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University of Roehampton Referencing Style Guide Harvard Version 2012

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Contents
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................... 1 DISCLAIMER ...................................................................................................................................................... 1 ABOUT THIS GUIDE ........................................................................................................................................... 1 WHAT IS REFERENCING, AND WHY SHOULD I DO IT? .................................................................................... 1 PARAPHRASING ................................................................................................................................................. 2 QUOTING ........................................................................................................................................................... 3 CITATIONS ........................................................................................................................................................ 4 . BIBLIOGRAPHIES OR CITED WORKS/REFERENCE LIST ................................................................................. 4 PLAGIARISM....................................................................................................................................................... 5 WHICH STYLE DO I USE? ................................................................................................................................. 8 HARVARD ................................................................................................................................................... 8 HARVARD­ QUOTING AND PARAPHRASING ............................................................................. 9 HARVARD BIBLIOGRAPHY/LIST OF WORKS CITED ........................................................... 20 . HARVARD BIBLIOGRAPHY EXAMPLE .............................................................................................................. 21 BOOKS, EBOOKS ................................................................................................................................... 22 BOOKS WITH ONE AUTHOR ........................................................................................................................... 23 BOOKS WITH TWO AUTHORS ........................................................................................................................ 23 . BOOKS WITH THREE OR MORE AUTHORS (PRINT) ....................................................................................... 24 MORE THAN ONE BOOK BY THE SAME AUTHOR ............................................................................................. 24 MORE THAN ONE BOOK BY THE SAME AUTHOR IN THE SAME YEAR ............................................................. 25 DIFFERENT EDITIONS OF THE SAME BOOK .................................................................................................... 26 EDITED BOOKS ................................................................................................................................................ 26 CHAPTERS IN AN EDITED BOOK .................................................................................................................... 27 BOOKS IN A SERIES ........................................................................................................................................ 28 BOOK REVISED AND UPDATED BY A DIFFERENT AUTHOR ............................................................................. 29 BOOK REPUBLISHED WITH A DIFFERENT TITLE ............................................................................................. 30 BOOK REVIEWS IN A JOURNAL ....................................................................................................................... 30 ANTHOLOGIES/COLLECTED WORKS .............................................................................................................. 30 POEMS – COLLECTION BY ONE POET ............................................................................................................. 31 POETRY – ANTHOLOGIES ............................................................................................................................... 32 PLAYS – SINGLE .............................................................................................................................................. 32 PLAYS – ANTHOLOGIES .................................................................................................................................. 33 SHAKESPEARE ................................................................................................................................................. 33 Shakespeare Play ................................................................................................................................. 33 Shakespeare – Editor of a Play ....................................................................................................... 34 BIBLE ............................................................................................................................................................... 34 QUR’AN/KORAN .............................................................................................................................................. 35 CLASSICS ........................................................................................................................................................ 36 DICTIONARIES/ENCYCLOPAEDIAS ­ INDIVIDUAL ENTRY ............................................................................. 36 WHOLE DICTIONARY/ENCYCLOPAEDIA­ NO AUTHOR ................................................................................. 37 SECONDARY REFERENCING: CITING A SOURCE WITHIN A SOURCE ........................................................... 37 TRANSLATED WORK........................................................................................................................................ 38 WORKS IN ANOTHER LANGUAGE NOT TRANSLATED ..................................................................................... 39

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WORKS WRITTEN IN MORE THAN ONE (DUAL) LANGUAGE .......................................................................... 40 Whole book: ........................................................................................................................................... 40 Story within a book.............................................................................................................................. 41 CHILDREN’S BOOKS ....................................................................................................................................... 41 BOARD BOOK .................................................................................................................................................. 42 ILLUSTRATOR .................................................................................................................................................. 42 GRAPHIC NOVELS ........................................................................................................................................... 43 EBOOKS .......................................................................................................................................................... 44 . EBOOK READERS: KINDLE EDITIONS/SONY EBOOK EDITIONS................................................................... 44 JOURNALS, EJOURNALS .................................................................................................................... 45 JOURNAL ARTICLES – PRINT.......................................................................................................................... 45 JOURNAL ARTICLES – ONLINE ....................................................................................................................... 46 JOURNAL ARTICLES – ELECTRONIC – FROM A BIBLIOGRAPHIC DATABASE ................................................. 47 JOURNAL ARTICLES – ELECTRONIC – FROM AN EPRINT REPOSITORY ......................................................... 47 JOURNAL ARTICLES – BOOK REVIEWS ........................................................................................................... 48 NEWSPAPERS, MAGAZINES ............................................................................................................ 49 NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES – PRINT ......................................................................................... 49 NEWSPAPER AND MAGAZINE ARTICLES – ELECTRONIC .............................................................................. 50 REVIEWS ......................................................................................................................................................... 50 . NEXIS............................................................................................................................................................... 51 INTERNET: WEB PAGES, BLOGS, WIKIS ................................................................................... 51 WEBPAGE......................................................................................................................................................... 52 DATABASE ....................................................................................................................................................... 52 BLOGS/SOCIAL NETWORKING POSTS .......................................................................................................... 53 WIKIS .............................................................................................................................................................. 53 PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS: EMAILS/TEXT MESSAGES/FAX ................................................................ 54 PODCASTS AND VODCASTS ........................................................................................................................... 54 . APPLICATION SOFTWARE/APPS ..................................................................................................................... 55 MOODLE COMMUNICATIONS .......................................................................................................................... 56 REPORTS, GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS, ACTS OF PARLIAMENT .............................. 56 WHITE AND GREEN PAPERS ........................................................................................................................... 57 ACTS OF PARLIAMENT..................................................................................................................................... 58 GOVERNMENT REPORTS ................................................................................................................................. 58 GOVERNMENT REPORTS WITH A NAMED AUTHOR ......................................................................................... 59 COMPANY ANNUAL REPORT............................................................................................................................ 60 SCHOOL / LOCAL AUTHORITY POLICY DOCUMENTS .................................................................................... 60 OFSTED REPORT ............................................................................................................................................. 61 NATIONAL CURRICULUM ­ ONLINE ................................................................................................................ 62 NATIONAL CURRICULUM – PAPER VERSION ................................................................................................. 63 WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION (WHO) REPORT ..................................................................................... 63 FILMS, TELEVISION, RADIO ........................................................................................................... 64 FILMS – CINEMA RELEASE .............................................................................................................................. 64 FILMS ON DVD ............................................................................................................................................... 65 FILM ON INTERNET .......................................................................................................................................... 65 TV SERIES VIEWED ON TV............................................................................................................................. 66 SINGLE EPISODE TV PROGRAMME VIEWED ON TV ...................................................................................... 66 TV SERIES VIEWED ON INTERNET ................................................................................................................. 67 SINGLE EPISODE TV PROGRAMME VIEWED ON INTERNET .......................................................................... 67 TV SERIES VIEWED ON DVD/VHS .............................................................................................................. 68 SINGLE EPISODE TV PROGRAMME VIEWED ON DVD/VHS ........................................................................ 69

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TV BROADCAST VIEWED ON BOB ................................................................................................................. 69 OFF AIR RECORDINGS ON DVD/VHS ......................................................................................................... 70 YOUTUBE AND OTHER VIDEO SHARING WEBSITES ..................................................................................... 70 RADIO PROGRAMMES ..................................................................................................................................... 71 RADIO PROGRAMMES HEARD ON THE INTERNET .......................................................................................... 71 IMAGES, GRAPHICS, MAPS, WORKS OF ART , PHOTOS, PRESENTATIONS .............. 72 WORKS OF ART ............................................................................................................................................... 73 IMAGES/CHARTS MAPS IN A BOOK ............................................................................................................... 73 IMAGE FROM A WEBSITE: ............................................................................................................................... 74 ORDNANCE SURVEY MAPS ............................................................................................................................. 74 MUSEUM EXHIBITION ..................................................................................................................................... 75 PRESENTATIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 75 . PRESENTATIONS – ONLINE ............................................................................................................................ 76 PHOTOS – PERSONAL COLLECTION .............................................................................................................. 77 . PHOTOS FROM A PHOTOSHARING WEBSITE .................................................................................................. 77 POSTERS, PAMPHLETS, PRESS RELEASES ............................................................................... 77 POSTERS .......................................................................................................................................................... 78 PAMPHLETS/LEAFLETS .................................................................................................................................... 78 ADVERTISEMENTS ........................................................................................................................................... 79 PRESS RELEASES ............................................................................................................................................ 80 . MUSIC, SPOKEN WORD AND PERFORMANCE ......................................................................... 80 AUDIO CD ­ ALBUM ....................................................................................................................................... 81 AUDIO CD – SONG ........................................................................................................................................ 82 AUDIO DOWNLOADS – ALBUM ...................................................................................................................... 82 AUDIO DOWNLOADS – SONG ........................................................................................................................ 83 CLASSICAL RECORDINGS ............................................................................................................................... 83 MUSICAL SCORES ........................................................................................................................................... 84 SONG LYRICS FROM ALBUM COVER ............................................................................................................... 84 SONG LYRICS FROM WEBSITE ........................................................................................................................ 85 SONG LYRICS FROM SHEET MUSIC ................................................................................................................ 85 MUSIC CHORDS FROM WEBSITE..................................................................................................................... 86 AUDIOBOOKS .................................................................................................................................................. 86 SPOKEN WORD RECORDINGS, AUDIOBOOKS ............................................................................................... 87 . AUDIOBOOKS – DOWNLOADS ....................................................................................................................... 88 CD – ROMS..................................................................................................................................................... 88 LIVE PERFORMANCES – MUSIC CONCERT...................................................................................................... 89 LIVE PERFORMANCES – CLASSICAL MUSIC CONCERT .................................................................................. 89 LIVE PERFORMANCE – THEATRE .................................................................................................................... 90 LIVE PERFORMANCE – POETRY, SPOKEN WORD .......................................................................................... 90 LIVE PERFORMANCE – DANCE ........................................................................................................................ 91 THESES, CONFERENCES, INTERVIEWS ...................................................................................... 92 PHD THESES/MASTERS THESIS/DISSERTATION (UNPUBLISHED) ............................................................ 92 . THESES/MASTERS THESIS/DISSERTATION (PUBLISHED) .......................................................................... 93 ONLINE THESES .............................................................................................................................................. 93 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS – WHOLE ........................................................................................................ 94 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS – PAPER .......................................................................................................... 94 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (WHOLE – ONLINE) ........................................................................................ 95 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS (SINGLE PAPER ­ ONLINE) ............................................................................ 95 CONFERENCE PROCEEDING PUBLISHED IN A JOURNAL ................................................................................ 96 INTERVIEWS – BROADCAST ........................................................................................................................... 96 INTERVIEWS – PERSONAL .............................................................................................................................. 97

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PATENTS, BRITISH STANDARDS .................................................................................................. 98 PATENTS .......................................................................................................................................................... 98 BRITISH STANDARDS ..................................................................................................................................... 99 UNIVERSITY COURSE MATERIALS ............................................................................................... 99 SOURCES WITH NO AUTHOR OR DATE ........................................................................................................ 100 ANONYMOUS SOURCES ................................................................................................................................ 100 SOURCES WITHOUT A DATE ......................................................................................................................... 101 CITATION & REFERENCE MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE ........................................................ 101 FAQS ......................................................................................................................................................... 103 REFERENCING SYSTEMS ............................................................................................................................... 103 SOURCES MISSING PARTS OF THEIR INFORMATION ................................................................................... 104 SECONDARY REFERENCING .......................................................................................................................... 104 BIBLIOGRAPHY/CITED WORKS LIST QUESTIONS ...................................................................................... 104 . WHAT DOES THIS TERM MEAN? ................................................................................................................... 105 PLAGIARISM................................................................................................................................................... 105 QUOTATIONS/PARAPHRASING ..................................................................................................................... 105 CAN’T FIND A SOURCE? ................................................................................................................................ 106 MORE HELP ............................................................................................................................................ 116

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Introduction

Disclaimer
Some examples in this guide are fictional, and have been created in order to illustrate how to cite a particular type of resource. Other examples have been adapted according to the type of resource and style they represent. The guide is intended to demonstrate to students the layout they should use when referencing various types of sources, and is not to be used as a recommended reading list.

