Harvard Referencing Guide

In: Other Topics

Submitted By 8426
Words 2514
Pages 11
1.1 Introduction to Referencing

Referencing is the process of recording details of the secondary sources (books, journal articles, electronic sources etc) you refer to in a piece of work. You need to acknowledge these sources for two reasons –
• firstly to protect yourself against any accusations of plagiarism. The University of Hertfordshire’s UPR 17-1 defines plagiarism as “ the representation of another person's work as the candidate's own, either by extensive unacknowledged quotation or paraphrasing or by direct copying of another person's work”
• secondly to allow you and whoever is assessing your work to be able to easily trace the original source if need be.

You need to refer to your sources in two places-
• in the body of your work
• in the list of references at the end.

What follows shows you how to do this for various types of material: books, journals and electronic resources, preceded by a section on how to deal with quotes. The Harvard system of referencing is used for printed sources. At present, this does not cover electronic sources, but we will be using a commonly used set of guidelines for the latter.

Please read through the handout, and try the practical exercises in Parts 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5

1.2 Using Quotations

The following guidance on using quotations applies to all forms of material – books, journals and electronic items.

It is appropriate to use quotations to support or illustrate points you wish to make in your assessed work, but they should be used relatively sparingly, and should be as brief as possible.

The Harvard system requires you to use the author’s name, and then in brackets the year of publication and the page number on which the quote appears. Quotations of more than two lines in length should be indented. Note the use of the colon as well as to mark the boundary between your own words and the…...

Similar Documents

Harvard Referencing Style

...Harvard Referencing Style BOOKS IN-TEXT EXAMPLE REFERENCE LIST EXAMPLE NOTES Single author whose name occurs naturally in the sentence In a popular study, Kadolph (2007) explained how different fibres react when approaching a flame. OR Kadolph, S.J. (2007) Textiles, 10th edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Two books by the same author in the same year 2 authors As Kadolph (2007: 34) states, ‘During a burn test, cotton does not fuse or shrink from the flame’. According to Napier (1993b), a surprising number of sailors are unable to swim. Swales and Feak (2004) explore the types of essay organisation and characteristic functions. Napier, A. (1993a) Fatal storm, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Napier, A. (1993b) Survival at sea, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. Swales, J. and Feak, C. (2004) Academic Writing for Graduate Students. 2nd edition, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press Fisher, R., Ury, W. and Patton, B. (1991) Getting to yes: Negotiating an agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, London: Century Business. 3 authors Fisher, Ury and Patton (1994: 36) suggest that when emotional issues cloud negotiation, ‘some thoughts are best left unsaid.’ OR ‘When anger and misperception are high, some thoughts are best left said.’ (Fisher, Ury and Patton, 1991: 36). Reference list: state the edition if not the first. In-text: put the page number for a direct quotation. Single inverted commas ‘’ are now preferred. Note the letters a and b to differentiate in...

Words: 1937 - Pages: 8

Harvard Referencing

...A Guide to Harvard Referencing The following is a guide to writing references in essays and reports. There are several different ways of writing references according to whether they come from a book, edited book or journal article. What is the Harvard System of Referencing? Harvard referencing is a system of in–text referencing which is used by academics and others to illustrate ideas, concepts, theories and arguments by drawing attention to supporting published evidence both in the text of any essay or report and at the end in a references section. 1 How to write references in the text of an essay/report Examples of Text: Benson, Roberts and Smith (1993) have suggested that there is a relationship between academic excellence and shoe size. They have argued that a student with large feet has the capacity to learn more in a lecture than a student with small feet. Support for this theory has come from Dawson (1976) and Franks and Miller (1991) who have found that men who wear size 8–10 shoes tend to score three points higher on Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) tests than men with shoe size ranges from 5–7. However, research suggests that women obtain a higher I.Q. score if their shoe size ranges from 3–4 in comparison to those with shoe sizes ranging from 5–7 (Bunion and Foot 1987). Despite such gender differences, Benson et al. believe that the relationship between I.Q. and foot size only occurs in industrialised societies and so “we should consider why foot...

Words: 1517 - Pages: 7

Referencing

...What is Referenc ing? Referencing is a standardised method of acknowledging sources of information and ideas that you have used in your assignment in a way that uniquely identifies their source. Direct quotations, facts and figures, as well as ideas and theories, from bot h published and unpublished works, must be referenced. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism, to verify quotations, and to enable readers to follow - up and read more full y the cited author’s arguments. Steps Involved in Referencing 1. Collecting Bibliographic Details Note down the full bibliographic details of the source from wh ich the information is taken, including the relevant page number(s). This information is the basis of a citation or reference . In the case of a book , ‘bibliogra phical details’ refers to: author/editor, year of publication, title, edition, volume number, place of publication and publisher as found on the front and back of the title page. (Not all of these details will necessarily be applicable). In the case of a journal article the details required include: author of the article, year of publication, title of the article, title of the journal, volume and issue number of the journal, and page numbers. For all electronic information , in addition to the above you sh ould note the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) if one exists, and if one does not exist, the web address (URL) of the database you found the article in. Fo r...

