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Harvard Stlye

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Harvard Referencing Style

July 2015

Harvard Referencing Style
What is it?
Academic writing requires authors to support their arguments with reference to other published work or experimental results/findings. A reference system will perform three essential tasks:


Enable you to acknowledge other authors’ ideas (avoid plagiarism).



Enable a reader to quickly locate the source of the material you refer to so they can consult it if they wish.



Indicate to the reader the scope and depth of your research.

The Harvard style is a widely used referencing system to help you achieve these objectives.

How do I use the Harvard Referencing Style?
The Harvard style involves two tasks:


How you refer to other authors in the body of your text (in-text citation).



How you compile a list of reference sources at the end of your text (reference list).

What does it look like?
Here is an extract showing what in-text citations look like in the Harvard Style
It has been claimed that due to funding being almost exclusively available from the
Irish Film Board (IFB), Irish film makers are restricted to the type of Ireland they can depict in their work (MacDougall, 2009). Jervir (2011) argues that subjects such as
Northern Ireland are disproportionately represented as these are key areas of interest to the IFB.
Here is an example of what a Reference List looks like in the Harvard Style
Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I. and Dowds, L. (2011) 'Depicting Ireland on Film, what are we really saying?', Social Cinema Journal, 54(4), pp. 454-482.
Jervir, C. E. O. (2010) 'Symbolic Violence, Resistance and how we view ourselves in
Irish Film', World Cinema, 37(6), pp. 392-407.

Moriarty, D. (2012) Funding models for Irish film makers. Dublin: Collins Press.
MacDougall, H. (2009) 'Who Needs Hollywood?: The Role of Popular Genre Films in Irish
National Cinema', The Canadian Journal of Irish Studies, 35(1), pp. 39-46.
In this guide we show how common reference types should look in your reference list
(Reference) along with an example. Immediately following this will be two samples of how that reference should appear as an In-Text-Citation.
If the exact reference type you are looking for is not shown in this guide, look for one similar and follow the same rules. Alternatively consult the book “Cite the Right,” by Richard Pears and Graham Shields which is available in UCD Library.

Book with one author
Reference: Author/Editor Last name, Initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication:
Publisher.
Example: McDonagh, S. (2001) Why are we Deaf to the Cry of the Earth? Dublin: Veritas.
In-Text-Citation:


Author Last name (Year)



(Author Last name, Year)

Example:
 According to McDonagh (2001)


As has been argued (McDonagh, 2001)

Book with two authors
Reference: First author Last name, Initials and second author Last name, Initials (Year) Title.
Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Shalloway, A. and Trott, J. (2001) Design patterns explained: a new perspective on object-oriented design. London: Addison Wesley.
In-Text-Citation:
 First author Last name and second author Last name (Year)


(First author Last name and second author Last name, Year)

Example:
 Shalloway and Trott (2001) suggest that…..


It has been suggested (Shalloway and Trott, 2001)

Book with more than three authors
Reference: Authors’ Names. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publishing company.
Example: McGeady, T.A., Quinn, P.J., Fitzpatrick, E.S. and Ryan, M.T. (2006) Veterinary embryology. Oxford: Blackwell.
In-Text-Citation:
 First author Last name et al. (Year)


(First author Last name et al. Year)

Example:
 McGeady et al. (2006) suggest….


It has been suggested (McGeady et al., 2006)….

Book with a corporate author
Reference: Name of corporate author (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development (2000) Pedigree sheep breed improvement programme: performance results for lambs summer 2000. Cavan:
Department of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development.
In-Text-Citation:


Name of corporate author (Year)



(Name of corporate author, Year)

Example:


Figures from the Department of Agriculture (2000) show that….



Figures from other sources (Department of Agriculture, 2000) show….

Book with an editor
Reference: Editor(s) Last name, Initials (ed.) (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: O'Riordan, T. (ed.) (2001) Globalism, Localism and Identity. London: Earthscan.
In-Text-Citation:


Editor’s Last name (Year)



(Editor’s Last name, Year)

Example:


This was examined in O’Riordain (2001)….



Others have examined this claim (O’Riordain, 2001)….

