Free Essay

Hannibal & the Battle of Cannae

In: Historical Events

Submitted By BClary17
Words 3016
Pages 13

The battle of Cannae was a major battle of the Second Punic War near the town of Cannae, an ancient village in southern part of Italy. The battle took place between the outnumbered Carthaginian army under Hannibal against the Romans under the command of Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Gaius Terentius Varro. For the most part, the Romans were overpowered by the undermanned Carthaginian forces. Many historians agree that the battle of Cannae is one of the greatest strategic victories in military history. Numerous historians have examined the possible route Hannibal took from New Carthage to the Pyrénées and then over the Alps to Rome. Along with using scientific data, these historians and scientists allege that there are three possible routes Hannibal may have taken from New Carthage in Iberia across Europe to get to Italy. Scientists and historians do disagree on which route is most accurate do to the fact that the only historical accounts of Hannibal’s journey are that of Livy and Polybius. Neither historian leaves a very detailed account of the surroundings for Hannibal and his troops. Through paleobotanical reconstruction, attempts have been made to more clearly identify if the places noted by Livy and Polybius resemble any of these places today1. Hannibal came from the very well-known Carthaginian Barca family. His father, Hamilcar Barca was the military leader of Carthage during the first Punic War. At the conclusion of the First Punic War, Carthage's mercenaries revolted and Rome took advantage of her rival's distraction and, in spite of the recent peace agreement, took control of Sardinia and Corsica and forced Carthage to pay a large indemnity2. Carthage finally won the mercenary war, but the loss of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica left her economic empire crippled and reduced the area from which she could hire troops. After regaining control, the Carthaginians were forced to major war concessions. Of those concessions, Carthage was to pay a war indemnity to Rome and could no longer recruit Italian sailors. Carthage also sent Hamilcar Barca to Iberia to eliminate the Spaniards and build an empire in Spain. Unfortunately, Barca was killed in an ambush at Helice in 229 B.C.E. but not until after he had been able to take over control of the Iberian southern coast. In 226 BC, Hasdrubal reached an agreement with Rome that recognized the Ebro River in northeastern Spain as the northern limit of Carthaginian interest in the area. Five years later, Hasdrubal was assassinated, and Hamilcar's son Hannibal became the leader. At about that time, Rome began involving itself in the affairs of Saguntum, a city on the Mediterranean coast of Spain well south of the Ebro and therefore presumably in Carthaginian territory3. Hannibal viewed the Roman moves as an intervention similar to the ones that had touched off the first war. Hannibal laid siege to the town, which fell after eight months. Hannibal's strategic insight now became evident4. When Hannibal came to the head of the Carthaginian army he took it upon himself to rebuild Carthaginian fortunes by occupying Spain. The Romans had aligned themselves with Saguntum in an attempt to show strength and power against Carthage. Since Carthage's fleet was no longer a match for Rome's, the invasion of Italy would need to occur by land. To that end, Hannibal did his best to speak with tribes in his line of march well in advance of the arrival of conflicts. He also established alliances with various north Italian Celtic tribes that were traditional enemies of Rome. Hannibal's forces were the first civilized army to cross the Alps5. Exposure, desertion, accidents and fierce resistance by mountain tribes reduced his army from 40,000 to 26,000 during the trip, and most of the elephants accompanying the remarkable host also perished. Fortunately, once Italy was reached, the Celtic alliances provided replacements that brought the army back to its original strength. The Carthaginian troops endured great hardship and suffered serious casualties. Shortly thereafter, Hannibal fought two battles that demonstrated his resolve as a field commander and his determination to destroy rather than merely defeat his enemy. At the Trebia River, only 10,000 Romans escaped an ambush out of 40,000 involved, and at Lake Trasimene, nearly an entire Roman force of 25,000 was killed or captured. From then on, the Romans were hesitant to fight a large-scale engagement. Hannibal was careful to treat prisoners from Rome's allied cities courteously, often freeing them without ransom to encourage dissatisfaction with Rome's cause6. Captured Roman citizens, on the other hand, were held for ransom used to pay Hannibal's men or were often sold into slavery. The Carthaginian army lived off the land causing as much damage to the economy as possible. After victory at Lake Trasimene, Hannibal moved his army to southern Italy in order to recruit additional troops7. This moving of troops by Hannibal and their subsequent looting forced the Romans to become more aggressive. Two now consuls, Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paulus, were given command of the combined legions of Rome with orders to make an end to the feared Carthaginian. Normally, the two consuls would have independent commands but, when their forces were combined, command of the whole alternated daily. Hannibal's effective intelligence organization soon informed him that Varro was the more rash