About this guide The referencing guide contains examples of the Harvard referencing style including sample bibliographies and full details on in­text citations for each style. If your programme uses another style this can be accessed here: MLA APA You can either navigate to the appropriate style section on the menu on the left or download a printed version.

What is referencing, and why should I do it?

As members of Roehampton University you are part of an academic community and as such it is essential that you make yourself familiar with the conventions of academic writing. Every member of the academic community, staff and student alike, is expected to follow these academic conventions in any piece of work they produce. In academic writing referencing is one of these conventions. Referencing is used to acknowledge the use of other people’s work and ideas in our own work. 1

The term ‘referencing’ includes:   At university you may find assignment writing is very different to your previous experiences of producing written work. In academic writing we thoroughly research a topic before beginning the writing process, and then begin to incorporate this research into our own thoughts, ideas and analysis, ultimately producing a thoroughly researched, well written and comprehensive piece of work. Referencing involves four key elements: Paraphrasing Quoting Citations Bibliographies or Cited Works Lists

The citation used within the text to show where a quotation or paraphrased statement is from. The inclusion of the full details of the source in the bibliography at the end on the essay

Paraphrasing When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your assignment but put them into your own words, this is called paraphrasing. Paraphrasing can be used in a number of situations in your essays:     Any type of paraphrasing will need to acknowledge the source you originally obtained the information from. If you do not include an acknowledgement or this is incorrect, then this is plagiarism. 2 You might be referring to a school of thought You might be summarising a chapter You might be summarising an idea You might be summarising a whole book

Quoting This type of referencing you may be more familiar with. When you include the words of someone else’s work in your essay you are quoting. You must indicate that the words you are using are not your own. To do this you will either use speech marks or single inverted commas around the words you are quoting. Whether you use speech marks or single inverted commas depends on the referencing style you are using. When quoting from sources within your text, use the following conventions:   Keep quotations brief. If quoting short text word­for­word within a sentence, enclose the quotation in the appropriate quotation marks for your referencing style. If quoting a longer piece of text word for word, set out in a new paragraph with no quotation marks, indented from the main text.



Punctuation and Quotations It is very important that you do not forget to punctuate your sentences when you are quoting or paraphrasing. The simplest way to make sure you have punctuated your sentence correctly is to remember that the punctuation within the quotation does not count towards the punctuation in the sentence. The full stop must always be placed on the outside of the last bracket. Examples: INCORRECT: Smith argues that, ‘it is essential to punctuate your sentences correctly.’ (Smith, 2008) CORRECT: Smith argues that, ‘it is essential to punctuate your sentences correctly’ (Smith, 2008).

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Citations
With each quotation or paraphrase that appears in your assignments there must be some acknowledgement of where that information comes from. In academic writing we call this acknowledgement a citation. The form of the citation will vary depending on the type of referencing style you are using. For the Harvard referencing style we use an in­text citation i.e. the citation appears within the sentences and paragraphs of your assignment. This citation is a brief summary of the source used, normally just mentioning the author’s surname and or a date/page number depending on the style you are using, surrounded by round brackets (parentheses).

Bibliographies or Cited Works/Reference List The information in brackets is just a quick summary of which source you have used. A bibliography or cited works list provides full details of each source you have used in your essay in alphabetical order. The details you need to provide will vary depending on the type of sources you have used, but may include information such as the place of publication and publisher, the full web address, the original broadcast date and the date the source was accessed. Full details of how to cite each type of source in your bibliography can be found in this guide. A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have looked at to help you compile the essay. This can include sources you have read but not actually quoted from or paraphrased in your work. Please note that some tutors prefer you to produce a cited works or reference list. A cited works reference list is a list of all of the sources you have directly quoted or paraphrased in your work only. You cannot include works that you have read but not cited in your essay. If you are 4

unsure which type of list your tutor is expecting it is a good idea to double check with them before you begin writing your essay. Your bibliography or cited works/reference list should be laid out as neatly as possible so it is easy for your tutor to find the full details of each source you are referring to. Choose a clear font in an easy to read size (at least size 12). Space out each entry with a line in between each one and alphabetise the list from A­Z as much as possible. If an entry carries on to a second line then this line should be indented from the rest of the text. (Some tutors may require you to arrange your references into separate sections, e.g. all websites at the end, separating children’s books from the rest of the list, so it is important to confirm with your tutor what they require before you compile your list.)

Plagiarism

Plagiarism is presenting another person’s work as your own. When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of someone else, or use the words they have used and present them as your own argument, then this is plagiarism. This can be written words or may be an idea, an artefact, musical composition, choreography, image or string of computer code etc..., dependent on your programme of study. The term plagiarism is derived from the Latin Plagiarius, which means kidnapper. Plagiarism in written work can occur intentionally (e.g. you copy a section from a book without referencing it) or unintentionally (e.g. you paraphrase another person's work or ideas but fail to acknowledge them as the source). A lack of awareness of the rules of referencing is not an acceptable excuse for plagiarism so please double check all of your quotations and paraphrases and make sure every source is listed correctly in your bibliography. Please note: just changing one or two words somewhere in the quotation does not mean it becomes your own work and you do not need to reference it. This is still a form of plagiarism.

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Roehampton University takes plagiarism very seriously. The following is taken from Section 5 of the Student Disciplinary Regulations: a) No student shall represent the work of another person as his or her own in any academic material submitted for assessment. b) No student shall contribute any work to another student with the knowledge that the latter may submit the work in part or whole as his or her own. The university has a number of systems in place to find plagiarism in student’s work including software such as ‘Turnitin’ which detects how original your work is. If you plagiarise you may face disciplinary proceedings, fail your module and even, at worst, be expelled from university. You should always ensure that you reference your work properly and carefully.

Find out more about Turnitin and how to use the Turnitin practice tool by going to the Library Research Skills Moodle site and looking at the ‘Plagiarism and Turnitin’ section. Forms of plagiarism and collusion, all of which are unacceptable, include: a) Using sentences, parts of sentences, or larger pieces of text without attributing them. This includes cutting and pasting sections from websites. b) Citing the name of an author but not making clear which words are the author's and which are yours. c) Mixing and matching parts of sentences to create new ones: if you use recognisable phrases that are not your own then you are plagiarising. d) Using unattributed sentences with odd words changed. 6

e) Quoting inaccurately. Even if you cite the author and source and put the quote in inverted commas, if you do not reproduce a quote faithfully then you have plagiarised. f) Failing to list all sources used in your essay in your bibliography or cited works/reference list. All websites visited, emails used, radio/television programmes watched as well as books and journals read, should be included. g) Writing a piece of work with another student (unless this is group work). h) Submitting a piece of work written in whole or in part by someone else. i) Paying to have a piece of work written by someone else. j) Resubmitting part of or a whole assignment you have previously submitted. Even if this is your own work the university considers this plagiarism as each piece of work you submit must be original. Quoting very long passages (unless the point being made is particularly complex and needs extensive quotation) is not exactly plagiarism but it is poor practice. Roehampton does not accept any of the reasons below as excuses for plagiarism: a) Lack of time/poor time management b) Not understanding the nature of plagiarism. First, if you do any of the things listed above you have plagiarized. Second, if you are in

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any doubt consult your tutor before submitting an essay: they will be happy to offer you advice c) Not being able to do/not understanding a piece of work d) Muddled notes leading to confusion between original material and quotes

Which style do I use? This information should be provided to you by your programme so make sure you have checked your module/programme handbook first. If it is still not clear which style you should be using the table below is provided for guidance but it is still advisable to check with your tutors before writing your first assignment. Department Business Dance Drama, Theatre and Performance Education English Literature & Creative Writing Humanities Life Sciences Media, Culture and Languages Psychology Social Sciences Referencing Style Harvard Harvard Harvard Harvard MLA and Harvard ( Check your handbook) Harvard Harvard Harvard APA and Harvard ( Check your handbook) Harvard

Harvard Harvard referencing is a citation style where the in text citations contain a minimal amount of information about the source (mostly author’s surname, date of publication and sometimes page number). The in text citation is surrounded by parenthesis i.e. rounded brackets ( ). This can be embedded within a sentence or placed at the end of a 8

sentence. The full details about the source are then placed at the end of document in a bibliography or cited works/reference list. Each entry is normally listed in alphabetical order. There is no universal Harvard Referencing style. Harvard referencing is an adaptable style used by many universities across the world; therefore you can potentially access a number of different Harvard guides online. At the University of Roehampton we recommend you use the style in this guide only.

Harvard­ Quoting and Paraphrasing Harvard­ Quoting and Paraphrasing Examples of in­text citation: 1 author Examples of in­text citation: 2 authors Examples of in­text citation: 3 or more authors Examples of in­text citation: Edited work Examples of in­text citation: Article in a journal Examples of in­text citation: Chapter in an edited work Examples of in text citation: Secondary referencing: citing a source within a source Examples of in­text citation: audiovisual media Examples of in­text citation: Web pages Bibliography/List of Works Cited

When you include the words of someone else’s work in your essay you are Quoting. When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your assignment but put them into your own words, this is called Paraphrasing. Every time you quote from another person or refer to their work or ideas in your text, you must follow this with a brief citation in round brackets (parentheses). This in­text citation usually takes the form of the author’s surname, followed by a comma and then the year the work you are referring to was published, then a colon and a page number, e.g. (Smith, 2003: 13).

