、そうです。

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IV. Expressing manner of action or outcome of a change using the adverbial forms of adjectives and noun + に
The く- form of い - adjectives and the に- form of な- adjectives modify verbs. They are called adverbial forms. Adjective type Dictionary form Adverbial form

い - adjective な - adjective

おもしろい きれい

おもしろく きれいに

The adverbial forms modify a verb indicating how an action takes place.

かんじを
ゆき あめ

げん き

元 気に 上手に

あるいて下さい。 Please walk cheerfully. 書いた。 ふっている。 ふった。 わらう。 起きた。 ふいていた。
I wrote kanji skillfully (beautifully). It is snowing quietly (softly). It rained suddenly. to smile brightly (cheerfully) I woke up early (or quickly). The wind was blowing gently yesterday.

雪が 雨が

しずかに きゅうに あかるく はやく やさしく

今日は 風が
かぜ

They are also used to express change of state or outcome. The adverbial form + する means “to make something/someone into ~,” and the adverbial form + なる means “to become ~.”

子供を
ども ども

先生に 先生に しずかに しずかに

する なる する なる する なる

(Parents) make a child into a teacher. A child becomes a teacher. to make (something/someone) quiet to become quiet (A teacher) makes the class interesting. A class becomes interesting. Clean this room. Okay./Yes.

子供が

じゅぎょうを じゅぎょうが

おもしろく おもしろく

お母さん: へや、きれいにしてね。 子 供 : は〜い。
ども

川田 : くるまを新しくしたんですよ。


I got a new car. What? You bought a brand-new car?

山下: ええっ、新しいくるまを買ったんですか。 川田 : いいえ。くるまは古いんですけど、さいきん買ったんです。


No, the car is old, but I got it recently.

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454 Chapter 11

話してみましょう
Activity 1 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。
Example: なつはあさ何時ごろあかるくなりますか。

五時ごろあかるくなります。 1. なつは何時ごろくらくなりますか。 2. ふゆは何時ごろあかるくなりますか。 3. ふゆは何時ごろくらくなりますか。 4. このへんはいつごろ 寒 くなりますか。
さむ

5. このへんはいつごろあたたかくなりますか。 6. ふゆの気 温 温は何度 ぐらいになりますか。
き おん ど

7. なつの気 温 は何度 ぐらいになりますか。
き おん ど

Activity 2
Describe the following pictures using the adverbial forms of adjectives. Example:
かぜ

風 がつよくふいています。

Example

1

2

3

4

5

6
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Activity 3
Work with a partner. Your partner first draws a face without showing it to you, then gives you instructions on how to draw this face. Compare the two faces when you are done. Use casual speech. Example: A: かおを大きく書いて。まるく書いて。 B draws a big round face. A: そして、目を小さく書いて。はなはみじかく書いて。 B draws small eyes and a short nose.

Activity 4
A home remodeling expert is trying to make suggestions to make a room more comfortable. Help the expert make suggestions by completing the sentences using the adverbial form of adjective + する or noun + にする . Example: かべ (wall) がきれいじゃないから、きれいにしましょう。

1. 押 し入れがせまいから、 。 2. このへやは小さいから、 。 3. まどが 少 ないから、 。 4. ドアが古いから、 。 5. トイレがくらいから、 。 Activity 5
Discuss the results of the remodeling performed in Activity 4. Example: かべをきれいにしたので、へやがあかるくなりました。
すく お

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V. Expressing uncertainty using 〜でしょう , 〜かもしれ ない , and 〜かな
〜でしょう, 〜かもしれない, and 〜かな express the speaker’s conjecture, but they vary in degree of certainty and the intended interlocutor. All of these expressions are preceded by the plain form of verbs and adjectives. However, with な- adjectives and the copula verb, だ is deleted.
Verb くもる (to become cloudy) Probably Present affirmative Present negative Past affirmative Past negative
さむ

Maybe

I wonder

くもるでしょう くもらないでしょう くもったでしょう くもらなかった でしょう

くもる かもしれない

くもるかな

くもらない くもらないかな かもしれない くもった くもったかな かもしれない くもらなかった くもらなかったかな かもしれない

い - adjective 寒 い (cold) Probably Present affirmative Present negative Past affirmative Past negative
さむ さむ

Maybe

I wonder

寒 いでしょう 寒 いかもしれない 寒 くないでしょう
さむ

寒 いかな
さむ

寒 くない かもしれない 寒 かった
さむ さむ

寒 くないかな
さむ

寒 かったでしょう
さむ

寒 かったかな
さむ

寒くなかった
さむ

かもしれない 寒くなかった 寒 くなかったかな かもしれない
さむ さむ

でしょう

な- adjective いや (unpleasant)
Probably Present affirmative Present negative Maybe I wonder

いやでしょう

いやじゃない でしょう Past いやだった affirmative でしょう Past いやじゃなかった negative でしょう

いや いやかな かもしれない いやじゃない いやじゃないかな かもしれない いやだった いやだったかな かもしれない いやじゃなかった いやじゃなかったかな かもしれない

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Noun + copula verb Present affirmative Present negative Past affirmative Past negative Probably Maybe I wonder

風 でしょう かぜ 風 じゃない かぜ でしょう 風 だった かぜ でしょう 風じゃなかった かぜ でしょう

風 かもしれない かぜ 風 じゃない かぜ かもしれない 風 だった かぜ かもしれない 風じゃなかった かぜ かもしれない

風 かな かぜ 風 じゃないかな かぜ 風 だったかな かぜ 風じゃなかったかな かぜ

〜でしょう/だろう

probably, I suppose

〜でしょう indicates probability or conjecture. It can be used for future and past events or actions. The probability expressed by でしょう ranges from probably to must be/must have been. 〜でしょう is often used in weather forecasts. いい 天 気 でしょう。
てん き

It will probably be good weather.

It will probably be lively. にぎやかでしょう。 東京はくもり時々雨 でしょう。 It will be cloudy with occasional rain in Tokyo.
とうきょう

よこはまは 雨 でしょう。
あめ

ときどきあめ

It will be rainy in Yokohama.

In addition, 〜でしょう can be used with a rising intonation to ask for confirmation. This usage of 〜でしょう is rather casual and should not be used toward someone in a superior status.

そとはむし 暑 いでしょう。
あつ

It is humid outside, don’t you think?

あの人は上田さんでしょう。 That’s Ms. Ueda over there, isn’t it?
The question form of 〜でしょう, 〜でしょうか is used for questions that are more polite than those ending in 〜ですか.