and impulsive of his opponents, and so Hannibal decided to force an action on a day that Varro was in command of the Roman forces8. Hannibal seized a grain depot to lure the Romans to the site he had chosen for battle. The depot was located at the small village of Cannae, south of Rome. Dawn of that August morning in 216 BC found Hannibal, commander of Carthage's army in Italy, looking down at the plain separating his vantage point from the waters of the Adriatic Sea about three miles away9. The Roman enemy was already advancing with an army of more than 85,000 men, aligned in the standard offensive formation of the dreaded legions. Hannibal's force, some 56,000 in number, faced long odds. The Roman force available for battle was large by the standards of the day. Eight full legions of infantry, some 40,000 men, were improved by 40,000 allied infantrymen. About 2,000 Roman cavalry and 4,000 allied horses completed the army, for a total strength of 86,00010. In battle, the Roman infantry usually advanced on a wide front, with cavalry on the flank. The heavy infantry was led by skirmishers, who opened the fighting with the throwing of javelins. They would then fall to the rear of the formation and were able to pass through the Roman formation because deliberate gaps were left in each line. The basic fighting unit of the heavy infantry was the maniple of about 160 men divided into two centuries. Rather than forming a constant line, the two centuries were deployed one behind the other, leaving the gaps used by the skirmishers. At the point of attack or when in a defensive position, the rear centuries could be moved up to fill the gaps11. The Hastati made up the first line of heavy infantry of the Roman army. They were equipped with a heavy shield, a helmet, light and heavy javelins and a short, straight sword. The Princeps were the second line of heavy infantry. Although armed like the Hastati, the Princeps were somewhat older and more experienced and formed behind those of the Hastati, but were offset to block the gaps in the Hastati line. The third line, made up of the old veteran troops known as the Tritarii, had its centuries form behind the gaps in the second line, giving an overall checkerboard result to the formation. The Tritarii had a thrusting spear in place of the javelin of the first two lines12. In the hands of an experienced commander, the flexibility possible with this formation was useful, particularly against older military formation such as the phalanx. Unfortunately, the Roman method of appointing new consuls each year and rotating command daily made it unlikely that the top military talent would be allowed to pursue a logical plan. Roman courage, discipline and patriotism were rarely lacking, but the coming battle of Cannae would highlight the need for changes in the selection and responsibilities of army commander13.
Aside from the top leaders, very few Carthaginians were present in Hannibal's army. His army at Cannae consisted of North African, Spanish and Celtic personnel. Perhaps the soundest foot soldiers available to Hannibal were the Libyan-Phoenician heavy infantry. The Phoenicians living in Libya were subject to Carthaginian military service and cleared themselves well. Originally armed like Greek hoplites, they now began equipping with Roman arms captured at the Trebia and Lake Trasimene. In addition to the infantry, 2,000 Spanish cavalry were at Hannibal’s disposal. They were heavily armed and used as heavy cavalry, but the outstanding quality of their horses allowed them to rival the speed of the Numidian cavalry14. About 25,000 Celtic infantry and 5,000 Celtic cavalry made up the remainder of Hannibal's force. These people lived for war, but without the guidance of a commander like Hannibal, their absence of discipline made them unpredictable. At the time of Cannae, Hannibal was arming these men with captured Roman weapons. He liked to use the Celts as troops that would cause disruption in enemy ranks prior to sending in his African infantry. At Cannae, the Romans were determined to crush Hannibal's center. They formed deep battle lines in order to bring pressure to stand against the middle of the Carthaginian line. On the Roman right, the legion cavalry, some 2,400 strong, faced Hannibal's Spaniards and Celts, totaling 7,000. The mismatch would prove a decisive element in the battle's surprising outcome. On the Roman left, the 4,000 allied cavalry faced an equal number of Numidians.
Hannibal aligned his infantry in an unusual manner. The center of his position was curved, facing outward toward the advancing Romans. The flanks bent backward from the center. Alternating units of Spanish and Celtic swordsmen held this line, and they were greatly outnumbered by the approaching Romans. Hannibal positioned himself at the left end of the line, and his youngest brother Mago, held the right. Each end of the line was anchored by a dense square of African infantry, the location of which guaranteed that they would not be engaged until long after those at the center15. As the Romans advanced, a hot west wind blew dust in their faces and obscured their vision. At a range of about 35 yards, the Romans hurled their light javelins, causing casualties among the Spaniard and Celts. These javelins often caused problems even if they only pierced a man's shield, because the shaft was difficult to remove and weighed the shield down, making the man vulnerable to an onrushing legionary. At closer range, the heavy javelin was thrown, and then the infantry lines collided, the swift Celts and athletic Spaniards against