The standard format for in­text citation is as follows:

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Quoting – follow the (Author, Date: p.no) layout Paraphrasing – follow the (Author, Date) layout. There is no need to include a page number. Example: (Smith, 2003) Example: (Smith, 2003:12)

However, there is some variation depending on the type of source you are looking at so please check the hints in this guide carefully. The information in brackets can appear in different places within the text. For standard quoting and paraphrasing the citation in brackets appears at the end of the quotation or paraphrase. If you quote a section of text that is more than 40 words long the quotation should be indented either side with the citation in brackets underneath:

Example layout for a longer quotation: Conjunctions play an important role in the formation of sentences: Conjunctions have the semantic role of indicating in which way the new information links to the previous sentence. It may be additional (additive), conflicting (adversative), explanatory (causal) or simply the next thing that is to be said on the subject (continuative). (Jefferies, 2006: 186)
This quotation should be presented using single­line spacing and there is no need for inverted commas to indicate you are quoting when using a longer quotation. If you would like to cite two or more books by the same author, as long as these are published in a different year this is not an issue in Harvard referencing. In

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your bibliography list each book by the same author in order of the date published with the earliest published book first. If you are citing more than one work by the same author and these works are published in the same year, add the letter ‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’ etc. after the year to distinguish the work you are referring to, e.g. (Smith, 2003a: 13). When citing titles in the main text of your assignment, these should be in italics. If no individual author can be found for a source, as with a web page or report, a corporate author can be used instead. This will be the organisation responsible for the work, such as a charity or company. The corporate author name may be abbreviated in the in­text citation if necessary, e.g.:(NSPCC, 2009). For works which have no discernible author, such as films or television programmes, the title can be used instead. Many such sources also have no page numbers, so this may be omitted. When quoting from sources within your text, use the following conventions: Keep quotations brief. If quoting short text word­for­word within a sentence, enclose the quotation in ‘single inverted commas’. If quoting a longer piece of text word for word, set out in a new paragraph with no quotation marks, indented from the main text. The citation usually comes at the end of the sentence containing the quotation or paraphrase. For readability, there is no need to repeat the author’s name if you have already mentioned it in the sentence, you can just cite the date and the page number/s. Below are some common examples of in­text citation in the Harvard style:

Examples of in­text citation: 1 author

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Source used (bibliography entry) Short quotation without author’s name in sentence Short quotation with author’s name in sentence Long quotation without author’s name in sentence Smith, J., (2003) Early Years Teaching: a guide for students, London: Routledge. It has been said that ‘all children learn through play’ (Smith, 2003: 62). Smith believes that ‘all children learn through play’ (2003: 62). Play is an important part of children’s development: I have never known a playgroup in which children fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all children learn through play. (Smith, 2003: 62) Play is an important part of children’s development, according to Smith: I have never known a playgroup in which children fail to thrive. There can be no doubt that all children learn through play. (2003: 62) It is commonly believed that learning through play is an activity that helps children learn (Smith, 2003). Smith (2003) believes that learning through play is an activity that helps children learn.

Long quotation with author’s name in sentence

Paraphrase without author’s name in sentence Paraphrase with author’s name in sentence

Examples of in­text citation: 2 authors

If you are citing 2 authors the second author is listed by initial/s first, then surname. Source used (bibliography entry) Short quotation without author’s name in sentence Short quotation with author’s name in sentence Pears, R., and G. Shields, (2008) Cite them Right: the essential referencing guide, Newcastle upon Tyne: Pear Tree Books. If used properly ‘references can strengthen your writing’ (Pears and Shields, 2008: 11). According to Pears and Shields ‘references can strengthen your writing’ 12

(2008: 11). Long quotation without author’s A comprehensive bibliography is name in sentence important, because: Appropriately used, references can strengthen your writing and can help you attain a better mark or grade. (Pears and Shields, 2008: 11) Long quotation with author’s A comprehensive bibliography is name in sentence important, according to Pears and Shields: Appropriately used, references can strengthen your writing and can help you attain a better mark or grade. (2008: 11) Paraphrase without author’s Correct referencing shows that you have name in sentence read and understood a number of sources (Pears and Shields, 2008). Paraphrase with author’s name Good referencing skills can help you in sentence attain better grades, according to Pears and Shields (2008).
Examples of in­text citation: 3 or more authors

In your in­text citation you only need to list the first surname of the first author followed by the words ‘et al’. Remember, in your bibliography you must list every author. Source used (bibliography entry) Goodman, S., T. Lillis, J. Maybin, and N. Mercer, (2003) Language, Literacy and Education: A Reader, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Short quotation without Children understand the world, ‘through author’s name in sentence their involvement in social events’ (Goodman et al., 2003: 1). Short quotation with author’s Goodman et. al. argue that children name in sentence understand the world, ‘through their involvement in social events’ (2003: 1). Long quotation without author’s Children’s development is shaped by a name in sentence number of factors, 13

The way that children come to understand the world is explained through their involvement in social events, which are themselves shaped by cultural and historical factors. (Goodman et al., 2003: 1) Long quotation with author’s Goodman et. al. consider children’s name in sentence development to be shaped by a number of factors, The way that children come to understand the world is explained through their involvement in social events, which are themselves shaped by cultural and historical factors. (2003: 1) Paraphrase without author’s Children’s development is shaped by name in sentence social, historical and cultural factors (Goodman et al., 2003). Paraphrase with author’s name Goodman et al. (2003) have in sentence demonstrated that children’s development is shaped by social, historical and cultural factors.
Examples of in­text citation: Edited work

If referring to the whole book, cite the editor as the author. For multiple editors use the rules as for multiple authors, above.
Examples of in­text citation: Chapter in an edited work

If you are citing a chapter in an edited work, or an article in a journal, it is the author of the chapter or article who would be cited, not the editor of the book or journal. Source used (bibliography entry) Avaan, P., (1989) ‘The Role of the Library’, In Atkinson, D., (ed.) The Children’s Bookroom: Reading and the Use of Books, Stoke­on­Trent: Trentham Books. 14

Short quotation without author’s name in sentence ‘Having a room marked Library … does not fulfil the need for library provision”’(Avaan, 1989: 68). Short quotation with author’s Avaan asserts that ‘Having a room name in sentence marked Library … does not fulfil the need for library provision’ (1989: 68). Long quotation without author’s Libraries are vital in schools, but need to name in sentence be more than just a book­lined room: Having a room marked Library […] does not fulfil the need for library provision. The expertise of a qualified librarian is indispensable. (Avaan, 1989: 68) Long quotation with author’s Avaan states that school libraries need name in sentence to be more than just a book­lined room: Having a room marked Library [...] does not fulfil the need for library provision. The expertise of a qualified librarian is indispensable. (1989: 68) Paraphrase without author’s Some authors berate the lack of library name in sentence provision in primary schools (Avaan, 1989). Paraphrase with author’s name Avaan (1989) berates the lack of library in sentence provision in primary schools.

Examples of in­text citation: Journal article

If you are citing an article in a journal, it is the author of the article who would be cited, not the editor of the journal. Source used (bibliography entry) Biggs, M., (2005) ‘Strikes as Forest Fires: Chicago and Paris in the late Nineteenth Century, American Journal of Sociology, 110(6) pp.1687­1714 Short quotation without author’s name in sentence ‘People suddenly shift from quiescence to defiance; they strike, sit in, demonstrate, or riot en masse’ (Biggs, 15

2005: 1687). Short quotation with author’s name in sentence Biggs asserts that ‘People suddenly shift from quiescence to defiance; they strike, sit in, demonstrate, or riot en masse’ (2005: 1687).

Long quotation without author’s Mass movements are contagious: name in sentence Transgressive contention occurs in waves. People suddenly shift from quiescence to defiance; they strike, sit in, demonstrate, or riot en masse; protest spreads across social networks and from place to place. (Biggs, 2005: 1687) Long quotation with author’s name in sentence Biggs asserts that mass movements are contagious: Transgressive contention occurs in waves. People suddenly shift from quiescence to defiance; they strike, sit in, demonstrate, or riot en masse; protest spreads across social networks and from place to place. (2005: 1687) Paraphrase without author’s name in sentence It has been asserted that mass movements arise through social contact (Biggs, 2005: 1687).

Paraphrase with author’s name Biggs makes the case that mass movements arise through social contact in sentence (2005:1687).

Secondary referencing: citing a source within a source HINT: In your bibliography/ reference list you should only cite the book that you have actually read, according to the rules for that type of source.

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HINT: You must include the date of the original source in your in­text citation.

Source used (bibliography entry) Sullivan, H. W., (1995) The Beatles with Lacan: Rock & Roll as Requiem for the Modern Age, New York: Peter Lang Short quotation without author's name in sentence Short quotation with author's name in sentence Long quotation without author's name in sentence ‘It’s no fun being an artist’ (Lennon, 1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72). Lennon once claimed ‘It’s no fun being an artist’ (1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72). Many artists believe great art cannot be produced without suffering: It’s no fun being an artist….[People] live vicariously through me and other artists…I’d sooner be rich than poor, but ignorance is bliss or something. If you don’t know, man, there’s no pain. (Lennon, 1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72) Long quotation with author's name John Lennon has described the pain of being in sentence an artist: It’s no fun being an artist….[People] live vicariously through me and other artists…I’d sooner be rich than poor, but ignorance is bliss or something. If you don’t know, man, there’s no pain. (1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72) Paraphrase without author's name Even members of the Beatles have claimed in sentence that true artistic expression is impossible without suffering (Lennon, 1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72). Paraphrase with author's name in Even John Lennon has claimed that true sentence artistic expression is impossible without suffering (1971, cited in Sullivan, 1995:72).

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Examples of in­text citation: audiovisual media

Films do not have an author in the usual sense, so the title may be used instead. However, if you are citing the work of a particular person – the director, performer, cinematographer, etc. – you can cite them instead of the author, and forget about page numbers. You would only “quote” from a film if you were directly quoting dialogue, in which case you would also need to quote the name of the character who is speaking. Source used (bibliography entry) Dirty Harry, (1971) Directed by Siegel, D., [Film] London: BFI ‘Do you feel lucky? Well do you, punk?’ (Dirty Harry, 1971).

Short quotation without film name in sentence Short quotation with film name As Harry says in Dirty Harry ‘Do you feel in sentence lucky? Well do you, punk?’ (1971). Long quotation without film Clint Eastwood is famous for his reading name in sentence of the lines: ‘You gotta ask yourself one question, ‘Do I feel lucky?’. Well do you, punk?’ (Dirty Harry, 1971) Long quotation with film name As Clint Eastwood’s character says in in sentence Dirty Harry: ‘You gotta ask yourself one question, ‘Do I feel lucky?’ Well do you, punk?’ (1971) Paraphrase without film name Eastwood’s character asks other in sentence characters about their feelings, but in a very menacing way (Dirty Harry, 1971). Paraphrase with film name in Eponymous anti­hero Dirty Harry asks sentence other characters about their feelings, but in a very menacing way (Dirty Harry, 1971).
Examples of in­text citation: Web pages

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Web pages sometimes have a personal author – look for clues such as the Copyright sign, or ‘About this Website’, or ‘Contact’. More often, however, the author would be the organisation responsible for the web site. Web pages rarely have page numbers so there is no need to include these. Source used (bibliography entry) NSPCC, (2009) NSPCC response to 21st Century Schools: A World Class Education for Every Child, Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/policyandpublicaffairs/ Consultations/2009/21stCenturySchools_wdf64379.pdf, (accessed: 15/06/09) It can be argued that there are ‘not enough services providing therapeutic support to abused children’ (NSPCC, 2009).

Short quotation without organisation name in sentence Short quotation with organisation name in sentence Long quotation without organisation name in sentence

The NSPCC (2009) claims that there are ‘not enough services providing therapeutic support to abused children’.

Abused children need more support in schools: There are not enough services providing therapeutic support to abused children who need help to overcome the trauma they have experienced, which will make it challenging for schools to find the right kind of support for children to help them emotionally and in relation to their education. (NSPCC, 2009) Long quotation The NSPCC claims that abused children need more with support in schools: organisation There are not enough services providing name in therapeutic support to abused children who need sentence help to overcome the trauma they have experienced, which will make it challenging for schools to find the right kind of support for children to help them emotionally and in relation to their education. 19

Paraphrase without organisation name in sentence Paraphrase with organisation name in sentence (NSPCC, 2009) It has been claimed that abused children need more support in school (NSPCC, 2009).