Chapter in an edited book
Reference: Chapter Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Chapter title', in Editor's(s) last name, Initials. (eds.) Book title. Place of publication: Publisher, page range.
Example: Rose, H. (2000) 'Risk, Trust and Scepticism in the Age of the New Genetics', in
Adam, B. et al. (eds.) Risk Society and Beyond. London: Sage, pp. 77-80.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year

Example:
 This was proposed by Rose (2000)….


It has been proposed (Rose, 2000)….

Electronic Book (e-Book)
Reference: Authors’ Last name, Initials. (Year) Title of book. Available at: URL (Downloaded:
Day Month Year).
Example: Luhr, W. (2004) The Coen brothers' Fargo. Cambridge University Press film handbooks series. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Coen-Brothers-Fargo-CambridgeHandbooks ebook/dp/B001G60IQI/ref=kinw_dp_ke (Downloaded: 24 February 2014).
In-Text-Citation:



Author’s Last name (year)



(Author’s Last name, year)

Example:


Luhr (2012) suggests that the Coen brothers…



It has been argued that “The Coen brothers represent a revolution in cinematography”
(Luhr, 2012, Chapter 2, 22%).

Print Journal article with one author
Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Article title', Journal title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers.
Example: Tovey, H. (2002) 'Risk, Morality, and the Sociology of Animals - Reflections of the
Foot and Mouth Outbreak in Ireland', Irish Journal of Sociology, 11(1), pp. 23-42.

In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


Tovey (2002) argues….



It has been argued (Tovey, 2002)….

Print Journal with two or three authors
Reference: First Author Last name, Initials and Second Author Last name, Initials. (Year)
'Article title', Journal title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers.
Example: Lopez, I. and Rodriguez, E. (2011) 'The Spanish Model', New Left Review,
69(May/June 2011), pp. 5 – 28.
In-Text-Citation:



First author Last name and second author Last name (Year)



(First author Last name and second author Last name, Year)

Example:
 Lopez and Rodriguez (2011) suggest that…..


It has been suggested (Lopez and Rodriguez, 2011)….

Print journal with more than three authors
Reference: Authors’ Names. (Year) 'Article title', Journal title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers. Example: Janssen, C. Vanhamme, J. Lindgreen, A. and Lefebvre, C. (2014) 'The Catch-22 of
Responsible Luxury: Effects of Luxury Product Characteristics on Consumers' Perception of Fit with Corporate Social Responsibility', Journal of Business Ethics, 119(1), pp. 45-57.
In-Text-Citation:
 First author Last name et al. (Year)


(First author Last name et al. Year)

Example:
 Janssen et al. (1996) suggest….


It has been suggested (Janssen et al., 1996)….

E-journal article
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Journal title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: Hawke, J, Wadsworth, S, & DeFries, J, (2006). ‘Genetic influences on reading difficulties in boys and girls: the Colorado twin study’, Dyslexia, 12(1), pp. 21-29. Available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112098736/PDFSTART (Accessed 10
February 2009).

In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example



Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries (2006) argue ….



Others have shown (Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries, 2006)…..

Print Newspaper article
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Newspaper title, date, page numbers. Example: O'Dea, W. (2006) ‘Irish role in battle group concept will help to bolster UN’, Irish
Times, 10 January, p.16.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


O’Dea (2006) proposed….



The article (O’Dea, 2006) argues….

Online Newspaper article
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Newspaper title, day month of publication. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: Keenan, D 2011,'North voters go to polls today', Irish Times, 5 May. Available at: http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/ireland/2011/0505/1224296146826.html. (5 May
2011).
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


Keenan (2011) reported….



In the report (Keenan, 2011)….

Page on a website
Reference: Webpage Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) Page title. Available at: URL
(Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: Kelly, M. (2004) Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours: Ireland in Comparative
European Perspective. Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/environ/home.htm (Accessed 8
February 2009).
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


Kelly (2004) responded….



In the response (Kelly, 2004)….

Website
Reference: Website author. (Year published/Last updated) Title of Internet Site. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: International Tourism Partnership (2004). International Tourism Partnership.
Available at: http://www.internationaltourismpartnership.org/ (Accessed 8 February 2009).
In-Text-Citation: (Website name, Year)
Example: Information available from their website (International Tourism Partnership, 2004)
….