the disciplined Roman masses. In time, the weight of the Roman assault began to take effect on Hannibal's troops, and the center of the Carthaginian line retreated. As Hannibal's men were forced back, they found themselves slowly backing up a slope Due to the nature of the terrain, the Romans fought uphill as they advanced and at the same time were restricted into a narrowing front as their mass of men entered the 'V.' Although the Roman infantrymen did not know it, their fate was all but sealed by this time. Hannibal had planned for his cavalry to strike the decisive blows while his infantry fought a large-scale delay. As the battle opened, Hannibal launched the Spanish and Celtic cavalry on his left against the outnumbered Roman cavalry16. The consul Aemilius accompanied these cavalrymen but they could not endure the Carthaginian assault. Aemilius was wounded and the bulk of the Roman cavalry was driven from the field, exposing that flank of the Roman army. While this occurred on the Carthaginian left, the Numidians on the right had been engaged with the horsemen of Rome's allies17.
The Carthaginian cavalry commander on the left, reorganized his units and proceeded to ride behind the Roman infantry to the far side of the battlefield, where the stalemated cavalry fight continued between the Numidians and Rome's allies. The allied horsemen now were taken by surprise and caught between the two Carthaginian forces. The allied cavalry fled the field, taking the consul Varro with them. At this point, Aemilius was dead or dying, and Varro, the other commander, no longer was with the Roman army. The Roman and allied cavalrymen had been killed, captured or driven from the field18. By that time, the Roman infantry had fought its way up the slope and into the enclosed end of the 'V,' the point. As the men became more tightly packed into a confined space, fewer of them could use their weapons effectively. Romans in the rear ranks continued to push forward, but found they had little room to maneuver. Hasdrubal, Hannibal’s younger brother, assaulted the Roman rear with his heavy cavalry, assisted by the Carthaginian light infantry. The encirclement was complete. Many Romans first discovered the danger when they realized they were being cut down and hamstrung by the Carthaginian troops. Historians have estimated that the fighting continued until evening and that approximately 600 Romans died per minute of the battle.
Cannae represented the apex of Hannibal's career, although he has been criticized for not attempting to end the war by sacking Rome itself at that point. Hannibal remained in Italy for 13 more years, but the determination of the Romans to fight on, regardless of losses, eventually gave them the opportunity to defeat the great Carthaginian. The failure of Carthage to rebuild its fleet in order to challenge that of the Romans made Hannibal's task extremely tough. He attempted to reduce Rome's naval advantage by occupying the Italian coastal cities. If Hannibal had been able to hold them, the odds against the Carthaginian fleet would have improved, but his limited number of troops made it difficult for him to isolate enough garrisons to prevent Roman recapture of the port cities. For 15 years in all, from 218 to 203 BC, Hannibal occupied large areas of Italy. He fought and defeated the Romans on numerous occasions but could not break their spirit19. After Cannae, the Romans again became cautious about entering into full-scale battle against Hannibal, but their command of the sea and the decision to invade Spain, made reinforcement of Hannibal's army difficult. Slowly, the troops who had crossed the Alps with Hannibal decreased in number an in age.
But Carthage's absence of naval power prevented Hannibal's alliances with Syracuse and Macedonia from becoming fruitful. The Roman navy captured a treaty between Hannibal and Philip V of Macedonia, and by the time the second received a copy and acted on it, the Roman fleet barred his troops from crossing to Italy. In spite of all the complications, Hannibal proved to be a gifted leader able to get the very best from his men. His army was made up of of mercenaries with no real obligation to the Carthaginian cause however no record shows any mutiny during the 5 years in Italy. The army did not more than just survive it maintained a high level of morale and fighting spirit. Spain was taken from Carthage and the Barcid family after Hannibal's brother Hasdrubal repeated a crossing of the Alps with a reinforcement that gave the Romans in Spain a free hand. Hasdrubal was incapable of uniting with Hannibal before being opposed by a strong Roman army in 207 BC. In the ensuing battle, Hasdrubal was defeated and killed20.
In October of 203 BC, Publius Cornelius Scipio, the conqueror of Spain, invaded North Africa and forced Hannibal to defend Carthage. Hannibal's defeat at Zama at the hands of Scipio in the following spring, caused mostly because of a shortage of cavalry strength, ended the Second Punic War. Hannibal rose to the position of prominence in Carthage after the war and took steps that helped Carthage recover economically from the conflict. Rome viewed Carthage's revival with suspicion, and Hannibal was forced to flee to the east, where he committed suicide in 183 BC rather than fall into Roman hands.
Hannibal Barca was one of history’s greatest generals and Rome’s greatest enemy. Although later Roman tradition belittled him, it respected his prowess as a great military commander. Had Hannibal not underestimated the strength of the Romans, he might have rewritten European history.