The NSPCC (2009) claims that abused children need more support in schools.

Harvard Bibliography/List of Works Cited Bibliographies

At the end of your essay you must provide a detailed list of every source you have used in compiling your work. Each entry must contain full bibliographic details set out in the designated Harvard style. This guide gives examples of Harvard bibliography entries for many different types of sources. In the in text citation, the information in brackets is just a quick summary of which source you have used. In the Harvard system all of the information about the source is included in a bibliography at the end of the piece of work. A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have looked at to help you compile the essay. This can include sources you have read but not actually quoted from or paraphrased in your work. Please note that some tutors prefer you to produce a reference list. A reference list is a list of all of the sources you have directly quoted or paraphrased in your work only. If you are unsure which type of list your tutor is expecting it is a good idea to double check with them before you begin writing your essay. However, the information included in the bibliography will vary with each different source so please check this guide carefully for the information you should include. 20

Bibliography Layout Your bibliography should be laid out as neatly as possible so it is easy for your tutor to find the full details of each source you are referring to. Choose a clear font in an easy to read size. Space out each entry with a line in between each one and alphabetise the list from A­Z as much as possible. If an entry carries on to a second line then this line should be indented from the rest of the text.

Harvard Bibliography Example
Adorno, T. W., (1954) 'How to Look at Television', The Quarterly of Film Radio and Television, 8 (3) pp.213­235 Cottrell, S., (2010) Skills for Success: The Personal Development Planning Handbook, 2nd edition, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (first published: 2005) Dahl, S., (2007) 'Turnitin®', Active Learning in Higher Education, 8 (2) pp.173­191, Available at: http://alh.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/8/2/173 (accessed: 24 Sep 2011) Hargreaves, S., (2007) Study Skills for Dyslexic Students, London: SAGE Hussain, S. B., (2004) Encyclopaedia of Capitalism, New York: Facts On File Jones, D. C., (2011) 'Thinking Critically about Digital Literacy: A Learning Sequence on Pens, Pages, and Pixels', Digital Literacy, Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=24910887&site=ehost­ live. (accessed: 24 Sep 2011) Kakkonen, T. & M. Mozgovoy, (2010) 'Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student essays—An Evaluation of the State­of­the­Art', Journal of Educational Computing Research, 42 (2) pp.135­159 Latto, J. & R. Latto, (2009) Study Skills for Psychology Students, Maidenhead, England: McGraw­ Hill. Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/roehampton/Doc?id=10274040 (accessed: 24 Sep 2011) Martin, P. & P. Saville, (2006) Gangsters: The Complete Series, London: BBC Worldwide. Available at: http://prism.talis.com/roehampton/items/469063 (accessed: 24 Sep 2011) McArthur, R. & T. McArthur, (1998) Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford: Oxford University Press

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Neville, C., (2010) The Complete Guide to Referencing and Avoiding Plagiarism, 2nd ed., Maidenhead: Open University Press. Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/roehampton/Doc?id=10404007 (accessed: 24 Sep 2011) Pennycook, A., (1996) 'Borrowing Others' Words: Text, Ownership, Memory, and Plagiarism', TESOL Quarterly 30 (2) pp.201­230 Phillips, E. M. & D. S. Pugh, (2000) How to Get a PhD: A Handbook for Students and their Supervisors, Milton Keynes: Open University Press Shinn, M. R., (1998) Advanced Applications of Curriculum­Based Measurement, New York: Guilford Press Wilson, E. & D. Bedford, (2009) Study Skills for Part­Time Students, Harlow: Pearson Longman. Available at: https://www.dawsonera.com/guard/protected/dawson.jsp?name=https://dmz­ shib­dg­ 01.dmz.roehampton.ac.uk/idp/shibboleth&dest=http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/pro tected/external/AbstractView/S9781408230589 (accessed: 24 Sep 2011)

Books, eBooks How to reference …..

Books with One Author Books with Two Authors Books with Three or more Authors (print) More than one book by the same author

Bible Qur'an/Koran Classics

Dictionaries/Encyclopaedias ­ Individual entry More than one book by the same author Whole in the same year Dictionary/Encyclopaedia­ No Author Different editions of the same book Secondary Referencing: Citing a source within a source Edited books Translated Work Chapters in an Edited Book Works in another language not translated Books in a series Works written in more than Books revised and updated by a one (dual) language different author Books republished with a different title 22

Book reviews in a journal Anthologies/Collected Works Poems ­ single poem Poetry – Anthologies Plays – single Plays – anthologies Shakespeare Story within a book Children's Books Board Book Illustrator Graphic Novels eBooks ebook Readers: Kindle editions/Sony ebook editions

Books with One Author How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Smith, J., (2003) Early Years Teaching, London: Routledge For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Books with Two Authors How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., & Initial. Surname, (Year) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example:

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Chazan, M., & A. F. Laing, (1982) Children with Special Needs, Milton Keynes: Open University Press For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Books with Three or more Authors (print) How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., Initial. Surname, & Initial. Surname, (Year) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher. HINT: Follow the model for 2 authors but list every author with a comma in between each one and a ‘and’ between the last two authors. Example: Goodman, S., T. Lillis, J. Maybin, & N. Mercer, (2003) Language, Literacy and Education: A Reader, Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

More than one book by the same author If you would like to cite two or more books by the same author, as long as these are published in a different year this is not an issue in Harvard referencing HINT: In your bibliography list each book by the same author in order of the date published with the earliest published book first.

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HINT: In this example Hoskyns is the author of the first work but the editor of the second. Example: Hoskyns, B., (2009) Lowside of the Road: A Life of Tom Waits. London: Faber Hoskyns, B., (ed.) (2003) The Sound and the Fury: 40 years of classic rock journalism, London: Bloomsbury For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

More than one book by the same author in the same year How to cite in your bibliography: Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: If the author(s) have published more than one book in the same year and you are citing from them all you can distinguish between each book with an: a, b, c, etc. in your quoting or paraphrasing. Then list the full details of the book in your bibliography with an a, b, c etc. after the year published so the books can be matched accordingly. Examples: Graham, R., (1998a) A Beginners Guide to Writing, London: Routledge Graham, R., (1998b) An Advanced Guide to Writing, London: Routledge 25

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Different editions of the same book How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book in Italics, No. of edition, Place of Publication: Publisher (first published: Date) HINT: Cite sources like this as you would a book, but include details of which edition you are looking at after the title and include details of the first edition only in brackets at the end. Example: Dillon, J., & M. Maguire, (2007) Becoming a Teacher: Issues in Secondary Teaching, 3rd edition, Milton Keynes: Open University Press (first published: 1997) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Edited books How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (ed./s.) (Year) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: An edited work is usually a collection of essays or other short pieces of writing (short stories, plays, interviews etc.) written by different authors but compiled into one volume by the editor(s). These are one­off 26

publications, unlike journals which have an overall editor but are published very frequently and cited as journals (see Journal articles). Edited works are cited in the same way as books, but listing the editor as the author. Example: Atkinson, D., (ed.) (1989) The Children’s Bookroom: Reading and the Use of Books, Stoke­on­Trent: Trentham Books For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Chapters in an Edited Book How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) ‘Title of Chapter in Inverted Commas’, in Surname of editor, Initial., (ed.) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: Remember the work you are referring to in your essay is the work of the author of the chapter not the editor(s) of the book. Unless you are referring to the book as a whole, then you refer to the editor. See also: Anthologies Collections of Plays Collections of Poems Example:

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Butroyd, R., (2008) ‘Relationships with Children and Young People’, in Denby, N., (ed.) How to Achieve your QTS: A Guide for Students, London: Sage For multiple editors follow the rules for multiple authors in the books with two authors or books with three or more authors section but include an: (eds.) after listing all of the editors Example: Worthington, M., (2009) 'Play is a complex landscape: imagination and symbolic meanings', in Broadhead, P., L. Wood, and J. Howard, (eds.) Play and Learning in Educational Settings, London: Sage Publications For multiple authors of the chapter follow the rules for multiple authors in the books with two authors or books with three or more authors section. Example: Worthington, M., and E. Carruthers, (2006) 'Mathematical Development', in Bruce, T., (ed.) Early Childhood: a Guide for Students, London: Paul Chapman For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Books in a series How to cite in your bibliography Surname of editor, Initial(s)., (ed/s.) (Year) Title of Volume in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher, Title of Series in italics, Volume (part number) 28

HINT: A book series (also known as “monograph”) is different from a journal or periodical in that each volume is published as a separate, complete book in itself, with its own ISBN. Volumes in a series are published irregularly, and less frequently than journal issues – usually one a year or less. They will have a title and author or editors as with a book, plus a series title and editor. Example: Hart, D., R. Atkins, S. Fegley, R. W. Robins & J. L. Tracy, (eds.) (2003) Personality and Development in Childhood : a person­centered approach, Oxford: Blackwell, Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 68 (1) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Book revised and updated by a different author

Sometimes an original text will subsequently be revised and updated in later editions by a different author. This is different from a simple reprint or from a standard second or later edition. Surname, Initial/s., (Original Date) Title of Book in Italics, No. of edition, revised and updated by Surname, Initial/s., (Date of revised and updated edition) Place of Publication: Publisher Hint: In the body of your essay the author would still be Docking in the citation but the date would be the revised and updated date i.e. (Docking, 2002) Example: Docking J. W., (1996) Managing Behaviour in the Primary School, 3rd edition, revised and updated by MacGrath, M., (2002) London: David Fulton.