Words: 427 - Pages: 2

Harvard Referencing 2009

...University of Abertay Dundee Guide to Harvard Referencing 2009 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 4 What is Harvard referencing? .............................................................................. 4 What is the difference between a bibliography and a list of references? ........ 5 What is a bibliography? .................................................................................... 5 What is the reference list? ................................................................................ 5 Citing references in-text ....................................................................................... 6 How do I cite references in-text? ..................................................................... 6 General advice on in-text citation .................................................................... 6 Quoting directly from the book, journal or website ....................................... 7 Paraphrasing (rewriting what has been said in the book, journal or website) .............................................................................................................. 7 General advice on the reference list (and bibliography) ................................... 8 Referencing books ................................................................................................ 9 What information do I need to include...

Words: 5793 - Pages: 24

Citing Refs Guide Harvard Style

...Return to contents 1 Contents Page Introduction 1 1.1 1.2 General information about citation Style More than one citation from the same author in the same year 1.3 1.4 Quotations and page numbers Citing references for items you have not actually read 1.5 1.6 2 3 3.1 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Issues associated with dates Multiple authors (et al. or and others) The Harvard system: style options Books Electronic books Journal articles Newspaper articles Websites Theses and dissertations Blogs and wikis Social networking sites Personal communications Conference proceedings Maps Audiovisual resources Visual resources Performance Parliamentary information Legal references Standards and patents Market research reports Further support and help 3 6 6 6 6 8 8 8 9 9 16 18 23 24 24 25 26 27 29 30 31 34 38 39 42 44 45 45 Return to contents 2 Introduction Welcome to the 9th edition of Citing References This guide has developed into a resource that offers recommendations and practical examples for intext citation and referencing using the Harvard system. Accurate citation and references are both cornerstones of good academic writing and you will be directed by your tutors to adopt the style used by your particular course or module. If you need advice about what method to use, contact your tutor. There are many methods of citation and this guide outlines aspects of the Harvard system guidelines given in BS ISO 690 (British Standards...

Words: 12079 - Pages: 49

Apa Referencing Guide

...APA Referencing guide Academic conventions and copyright law require that you acknowledge when you use the ideas of others. In most cases, this means stating which book or journal article is the source of an idea or quotation. This guide draws from the: American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual            of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.).        Washington, DC: Author.   University policy mandates the use of the APA Style defined by this referencing guide. On this page: * List of references * How to cite references within the text of an assignment (including citations from secondary sources and Creative Commons) * Additional help List of References At the end of your essay, place a list of the references you have cited in the text. Arrange this in alphabetical order of authors' surnames, and then chronologically (earliest publication date first) for each author where more than one work by that author is cited. The author's surname is placed first, followed by initials or first name, and then the year of publication is given. If the list contains more than one item published by the same author(s) in the same year, add lower case letters immediately after the year to distinguish them (e.g. 1983a). These are ordered alphabetically by title disregarding any initial articles (a, an or the). * The reference list includes only the sources you have used in any submission. APA Style requires reference lists, not...

Words: 9212 - Pages: 37

Guide to in-Text Citation and Referencing

...Guide to In-text Citation and Referencing IN-TEXT CITATION 1) If you are paraphrasing from any source in which the author’s name is given, you must mention the author’s surname, date of publication and the page number. For example: Chase (1979:204) reported that… According to Henderson and King (1987:176),… 2) If you are summarising the overall idea of a book or article, you just have mention the author’s surname and date of publication. The page number is not necessary. For Example: The study concluded that there was no clear link between obesity and genetics (Smith, 2006). 3) If you are citing from a source written by more than two authors, rather than writing the name of every author, use the name of the first author followed by et al, which means and others. For example: Jones et al (2001) explained that… Comment [KHEI1]: Please note that et al should be in italics 4) If you are using an authoritative source but there is no author, you should cite the name of the organisation in the text. For example: A report published by the BBC (2004) indicated that… There has been a slight increase in the number of homeless children in developed countries in the last 10 years (UNESCO, 2008). 5) If you are giving exact quotations, you should identify the page numbers on which the quotations can be found. For example: Black (2007:143) claims that, ‘……………………………..’ 6) If the quotation is 3 lines of longer, you should indent the whole quotation. For...