あのう、 えきはどこでしょうか。Excuse me, but where is the station? (more polite) あのう、えきはどこですか。 Excuse me, but where is the station? Do you have the time? (more polite) 今、何時でしょうか。 What time is it now? 今、何時ですか。 田中:明 日の 天 気 はどうでしょうか。 How will tomorrow’s weather be?
あした てん き

川口:さあ、よく分かりませんが。 鈴 木:田中さんは来ますか。
すず あめ

Well, I’m not sure. Is Mr. Tanaka coming? come.

川口: 雨 だから、たぶん来ないでしょう。It’s raining, so he probably won’t

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Notes

• でしょう is sometimes used with たぶん (perhaps).
たぶん雨 でしょう。 It will probably rain

• The plain form of でしょう is だろう. When 〜だろう is used in

あめ

a question such as あの人は日本人だろうか, it can be interpreted as a self-directed question: I wonder if that person is Japanese. The polite speech version, あの人は日本人でしょうか, would be consistently interpreted as being a polite question.

〜かもしれない

might

〜かもしれない also indicates probability or conjecture and can be used for future and past events or actions. The probability expressed by かもしれない is about 50% or lower.
いし

石 田: にわか 雨 がふりそうですね。
あめ

It looks like we will have a shower.

チョイ: そうですね。くもが 多 いから、ふるかもしれませんね。
おお

I agree. It’s very cloudy, so it might rain.

イアン: あの人は山田先生でしょうか。
Is that person (perhaps) Professor Yamada?

本田: さあ、どうでしょうね。T シャツ、きてるから、学生 かもしれませんよ。
Well, I am not sure. He is wearing a T-shirt, so he may be a student.

〜かな I wonder 〜 (Casual speech)
〜かな is used when the speaker asks himself/herself about something. Since it expresses the speaker’s monologue question, I wonder ~, it cannot be used as someone else’s monologue questions such as he/she wonders ~. Also, it indicates present tense and cannot be used in cases such as I wondered ~ or he/she wondered ~. 台 風かな。
たいふう

I wonder if it is a typhoon. I wonder if it is cold outside. I wonder if the temperature will fall tomorrow.

そとは 寒 いかな。
さむ

今晩 は気 温 が下 がるかな。
ばん き おん さ

〜かな is not used as a straightforward question to others like 〜でしょうか but can be used to solicit the listener’s answer indirectly. However, it should not be used toward someone of superior status, because it is used in fairly informal speech.

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アリス: 今日も雨 かな。
あめ

I wonder if it will rain today, too.
けん

健 一: ううん。昨 日のばん、ふったから、今日は大 丈夫だよ。
きのう だいじょうぶ

No. It won’t because we had rain last night.

みち

道 子: これは 石 田さんのかな。リーさんのかな。
いし

I wonder if this is Mr. Ishida’s or Mr. Li’s.

ふみえ: さあ、よく分からないけど。イニシャルが T.I. だから、石 田さん いし のかもしれないね。
Well, I don’t know, but it might be Mr. Ishida’s because the initials are T.I.

古田: 上田さんは来るかな。 I wonder if Ms. Ueda is coming. 山下: さあ、どうかな。
Well, I wonder that, too.

Notes



In feminine speech 〜かしら is used instead of かな .

大 雪 になるかしら。 I wonder if the snow will get heavy (feminine).
おおゆき

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Convert the following questions into monologue questions using 〜かな . Example: 今 年のなつは 暑 いですか。
ことし ことし あつ あつ

今 年のなつは 暑 いかな。 1. 去 年 の八月は 暑 い日が 多 かったですか。
きょねん ことし あつ おお

2. 今 年のふゆは 寒 いでしょうか。
さむ

3. 去 年 は 雨 がたくさんふりましたか。
きょねん きょねん あめ

4. 去 年 のふゆは 雪 が少なかったでしょうか。
ゆき

5. 一 昨年のふゆはあまり 寒 くありませんでしたか。
おととし さむ

6. 今 年のなつは 暑 くなりますか。
ことし あつ

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Activity 2
Work with a partner. The following chart shows today’s weather forecast for various cities. One person asks a question using the words in 1–8 and 〜でしょう . The other person answers the questions, using 〜でしょう or 〜かもしれません . Example: 東 京/いい 天 気
とうきょう てん き

A: 東 京はいい 天 気 でしょうか。 B: いいえ、 天 気 はあまりよくないでしょう。
てん き とうきょう とうきょう てん き

東 京/ 雨

A: 今日東 京は 雨 がふるでしょうか。
とうきょう あめ

あめ

B: そうですね。東 京は 雨 がふるかもしれませんね。
とうきょう あめ

とうきょう

東京

アラスカ ニューヨーク シドニー
ゆき

ロサンゼルス くもり時 々晴 れ
ときどき は

天気
てん き

くもり 雪
59° F 15° C 50% 0%

くもりのち雨 晴 れ
あめ は

気温 雨 雪

き おん

-4° F -20° C 0% 100%

41° F 5° C 80% 15%

91.4° F 33° C 0% 0%

77° F 25° C 30% 0%

あめ ゆき

1. 東 京/あたたかい 2. アラスカ/ 雪
とうきょう

3. ニューヨーク 寒 い / 4. ニューヨーク 雨 / 5. シドニー/晴 れる
は さむ あめ

ゆき

6. ロサンゼルス/あたたかい 7. ロサンゼルス/ 雨
あつ

8. シドニー/むし 暑 い

あめ

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Activity 3
Using the state of Illinois ( イリノイしゅう , しゅう = state) as a reference point, ask your classmates where other states are in respect to Illinois. Your classmates will answer using direction words and 〜でしょう , 〜かもしれない , or 〜と おもう depending on their level of certainty. Tally the results. Example: A: イリノイしゅうの 北 に 何 しゅうがありますか。 B: ウィスコンシンしゅうがあるでしょう/
きた なに

かもしれません/とおもいます。

Activity 4
Work with a partner. Look at the following weather map and say what seems to be happening weather-wise in various places. Use casual speech. Example: 今日、テキサスはいい 天 気 になるでしょう。
てん き

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聞く練習
れ ん しゅう

上手な 聞き方
かた

Understanding the organization of prepared speech
Unlike face-to-face conversations, news reports and weather forecasts are based on prepared text and hence do not have much redundant information. It is thus very important to understand the information the first time. Luckily, prepared speech usually has a set pattern. Being aware of the organization of speech helps you to identify when to pay attention and to what. For example, news reports usually start with what happens, to whom, where, and when. The details come later.

聞く前に
Write an outline of the organization of a weather report. Include the types of information provided and their order.
まえ

天気予報を聞く
てん き よ ほう

Listening to weather forecasts

聞いてみましょう
Listen to the following weather forecasts. Then complete the chart, in English, by writing in the weather as well as high and low temperatures for each city listed.