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Book republished with a different title

Sometimes when a book is republished the title may change. You may wish to acknowledge this change in your bibliography. Surname, Initial., (Year) Current Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher (Originally published as: Original Title of Book in Italics, first published: Date) HINT: In your citation refer to the date of the book you are using not the original date Example: Horowitz, A., (2003) Return to Groosham Grange, London: Walker Books (Originally published as: The Unholy Grail, first published: 1999)

Book reviews in a journal See: Journal Articles ­ Book Reviews

Anthologies/Collected Works How to cite in your bibliography Surname of author, Initial(s)., (Year) ‘Title of individual play/short story/poem etc’, In Surname of editor, Initial., (ed.) Title of Anthology in Italics, Place of publication: Publisher

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HINT: Anthologies of plays, poems, short stories etc. often reproduce works that have been published in other editions. You should cite the author and title of the individual work you are referring to, and give details of the edition you have used, including the editor/ (ed./eds.) etc. If you are just referring to the whole anthology, and not to any individual work, follow the guidelines for citing an edited work. Example: Nagy, P., (1994) ‘Weldon Rising’, In Castledine, A., (ed.) Plays by Women: Volume Ten, London: Methuen Drama For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Poems – collection by one poet How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: It may make things clearer to your reader if you mention the title of the exact poem you are looking at in your essay. The title should be in italics. Example: McGough, R., (2003) The Bees Knees, London: Puffin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

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Poetry – Anthologies
How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial of author of the poem., (Year) ‘Title of Poem in Inverted Commas’, in Editor Surname, Initial., (ed./eds.) Title of Anthology, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: You need to refer to the author of the poem, and then the editor of the anthology. If you mention the name of the poem in the body of your essay remember this should be in italics. Example: Brown, R. M., (1986) ‘Sappho’s Reply’, in Coote, S., (ed.) The Penguin Book of Homosexual Verse, London: Penguin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Plays – single How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initials., (Year) Title of Play, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Osborne, J., (1957) Look Back in Anger, London: Faber and Faber For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

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Plays – anthologies How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial of author of the play., (Year) ‘Title of Play in Inverted Commas’, in Surname of editor, Initial., (ed./eds.) Title of Anthology of Plays, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Nagy, P., (1994) ‘Weldon Rising’, in Castledine A., (ed.) Plays by Women: Volume Ten, London: Methuen Drama For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Shakespeare
Shakespeare Play How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initials., (Year) Title of Play, Surname of editor/s, Initials., (ed/s.) Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: If referring to a specific edition, you would need to include the full publication details. Example: Shakespeare, W., (1967) All’s Well that Ends Well, Hunter, G.K., (ed.) London: Routledge

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Shakespeare – Editor of a Play HINT: If you are referring primarily to the work of the editor (e.g., the introduction, the notes, or editorial decisions regarding the text), begin the entry with the editor’s name, followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. (“editor”), and give the author’s name, preceded by the word By, after the title. How to cite in your bibliography Editor Surname, Initial(s)., (ed/eds.)Title of Play in Italics, By First Name Surname of author of the play, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Hunter, G.K., (ed.) All’s Well that Ends Well, By William Shakespeare, London: Routledge For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Bible Citations from the Bible should list the book, chapter, and verse/s e.g. Ecclesiastes 2: 4 refers to Ecclesiastes chapter 2 verse 4 1 Corinthians 15:55­57 refers to St Paul’s first letter to the Corinthians, chapter 15 verses 55­57. If referring to a specific edition, add the full publication details in your bibliography, with the title of the edition in italics and including the editor’s name. 34

How to cite in your bibliography Surname of editor/s, Initial(s) of editor/s., (Year) The Bible edition in italics, Place of Publication: Publisher
HINT: List the full details for the edition you are referring to. It is common practice in Harvard referencing not to put the title of the bible in italics. You may put details of the edition in italics (see example below).

Example: Carrol, R., & S. Prickett, (eds.) (1997) The Bible: Authorised King James version with Apocrypha, Oxford: Oxford University Press For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Qur’an/Koran How to cite in your bibliography Surname of editor/s, Initial(s) of editor/s., (Year) Qur’an/Koran Title of edition in italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: Citations from the Qur’an should list the book, chapter, and verse, using standard abbreviations for each book. It is common practice in Harvard referencing not to put the title of the Qur’an in italics. You may put details of the edition in italics (see example below) Example: Dawood, N. J., (2000) Koran with parallel Arabic Text, London: Penguin 35

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Classics How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Work in English in Italics: subtitle{if there is one}, Surname of editor, Initial(s) of editor., (ed/s.) Surname of translator, Initial(s) of translator., (Trans.) Place of publication: Publisher HINT: In your bibliography you would cite the full details of the edition you have used. HINT: Many authors of classic texts used one name only e.g. Socrates, Plato, Homer, so there is no need to include an initial. Example: Homer, (1990) The Iliad, Knox, B., (ed.) Fagles, R., (Trans.) London: Penguin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Dictionaries/Encyclopaedias ­ Individual entry How to cite in your bibliography Surname of Editor, Initial(s)., (ed/s.) (Year) ‘Title of Entry in Single Inverted Commas’, Title of Edited Work in Italics, Place of publication: Publisher. HINT: Cite the whole text as any other edited work. 36

HINT: Cite individual entries in dictionaries/encyclopaedias by the editor. Example: Whole Text: Waite, M., (ed.) (1994) The Little Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford: Clarendon Press Individual Entry: Waite, M., (ed.) (1994) ‘Inglenook’, The Little Oxford Dictionary of Current English, Oxford: Clarendon Press For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Whole Dictionary/Encyclopaedia­ No Author How to cite in your bibliography Title of Dictionary/Encyclopaedia in italics, (Year). Series Title (volume),{if relevant} Edition ­ if not the first. Place of Publication: Publisher. Example: The Capstone Encyclopaedia of Business, (2003) Oxford: Capstone For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Secondary Referencing: Citing a source within a source

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See also: Secondary referencing in text citations

How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher. HINT: When you want to reference a source that is cited within another source but you have not been able to read the original then you must make this clear in your work. HINT: Be very careful with secondary referencing. Although in some cases this may be the most appropriate way of referencing this source, if it is possible, it is often more appropriate for you to look at the original source yourself so that you understand the source in context, rather than another author’s personal interpretation of that source. HINT: In your bibliography you should only cite the book that you have actually read. So for example imagine you wanted to cite a quotation from Jones that you found in Dolowitz, Buckler and Sweeney’s Researching Online. In your in text citation you would need to make it clear that you were not quoting from Jones’ book. Then in the bibliography you would only reference the Dolowitz, Buckler and Sweeney book and not Jones. Example: Dolowitz, D., S. Buckler, & F. Sweeney, (2008) Researching Online, Hampshire: Palgrave For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Translated Work The following example is for a book that has been translated from the original language into English. Use the English title in your bibliography. For other types of sources follow the layout for referencing these sources 38

but include the information: ‘Translated from (original language) by (name of translator)’. How to cite in your bibliography For translated books the author is the original author of the work. Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title of Book in Italics, Translated from (original language) by Surname of translator, Initial., Place of Publication: Publisher. Example: Piaget, J., (2001) The Language and Thought of the Child, Translated from French by Gabain, M. and Gabain, R., London: Routledge Classics If you feel it is significant then include the original published date as well: Piaget, J., (2001) The Language and Thought of the Child, Translated from French by Gabain, M. & Gabain, R., London: Routledge Classics (first published: 1923) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Works in another language not translated How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title in original language in Italics, [English translation of title if required] Place of publication: Publisher. HINT: Speak to your tutor if you are not sure if you can include works in another language. 39

HINT: Cite foreign language works as you would a work in English, in the language in which you read them. You can add an English translation of the title in square brackets if necessary. Example: Esquivel, L., (2003) Como agua para chocolate, [Like Water for Chocolate] Barcelona: Debolsillo For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Works written in more than one (dual) language Books are sometimes printed in more than one language, e.g. dual language books with parallel text on opposite pages. Include title in both languages if possible; if not, e.g. it is in a non­Roman script, just included the title in English.

Whole book: How to cite in your bibliography Editor’s Surname, Initial., (ed/s.) (Year) Title in English in Italics: Title in Other Language in Italics, Place of publication: Publisher. Example: Lawaetz, G., (ed.) (1972) Spanish Short Stories 2: Cuentos Hispanicos 2, London: Penguin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section. 40

Story within a book How to cite in your bibliography Surname of author, Initial., (Year) ‘Story Title in English: Story Title in Original Language in Single Inverted Commas’, Surname of Translator, Initial., {if given} (Trans.) in Title of Book in Italics in English: Title of Book in Italics in Spanish, Editor’s Surname, Initial., (ed/s.) Place of publication: Publisher. Example: Fuentes, C., (1972) ‘The Cost of Living: El Costo de la Vida’, Austin, A., (Trans.) in Spanish Short Stories 2: Cuentos Hispanicos 2, Lawaetz, G., (ed.) London: Penguin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Children’s Books

How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book, Place of Publication: Publisher (first published date if a later edition) HINT: If you mention the name of the book in the body of your essay remember this should be in italics. HINT: An important thing to remember with children’s books is that you may be referring to a republished version of a classic story. In cases like this you may want to mention the date the book was originally published as well as the date of the edition you are looking at. 41

Example: Dahl, R., (2007) Matilda, London: Puffin (first published 1988) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Board Book How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: Board/Bath Books often do not have clear page citations so you will need to count which page you are on if you are quoting. Example: Campbell, R., (1982) Dear Zoo, London: Macmillan For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Illustrator
Sometimes you may be primarily referring to the work of the illustrator: in this case list the illustrator first. How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (illus.) (Year) Title of Book, By Surname of author, Initial(s)., Place of Publication: Publisher 42

Example: Nash, S., (illus.) (2006) Flat Stanley, By Brown, J., London: Egmont For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Graphic Novels
If text and graphics are by the same person, cite as for a book with a single author. If text and graphics are by different individuals your citation would depend on whose work you are chiefly referring to – writer or artist. How to cite in your bibliography/list of works cited: Artist Illustrator’s Surname, Initial/s., (illus.) (Year) Title in Italics: subtitle, By Author’s Surname, Initial/s., Place of publication: Publisher Example: Zulli, M., (illus.) (2004) Creatures of the Night, By Gaiman, N., Milwaukie, Oregon: Dark Horse Book Writer Surname, Initial/s., (Year) Title in Italics: subtitle, Artists’ Surname, Initial/s., (illus.) Place of publication: Publisher Example: Gaiman, N., (2004) Creatures of the Night, Zulli M., (illus.) Milwaukie, Oregon: Dark Horse Books 43

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

EBooks How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book in italics, Place of Publication: Publisher, Name of electronic resource, Available at: web address, (date accessed). HINT: EBooks should be cited as any other book would be cited, so follow the rules in the Books or Chapter in Edited Books section to cite these sources correctly in your essay. HINT: Include at the end of the entry the details of the resource you have accessed this from and the date accessed. Example: Broadhead, P., C. Meleady, & M. A. Delgardo, (2008) Children, Families and Communities: creating and sustaining integrated services, Maidenhead: Open University Press, Available at: http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView /S9780335235087, (accessed: 12/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Ebook Readers: Kindle editions/Sony ebook editions

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How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year of ebook publication) Title of Book, Kindle edition/Sony eBook reader edition etc, Place of publication: Publisher HINT: Some e book readers do not display the page number; in this case cite the chapter number instead. HINT: New updates on Kindle now allow you to see page numbers, in this case include the page number not the chapter in you citation. Example: Mills, P., (2007) The Routledge Creative Writing Coursebook, Kindle edition, Oxon: Taylor & Francis For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Journals, eJournals How to reference …

Journal Articles – Print Journal Articles – Online Journal articles – from an eprint repository/ online database Journal article – Book reviews

Journal Articles – Print 45

How to cite in your bibliography Surname of Author, Initial(s)., (Year) ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume (Part no) Page numbers of article Example: Frostag, P., & S. J. Pijl, (2007) ‘Does being friendly help in making friends? The relationship between social position and social skills of pupils with special needs in mainstream education’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 20 (1) pp.15 – 30 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Journal Articles – Online How to cite in your bibliography Surname of Author, Initial(s)., (Year) ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume, (Part no) Page numbers of article, Available at: full web address, (date accessed) HINT: Sometimes journal articles may be reproduced differently in different databases, e.g. with different page numbers, so it is important to specify where you read the article. Follow the conventions for citing a print article but add the information about the database if this is relevant. Example: Ball, C., & M. Gettinger, (2009) ‘Monitoring Children’s Growth in Early Literacy Skills: Effects of Feedback on Performance and Classroom Environments’, in Education & Treatment of Children, 32, (3) pp.189­212, Available at:

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http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdf?vid=4&hid=3&sid=5f0c100e­cce6­ 4067­8bd6­1275c69fbc37%40sessionmgr9, (accessed: 15/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Journal articles – electronic – from a bibliographic database How to cite in your bibliography Surname of Author, Initial(s)., (Year) ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume (Part no) Page numbers of article, Title of Database in italics, Available at: full web address, (date accessed) Example: Biggs, M., (2005) ‘Strikes as Forest Fires: Chicago and Paris in the late Nineteenth Century’, American Journal of Sociology, 110 (6) pp.1687­ 1714, JSTOR, Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/427675, (accessed: 01/07/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Journal articles – electronic – from an eprint repository Many institutions host open research repositories where staff papers are published prior to appearing in a scholarly journal. There may be important differences between this version and the final journal publication (such as pagination or editorial changes), so it is important to specify where you read the article. If it is a pre­publication version, i.e. it has not yet been published anywhere except on the repository, state this. 47

How to cite in your bibliography Surname of author of article, Initial(s)., (Year) ‘Title of Article in Single Inverted Commas’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume (Issue) page numbers of article {if available­ if not then leave out}, Title of Repository in Italics, Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Many articles are also published in journals so it is important to state which version you have read, and include the URL at the end. HINT: When quoting, some online repositories do not give page numbers. If this is the case then do not give a page number. Example: Harris, S., (1992) ‘Careers Teachers: Who are they and what do they do?’, Research papers in Education, 7(3) pp. 337­357, Roehampton University Research Repository, Available at: http://hdl.handle.net/10142/89869 (accessed: 01/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Journal articles – book reviews HINT: Some Journals also contain book review sections. If you wish to cite something from one of these reviews use the following format: How to cite in your bibliography Author of the review, (Year) Title of the book being reviewed, by Author of book, Reviewed in: Title of journal review is published in, Vol (part no.), pp 48

Example: Publisher’s Weekly, (2003) Beegu, by Alexis Deacon, Reviewed in: Publisher’s Weekly, 250(36), pp74­75 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Newspapers, Magazines How to reference …

Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Print Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Electronic Reviews Nexis

Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Print How to cite in your bibliography Surname of Author of Article, Initial., (Day, Month and Year of Publication) ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Newspaper in Italics, page number/s of article HINT: Remember the work you are referring to in your essay is the work of the author of the article. If the article has no author, use the name of the newspaper. Example:

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Curtis, P., (15th June, 2009) ‘Tory plan to end primary school Sats and have new test at Secondaries branded 'half­baked'’ The Guardian, pp.6­7 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Newspaper and Magazine Articles – Electronic How to cite in your bibliography Surname of author of Article, Initial., (Day, Month and Year of Publication) ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Newspaper in Italics, page number of article if given, Available at full web address, (date accessed) HINT: If the article has no author, use the name of the newspaper. Example: Hansen, G. H., (5th June, 2009) ‘We should beware: ICT is dangerous to developing brains’ Times Education Supplement, Available at: http://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6014866, (accessed 10/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Reviews See: Newspaper articles Websites

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Journal articles – Book reviews

Nexis

See also:Databases
If you have read the article via an online database such as Nexis UK, include this information in your bibliography as well, but omit the URL: Article Author’s Surname, Initial/s., (Day Month Year published). ‘Title of Article in Inverted Commas’, Title of Newspaper in Italics, Page/s, Database Title in Italics, (accessed dd/mm/yy)

Example: Hansen, G. H., (5th June 2009) ‘We should beware: ICT is dangerous to developing brains’, Times Education Supplement, pp. 12­14, NexisUK, (accessed: 10/06/09)

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Internet: Web pages, Blogs, Wikis How to reference….

Webpage Database Blogs/Social Networking Posts Wikis Personal Communications: Emails/Text Messages/FAX Podcasts and Vodcasts Application Software/Apps 51

Moodle Communications See also : ejournals and ebooks

Webpage How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Webpage in Italics, Available at: (full web address), (date accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: If there is no clear author of the website use the ‘corporate author’ instead i.e. the organisation behind the website (e.g. NSPCC, TDA, DCFS) HINT: If there is no clear date on the website (have you checked for a ‘last updated’ date or a ‘copyright’© date?) then you can write No Date. Example: NSPCC, (2009) NSPCC response to 21st Century Schools: A World Class Education for Every Child, Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/policyandpublicaffairs/Consultations/200 9/21stCenturySchools_wdf64379.pdf, (accessed: 15/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Database How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Book in Italics, Place of publication: Publisher, Title of the Database or Web site in Italics, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) 52

Example: Broadhead, P., M. Delgardo, & C. Meleady, (2008) Children, Families and Communities: creating and sustaining integrated services, Maidenhead: Open University Press, DawsonEra, Available at: http://www.dawsonera.com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView /S9780335235087, (accessed: 09/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Blogs/Social Networking Posts How to cite in your bibliography Author of message/post, (Year site published/last updated) ‘Title of message/post in single inverted commas’, Title of Internet Site in Italics, Posted: dd/mm/yy, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Yale Law Library, (2010) ‘The Two Faces of American Freedom’, Yale Law Library ­ Reference Blog, Posted: 10/12/10, Available at: http://blogs.law.yale.edu/blogs/reference/, (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Wikis How to cite in your bibliography ‘Title of Article in Single Inverted Commas’, (Year site published/last updated) Title of Internet Site, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) 53

Example: ‘Comparison of eBook formats’, (2011) Wikipedia, Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_eBook_formats, (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Personal Communications: Emails/Text Messages/FAX How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Message/Attachment Header or Title, [Email](received dd/mm/yy) Example: McGoldrick, T. (Fwd) Virtual Campus, [Email] (received 07/09/99) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Podcasts and Vodcasts How to cite in your bibliography Corporate Author, (Year), Title of Podcast in Italics, [Podcast/Vodcast], Available at: full web address, (date accessed) HINT: If there is no clear author, use the corporate author instead (see Webpage for more details). 54

Example: Warwick University, (2009) We Need to Publicise Sport to Disabled Children, [Podcast], Available at: http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/audio/ (accessed: 11/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Application Software/Apps How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial(s).,/ Corporate Author, (Year created) Title of app in italics (version:), Android/IPad/IPhone Edition, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: It is important to specify which edition of the app you are looking at and on which platform you are viewing the app i.e.: IPhone edition, IPad edition, Google Android edition. HINT: If there is no clear author of the app use the corporate author instead. Example: The New York Times Company, (2011) NY Times app for phone (version: 2.0.4), Android edition, New York: The New York Times Company For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

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Moodle Communications How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., Thread header or title of message in italics, module code, (accessed dd/mm/yy) HINT: The author will be the person who has sent the communication. Example: Kilpatrick, B., Go live date for StudyZone, COM010C123A, (accessed 09/07/04) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Reports, Government Publications, Acts of Parliament How to reference …

White and Green Papers Acts of Parliament Government Reports Company Annual Report School / Local Authority Policy Documents Ofsted Report National Curriculum – Online Version National Curriculum – Paper Version World Health Organisation (WHO) Report 56

White and Green Papers How to cite in your bibliography Government department, (Year of publication) Title of paper in Italics, Paper number, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author will be the Government Department who has produced the paper. HINT: Government departments sometimes change names when a new party is elected. Use the name the department was called at the time the source you are referring to was created, not what the department is called now. You can abbreviate the Government department for your quotes or paraphrases, but make sure you put the full name of the department in the bibliography. Example: Department for Children, Schools and Families, (2005) 14­19 Education and Skills, CM6476, London: Stationery Office Example from Web: (If you have downloaded this source from the internet include the full web address and date accessed after the publisher.) Department for Children, Schools and Families, (2005) 14­19 Education and Skills, CM6476, London: Stationery Office, Available at: http://publications.dcsf.gov.uk/default.aspx?PageFunction=productdetails &PageMode=publications&ProductId=CM%25206476, (accessed 10/6/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section. 57

Acts of Parliament How to cite in your bibliography Full name of Act with Year in italics, Monarch. Chapter No.*, (Year) Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: *UK Acts of Parliament each have a Chapter number which represents the number of the act during the particular parliamentary year. HINT: For a useful website of pdf versions of UK Acts of Parliament since 1988 go to: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts Example: Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000, Elizabeth II. Chapter 16, (2000) London: The Stationery Office Example from Web: (If you have downloaded this source from the internet include the full web address and date accessed after the publisher.) Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000, Elizabeth II. Chapter 16, (2000) London: The Stationery Office, Available at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts, (accessed 10/6/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Government Reports 58

How to cite in your bibliography Department, (Year) Title of Report in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food, (2000) Our Countryside, the Future: A Fair Deal for Rural England, London: The Stationery Office For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Government reports with a named author How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Report in Italics, Government body, Government Department, Report number, Place of Publication. Publisher HINT: Occasionally a Government report will have a named author who will subsequently be associated with the report. For example, Lord Scarman’s enquiry into the Brixton riots of 1981 is commonly known as “The Scarman report”, although this is not the correct title. This should be cited as follows: Example: Scarman, Leslie George., (1981)The Brixton disorders 10­12 April 1981: report of an inquiry, Great Britain, Home Office, 8427, London: H.M.S.O. For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section. 59

Company Annual Report How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial.,/Corporate author, (Year) Title of Annual Report in italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author will normally be the corporate author, i.e. the company that the report is about. Example: TDA, (2009) Annual Report and Account 2008­09, London: HMSO If you have obtained this report from the internet then include the website information and date accessed: TDA, (2009) Annual Report and Account 2008­09, Available at: http://www.tda.gov.uk/upload/resources/pdf/a/annual_report_and_accou nts_0809.pdf, (accessed: 28/04/2010) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

School / Local Authority Policy Documents How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial, (Year) Title of Document in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author will normally be the corporate author, i.e. the school or local authority that has created the report.

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Example: Feltham Hill Junior School, (2010) Behaviour Policy March 2010, London: London Borough of Hounslow If you have obtained this report from the internet then include the website information and date accessed Example: Feltham Hill Junior School, (2010) Behaviour Policy March 2010, Available at: http://www.lgfl.net/lgfl/leas/hounslow/schools/fhj/homepage/homepage/, (accessed: 30/04/2010) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Ofsted Report How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Document and dates inspection took place in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: Ofsted, (2010) Rye Oak School Inspection Report 13­14th May 2010, London: H.M.S.O. If you have obtained this report from the internet then include the website information and date accessed:

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Ofsted, (2010) Rye Oak School Inspection Report 13­14th May 2010, London: H.M.S.O, Available at: http://www.ofsted.gov.uk/oxedu_reports/download/(id)/121137/(as)/134 903_341566.pdf, (accessed: 14/06/10) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

National Curriculum ­ Online See also Government Reports How to cite in your bibliography Government Department, (Year) Title of Report in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher {if possible} Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Remember Government websites often move, close down, or are renamed. It is essential that your remember to record the full web address when looking at a source and the date you accessed this as you may not be able to refer to this later. HINT: Government departments often close down or are renamed. The corporate author for this source will be the name of the department at the time the report was published. HINT: You may use an abbreviation of the department’s name if one is available i.e. DfEE for Department for Education and Employability. HINT: You can also use the guidance here for referencing other statutory documentation such as the Primary National Strategies or the Early Years Foundation Stage. Example:

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DfEE / QCA (1999) The National Curriculum for England, London: DfEE, Available at: http://www.education.gov.uk/schools/teachingandlearning/curriculum/pri mary, (accessed: 21/12/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

National Curriculum – Paper Version How to cite in your bibliography Government Department, (Year) Title of Report in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: DfEE / QCA (1999) The National Curriculum for England, London: DfEE For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

World Health Organisation (WHO) Report How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Report: Subtitle in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author for all WHO reports is always the World Health Organisation.