Mahaney, M.C.,“Hannibal’s Invasion Route: An Age-Old Question Revisited within a
Geoarchaeological and Palaeobotanical Context.” (Archaeometry vol. 52 (6/2010), 1097
Marcel Le Glay, et al.,A History of Rome. (Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009), 74
Ibid, 75
John Peddie, Hannibal’s War. (Gloucechesershire: Sutton, 1997), 9
Ibid, 21-26
G. P. Baker, Hannibal. (New York: Barnes & Nobles, Inc., 1967), 101-104 Ibid, 100
Le Glay, A History of Rome
Adrian Goldsworthy, Cannae, (London: Cassel & Co, 2001), 77-81
Ibid, 95
Dexter Hoyos, Hannibal Rome’s Greatest Enemy, (Exeter, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2008), 57-59
Goldsworthy, Cannae, 96-99
Hoyos, Hannibal Rome’s Greatest Enemy, 60
Goldsworthy, Cannae, 108-109
Ibid, 111 Peddie, Hannibal’s War, 92-93
Ibid, 94
Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Hannibal, (Boston, Da Capo Press, 1891), 372
Le Glay, A History of Rome, 77
Dodge, Hannibal, 556

Ancient Greece & Rome: An Encyclopedia for Students, vol. 2. Hannibal
Baker, G.P. Hannibal. New York: Barnes & Nobles, Inc., 1967
Dodge, Theodore Ayrault. Hannibal. Boston: DaCapo Press, 1891
Goldsworthy, Adrian. Cannae. London: Cassel & Co, 2001
Hoyos, Dexter. Hannibal Rome’s Greatest Enemy. Exeter: Bristol Phoenix Press, 2008
Le Glay, et al. A History of Rome. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009
Mahaney, M.C. “Hannibal’s Invasion Route: An Age-Old Question Revisited within a
Geoarchaeological and Palaeobotanical Context.” Archaeometry vol. 52 (6/2010): 1096 -1109.
Peddie, John. Hannibal’s War. Gloucechesershire: Sutton, 1997
Radice, Betty. Livy The War with Hannibal. Translated by Aubrey de Sélincourt. Baltimore:
Penguin, 1965

Similar Documents

Premium Essay


...sacrifices by the Romans, apart from public executions of defeated enemies dedicated to Mars). Lucius Caecilius Metellus, a military tribune, despaired so much of the Roman cause as to suggest that everything was lost, and called the other tribunes to sail overseas and hire themselves into the service of some foreign prince.[16] Afterwards, he was forced by his own example to swear an oath of allegiance to Rome for all time. The survivors of Cannae were reconstituted as two legions and assigned to Sicily for the remainder of the war as punishment for their humiliating desertion of the battlefield.[16] In addition to the physical loss of her army, Rome suffered a symbolic defeat of prestige. A gold ring was a token of membership in the upper classes of Roman society;[16] Hannibal and his men collected more than 200 from the corpses on the battlefield, and sent this collection to Carthage as proof of his victory. The collection was poured on the floor in front of the Punic Senate, and was judged to be "three and a half measures." Hannibal had defeated the equivalent of eight consular armies (16 legions plus an equal number of allies).[41] Within just three campaign seasons (20 months), Rome had lost one-fifth (150,000) of the entire population of male citizens over 17 years of...