言 葉のリスト
こと ば

最 高気温

さいこう き おん

highest temperature

さいてい気 温

き おん

lowest temperature

天 気予 報 まち きょうと 天気 雪
てん き
ゆき

(Example)

てん き よ ほう

天 気予報 1
てん き よ ほう

天 気予報 2
てん き よ ほう

天 気予 報 報 3
てん き よ ほう

とうきょう

東京

よこはま

きょうと

気 温 1 度 /ー 1 度
き おん
ど ど

聞いた後で
あと

しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 天 気 予 報 1のきせつはいつですか。 2. そのきせつの東 京と〜さんのまちとどちらの方が 寒 いですか。 3. 天 気 予 報 2のきせつはいつですか。
てん き よ ほう とうきょう さむ てん き よ ほう

4. そのきせつのよこはまと〜さんのまちとどちらの方があたたかいですか。 5. 天 気 予 報 3のきせつはいつですか。 6. 〜さんのまちでは、そのきせつに 雨 がたくさんふりますか。
あめ
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てん き よ ほう

Seasons and Weather

463

聞き上手 話し上手
Expressing agreement and solidarity using ね and も
Conversation is like two people playing catch. Both people need to throw the ball in a way that is easy for the other person to catch. To facilitate conversation, it is important to give feedback and show a willingness to participate in the conversation. Expressing agreement or emphasizing similarity is one way to show your support to the listener. This will help to create a sense of sharing or solidarity. In Japanese, two particles, ね and も, are often used to show agreement. For example, the particle ね in Ms. Suzuki’s speech below indicates that she is requesting a confirmation of her impression about the weather. The particle ね in Mr. Yamamoto’s speech indicates that he agrees with Ms. Suzuki’s assertion that it is humid today. It’s humid today, isn’t it? 鈴 木: 今日はむし 暑 いですね。
すず

山本: ええ、 本 当 に 暑 いですね。 It certainly is.
ほんとう あつ

あつ

Similarly, the particle も in the following example emphasizes agreement between Ms. Suzuki and Mr. Yamamoto and indicates what they have in common. I like dogs. 鈴 木: 私はいぬが好きです。
すず

山本: そうですか。ぼくもいぬが好きなんですよ。 Really? So do I.
Even if you disagree with a person, it is good to start off by agreeing about something before stating a disagreement. Starting a conversation with a disagreement often sounds rude or cold. 鈴 木: 今 年は 雪 が 多 いですね。 It has snowed a lot this year.
すず

山本: 本当によくふりますね。でも、去 年より少 ないかもしれませんね。

ことし

ゆき

おお

練習

It’s really snowed a lot, hasn’t it? But, it may be less than last year.

ほんとう

きょねん

すく

れんしゅう

1. Listen to people expressing their opinions. For each person, first express your agreement using ね and も. Then express your disagreement, but (1) show your support by using ね and も, and (2) articulate the point on which you disagree. 2. Work with a partner. Your partner will express opinions about class, school, weather, a particular hobby, parents. Agree with him/her using ね and も. 3. Work with a partner. Your partner will again express opinions about class, school, weather, a hobby or parents, but this time, show your support for his/her opinion using ね and も, and then express your disagreement. 4. The following conversation is unnatural. Make it more natural by using ね and も. A: 今 日 は。おでかけですか。 B: 今 日 は。ええ、今日は暑 いから、およぎに行くんです。
こんにち あつ こんにち

A: そうですか。今日は本 当に暑いです。私はおよぎに行きたいです。

明日は暑いでしょうか。
あした あつ

ほんとう

あつ

B: さあ、よく分かりませんが、むし暑いから、よるは雨 がふる

かもしれません。 A: そうですか。じゃあ、少 しすずしくなるでしょうか。 すこ B: そうおもいます。
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あつ

あめ

464

Chapter 11

漢字
かん じ

Component shapes of kanji 1 – Introduction
Many kanji consist of more than one component. Certain components appear in many different kanji. Some of them are kanji by themselves while others are not. Since the number of these component shapes is much smaller than the number of kanji, approximately 300 in total, they serve as organizers and aid in memorizing. The term radical ( 部 首 ) is traditionally used to refer to components of characters. The concept of radicals was developed to classify and index a large number of kanji. In modern Japanese, a little over 200 radicals are used to index kanji. A radical is assigned to every kanji. Although radicals are very useful in studying kanji, they are sometimes deceptive. For example, the radical of 家 is 宀 , but the radical of 字 is 子 . In this book, we use the term component shape to refer to any shape that repeatedly appears as part of kanji (e.g., 寸 , 口 , 又 , 月 , 宀 , etc.). Some component shapes are kanji by themselves, while some others only appear in other kanji. There are about 300 such shapes, which include all of the shapes used as radicals. Some of the component shapes indicate the meaning (or meaning category) of kanji. For example, if a kanji contains 日 , it is likely that the meaning of the kanji is related to day or sun. Some other component shapes may indicate an on-reading of kanji. Component shapes appear in various places within kanji, but some shapes have a strong tendency to appear in fixed locations such as the left, the right, the top, or the bottom of the character. The following is a list of major types of component shapes based on where they are found within the character. Type * へん (left side) つくり (right side) かんむり (top) きゃく (bottom) たれ (top to left) かまえ (enclosure) くにがまえ (enclosure) にょう (left to bottom) Example Use Example meaning: person on-reading: /kou/ meaning: roof meaning: leg meaning: sickness meaning: gate meaning: border meaning: walk, round
ぶ しゅ

亻 宀 儿 門 囗

休 体 住 講 構 購 家 寒い 兄 見 先 元 病 痛 疲 間 聞 閉 回 国 週 道 進 近

* These names are used to label radicals.

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Seasons and Weather

465

heaven

spirit, mind

rain

snow

wind

to clear, fine

warm 35

degree 42

east

west

south

north

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466

Chapter 11

cold (weather)

hot (weather)

many, much

a little, a few

cold

読めるようになった 漢 字
かん じ

天気 天気予 報 天ぷら 気温 気 候 雨 梅 雨 にわか雨 雪 風 台 風 晴れる 温かい 温度 何度 東 西 南 南東 南西 北
たいふう
よ ほう

き こう

つ ゆ

北東 北西 寒い 暑い 多い 少ない 冷 たい 上がる 下がる 去 年 今 朝 今 年 方 夕 方 本 当に 少し
きょねん け さ ことし ほう ゆうがた ほんとう つめ

日本人のなまえ:川 田
かわ だ

練習
れんしゅう

1. 東 京の天気は雨のち晴れです。ごごには気温が二十五度まで上がる
とうきょう

でしょう。
ばん あした

2. 今晩 は北の風がつよいですが、明日は南東の風になって、よわくな るでしょう。
くら

3. 西の方が 暗 いですから、晴れないでしょう。 4. なつは暑くて、ふゆは寒いです。雪もたくさんふります。 5. ひるごはんの時は人が多いですが、そのあとは少なくなります。 6. 大 阪は東 京の西にあります。せんだいは東 京の北です。 7. 今日はあたたかかったけど、明日は雨がふるそうだから、気温が下 がって、寒くなるかもしれないね。
Copyright 2010 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s). Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.