Words: 1034 - Pages: 5

Harvard Referencing 2014

...An Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style Academic Learning Centre Academic Communication The Abridged Guide to the Harvard Referencing Style (author-date) is based on Commonwealth of Australia 2002, Style manual: for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn, John Wiley & Sons Australia, Milton, Qld. This document can be found on CQUniversity’s referencing Web site at http://www.cqu.edu.au/referencing (click on Harvard). Other information about academic writing is available via the Academic Learning Centre’s Moodle site. Maintained by Academic Learning Services Unit Edition T1 2014 Published by CQUniversity Australia COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA WARNING This Material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of CQUniversity pursuant to Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act). The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright protection under the Act. Do not remove this notice. CQUniversity CRICOS Codes: 00219C – Qld; 01315F – NSW; 01624D – Vic Table of Contents Why reference/cite? .....................................................................................................1 How to reference ..........................................................................................................1 In-text references...

Words: 13581 - Pages: 55

Guide to the Harvard Style of Referencing

...Anglia Ruskin University Guide to the Harvard Style of Referencing Fifth Edition September 2013 http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/referencing/harvard.htm 1 Anglia Ruskin University 1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION ................................................................................. 5 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2. What is referencing .............................................................................. 5 The Harvard System ............................................................................ 6 Reference list or Bibliography .............................................................. 7 Word Counts ........................................................................................ 7 CITING REFERENCES IN-TEXT .......................................................................... 8 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 3. Author’s name cited in the text ............................................................. 8 Author’s name not cited directly in the text .......................................... 8 More than one author cited in the text ................................................. 8 Two or three authors for a work ........................................................... 9 Four or more authors for a work........................................................... 9 More than one author not cited directly in the text ............................... 9 Several works by one author...

Words: 11886 - Pages: 48

Referencing

...Dekhen Italic format e ache…aituku holo Title aita hote pare sei website er or apni jei onghshotuku niyechen seitur nishchoi title chilo Reference Page er moddhe jeivabe likhben Harvard format: Publication year(site kobe publish hoyechilo 1. For website(Example): Comma Authorship Name mane website author NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009 ]. Dot Dot Accessed on ba viewed on tarpor date and month and year ja hobe third bracket er moddhe and seshe Dot Puro Weblink sathe suru hobe less than sesh hobe greater than symbol diye. Available at word and colon thakbe Obossoi Third bracket er moddhe online word likhte hobe 2. For Book (With One Author+First Edition hoile--Example): Town or City.Country na kintu. Publication place Colon Dot Book kobe publish korechen tini Publisher ke Dot Book Name in Italic Dot Comma Jodi name er sathe kono initial thake aivabe likhben..jemon S.M.Hasan..ai khetre hobe Hasan,S.M., Comma Author Name Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson. 3. For Book (With One Author+Second ba Third Edition hoile--Example): Town or City.Country na kintu. Publication place Colon Dot Dot Book kobe publish korechen tini Book Name in Italic Dot Comma Jodi name er sathe kono initial thake aivabe likhben..jemon S.M.Hasan..ai khetre hobe Hasan,S.M...

Words: 724 - Pages: 3

Feduni-General-Guide-to-Referencing-2014

...General guide to referencing 2014 edition From the Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Learning and Quality) Many students find learning the unfamiliar nature of academic writing a challenging experience. The puzzling art of referencing is no exception, with its traditions and initially obscure formatting rules, referencing can seem to be an overwhelming and annoying requirement standing between you and submitting your assignment by the due date. This guide has been written especially for you, new and returning Federation University Australia (FedUni) students, to demystify referencing and provide numerous practical examples of when and how referencing should be used in your writing at FedUni. As you study, you’ll come to understand that referencing is just a set of rules that you need to follow to adequately acknowledge the work and thinking of others in your assignments. These rules are important because they allow your teachers to decide whether you’ve demonstrated that you understand the topic at hand and show that you have completed the assignment yourself. If you ignore the requirements to reference source materials in your assignment, your teacher may decide you have committed ‘plagiarism’. This means you have failed to reference according to the rules and in doing so, not demonstrated that you have used the work of others in your work. Plagiarism is a very serious matter that can result in unpleasant consequences for your studies and career. So please take the time to...