Words: 951 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Hannibal Essay

...Put Hannibal in the scales: how many pounds will that peerless General mark up today? [ Juvenal, Satire X, lines 147-8 ]. A man of cunning intelligence and power sets out in late spring in 218 which would defeat four Roman consular armies and put the great power Rome at its last breath, but ends up losing the war? This brings up many questions that we can't answer becasue of the lost ancient sources, but through investigation of the surviving sources we are able to justify how and why Hannibal lost the 2nd Punic war. Four major contributions to the loss of the war; the troop ratio between Rome and carthage, the obstacles Hannibals army had to go through to arrive in italy, his desicion after Cannae not to attack Rome and what each army was fighting for. A historian must first trace every battle and what led to the end result in order to answer the question, how did Hannibal lose the 2nd Punic war? Ancient sources like Polybius tells us that Hannibal sets out from New Carthage in 218 late spring, with a total of 90,000 infantry, 12,000 cavalry and 37 elephants, not only but to treck across the mighty alps and end up in Italy with 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. Hannibals loss of men was enormous and could of been a great factor to the loss of the war. Romes power was mainly from its allies and neighbouring cities which were a huge support in numbers compared to the Carthaginians who were scavanging help along the way on Italian soil, that also created language issues in......

Words: 1240 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay


...different words? yes 7. Have I carefully proofread and revised my paper for sentence variety, word choice, grammar, and punctuation? yes 8. Does my Works Cited page include only the sources cited in the text? Is it correctly formatted? yes 9. Have I used the correct margins, line spacing, and other format issues required by the MLA sample essay and the sample provided by my instructor? i hope so Hannibal is by far one of the Great Captains of History Hannibal battle tactics are the stuff of legend not just in our time but in his time as well which is a hard feat for any general. Hannibal made his fame during the second Punic war 218-203 BC against the Roman Republic at the time the greatest power in the Mediterranean. His crossing of the Alps is probably one of the most daring military marches in history and to survive it after the weather and attack from tribes loyal to Rome with an army still intact and pretty much ready to fight shows his logistical savvy and the supreme ability to inspire his men to fight on despite the odds. His first battle was Trebbia which he need to win to draw in allies and supplies he won by using the Carthaginian superior cavalry...

Words: 691 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Hannibal Barca

...How Hannibal Barca became one of the greatest generals in History The purpose of this report is to show how Hannibal Barca became one of the greatest generals in history. To back-up and show how he is fitting for this title, this report will include his motivations, his outstanding achievements and greatest feats during his lifetime and the consequences of his actions after his death. Hannibal Barca was born in 247 BCE, his birthplace Carthage was about to lose a long and very important war. Carthage had been the Mediterranean’s most prosperous seaport and possessed wealthy provinces, but it had suffered severe losses from the Romans in the first Punic wars (264-241)1. Hamiclar Barca, Hannibal’s father, was the general during the first Punic war. However, at the end of the war, the Carthaginians had failed to take control of Sicily, one of their most important provinces. The Romans now controlled Sicily, and this was a matter Hamiclar did not take lightly. Hamiclar was “driven by his hatred of the Romans”2. Hamiclar truly hated the Romans after they humiliated the Carthaginians at their forced surrender in Sicily. Hannibal Barca had been waiting in Carthage for his moment to rise to power. At a very early age, Hamiclar “made his son swear eternal hatred to Rome”3. Hannibal, at the age of no more than twenty, was sent to Spain to be educated about war under Hasdrubal. Hannibal never did anything in excess; he only ate and drank what was required to survive.......