Blog
Reference: Author(s) Last name, First name. (Year site published/Last updated) ‘Title of message’, Title of Internet Site, Day Month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed
Day Month Year).
Example: O’Connor, John (2010) ‘Global warming and the future’, Jane Murphy Blog, 14
January. Available at: http://janemurphyblog.com/blogs/archive/2010/01/14/115/aspx
(Accessed 13 April 2010).
In-Text-Citation:



Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example


O’Connor (2010) proposed….



It was proposed elsewhere (O’Connor, 2010)

Email communication
Reference: Sender Last name, Initials (Year of message) Email to name of recipient, Day
Month of communication.
Example: Scott, G. (2010) E-mail to John Bryce, 26 February.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


In an email response (Scott, 2010)



In an email to this author (Scott, 2010)

Facebook
Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year of post) 'First few words of post [...]', Facebook post, Day Month of posted message. Available at: url of post (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: DSPCA (2015) 'We have lots of beautiful kittens in the shelter [...]', Facebook post,
16 July. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/dspca (Accessed 17 July 2015).
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name Year)

Example:


DSPCA (2015) reported on there being a number of kittens …



It was reported that the DSPCA has kittens for potential adoption (DSPCA, 2015).

Twitter
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year of post), 'Tweet or first few words of tweet
[...]', Twitter post, Day Month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month
Year).
Example: UCD School of Archaeology (2014) Ancient Europeans remained intolerant to lactose for 5,000 years after they adopted agriculture [...], Twitter post, 23 October. Available at: https://twitter.com/ucdarchaeology/status/525263801537404930 (Accessed 24 June 2015).
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Authors(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


UCD School of Archaeology (2014) reports that lactose intolerance ....



It has been found that after 5,000 year of agriculture, early Europeans remained intolerant to lactose (UCD School of Archaeology, 2014).

Note: date of post is used for in-text citation.

Images/Photographs
Reference: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph
[Photograph/Image]. Place of publication: Publisher.
Example: O’Meara, S. (2014) Orchid [Photograph]. Co. Clare: Collins Press.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Authors(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


O’Meara (2014) shows a perfect example of the epipactis atrorubens.



The velvety red of the epipactis atrorubens is demonstrated in the photo displayed
(O’Meara, 2014).

Images/Photographs (Online)
Reference: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year). Title of image/photograph.
Available at: URL [Accessed 31 January 2014].
Example: O’Meara, S. (2014) Orchid. Available at: www.theburrenorchidcollection.ie
[Accessed 3 February 2014].
In-Text-Citation:
As detailed for Images/Photographs above.

Lectures or Presentations
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of lecture/presentation' [Medium],
Module Code: Module title. Institution. Day Month.

Example: De Burca, M. (2014) 'Geriatric radiography services in Ireland' [Lecture], RDGY30300:
Clinical Practice of Radiography. University College Dublin. 11 May.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Authors(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


De Burca (2014) described the complicated system of radiographic services……



There is a complicated system of geriatric radiographic services (De Burca, 2014).

Group or Individual Work
Reference: Student(s) Last name, Initial (s). (Year of submission) ‘Title of essay/project/assignment’, Module Code: module title. Institution. Unpublished essay/project/assignment. Example: Woods, M., Mulcahy, W.D., Halpin, L., and O’Shea, R.W. (2014) ‘A model code of ethics for corporate governance in the Irish non-profit and charity sector’, BMGT3019D:
Corporate Responsibilities and Business Ethics. University College Dublin. Unpublished group project. In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name et al. (Year)



(Author(s) Last name et al., Year)

Example:


Woods et al. (2014) detailed a model for corporate governance…..



There have been complete models for corporate governance in the Irish non-profit and charity sector (Woods et al., 2014).

*Note: use the “et al.” for three or more authors just like for a book/journal etc.