おおさか

とうきょう

とうきょう

あした

Seasons and Weather

467

読む練習
れんしゅう

上手な読み方
かた

Getting used to vertical writing
Japanese text can be written either horizontally or vertically. In vertical writing, text is read from top to bottom, right to left. Japanese newspaper articles are written vertically, including the weather forecast. Popular magazines and literary works are also usually written vertically. Texts requiring scientific symbols, equations, formulas, and foreign words, such as science textbooks, language texts, and computer magazines, tend to be written horizontally.

練習

れんしゅう

1. Mark the beginning and end of each of the following short paragraphs.

っ た 。

降 雨 量 は わ ず か 三 五 九 ミ リ だ

量 六 三 九 ミ リ に 対 し 、 去 年 の

呼 び か け

協 力 し て

リ ー 氏 は

に 受 け 止

り 、 関 係

時 期 の 九

の 水 量 は

記 録 し た

性 が 大 き

り に 給 水

メ ル ボ ル

ち な み に 、 年 間 平 均 降 雨 。 る い て

メ ル 、 ボ 市 ル 民 ン に 水 対 道 し 節 局 水 の に べ イ 。 子 様 る い て め

一 五 メ 〇 ル 年 ボ ぶ ル リ ン の 供 給 低 ダ 雨 ム 量 を 。 い る て れ ら 見 と い

メ ル 制 限 が し か れ る 可 能 ぶ 年 三 十 は で ン ル ボ

く れ る よ う 積 極 的 に

者 も こ の 状 態 を 深 刻 回 下 に 幅 大 を % 五

、 七 二 % と 去 年 の 同

ン に 給 水 制 限 ?

2. Rewrite the following text vertically in two or more lines.

東京は今日は晴れ時 々 くもりで、ごぜんちゅうは少し寒いですが、
とうきょう

ごごには十度ぐらいになるでしょう。よるになって、雨がふる でしょう。この雨はあしたのごごまでつづくでしょう。

ときどき

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468

Chapter 11

読む前に
まえ

1. The numbers in the following map represent various regions in Japan. Read the description of each region below and write the number that matches the description. Note that しま means island.
さんいん

山陰

ほんしゅう

本 州 にあります。 大 阪 の西で、四 国 の北です。
おおさか し こく

かんこくにちかいです。 北 海道 日本で一番北にあるしまです。
ほっかいどう

関東
きん き

かんとう

本 州にあります。東 京の近くです。
ほんしゅう とうきょう

近畿

あります。四 国 にちかいです。
し こく

ほんしゅう

本 州 にあります。東 京の南です。大 阪やきょうとが
とうきょう おおさか

きゅうしゅう

九州

四 国 の南西にあるしまです。
し こく

北陸 本州 東北 東海 四国

ほくりく ほんしゅう とうほく とうかい し こく

本 州にあります。東 京の北西の方です。
ほんしゅう とうきょう

日本で一番大きいしまです。 本 州にあります。東 京の北の方です。
ほんしゅう ほんしゅう とうきょう とうきょう

本 州にあります。東 京の少し南の方です。 日本にある四つのしまの中で一番小さいしまです。

1

3 4 Sea of Japan 8 7 9 10 6 5

2

Pacific Ocean

11

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Seasons and Weather

469

新聞の天気予報
よ ほう

A weather forecast in a newspaper
強 ま 雨 る を 。 伴 北 い 海 風 も 雷 で 岸 々 海 山 所 の 。 ら は 方 る か 北 で 地 な 後 、 関 陰 に 午 北 、 は 雨 も 東 雨 州 や 陸 、 ら 九 側 州 東 か 、 海 本 く 朝 国 本 。 は 国 四 日 る 気 全 東 の れ 天 、 北 本 ず に み 東 日 た 的 進 ら が っ に か 圧 伴 海 気 を 低 線 前

ぎ か ら 雨 。 過 昼 、 で り

曇 縄 も 晴 れ 後

沖 は 雪 か 雨 、



読んだ後で
あと

A. After reading the above weather forecast, choose the weather map that corresponds to the forecast.

1

2

3

B. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 四国にすんでいる人は今日かさをもっ て、出かけた方がいいですか。
し こく

2. 九 州にすんでいる人は今日どんなふくをきて、出かけた方がいい
きゅうしゅう

ですか。

3. 北 海 道にすんでいる人は今日はかさをもっ て、出かけた方がいい
ほっかいどう

ですか。

C. An out-of-town friend is planning to visit you for a week and has asked what the weather is like now. Compose an e-mail message to your friend giving details about the forecast for each of the next seven days. Information should include high and low temperatures, the chance of precipitation, and so forth.
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470

Chapter 11

総合練習
そ う ご う れ ん しゅう

明日のお天気
あした

You are a TV meteorologist forecasting tomorrow’s weather. Work with a partner to create a map of your country and region. As you make your forecast, add the appropriate weather symbols and temperatures to your map. Give your weather report to the class.

ロールプレイ
Work with a series of partners to act out the following role play activities. 1. You are talking to your roommate. You are planning to go out tonight, but the weather is getting worse. Ask your roommate what he/she knows about tonight’s weather. 2. You meet your neighbor on your way to school. Yesterday was a cold, rainy day, but the weather today is nice. Greet him/her and make small talk. 3. A typhoon is approaching your city. It is getting windy and starting to rain hard. Discuss these weather conditions with a partner. 4. Walk around the classroom. As soon as your instructor names a season, pair up with a classmate, greet him/her as if you have bumped into one another on the street, and chat about the weather.