Words: 1001 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Scipio the Learner

...defeated Hannibal at Zama in the last battle of the Second Punic War. He earned recognition as a great leader and commander for his bravery and his tactical strategies. In the chapter “Scipio Africanus” in the book, “The Centurion Principles” by retired Colonel Jeff O”Leary, the military life and leadership qualities of Scipio are examined. Additionally, O’Leary shows how Scipio’s skills can be applied the business world. As a student at Houston Christian, these leadership principles can also be applied to my life today. Scipio’s life was severely affected by war and it helped him to become the leader he was. He survived a horrible massacre at Cannae by the Carthaginian commander, Hannibal. When he was only 17 years old, he saved the life of his father in an act of extreme bravery and selflessness. Later, his father and uncle would each die in battles against the Carthaginians, in part due to limited Roman forces sent by an uncommitted Roman senate. Instead of being bitter and turning away from responsibility from fear, Scipio learned everything he could about Hannibal’s war tactics. Eventually, in an act of obligation for his fallen patriarchs and from a desire to test his strength and skill, Scipio volunteered as Commander of Legions in Spain when no one else would. Following his appointment, he spent time to get to know his allies and to commend those he was leading in order to build their confidence and their support for his leadership. Despite an initial battle......

Words: 747 - Pages: 3

Free Essay

Roman Punic Wars

...The Punic Wars The Punic wars were a series of conflicts fought between forces of Carthage and Rome between 264 BC and 146 BC. At the time Rome had been claiming land and conquering territory, when Rome ventured to cross the Sicilian Strait, 1 the Romans wanted to conquer as much as they could, with that they now had many different supporters as well as many different people out to get them and wanting to start fights. Many of the starts of the Punic wars were with Carthage, a large city located on the coast of what is now Lebanon. Carthage was the only great city states that rivaled Rome’s power, wealth and population. 2 Though Carthage had clashed with many different powers, they historically were friendly and had signed many different trading treaties over the years.3 Carthage’s navy was the largest it didn’t hold a permanent army2 they instead relied mostly on mercenaries. Carthage has acquired dominion over the native races of Africa the Lydians and the Numidians.1 With these holds, they were able to slowly gain power like Rome had. Carthage did have a step up on Rome as they were more devolved in their navy, where Rome was not. The first conflict between Rome and Carthage which we now know as the First Punic war, began in Sicily. Sicily at the time was divided among many different powers, Carthage holing all the power of the western part of the island. The southern part of the island was under control of the king of Syracuse, who ruled this city as well as......

Words: 1242 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Double Envelopment Essay

...variations include vertical envelopments or Airborne Troops or airmobile troops and amphibious envelopments (Goodman,1993). Noted single envelopments were accomplished by Alexander the Great at Arbela in 331 BC, Robert E. Lee at Chancellorsville in 1863, and Erwin Romme at Gazala in 1942, leading to the capture of Tobruk; famous double envelopments include those of Hannibal at the Battle of...

Words: 995 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Hannibal the Great

...Hannibal the Great ECPI University Hannibal the Great Pundits often agree that there are five characteristics of great leaders. The first of these is being flexible. Not everything always goes according to plan. Competitors change tactics, governments force new regulations, strikes stop the flow of products, and, occasionally, natural disasters occur. During times like these, leaders have to be able to change course; that is, first make sure their interests will survive, and then find a new way to reach their goals. The second characteristic is being able to communicate. Many leaders are superb orators, but speaking well isn’t all that is required of a good leader. There are lots of people who talk a good game but fall short of delivering. Leaders who communicate well not only share their thoughts with their subordinates, but also let their strength and personal character show through in their communication, and empower those who work for them by defining the company’s goal and showing how to get there. Courage, tenacity, and patience together form the third characteristic. Possessing the courage to stand alone, the tenacity to not submit to pressure, and the patience to persevere until you’ve won -- and sometimes at the same time--is something you should strive to develop if you want to be a truly successful leader. The fourth necessitous characteristic is the amalgam of humility and presence. Feigning aloof, or superior your employees, does not make one a leader.......