Interviews (television)
Reference: Last name, Initials of person interviewed. (Year of interview) ‘Title of the interview (if any)’. Interview by/with Interviewer’s First name Last name, Title of publication, Day Month of Publication, page numbers if present.
Example: Kenny, E. (2013) ‘Ireland’s lost generation’. Interviewed by Miriam O’Callaghan for
Prime Time, RTE One Television, 15 March.
In-Text-Citation:


Interviewee(s) Last name (Year)



(Interviewee(s) Last name, Year)

Example


Kenny (2010) claimed in an interview….



In an interview on RTE (Kenny, 2010)….

Interviews (newspaper)
Reference: Last name, Initials of person interviewed. (Year of interview) ‘Title of the interview (if any)’. Interview by/with Interviewer’s First name Last name, Title of publication, Day Month of Publication, page numbers if present.
Example: O’Brien, M. (2014) ‘Achieving success in parenting’. Interview by Siobhan Moynihan for Irish News Weekly, 6 June, p. 56.
In-Text-Citation:


Interviewee(s) Last name (Year)



(Interviewee(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


O’Brien (2014) outlined honesty as key to parenting……



Honesty is seen as key to parenting through the teenage years (O’Brien, 2014).

Government agency publication
Reference: Name of government department (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher
(Series if applicable). Available at: URL [Accessed Day Month Year].
Example: Department of Health & Children (2006) ‘A Vision for Change’ Report of the Expert
Group on Mental Health Policy'. Dublin: Stationary Office. Available at: http://www.dohc.ie/publications/vision_for_change.html [Accessed 11 April 2010].
In-Text-Citation:


Department (Year)



(Department, Year)

Example:


The Department of Health & Children (2006) have shown….



In a similar report (Department of Health & Children, 2006) it was shown…

Parliamentary and legal material
Reference: Government of Country. Title (Year) Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: Government of Ireland. Human Rights Commission Act. (2000) Dublin: Stationery
Office.
In-Text-Citation: (Country. Title of Legislation Year)
Example: Legislation (Ireland. Human Rights Commission Act 2000) outlawing the act….

EU publications
Reference: Name of EU Institution (Year) Title. Place of Publication: Publisher.
Example: European Commission (2003) Making globalisation work for everyone. Luxembourg:
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
In-Text-Citation: (Name of EU Institution, Year)
Example: The predicted growth (European Commission, 2003) did not occur….

Conferences
Reference: Author(s) Last Name, Initials (Year) ‘Title of paper’, Title of conference: subtitle.
Location and date of conference. Place of publication: Publisher, Pages numbers.
Example: O’Connor, J (2009) ‘Towards a greener Ireland’, Discovering our natural sustainable resources: future proofing. University College Dublin, 15 – 16 March. Dublin: Irish
Environmental Institute, pp. 65 – 69.
In-Text-Citation:


Author(s) Last name (Year)



(Author(s) Last name, Year)

Example:


O’Connor (2009) was able to highlight….



Others (O’Connor, 2009) have shown …..

Theses
Reference: Author (Year of submission) Title of thesis. Degree statement. Degree-awarding body. Example: Allen, S. J. (2009) The social and moral fibre of Celtic Tiger Ireland. Unpublished
PhD thesis. University College Dublin.
In-Text-Citation:


Author Last name (Year)



(Author Last name, Year)

Example:


Allen (2009) disagrees with this…..



As argued elsewhere (Allen, 2009)….

Film or Television
Reference: Title of film (Year of distribution) Director [Format]. Place of distribution:
Distribution company.
Example: The Lives of Others. (2007) Florien Henckel von Donnersmarck [DVD]. Santa Monica:
Lionsgate.

In-Text-Citation:


Title of film, Year



(Title of film, Year)

Example:


The portrait shown in The Lives of Others (2007)….



East Germany was the subject of a recent successful movie (The Lives of Others,
2007)….

Podcasts
Reference: Author/Presenter Last name, Initial(s). (Year site published/updated) Title of podcast. [Podcast]. Day Month Year of podcast posted. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month
Year).
Example: Reddy, M. (2013) Hibernian Hardboiled: Race & Gender in Contemporary Irish Crime
Fiction. [Podcast]. 24 November 2013. Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/humanities/events/podcasts/2013/irish-crime-fiction/index.html (Accessed 31 January 2014).