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Chapter 12

第 十
い だ

二 課


年中行事
Annual Events
Objectives Vocabulary Describing seasonal holidays and yearly events Dates, years, other time expressions, attractions and leisure activities, and memorable events 子 供 の 時 の上田さん Ms. Ueda as a child I. Talking about time using noun/adjective + 時 , duration + 前 / 後
とき まえ ご ども とき ね ん ちゅうぎょう じ

Japanese Culture National holidays and annual events Dialogue Grammar

II. Talking about past experiences using 〜たことがある; listing representative activities using 〜たり〜たりする III. Expressing frequency using time-span に frequency / duration / amount IV. Expressing hearsay using the plain form + そうだ V. Using noun modifying clauses in the past and present Taking turns in conversation Which one should I use, kanji or kana? 春 夏 秋 冬 朝 昼 晩 午 前 後 去 昨 供 元 思 明 回 Understanding the format of a postcard

Listening Kanji

Communication Phrases for filling in pauses

Reading

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472

Chapter 12

単語
たん

Nouns うみ おととし おもいで がいこ く がっき かぶき きもの キャンプ きょうかい クリスマス けんか こんげつ しょうがつ じんじゃ すいぞくかん せんげつ ちゅうがく デート てら どうぶつえん とき はくぶつかん バレンタインデー ハロウィン はんとし ひこうき びじゅつかん 半年 飛行機 美術館 寺 動物園 時 博物館 今月 正月 神社 水族館 先月 中学 教会 海 一昨年 思い出 外国 学期 歌舞伎 着物 ocean, sea the year before last memories foreign countries semester, quarter いちがっき one semester

はるがっき spring semester/quarter kabuki ( Japanese traditional performing art) traditional Japanese clothes, kimono camping church Christmas fight, quarrel けんかをする to fight this month the New Year (often used with the polite prefix お , おしょうがつ ) Shinto shrine aquarium last month junior high school ( shortened form of 中学校 ) dating, デートする go out on a date Buddhist temple (often used as おてら ) zoo when, at the time of 〜 ( 子供 の時 when I was a child) museum St. Valentine’s Day Halloween a half year airplane art museum
ども

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Annual Events 473

プレゼント まつり ミュージカル やまのぼり ゆうえんち らいげつ う -verbs なく のる もらう Irregular verbs しつれんする Adverbs はじめて Particles なあ 初めて 失恋する 泣く 乗る 山登り 遊園地 来月 祭り

present, gift festival (often used as おまつり ) musical mountain climbing amusement park next month

to cry to get on, to ride

( ひこ うきに のる get on a plane) to receive, to get

to be disappointed in love

for the first time

A particle of exclamation to express desires or feelings without addressing anyone in particular. Used in casual speech.

Suffixes 〜かい 〜かげつ 〜ご 〜しゅうかん 〜ど 〜にち 〜ねん 〜まえ Expressions えーと あけましておめでとうございます。 明けましておめでとうございます。
Well, Let’s see . . . Happy New Year

〜回 〜か月 〜後 〜週間 〜度 〜日 〜年 〜前

〜 times counter for months from ~ , after ~ ( 三 年ご three years from now) for 〜 weeks

〜 times day specific year (1996 年 ), counter for year ( 十年 )

〜 ago ( 一年まえ one year ago)

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474

Chapter 12

単語の練習
たん

れんしゅう

A. 日にち Days of the month
日 月 火
一日 ついたち * 六日 むいか 十三日 じゅうさん にち 二十日 はつか 二十七日 にじゅう しちにち 七日 なのか 十四日 じゅう よっか 八日 ようか 十五日 じゅうご にち


二日 ふつか 九日 ここのか


三日 みっか 十日 とおか


四日 よっか


五日 いつか

十一日 十二日 じゅういち じゅうに にち にち

十六日 十七日 十八日 十九日 じゅうろく じゅうしち じゅうはち じゅうく にち にち にち にち 二十三日 にじゅう さんにち 二十四日 にじゅう よっか 二十五日 二十六日 にじゅうご にじゅう にち ろくにち

二十一日 二十二日 にじゅう にじゅうに いちにち にち

二十八日 二十九日 三十日 三十一日 にじゅう にじゅうく さんじゅう さんじゅう はちにち にち にち いちにち

Note

• いちにち means one day; ついたち means the first of the month.
Both are written as 一日 in kanji but the context makes the reading clear. The other expression of dates can be used for the duration of time. For example, ふつか may mean the second day of the month or two days, depending on context.

おぼえていますか。 何月 一月 二月 三月 十月 十一月 十二月 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月

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Annual Events 475

Activity 1
Work with the class. Ask your classmates about their birthdays, and put them in the following charts. Example: A: スミスさんのお誕 生 日はいつですか。 B: 一月一日です。
ついたち たんじょう

月 一月 二月 三月 四月 五月 六月 七月 八月 九月 十月 十一月 十二月

日にちと名 前
ついたち

な まえ

一 日 スミスさん

B. とく べつな日 Special days
お 正 月 クリスマス バレンタイン・デー ハロウィ ン
しょうがつ

New Year’s Day Christmas St. Valentine’s Day Halloween

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476

Chapter 12

Supplementary Vocabulary: アメリカの休日 US holidays
きゅうじつ

マーティン・ルーサー・キング・デー プレジデンツ・デー イースター どくりつきねんび 独立記念日 メモリアルデー レーバーデー コロンブス・デー ハヌカ Activity 2

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day President’s Day Easter Independence Day Memorial Day Labor Day Columbus Day Hanukkah

Work with a partner. Ask your partner about the dates of holidays this year. Example: A: 今年のハヌカ (Hanukkah) はいつですか。 B: 十二月十一日です。

C. ほかの時間のいい方 Other time expressions
日 〜 before last 〜
Last This Next
1


N/A
5


N/A

年 一 昨年
お と と し

day before yesterday
2

year before last

先月

8

Yesterday
3 6

せんげつ

last month

今 月
こんげつ

9

Today
4

this month
7

来 月
らいげつ

来年

Tomorrow

next month next year

Activity 3
Fill in the blanks in the above table with appropriate time expressions that you have learned in previous chapters.

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Annual Events 477

Activity 4 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 今 月は何月ですか。
こんげつ

2. 来月は何月ですか。 3. 先 月は何月でしたか。
せんげつ

4. 今年は何年ですか。 5. 来年は何年ですか。 6. 一 昨年は何年でしたか。
お と と し

7. 去 年は何年でしたか。
きょ

D. 時間のながさ Duration of time
〜度/回
(times)
かい

〜週 間

(for 〜 week)

しゅうかん

〜か月

(for 〜 month)

げつ

〜年
(year)

いちど/いっかい にど/にかい さんど/さんかい よんかい ごかい ろっかい ななかい はちかい /はっかい きゅうかい じゅっかい

いっしゅうかん にしゅうかん さんしゅうかん よんしゅうかん ごしゅうかん ろくしゅうかん ななしゅうかん はっしゅうかん きゅうしゅうかん じゅっしゅうかん

いっかげつ にかげつ さんかげつ よんかげつ ごかげつ はんとし /ろっかげつ ななかげつ

いちねん にねん さんねん よねん ごねん ろくねん しちねん

はちかげつ はちねん /はっかげつ きゅうかげつ きゅうねん /くねん じゅっかげつ じゅうねん

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Notes

• 〜度 refers to frequency and temperature up to 3. Beyond that, it usually refers to temperature only.