Words: 2334 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Slavery in Ancient Rome

...Carthage did they amass a significant amount of slaves. Some authors estimate that the number of slaves reached 300 000-350 000 in a total population of 900 000- 950 000 in Rome during the Augustan era.[1] It is of course impossible to determine the exact amount of slaves during this time, but nevertheless this estimate of slaves is still one third of the population. The Punic Wars between Rome and Carthage mark the beginning of Rome’s “addiction” to slavery. After Rome had consolidated the main land of what is now Italy, this brought them into contact with much greater powers. The first Punic War (264-241 B.C) began when both Rome and Carthage took interest in Sicily.[2] Herodotus notes the significance of this first of many battles by comparing it to the battle of Salamis. He states, “They say too, that the victory of Gelo and Thero in Sicily over Hamilcar the Carthaginians tell out upon the very day that the Hellenes defeated the Persians at Salamis.” (Hdt. 7. 166.)[3] Gaining Sicily was a significant and integral part of Rome’s consolidation and pacifying its surrounding area. Moreover, Sicily was centered in the middle of the two trade regions that they dominated. Even without any other redeeming value, this would make it worth fighting over. In addition, there were several large ports on Sicily which...

Words: 3298 - Pages: 14

Premium Essay


...WARS The three Punic Wars between Carthage and Rome took place over nearly a century, beginning in 264 B.C. and ending with the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C. By the time the First Punic War broke out, Rome had become the dominant power throughout the Italian peninsula, while Carthage a powerful city state in northern Africa had established itself as the leading power in the world. The First Punic War broke out in 264 B.C. when Rome interfered in a dispute on the Carthaginian controlled island of Sicily. The war ended with Rome in control of both Sicily and Corsica and marked the empire's emergence as a naval as well as a land power. In the Second Punic War, the great Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy and scored great victories at Lake Trasimene and Cannae before his eventual defeat at the hands of Rome's Scipio Africanus in 202 B.C. that left Rome in control of the western Mediterranean and much of Spain. In the Third Punic War, the Romans, led by Scipio the Younger, captured and destroyed the city of Carthage in 146 B.C., turning Africa into yet another province of the mighty Roman Empire. Origin of the first Punic War Carthage had, in the 260s control of much of Sicily. This mattered little to Rome for it had few direct interests there. Thus when a complicated little dispute arose in the city of Messana in 264 and one side appealed to Carthage while the other appealed to Rome no one thought it was any more than a local......

Words: 2846 - Pages: 12

Premium Essay

Roman Study Guide

...1) The two legends are that there were brothers Romulus and Remus who were raised by a wolf. While Romulus was building a wall for Rome, Remus mocked him and got killed. Then, Romulus went on to become the first ruler of Rome. The second legend was that a Trojan hero named Aeneas sailed down the Tiber after the Trojan war and the local king gave him his daughter in marriage and he united the people. 2) They were the cruel ruling Etruscan family. 3) A republic is a state or country where the ruler is elected by the people and the citizens have the right to vote. 4) The Roman military were well-trained who were organized into legions. They were happy to fight. 5) 6,000-10,000 soldiers were in a legion. 6) The Roman Confederation was a system where people got citizenship under the Roman law. 7) A Roman dictator is a ruler with absolute control in an emergency situation. In an empire it isn't just for an emergency. 8) Cininnatus was a former consul who ran a farm. He was called to be dictated when Rome was surrounded by enemies. He surrounded the enemies overnight and stopped supplies from coming in. 9) There were the patricians and the plebians. The patricians were wealthy land-owning citizens. The plebians were the commoners, so basically everyone else. 10) The tree branches were the senate, assembly, and consul. 11) They revolted because the patricians didn't tell them the laws and the plebians couldn't run office. What happened was that the plebians got to run......

Words: 1945 - Pages: 8

Free Essay


...-^uc THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY EDITED BY T. E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. PAGE, LITT.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, utt.d. CICEKO DE OFFICIIS I . M.TULLIUS CICERO. rROMTHE JAMES LO£B COLLECTION ^y^ CICERO DE OFFICIIS WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY WALTER MILLER PBOFESSOR OF LATIN IN IHE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOUEI LONDON WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD NEW YORK G. R PUTNAM'S SONS : : MCMXXVIII IV5 rhst printed 1913 Rtprinted 1921, 1928 PrxMtdin Oreat Brttain by Woods and Soni, Lld., LonJon, M. I INTRODUCTION In the de Officiis we have, save for the latter PhiUppicSj the great orator's last contribution to The last, sad, troubled years of his busj"^ literature. life could not be given to his profession; and he turned his never-resting thoughts to the second love of his student days and made Greek philosophy a possibihty for Roman readers. The senate had been abohshed; the courts had been closed. His occupation was gone but Cicero could not surrender himself to idleness. In those days of distraction (46-43 b.c.) he produced for pubhcation almost as much as in all his years of active life. The liberators had been able to remove the tyrant, but they could not restore the republic. Cicero's own hfe was in danger from the fury of mad Antony and he left Rome about the end of March^ 44 b.c. He dared not even stop permanently in any one of his various country estates, but, wretched^ wandered from one of his villas to another......