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Example: World Health Organisation, (2008) The World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care – Now More Than Ever, Geneva: WHO For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Films, Television, Radio How to reference….

Films – cinema release Films on DVD Film on internet TV series viewed on TV Single episode TV Programme viewed on TV TV series viewed on Internet Single episode TV Programme viewed on Internet TV Series viewed on DVD/VHS Single episode TV Programme viewed on DVD/VHS TV Broadcast viewed on BoB OFF air recordings on DVD/VHS YouTube and other Video Sharing Websites Radio Programmes Radio Programmes heard on the Internet

Films – cinema release How to cite in your bibliography Title of Film in Italics, (Year of distribution) Directed by Surname, Initial., [Film] Country of Production: Distribution company 64

Example: The Caretaker, (1963) Directed by Donner, C., [Film] London: BFI Films For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Films on DVD How to cite in your bibliography Title of Film in Italics, (Year of Production) Directed by Director’s Surname, Initial., [DVD] Place of distribution: Production Company HINT: For recorded formats other than DVD follow the same layout but replace DVD with Videocassette, etc. and change date of publication if necessary. Example: Educating Rita, (1983) Directed by Gilbert, L., [DVD] London: Rank Organisation For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Film on internet See YouTube and other video sharing websites

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TV series viewed on TV How to cite in your bibliography Title of Series in Italics, (Year of broadcast in Brackets)[TV Series] Country of Origin: Channel, Original dates of transmission: dd/mm/yy – dd/mm/yy Example: Shameless, (2004) [TV Series] UK: Channel 4 Television, Original date of transmission: 13/01/04 – 24/2/04 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Single episode TV Programme viewed on TV How to cite in your bibliography ‘Title of Episode in Single Inverted Commas’, (Year of broadcast) Title of Series in Italics, [TV Series] Series number if not already listed as title of the episode, Episode number, Country: Name of broadcaster, First transmission: dd/mm/yy HINT: Some TV series do not have titles for individual episodes. In cases like this use either the series number and episode number as the title e.g.: ‘Series 4: Episode 7’ and do not include the series number and episode number again before the Country, or use the Series title instead. Example: ‘Community Service’, (2004) Shameless, [TV Series] Series 1, Episode 1, UK: Channel 4 Television, First transmission: 13/01/04 66

Example with no title except episode number: ‘Series 1, Episode 1’, (2004) Shameless, [TV Series], UK: Channel 4 Television, First transmission: 13/01/04 Example with no title or episode number: Shameless, (2004) [TV Series] UK: Channel 4 Television, First transmission: 13/01/04 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

TV series viewed on Internet How to cite in your bibliography Title of Programme/Series in Italics, (Year of original broadcast), Country: Name of broadcaster, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Shameless, (2004), UK: Channel 4 Television, Available at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/shameless/4od, (accessed: 08/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Single episode TV Programme viewed on Internet How to cite in your bibliography

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‘Title of Episode in Single Inverted Commas’, (Year of broadcast) Title of Series in Italics, [TV Series] Series number, Episode number, Country: Name of broadcaster, Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Some TV series do not have titles for individual episodes. In cases like this list the series number and episode number as the title e.g.: ‘Series 4: Episode 7’ and do not include the series number and episode number. Example: ‘Community Service’, (2004) Shameless, [TV Series] Series 1, Episode 1, UK: Channel 4 Television, Available at: http://www.channel4.com/programmes/shameless/4od, (accessed: 08/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

TV Series viewed on DVD/VHS How to cite in your bibliography Title of Programme/Series in Italics, Series number if appropriate, (Year of DVD distribution), [DVD] First broadcast year if known, Country of Distribution: Distributor HINT: For recorded formats other than DVD follow the same layout but replace DVD with Videocassette, etc. and change date of publication if necessary. Example:

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Shameless, Series 1, (2004), [DVD] First broadcast 2004, UK: Channel 4 Television For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Single episode TV Programme viewed on DVD/VHS How to cite in your bibliography ‘Title of Episode in Single Inverted Commas or Episode Number if no title’, (Year of broadcast) Title of Series in Italics, [DVD] Series number, Episode number, Country: Name of broadcaster HINT: Some TV series do not have titles for individual episodes. In cases like this list the series number and episode number as the title e.g.: ‘Series 4: Episode 7’ and do not include the series number and episode number. Example: ‘Community Service’, (2004) Shameless, [DVD] Series 1, Episode 1, UK: Channel 4 Television For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

TV Broadcast viewed on BoB BoB is a service from the British Film and Video Council (BUFVC) offered by the university that enables you to record and view TV and radio programmes via the universities website. To access BoB visit: https://bob.roehampton.ac.uk/ 69

How to cite in your bibliography ‘Title of Episode in Single Inverted Commas’, (Year of broadcast) Title of Series in Italics, Series number, Episode number if not already listed as title of episode, Country: Name of broadcaster, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Some TV series do not have titles for individual episodes. In cases like this list the series number and episode number as the title e.g.: ‘Series 4: Episode 7’ and do not include the series number and episode number. HINT: This is very similar to viewing a TV Series/Single episode on the internet, except you include the BOB web address. Example: ‘Series 6: Episode 5’, (2009) Shameless, UK: Channel 4 Television, Available at: https://bob.roehampton.ac.uk/programme.php?archive=3445&view=flas h_player, (accessed: 20/6/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

OFF air recordings on DVD/VHS
See: Single episode TV Programme viewed on TV

YouTube and other Video Sharing Websites How to cite in your bibliography

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Author, (Year video added) Title of Video in Italics, [Organisation responsible] {e.g. YouTube, Teachers TV, Teacher Tube} Available at: full web address, date accessed HINT: The author will be the person who has uploaded the video. Use whatever name they have chosen to identify themselves as. Example: Unchartedaudio, (2008) Library. Music written, produced and recorded by Cursor Miner, [YouTube] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=­w8vNF0ikNM&feature=fvwrel, (accessed: 07/07/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Radio Programmes

How to cite in your bibliography Title of Programme, (Year of transmission) Name of Radio station, Broadcast: dd/mm/yy Example: Woman’s Hour, (2011) BBC Radio 4, Broadcast: 20/06/11 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Radio Programmes heard on the Internet 71

How to cite in your bibliography Title of Programme, (Year of transmission) Name of Radio station, First Broadcast: dd/mm/yy, Available at: full web address, (accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Woman’s Hour, (2011) BBC Radio 4, First Broadcast: 20/6/11, Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/console/b011zm1b, (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Images, Graphics, Maps, Works of Art , Photos, Presentations How to reference…

Works of Art Images/Charts Maps in a Book Images/Charts Maps from website Ordnance Survey Maps Museum Exhibition Presentations Presentations – Online Photos from a Photosharing website Photos – Personal collection

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Works of Art How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Work of Art, [Type of Work] City/Country painting is displayed: Museum painting is displayed in HINT: The author is always the artist who created the piece of art. Example: Mucha, A. M., (1911) Princess Hyacinth, [Painting] Prague: Mucha Museum For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Images/Charts Maps in a Book From a Book: How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) ‘Title of Image/Chart etc’, in Surname, Initial, Title of Book in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher Example: International Phonetic Association, (1996) ‘International Phonetic Alphabet’, in Jefferies, L., Discovering Language: The Structure of Modern English, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Image from a website: Reference the source as above, but in your bibliography do not forget to remove the place of publication/publisher and replace this with the full web address and the date you accessed the site in brackets. (see Webpage for more details) How to cite in your bibliography/list of works cited: Surname, Initial., (Year) ‘Title of Illustration/Image/Chart etc. in Single Inverted Commas’, Title of Web Site in Italics, Available at: full web address, (accessed dd/mm/yy) Example: International Phonetic Association, (2005) ‘Diacritics’, The International Phonetic Association, Available at: http://www.langsci.ucl.ac.uk/ipa/diacritics.html, (accessed: 07/07/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Ordnance Survey Maps How to cite in your bibliography Corporate Author, (Year), Title in Italics, Scale, Series Title and/or number {if this available}, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author will be the organisation who has published the map, the corporate author. 74

Example: Ordnance Survey, (2006) East London, 1:50 000,177, London: H.M.S.O. For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Museum Exhibition How to cite in your bibliography Corporate author {the name of the museum}, (Year) Title of Exhibition, Town/City where museum is situated: museum name HINT: The author will be the museum that is hosting the exhibition. Example: Design Museum, (2010) Brit Insurance Designs of the Year 2010, London: Design Museum For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Presentations How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., {of presenter/ lecturer} (Year) Title of Presentation in Italics, Presented at: {name of conference}, Location of conference 75

HINT: The author will be the person delivering the presentation. Example: Hayes, D., (2009) From Flagellation to Therapy: What are students learning today?, Presented at: ALDinHE Conference, Bournemouth University For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Presentations – Online How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., {of presenter} (Year) Title of Presentation in Italics, Presented at: {name of conference}, Location of conference, Available at: full web address, (date accessed) HINT: The author will be the person delivering the presentation. Example: Chalke, J., (2008) Developing Early Years Practitioners: making the links between theory and practice through a blended approach to professional development, Presented at: Learning Unit Conference, University of Hertfordshire, Available at: http://www.herts.ac.uk/about­us/learning­ and­teaching/blended­learning­institute/conferences/conference­2008­ resources/conference­2008­presentations.cfm, (accessed 12/06/09) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

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Photos – Personal Collection

How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial(s)., (Year) Title of Photo, [Photograph] Unpublished Personal Photograph HINT: In the body of the essay just use your name and the date. Stowar, J., (2012) London Parks, [Photograph] Unpublished Personal Photograph

Photos from a Photosharing website

HINT: Alternatively you might want to upload your photos to a service like Flickr or Picasa then effectively you can reference these photos like a website: How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial(s)., (Year) Title of Photo, Name of Collection [Photograph] Available at: full web address (accessed:dd/mm/yy) Example: Stowar, J., (2012) London Parks, London Photographs 2012 [Photograph] Available at: www.flickr.com/londonphotographs2012 (accessed:10/04/12)

Posters, Pamphlets, Press Releases How to reference…

Posters Pamphlets/Leaflets

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Advertisements Press releases

Posters How to cite in your bibliography Corporate Author, (Year if known if not put No Date) Title of Poster in Italics, [Poster] Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: Include as much information as you can find. If you are citing a poster that is a reprint of a work of art see Work of Art. If you are citing a poster that is on display in a museum see Museum Exhibition. Example: Roehampton University, (2011) Be A Student Mentor, [Poster] London: Roehampton University For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Pamphlets/Leaflets How to cite in your bibliography Corporate Author, (Year) Title of Publication in Italics [Leaflet], Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: For informal publication such as leaflets or brochures, include as much information as you can find. 78

Example: Roehampton University, (No Date) Visitors’ Guide [Leaflet], London: Roehampton University For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Advertisements How to cite in your bibliography Corporate author, (Year created) Title of advert/company the advert is advertising if no title, [Where you have seen the advert] Company the advert was created for, Place of Publication/Creation: Publisher/Name of Advertising company, Date of transmission: dd/mm/yy HINT: When referencing an advert you need to specify where you have seen the advert for example: online advertisement, newspaper advertisement, TV advertisement. HINT: The corporate author will be the advertising agency who created the advert. Example: Blink Productions, (2007) Gorilla, [TV advertisement] Cadbury Schweppes, London: Blink Productions, Date of transmission: 31/08/07 If viewed online include the full web address and date accessed in place of the original date of the date of transmission Blink Productions, (2007) Gorilla, [TV advertisement] Cadbury Schweppes, London: Blink Productions, Available at:

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http://www.tellyads.com/show_movie.php?filename=TA4594, (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Press releases

How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., of author of the press release/PR Company who wrote the press release (Year) Title of Press Release or Who/What Press Release refers to, Place of Publication: Company Example: TFL Press Office, (2011) Oyster pay as you go confirmed as the ticket of choice for millions of National Rail commuters in London, London: TFL If accessed online replace ‘Place of Publication: Company’ with ‘Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy)’ Example: TFL Press Office (2011) Oyster pay as you go confirmed as the ticket of choice for millions of National Rail commuters in London, Available at: http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/media/newscentre/archive/18204.aspx, (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Music, Spoken Word and Performance 80

How to reference….