• 〜年 indicates both the specific point of time, as in 2008年 (the •
かい

year 2008), and the duration of time as in 八年 (for 8 years). When 〜かい is written as the kanji 階 , it refers to floor levels, as in Chapter 8, but when it is written as 回 , it refers to frequency. There are some differences between them in terms of pronunciation as well. For example, the first mora is pronounced with a low pitch and the following mora have high pitch when the expression refers to a floor level, such as いっかい , にかい , and さんかい , but this is not the case with the frequency, as in いっかい、にかい、 さんかい . Also, 3rd floor is pronounced さんがい or さんかい but 3 times is さんかい . On the other hand, 8th floor is usually pronounced はちかい but 8 times can be はちかい or はっかい .
かい

• Instead of the western (Gregorian) calendar, the Japanese frequently use the current Emperor’s era to refer to a certain year. For example, へいせい五年 is 1993. Recent eras are: 明 治 (1868 –1912), 大 正 (1912–1926), しょうわ (1926–1989), and
めい じ

へいせい (1989–).

たいしょう

Activity 5
Tell the year the following events occurred. If you do not know the answer, ask your classmates.

1. コロンブス( Columbus) がアメリカに来た。 2. アメリカがイギリスからどくりつした ( became independent) 。 3. アメリカで夏 のオリンピックがあった。
なつ

4. アメリカで冬 のオリンピックがあった。
ふゆ

5. 第 二次 世 界 大 戦 ( WWII) がはじまった。
だい じ せ かい たい せん

6. 第 二次 世 界 大 戦 ( WWII) がおわった。
だい じ せ かい たい せん

7. ベトナムせんそう ( Vietnam War) がおわった。 8. イラクせんそう ( Iraq War) がはじまった。

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Annual Events 479

Activity 6 しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。 1. 夏 休みは何か月ありますか。冬 休みはどうですか。春 休みは?
なつ ふゆ はる

2. 一学 期 は何週間ありますか。
がっ き

3. 今週は何度学校に来ますか。 4. 今年、何度えいがを見ましたか。 5. 今 月、何度じゅぎょうが休みになりましたか。
こんげつ

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E. めいしょとレジャー Attractions and leisure activities

Activity 7
Identify the picture that depicts each of the buildings and activities in the list by writing the number corresponding to the picture.

1. はくぶつかん museum __. ミュージカル musical __. 水 族館
すいぞくかん

__. ゆうえんち __. 教 会
きょう かい

amusement park church sea temple shrine festival camping

aquarium mountain climbing travel

__. うみ __. ( お ) てら __. じんじゃ __. ( お ) まつり __. キャンプ

__. 山のぼり __. 旅 行
りょ こう

__. びじゅつかん art museum __. かぶき __. がいこく kabuki foreign country

__. どうぶつえん zoo

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Annual Events 481

おぼえていますか。 図 書館


パーティ ピクニック 休みの日 Activity 8
Work with a partner. Ask each other whether you have been to any of the places or attractions or have participated in them this year. Example: A: 今年、 はくぶつかんに行きましたか。 B: ええ、行きました。 A: 何度 ぐらい行きましたか。 B: 一度 /一回 行きました。
ど かい ど

かん

こうえん

たいいくかん

えいが

コンサート

今年行った/見に行った/した はくぶつかん びじゅつかん 水 族館
すいぞくかん

〜度/回
かい

どうぶつえん ゆうえんち 教会
きょう かい

おてら/てら じんじゃ うみ がいこく ミュージカル おまつり/まつり 山のぼり かぶき 旅行
りょ こう

キャンプ

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F. 思 い出 Memories
おも で

きものをきる

飛 行 機 にのる
ひ こう き

プレゼントをもらう to receive a present

デートする to go on a date

to put on kimono to get on a plane

けんかをする to have a fight, a quarrel

しつれんする to be disappointed in love

なく to cry

おぼえていますか。 おふろに入る Activity 9
Work in a group of three or four. One person acts out the activity in the list, and the rest of the group will try to guess what it is.

和 食 を食べる
わ しょく

およぐ

出かける

Activity 10
Complete the following statements using 〜さいの 時 (when I was 〜 years old).

1. の時 、はじめて ( for the first time) 人を好きに なりました。 2. の時 、はじめて外 国人と話しました。
とき がいこくじん とき

とき

3. の時 、はじめて飛 行 機 にのりました。
とき ひ こう き

4. の時 、はじめてデートをしました。
とき

5. の時 、はじめて友達 とけんかしました。
とき だち

6. の時 、しつれんしました。
とき

7. の時 、高いプレゼントをもらいました。
とき

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Annual Events 483

ダイアローグ
はじめに
A. しつもんに日本語でこたえて下さい。

1. 子供 の時 、どんな子供 でしたか。
ども とき ども

2. 小学校の時 、よくどんなことをしましたか。
とき

3. 中学の時 、よくどんなことをしましたか。
とき とき

4. 高校の時 、よくどんなことをしましたか。
B. Work with a partner. Ask your partner about his/her childhood memories. Example: A: 〜さんは子 供 の 時 、どんな子 供 だったの?
ども とき ども

B: そう (だ)ね。とても元 気 だったけど、よくなく子 供

だったんだ/の。

げん き

ども

子供の時の上田さん Ms. Ueda as a child
ども とき

(Michiko is looking at a 道 子さんはたんすの上のしゃしんを見ています。
みち

picture on the chest.)

道 子: あら、これ、アリス?
みち

上田: ええ、そうよ。 道 子: かわいい。何さい?
みち
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上田: そうね。それは、七さいの誕 生 日の時 にとったしゃしんなの。
たんじょう とき みち

道 子: そう、アリスはどんな子供 だったの?
ども

上田: そうね。父や母によると、明 るくて元 気 な子供 だったそうよ。
あか げん き ども みち

道 子: へえ、そうなんだ。

上田: ええ、スポーツが好きだったから、いつもそとであそんでた。 道 子: そうなの。
みち

上田: で、道 子はどんな子供 だったの?
みち ども みち

道 子: そうね。私も小さい時 は、よくうみにあそびに行ったり、山に
とき

ハイキング行ったりしてたから、けっこうかっぱつだったかな。 けど、中学や高校の時 は、いつもべんきょうしてた。
とき

上田: そうか。日本はじゅけんがあるからね。
みち

道 子: え、ないの、アメリカじゃ。 じゅけんべんきょうもしたこと、ないの。

上田: SAT や ACT はあるけど、じゅけんはないのよ。だから、 道 子: そう。いいなあ。
みち

上田: だから、高校の時 は、よくパーティに行ったり、友達 と
とき だち

えいがを見たりしたんだ。
みち

道 子: いいなあ。私もアメリカの学校に行きたかった。
たいへん

上田: でも、大学はアメリカの方がずっと大 変だよ。
みち

道 子: あ、そうか。じゃあ、おなじことね。

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Annual Events 485

Dialogue Phrase Notes

• けっこう means quite and かっぱつ means active. • ないの、 アメリカじゃ。 This is an inverted sentence of アメリカ

じゃないの, but it does not mean it is not America. In this sentence, じゃない is not the negative form of だ . Instead, it consists of じゃ and ない. じゃ is a contraction for では where で refers to the place of action and は is a topic marker. ない is the negative form of ある. Therefore this sentence means: Doesn’t it exist in the U.S.?