In-Text-Citation:


Author’s/Presenter’s Last name (year)



(Author’s/Presenter’s Last name, year)

Example:


Reddy (2013) outlines how Irish crime fiction…..



It has been argued Irish Crime fiction has strong gender typing (Reddy, 2013).

Datasets
Reference: Authors Last name, Initial(s). (Year) 'Title of Dataset'. Available at: URL (Accessed
Day Month Year).
Example: Leahy, S., Nolan, A., O’ Connell, J., and Kenny, R. A. (2012) 'The Irish longitudinal study on ageing (TILDA)'. Available at: http://www.ucd.ie/issda/data/tilda/ (Accessed
December 2014).
In-Text-Citation:


(Author last name, Year)

Example:


The TILDA study has shown the impact of emigration on older fathers in particular
(Leahy et al., 2012)....

Case Studies
Reference: Author/editor Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of case study' [Case Study], Journal
Title, Volume (Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example:
Ofek, E., Avery, J., Rudolph, S., Martins Gomes, V., Saadat, N., Tsui, A., & Shroff, Y. (2014)
'Case Study Second Thoughts About a Strategy Shift', Harvard Business Review, 92, 12, pp.
125-129. Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=99621003&site=ehostlive (Accessed 10 December 2014).
In-Text-Citation:



(Author last name, Year)
Author last name (Year)...

Example:


In their case study Ofek et al. (2014) describe how marketing to the young generation... Musical Scores
Reference: Composer last name, Initials. (Year) Title of score. Notes. Place of publication:
Publisher.
Example:
Handel, G. F. (1912) Alexander's feast : ode. Edited, and the organ or pianoforte accompaniment arranged by Vincent Novello. London: Novello.
In-Text-Citation:



(Author Last name, Year)
Author Last name (Year)...

Example:


Handel's score is beautifully arranged by Vincent Novello (Handel, 1912)...

CD or Vinyl Records
Reference: Artist Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of track', Title of Album [CD] or [Vinyl].
Place of distribution: Distribution company.
Example: Armstrong, L. (1987) 'Put 'em down blues', Hot five & hot seven : 1925-1928 [CD].
France: Joker Tonverlag AG.
In-Text-Citation:



Artist Last name (Year)
(Artist Last name, Year)

Example:



In his track 'Put 'em down blues' Armstrong (1987)....
'Put 'em down blues' (Armstrong, 1987) is typical of the sound this artist can create with his ensembles...

Note: If referring to a whole album, cite as above, simply leaving out the 'Title track' element of the reference.

Film on YouTube
Reference: Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of film or programme.
Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: APintTurtle (2008) Zig & Zag - Christmas Crises. Available at: http://youtu.be/yCv4iyPqZKQ (Accessed 12 December 2014).
In-Text-Citation:



Poster's Last name (Year)
(Poster's Last name, Year)

Example:



Podge tries to foil Christmas in this Christmas special (APintTurtle, 2008)...
APintTurtle's (2008) posted a version of 'Zig & Zag - Christmas Crises'...

Repository Item
Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of article'. Title of Journal [Preprint],
Volume (Issue No.) pp. page numbers. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year).
Example:
Kelly, M. (2014) 'Inequality and crime'. Review of Economics and Statistics [Preprint], 82 (4)
2000-11, pp.530-539. Available at: 10.1162/003465300559028 (Accessed: 10 December 2014).
In-Text-Citation:



Last name (Year)
(Last name, year)

Example:



Kelly (2014) highlights social inequality....
Crime and inequality go hand in hand (Kelly, 2014)...

Further Help
UCD Library has a basic online tutorial on how to use the Harvard Referencing Style. It is accessible at http://www.ucd.ie/library/elearning/refcite/Harvard/story.html

EndNote is a software application that allows researchers store and manage all references in one place. It is available via Software for U and the Library runs regular introductory and advanced training sessions.


Users can record, store and manage references in hundreds of citation styles.



Users can add references manually or search and download directly from online databases and library catalogues.



EndNote Cite While You Write features allows users to insert citations easily and creates bibliographies automatically in Microsoft Word and Apple's Pages '09

More information about Library support for Endnote is available on dedicated EndNote Subject
Guide.

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