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Hard Power Soft Power

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Hard power and soft power

Introduction

Les notions de soft power et hard power sont respectivement considérées comme puissance douce et puissance militaires.
Toutes les deux importantes dans les relations internationales
Le hard power et soft power sont il réellement recherché par les états ?

I- l’antagonisme des deux termes : a) soft power : Notion démocrate fondé sur une idée qu’un état peut
Selon laquelle un état peut exercer une influence internationale significative par des moyens autre que matériels
Declinisme Paul Kennedy (terme péjoratif désignant un courant d’’idées et d’analyses de penseurs qui estiment qu’un état est en déclin, au niveau économique, culturel et géopolitique.
Penser à un type d’influence autre que militaire qui a trop marqué …

b) hard power
Caricature de 1904 montrant Roosevelt armé de son « gros bâton » en train de patrouiller dans la mer des caraïbes.
Le hard power ou puissance coécrives est un concept utilisé dans les relations internationales. Il désigne la capacité d’un corps politique d’influencer le comportement d’autres corps politiques à l’aide de moyen militaires et économiques. Le hard power peut être opposé au soft power.
Dimension militaire et matérielle du pouvoir utilisé pour pousser les autre à changer leurs positions

Usa : puissance militaire = 45% du budget militaire mondial

Le soft power et le hard power sont reliés. Les deux partagent le même objectif d’arriver a un but en influençant les comportements des autres.

Smart power : Obama sur la chaine Arabia = message de paix

II – Adaptation du modèle

1 – Usa :

Plan marshal

Historien : Obama = président du monde
Obama a reçu le prix Nobel de la paix

Comment les usa pratiquent le hard power et le soft power ?

* présence militaire américaine : concept d’hyperpuissance * IED : 1er investissements direct à l’étranger * IBM / général Motors / * ¾ de la richesse des usa se base sur les service * wall street * dollar = monnaie de référence

USA SOFT POWER :

Enseignement supérieur très développé avec des universités très reconnu comme Harvard et Berkeley. * fuite des cerveaux a travers l’hégémonie américaine au niveau universitaire * sport : les usa premier dans le classement des médailles au Jo * super Ball * soft power : mc do / série télévisé.. les usa transmettent une idéologie : souveraineté auprès de leurs pays allié

Transition : l’influence des réseaux mondiaux

La nébuleuse Al-Qaïda dans le monde :

Haine des usa = forme de hard power
Revendication passe par la violence = 11 septembre 2001

Big brother is watching you

Personnage fictif qui est devenu expression : Un personnage qui control la planète
Les usa n’influencent pas la chine.

B) la chine :
Très bonne exemple de soft power : gastronomie / l’exposition universel de Shangai
Les Confucius = institutions crées pour diffuser la culture chinoise et la langue chinoise dans le monde
Intérêt à invertir militairement en Afrique
La chine investit dans l’optique de faire des échange d’armes / Matière première
Elle donne les armes et l’Afrique les matières premières

a) Un partage de culture et d’informations :

Soft power nous fait penser à HOLLYWOOD
Hollywood fortement attaché au pouvoir fédéral

Relation entre Hollywood et le pentagone
1986 : avec le film top gun que les liens entre les deux institutions ont été renoués
« le jour le plus long » début du soft power

Parts de marché selon la nationalité des films en 2009
49,7 % sont des films américains
25,5 % sont des films français
11,3% autres films français
6,8% film britanniques
3 ,3% autres film européens
3 ,4% autres nationaités

Hollywood pas vrmt impérialiste mais capitaliste

L’inde : l’univers cinématographique indien commence à se rependre

Le Qatar : Al jazzera qui veut dire la péninsule
Présent sur l’Afghanistan en 2001.. L’Irak et le printemps arabes
Donc tous les conflits..

b) inefficiences du modèles

si on mise trop sur le soft power on est plus a éssayer de financer certaines personnes pour s’occuper du conflit a notre place il peut y avoir des pb avec les évenements sportifs .. Les jeux de la honte « delhi »

Soft power est un outil délicat pour les états car il peut être perçu comme un outil de propagande, et dans ce cas, l’état perd toute crédibilité. Il en va de même pour le hard power conduisant parfois à de sévères rejets.

Parti débat :

Problématique : comparaison du soft power de l’inde et de la chine
Hard power agressif de la chine
L’inde avec au fond un soft power Boollywood caractère ouvert tolérant
Inde comme un pays apaisé
Pour quelle raison considérons nous que la chine est un pays capitaliste agressif alors que l’inde non.. Plus soft .. ?
Image de représentation qui est des clichés qui perdurent
Ex : on dit que l’inde est la plus grande démocratie certes sauf que les indiens vivent avec des castes.
Pour quelle raison est ce qu’on a une représentation excessive du capitalisme autoritaire de chine et une représentation plus ouverte sympathique de l’inde ?
Stéréotype culture enfantin et naïf
L’inde : on pense a Gandhi bonté et harmonie
Peuple miséreux mais non agressif

Les américains n’ont que 12 portes avion, ils en utilisent que 6 donc ils font des opérations militaires mais ils ne contrôlent rien du tout.
La monnaie la plus forte ce n’est pas le dollar mais c’est l’euro
Les usa ne sont pas empire pk il ne pratiquent pas une politique de puissance mais une politique de bien être.
Ils interviennent uniquement la ou ils ont un intérêt géostratégique.
Le cinéma américain est une industrie.

Hard power et soft power moyen de diffuser le conception de l’universel.
Bien entendu il y a du hard power et du soft power mais les américains ne vivent pas ce soft power comme un outils de puissance.
Plus une société à une culture forte, moins la puissance américaine pause problème. Les américains sont une hyperpuissance mais ils n’ont pas une volonté de contrôle du monde.
Ils avaient un volonté d’étendre le marché autorégulé

Hard power et soft power moyen de diffuser le conception de l’universel… Standardisation =
Peuple qui regroupe le melting pote que dieu a choisi pour porté les idéaux …

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