• じゅけん means “entrance examination.” • 私もアメリカの学校に行きたかった。 Literally, I wanted to go to a U.S. school, and in this context, it means I wish I had gone to a U.S. school.

• おなじ means same, and おなじこと means the same thing.
ダイアローグの後で
あと

A. Complete the chart with information about Ms. Ueda’s and Michiko’s childhoods.

どんな子供 でしたか。
ども

よくどんなことをしましたか。

アリス 道子
みち

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Chapter 12

日本の文化
ぶん か

A. National holidays.
There are fourteen national holidays in Japan. Visit the Nakama 1 student website to learn more about these holidays.

1月1日 1 月第 2 月曜日
だい

元日
がんじつ

New Year’s Day Coming-of-Age Day

成 人の日
せいじん けん こく き ねん

2 月 11 日 3 月 21 日 4 月 29 日 5 月 3 日 5 月 4 日 5 月 5 日 7 月第 3 月曜日
だい

建 国 記 念 の日 National Foundation Day
しゅん ぶん

春 分 の日 昭 和 の日

Vernal Equinox Day Emperor Showa’s (Hirohito; 1901– 1989) birthday / ゴールデン・ウイーク (Golden Week). Constitution Day Green Day Children’s Day Ocean Day Day of the Elderly Autumnal Equinox Day Health and Sports Day. Culture Day

しょう わ

憲法記念日
けん ぽう き ねん

みどりの日 子供 の日
ども

海 の日
うみ

9 月第 3 月曜日
だい

敬 老の日
けいろう

9 月 23 日 10 月第 2 月曜日
だい

秋 分 の日
しゅう ぶん

体 育の日
たいいく

11 月 3 日 11 月 23 日 12 月 23 日

文 化 の日
ぶん か きんろう かんしゃ

勤 労感 謝の日 Labor and Harvest Day 天 皇誕 生 日
てんのう たん じょう

Emperor Akihito’s Birthday

B. Seasonal events and celebrations.
Besides national holidays, the Japanese celebrate a variety of seasonal events: February 3rd is called 節 分 , and it is the first day of spring according to the old lunar calendar. On this day, people throw soybeans inside and outside their house while saying “おに (devils) はそと、 ふく (luck) はうち” to keep out evil sprits and allow only good luck into the house. On バレンタインデー it is the women who give men chocolate. Men reciprocate a month later with candies, marshmallows, and white chocolate on ホワイトデー (March 14).
せつぶん

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Annual Events 487

March 3 is ひなまつり (Girl’s Day), and people display dolls depicting ancient wedding ceremonies to express their wish for daughters to grow up to be gentle, beautiful women. The Japanese national flower is the cherry blossom, and it blooms throughout Japan during late March to early April, when TV news programs provide daily forecasts on the blossoms. Bus tours travel to the best cherry blossom regions, and schoolchildren, college students, and corporate groups alike picnic under the blossoms. This eating, drinking, singing, and dancing under the cherry trees is called お花 見 (flower watching) . July 7 is considered one of the most romantic days and is called 七夕 . たなばた According to Chinese mythology, it is the one day a year when two star-crossed lovers, separated by the Milky Way, meet. Schoolchildren write their wishes on small pieces of paper and tie them on bamboo trees to celebrate this day. Around the middle of July, the rainy season ends, and the summer festival season starts. Many of the major festivals are held between July and August throughout Japan, especially during the period surrounding おぼん (August 13–15). It is a Buddhist festival in honor of deceased relatives and ancestors, and many people go back to their hometowns to greet their ancestors and family, similar to Thanksgiving break in the U.S. In addition to Golden Week, おぼん is one of the three major holiday seasons in Japan. Starting in the middle of December, many people organize the end-of-the year party called 忘 年会 . The Japanese also celebrate クリスマス as a romantic day for couples and a party day for children and families. After December 29, most companies close until January 4. Traditionally, to prepare for the new year, people launch a major house or office cleaning and pay off personal debts during this period.
ぼうねんかい
はな み

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488 Chapter 12

文法
ぶんぽう

I. Talking about time using noun/adjective + 時 , とき duration + 前/後
まえ ご

When you want to express a period of time in your life rather than a date, a day of the week, or a specific time, you can create a phrase using 時 (when), 前 (before) and 後 (after). Grammatically they are nouns so they can be modified by a noun, adjective, or a clauselike noun modification. This chapter introduces 時 with respect to nouns and adjectives and 前 /後 in relation to counterexpressions.
まえ ご とき ご とき まえ

A. Noun/adjectives + 時 (when, at the time of 〜 )
とき

時 can be modified by a noun in the form of noun の noun ( 時 ) or adjective + noun.
とき

The particle に for a time expression can be used with 〜時 .
とき

とき

子供 の時
ども

小学校の時 十一さいの時 ひまな時 いやな時
げん き

とき

When I was a child When I was in elementary school When I was eleven When I have free time When I am annoyed When I am healthy When I am busy When I am cold When I was small

とき とき とき とき とき とき とき とき

元 気 な時

いそがしい時 寒い時 小さい時

The negative ending ない is grammatically an い -adjective, so it can be combined with 時 just like other い -adjectives.
とき びょう き

病 気 じゃない時 ひまじゃない時

とき とき とき

When I am not sick When I do not have free time When I am not busy

いそがしくない時

ウィル: いつアメリカに来たんですか。
When did you come to the United States?

あつ子: 高校の時 に来ました。
It was when I was in high school.
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とき

Annual Events 489

キム: ひまな時 はよくいぬのさんぽをします。
I often walk my dog when I am free.
とき

スミス: そうですか。どんないぬですか。
I see. What kind of dog do you have?

B. Duration + 前 /後
まえ ご

Duration + 前 indicates ago or before; it is used with the particle of time, に .
まえ

三年前 に日本に行きました。 一か月前 にけっこんしました。
まえ ご まえ

I went to Japan three years ago. I got married a month ago.

Duration + 後 indicates later or after, and it can be used with に .

三 日後 に会いましょう。 I will see you three days from now. 一年後 に日本に行きました。
ご みっか ご

I went to Japan a year later.

ジョン: ホンコンへはいつ行ったの?
When did you go to Hong Kong?

ひろし: 二か月ぐらい前 。
まえ

About two months ago.

ジョン: どうだった?
How was it?