Words: 21492 - Pages: 86

Premium Essay

Mintzberg 5 Ps of Strategy

...The Strategy Concept I: Five Ps for Strategy* Human nature insists on a definition for every concept. The field of strategic management cannot afford to rely on a single definition of strategy, indeed the word has long been used implicitly in different ways even if it has traditionally been defined formally in only one. Explicit recognition of multiple definitions can help practitioners and researchers alike to maneuver through this difficult field. Accordingly, this article presents five definitions of strategy-as plan, ploy, pattern, position, and perspective-and considers some of their interrelationships. To almost anyone you care to ask, strategy is a plan-some sort of consciously intended course of action, a guideline (or set of guidelines) to deal with a situation. A kid has a "strategy" to get over a fence, a corporation has one to capture a market. By this definition, strategies have two essential characteristics: they are made in advance of the actions to which they apply, and they are developed consciously and purposefully. (They may, in addition, be stated explicitly, sometimes in formal documents known as "plans," although it need not be taken here as a necessary condition for "strategy as plan.") To Drucker, strategy is "purposeful action"', to Moore "design for action," in essence, "conception preceding actionn2 A host of definitions in a variety of fields reinforce this view. For example: in the military: Strategy is concerned with "draft[ing] the plan of......

Words: 9436 - Pages: 38

Premium Essay


...A C L A S S W I T H D R U C K E R This page intentionally left blank A Class with Drucker The Lost Lessons of the World’s Greatest Management Teacher BY WILLIAM A. COHEN, PhD A M E R I C A N NEW YORK I M A N A G E M E N T I A S S O C I A T I O N I AT L A N TA I I B R U S SE L S I CHICAGO I MEXICO CITY I SAN FRANCISCO D. C. S H A N G H A I T O K Y O T O R O N T O W A S H I N G T O N, Special discounts on bulk quantities of AMACOM books are available to corporations, professional associations, and other organizations. For details, contact Special Sales Department, AMACOM, a division of American Management Association, 1601 Broadway, New York, NY 10019. Tel: 212-903-8316. Fax: 212903-8083. E-mail: Website: To view all AMACOM titles go to: This publication is designed to provide accurate and authoritative information in regard to the subject matter covered. It is sold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, accounting, or other professional service. If legal advice or other expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional person should be sought. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cohen, William A., 1937– A class with Drucker : the lost lessons of the world’s greatest management teacher by William A. Cohen. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 978-0-8144-0919-0 1...

Words: 103006 - Pages: 413

Premium Essay


...1575 ESSAYS by Michel de Montaigne translated by Charles Cotton I. OF CUSTOM, AND THAT WE SHOULD NOT EASILY CHANGE A LAW RECEIVED. HE seems to have had a right and true apprehension of the power of custom, who first invented the story of a countrywoman who, having accustomed herself to play with and carry, a young calf in her arms, and daily continuing to do so as it grew up, obtained this by custom, that, when grown to be a great ox, she was still able to bear it. For, in truth, custom is a violent and treacherous schoolmistress. She, by little and little, slily and unperceived, slips in the foot of her authority, but having by this gentle and humble beginning, with the benefit of time, fixed and established it, she then unmasks a furious and tyrannic countenance, against which we have no more the courage or the power so much as to lift up our eyes. We see her, at every turn, forcing and violating the rules of nature: "Usus efficacissimus rerum omnium magister." I refer to her Plato's cave in his Republic, and the physicians, who so often submit the reasons of their art to her authority; as the story of that king, who by custom brought his stomach to that pass, as to live by poison, and the maid that Albertus reports to have lived upon spiders. In that new world of the Indies, there...

Words: 179434 - Pages: 718