Words: 25550 - Pages: 103

Harvard Guide

... Bibliography Sample bibliography Conclusion and contact details Section 1: Using the Harvard System Introduction The thought of having to include citations, references and a bibliography in your written assignments can sometimes seem more threatening than having to do the assignments themselves. However, by applying one of the standard referencing systems, it is relatively easy to achieve comprehensive and accurate references throughout the text of your assignments and in your bibliographies. This booklet gives you a step-by-step guide to the 'Harvard System' of referencing (sometimes called ‘the name/date system’). This is one of the internationally recognised, standard systems for citing and referencing the work of other authors. Numerous examples have been included to show you exactly how to deal with different types of material. How to use this Booklet You do not need to read the whole booklet from beginning to end! Read pages 1-9 to get useful background information, then use the contents list to find those pages giving details of how to cite and reference each of the different sources you have used. (Note: The Harvard System has been adopted by many academic institutions and publishing houses and, consequently, there are slight variations in the ways that it is applied within the different organisations. The method described and illustrated in this guide is that which has been agreed for use at New College Durham.) Citations, References and Bibliographies...

Words: 6213 - Pages: 25

Harvard Referencing

...Harvard Referencing There are 2 stages, these include: 1) Citing – What you do in the text of your essay e.g. highlighting words you’ve incorporated from someone else’s work 2) Referencing – All the details of the source of information you’ve used at the end of your work in a separate section For both directly copying, and changing an idea into your own words, you need to indicate the source of information in brackets at the end of your sentence. For a direct quote, these brackets must contain 3 pieces of information: * The authors name * The year their work was published * The page number i.e (Kovmi, 2009, p.5) For an indirect quote (changed into your own words), you just need to include the authors name and year of publication. The reference section at the end of your work must include all the information of the source of information. Each source of information in your reference section should always start with the same information as the citation in your essay. When writing your reference section, ensure you order it alphabetically by the author’s names. Referencing a book The order of information for referencing a book is: 1) Author/s/Editor 2) Year of publication in round brackets 3) Title in italics 4) Edition (if relevant i.e. not the first edition) 5) Place of publication: publisher 6) Series and volume number (if relevant) For example: Pears, Richard, and Shields, Graham. (2010) Cite the right: the essential......

Words: 345 - Pages: 2

Referencing

...Referencing In-text: All students will use the Harvard System of referencing. References are indicated in the text as either “Recent work (Smith 1970)” or “Recently Smith (1970) has found.” Where a direct quotation is used the page number should be noted e.g. (Smith 1970 pg. 17). All such references should then be listed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper in accordance with the following conventions: 1. Books surname, forename and/or initials, (year of publication), title, place of publication: publisher, e.g. Baker, Michael J. and Hart, Susan J. (1989), Marketing and Competitive Success, Hemel Hempstead: Philip Allen. 2. Journal Articles surname, forename and/or initials, (year) “title”, journal name, vol, issue, pages, e.g. O’Malley, L. and Tynan, C. (1999), “The Utility of the Relationship Metaphor in Consumer Markets: A Critical Evaluation”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 15, No. 7, pp. 587-602. 3. Contributions in books, proceedings, etc. surname, forename and/or initials, (year), “title”, ‘In:’, editor’s surname and/or initials, book title, place of publication: publisher, pages, e.g. Doyle, Peter (1990), “Managing the Marketing Mix”. In: Baker, Michael J, ed., The Marketing Book 2nd Edition, London: Heinemann Ltd., pp. 227-267. 4. Websites / Online resources. Author/Editor surname, forename and/or initials, (year), “title”[online], place of publication: publisher. Available at: URL, [accessed date] e.g. Baker, Michael J. (1998...

Words: 412 - Pages: 2

Harvard Referencing Guide

... references this will be set out as: AUTHOR, INITIALS. (Year) Title of the article. Name of the journal. Volume number (Part number) date of issue, first and last pages. Eg: O’HARA, M. (1999) Making market microstructure matter. Financial Management. 28 (2) Summer, 83-91. 1.4 Practical Below is a reference to a journal article that is not in the Harvard format. Firstly, please identify each part of the reference (author, title, journal title, year, date of issue, volume number, part number, first and last pages) by writing the part name in the spaces above or below where it appears in the reference. Then rearrange the reference using the Harvard format and write this down. Question 2. Conglomerate mergers as defense against the risk of relative price variability. Pekka Ahtiala. Review of Economics and Statistics. February 2000. Vol. 82, No. 1, pp. 160-64 1.5 Electronic Information Sources This is an area that the Harvard referencing system does not cover. However, there are a number of widely used guides available on the Internet that we will be using as a basis for this part of the session. The following are worth noting: • Cite Them Right from the University of Northumbria at Newcastle http://www.unn.ac.uk/central/isd/cite/elec.htm • Guide to Citing Internet Sources from Bournemouth University http://www.bournemouth.ac.uk/library2/html/guide_to_citing_internet_sourc.html • Learning Centre Gateway: A Guide to Bibliographic Citations...

Words: 2514 - Pages: 11