ひろし: おもしろかったけど、ちょっと暑くて大 変だった。
たいへん

It was fun, but it was a bit too hot and that was hard to take.

ジョン: 今度はいつ行くの。
When are you going again?

ひろし: 半年後 だと思 う。
ご おも

I think it will be six months from now.

ジョン: そうか。いいなあ。
I see. That is nice.

Note
前 • ぐらい can be used with まえ and 後 . It is used right after the ご pronunciation of the kanji 後 becomes あと .
よっか まえ あと まえ ご ご

duration and before 前 or 後 . When ぐらい used with 後 , the

その人に四日ぐらい前に会った。 I met the person about four days ago. その人に一年ぐらい後に会った。 I met the person about a year later.
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490

Chapter 12

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Answer the following questions using 〜 時 .
とき

Example:

どんな 時 にセーターをきますか。 寒い時 にきます。
とき とき

1. どんな時 に家でゆっくりしますか。
とき とき とき とき とき

2. どんな時 になきますか。 3. どんな時 に友達 にメールを書きますか。
だち

4. どんな時 は時間がありませんか。 5. どんな時 にびょういんへ行きますか。 Activity 2
Work with a partner. Ask what he/she does on the occasions listed below. Example: A: ひまな 時 に何をしますか。 B: 家でテレビを見ます。 A: 〜さんはひまな時 に何をしますか。
とき とき

B: たいてい友達 と電 話で話します。
だち でん

すること ひまな時 暑い時 寒い時
とき とき

とき

うれしい時 かなしい時 さびしい時

とき

とき

とき

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Annual Events 491

Activity 3
Work with a partner. Your partner is a psychic. Ask him/her about your future. Example: A: 私はこれから何をするでしょうか。 B: 二か月後 に、だれかを好きになるでしょう。

そして、半年後 にけっこんするでしょう。




Activity 4
Work with a partner. Ask your partner about places where he/she visited in the past six months and for how long. Example: A: どんなところに行きましたか。 B: シカゴに行きました。 A: そうですか。いいですね。いつ行ったんですか。 B: 三週間前 です。
まえ

A: そうですか。何日ぐらいシカゴにいましたか。 B: そうですね。二 日 いました。
ふつ か

どこ

いつ

どのくらい

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492 Chapter 12

II. Talking about past experiences using 〜たことがある ; listing representative activities using 〜たり〜たりする
The plain past affirmative form 〜た can be used in various structures in Japanese. This chapter introduce two commonly used structures, namely 〜たことがある and 〜たり〜たりする.

A. Talking about past experiences using 〜たことがある
The construction 〜たことがある is used to express an experience one has had in the past. In contrast, ~ました simply expresses a past action. The absence of any experience is expressed by 〜たことが/はない.

私はミュージカルを見たことがあります。
I have seen a musical.

私はミュージカルを見たことがありません。
I have never seen a musical.

私はミュージカルを見ました。
I saw a musical.

私はミュージカルを見ませんでした。
I did not see a musical. The construction 〜たことがある is usually used to talk about experience in the not-so-recent past and not about something that took place as recently as 昨日 or きのう 一 昨日 .
お と と い

一 昨年中国 に行ったことがあります。
おととし ごく

I had the experience of going to China two years ago.

一 昨日中国 に行きました。
おととい ごく

I went to China the day before yesterday.

チョイ: 田中さんは英 語が上手ですね。
えい

Mr. Tanaka is good at English, isn’t he?

山本: ああ、田中さんは小さい時 、がいこくにすんでいた とき ことがあるそうですよ。
Well, I heard that he lived in a foreign country when he was small.

チョイ: ああ、それで、上手なんですね。
I see, that’s why he is so good.

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Annual Events 493

B. Listing representative activities using 〜たり〜たりする
The construction 〜たり〜たりする is used to list representative activities. It is similar to や in Chapter 7, which is used to list nouns and noun phrases.

食べたり飲んだりしました。
I ate and drank. (Literally, I did things like eating and drinking.)

新聞を読んだり、ざっしを見たりします。
I do things like reading newspapers and browsing through magazines.

新聞やざっしを読みます。
I read newspapers and magazines. (etc.)

川口: きょうとに行ったことがありますか。
Have you ever to Kyoto?

ワット ええ、ありますよ。じつは、先月行ったんです。 :
Yes, I have. In fact, I went there last month?

川口: そうなんですか。どうでしたか、きょうとは?
Is that so? How was it?

ワット とてもたのしかったですよ。おてらやじんじゃを見たり、 : 買いものをしたりしました。
It was really fun. I saw temples and shrines and did shopping.

キム: 子供 の時 、よく何したの?
ども とき

What kinds of things did you do when you were a child?

一 也 : どうぶつえんに行ったり、 ゆうえんちであそんだりしたよ。
かず や

I did things like going to the zoo and playing at the amusement park.

話してみましょう
Activity 1
Look at the drawings on the following page and make up questions asking whether someone has ever done these things.

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494 Chapter 12

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

Example: Picture #1 はな ( flowers) をもらったことがありますか。

Activity 2
Bingo. Work with the class. Ask whether your classmates have done the things in the Bingo chart. Write the name of the person when he/she answers with yes. The first one to complete a row or column with different names wins.

さしみを食べる

ゴルフをする

日本で教 会 へ きょう かい 行く

ゆびわを もらう 日本人と 日本語で話す ふとんで寝る

おてらを見る

日本のざっしを 山のぼりをする 読む スペイン語を しつれんして、 べんきょうする なく くるまを買う ハワイのうみで およぐ

きものをきる

はくぶつかんに 行く

先生を好きに なる

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Annual Events 495

Activity 3
Look at Mr. Jones’s personal history and make sentences that express what kinds of activities he did at different stages in his life. Example: ジョーンズさんは小学校の 時 、よくアニメを見たり、こ うえんで

やきゅうをしたりしました。

とき

よくしたこと 1990 12/3 誕生日
たん じょう

1996 〜 2001 小学校

どうぶつえんへ行く。こうえんでやきゅうを する。アニメを見る。

2001 〜 2004 中学

うみへおよぎに行く。キャンプをする。 うたをうたう。ケーキを作る。 アルバイトを する。しゃしんをとる。 えをかく。びじゅつかんに行く。デートする。 べんきょうする。アルバイトをする。日本人 とチャット (chat) で話す。ドライブに行く。

2004 〜 2007 高校

今 大学

Activity 4
Work with a partner. Ask what kinds of activities he/she did at different times in his/her life. Example: A: 小学校の 時 、よくどんなことをしましたか。 B: そうですね。友達 の家にあそびに行ったり、
とき

父とどうぶつえんに行ったりしました。 よくしたこと / よくすること 小学校 中学 高校 今

だち

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496 Chapter 12

Activity 5
Work in groups of three or f