Audio CD – Album Audio CD – Song Audio Downloads – Album Audio Downloads – Song CD – Roms Audiobooks Audiobooks – downloads Spoken Word Recordings

Song Lyrics from album cover Song Lyrics from website Song Lyrics from sheet music Music chords from website Musical Scores Live Performances – music concert Live Performances – classical music concert Live Performances – theatre Live Performances ­ dance Live Performances ­ poetry Classical Recordings

Audio CD ­ Album How to cite in your bibliography Artist’s Surname, Initial.,/ Name of Band/Name of Group, (Year of Production) Title of Album, [CD] Country of Production: Record Company Example: Madonna, (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor, [CD] USA: Maverick 81

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Audio CD – Song How to cite in your bibliography Artist’s Surname, Initial.,/ Name of Band/Name of Group, (Year of Production) ‘Title of track in single inverted commas’, In Title of Album, [CD] Country of Production: Record Company Example: Madonna, (2005) ‘I Love New York’, In Confessions on a Dancefloor, [CD] USA: Maverick For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Audio Downloads – Album How to cite in your bibliography Artist’s Surname, Initial.,/ Name of Band/Name of Group, (Year of Production) Title of Album, [Download] Available at: full web address (date accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Madonna, (2005) Confessions on a Dancefloor, [Download] Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/Confessions­On­A­Dance­ Floor/dp/B001F3KSEE/ref=dm_cd_album_lnk (accessed: 20/06/11) 82

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Audio Downloads – Song How to cite in your bibliography Artist’s Surname, Initial./ Name of Band/Name of Group (Year of Production) ‘Title of track in single inverted commas’ Title of Album, [Download] Available at: full web address (date accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Madonna, (2005) ‘I Love New York’, In Confessions on a Dancefloor, [Download] Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/product/B001F3FJF2/ref=dm_dp_trk5 (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Classical Recordings How to cite in your bibliography Composer, (Year of performance) Title of Recording, Performed by: Name of performer Conducted by: name of conductor [FORMAT] Country of Production: Record Company Example: Elgar, (2010) Violin Concert: Violin Concerto/ Polonia/ Interlude From The Crown Of India, Performed by: Little, T., Conducted by: Davis, A., [CD] UK: Chandos

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Musical Scores How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial of artist., (Year) Title of score in italics, (Series title and volume if relevant) Place of Publication: Publisher Example: John, E., (2007) Elton John: Hits, (Play Piano with series) London: Wise Publications Ltd For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Song Lyrics from album cover How to cite in your bibliography Author/s of Lyrics Surname, Initial (s)., (Year of distribution) ‘Title of song in single inverted commas’ In Title of Album in italics [Album liner notes] Place of Distribution: Distribution Company Example: John, E., (1972) ‘Tiny Dancer’ In Madman Across the Water, [Album liner notes] US: UNI

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Song Lyrics from website How to cite in your bibliography Author/s of Lyrics Surname, Initial (s)., (Year of distribution) ‘Title of song in single inverted commas’ In Title of Album in italics, Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Lyrics from a website may not always be accurate so do check these carefully before citing. Example: John, E., (1972) ‘Tiny Dancer’ in Madman Across the Water, Available at: http://www.azlyrics.com/lyrics/eltonjohn/tinydancer.html (accessed: 30/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Song Lyrics from sheet music How to cite in your bibliography Lyricist, (Year of publication) ‘Title of song in single inverted commas’ In Title of Score in Italics (Series title and volume if relevant) Place of Publication: Publisher Example:

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John, E., (2007) ‘Tiny Dancer’ In Elton John: Hits, (Play Piano with series) London: Wise Publications Ltd For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Music chords from website How to cite in your bibliography Composer, (Year of distribution) ‘Title of song in single inverted commas’ In Title of Album in italics, Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Taupin, B., (1972) ‘Tiny Dancer’ In Madman Across the Water, (Available at: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbW FpbnxndWl0YXJtdXNpY2Nob3Jkc2FuZGx5cmljc3xneDo3ZjA1ZmU4OTRkYj FmNjFm (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Audiobooks How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year), Title of Audiobook in Italics, [Audiobook] Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: If there is no clear author, use the corporate author instead 86

Example: Potter, S., (2001) Macbeth: Student SmartPass Edition Audio Education Study Guide, [Audiobook] Brighton: Smart Pass Ltd For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Spoken word recordings, Audiobooks
Follow the same guidelines as for recorded music. HINT: The author is the person whose work you are discussing: narrator, author, etc. How to cite the narrator in your bibliography/list of works cited: Narrator’s Surname, Initial/s., (Narr.) (Year) Title of Recording in Italics, [FORMAT] By Surname, Initial/s., Place of Manufacture: Manufacturer How to cite the author in your bibliography/list of works cited: Author’s Surname, Initial/s., (Year) Title of Recording in Italics, [FORMAT] (Narr.) Performer’s Surname, Initial/s., Place of Manufacture: Manufacturer HINT: For recordings on other formats replace CD with LP, Audiocassette, Audiotape (for reel to reel), etc. Examples: Whitfield, J., (Narr.) (2005) George’s Marvellous Medicine, [CD] By Dahl, R., London: Puffin Audiobooks 87

Dahl, R., (2005) George’s Marvellous Medicine. [CD] (Narr.) Whitfield, J., London: Puffin Audiobooks For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Audiobooks – Downloads How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title of Audiobook in Italics, [Audiobook] Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) HINT: Include all authors as they appear on the source (even the original author). Example: Shakespeare, W., S. Potter, and P.Viner, (2007) Macbeth: Shakespeare Appreciated, [Audiobook] Available at: http://www.audible.co.uk/pd/ref=sr_1_1?asin=B004F1X9YO&qid=130858 1327&sr=1­1 (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

CD – Roms How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., {use corporate author if there is no author} (Year) Title of the CD­Rom in Italics, [CD­ROM] Place of Publication: Publisher 88

Example: Davis, R. et. al., (2004) Physical Education and the Study of Sport, [CD­ Rom], London: Mosby For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Live Performances – music concert How to cite in your bibliography Artist’s Surname, Initial.,/ Name of Band/Name of Group, (Year of performance) Title of Performance – if there is no title leave this out [Place of Performance] date of performance: dd/mm/yy. Example: Pulp (1995) [Glastonbury], date of performance: 24/06/95 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Live Performances – classical music concert How to cite in your bibliography Composer, (Year of performance) Title of Performance – if there is no title leave this out, Performed/Conducted by Title of performer/name of conductor [Venue] date of performance: dd/mm/yy Example:

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Williams, V. (2010) Suite for Viola and Small Orchestra, Conducted by Daniel P., [Royal Albert Hall] date of performance:10/09/10 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Live performance – Theatre How to cite in your bibliography/list of works cited: Title of Work in Italics, By Author’s Surname, Initial/s., (Dir.) Director’s Surname, Initial/s., (Perf.) Actors’ Forename, Surnames OR Company Name, City: Venue, date of Performance: dd/mm/yy HINT: If discussing the performer/s, their name/s should be listed first. If discussing the work performed, list under title. Examples: A Midsummer Night’s Dream, By Shakespeare, W., (Dir.) Leipacher, M., (Perf.) Faction Theatre Company, London: Brockwell Park, date of performance: 30/06/11 Burton, R. (Perf.) Hamlet, By Shakespeare, W., (Dir.) Gielgud, J., Boston: Shubert Theatre, date of performance: 04/11/64 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Live performance – Poetry, Spoken Word How to cite in your bibliography/list of works cited: 90

Title of Work in italics, By Author’s Surname, Initial/s., (Perf.) Performer’s Surname, Initial/s., City: Venue, date of Performance: dd/mm/yy HINT: The entry for someone performing their own work should begin with their name. HINT: If discussing the performer/author, their name should be listed first. If discussing the work performed, list under title. Examples: Mitchell, A., To Whom It May Concern. London: Royal Albert Hall, date of performance: 06/08/65 To Whom It May Concern. By Mitchell, A., (Perf.) Mitchell, B., London: Poetry Cafe, date of performance: 06/08/10 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Live performance – Dance How to cite in your bibliography/list of works cited: Title of Dance in Italics, By Composer’s Surname, Initial/s., {if relevant} (Chor.) Choreographer’s Surname, Initial/s., Company Name, City: Venue, date of performance: dd/mm/yy Example: Swan Lake, By Tchaikovsky, P.I., (Chor.) Makarova, N., London Festival Ballet, London: Royal Festival Hall, date of performance: 02/01/93

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Theses, Conferences, Interviews How to reference….

PhD Theses/Masters Thesis/Dissertation (unpublished) Theses/Masters Thesis/Dissertation (published) Online Theses Interviews – Broadcast Interviews – Personal Conference Proceedings – Whole Conference Proceedings – Paper Conference Proceedings (whole – online) Conference Proceedings (single paper ­ online) Conference Proceeding published in a journal

PhD Theses/Masters Thesis/Dissertation (unpublished) How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) Title in Italics, Type of Thesis {e.g. PHD Thesis, Masters Thesis, Dissertation etc.}, Name of University/ Academic Institution Example: Farren, M., (2005) How Can I create a Pedagogy of the Unique Through a Web of Betweeness, PHD Thesis, Bournemouth University 92

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Theses/Masters Thesis/Dissertation (published) How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title in Italics, Type of Thesis {e.g. PHD Thesis, Masters Thesis etc.}, Name of University/ Academic Institution, Place of publication: Publisher Example: Wilburn, L. E., (1989) Poetic Indices in the Symbolist Plays of Maurice Maeterlinck, Dissertation, University of North Carolina, Ann Arbor: UMI For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Online Theses How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year published) Title in Italics, Type of Thesis {e.g. PHD Thesis, Masters Thesis etc.}, Name of University/ Academic Institution, Name of Database in italics, (accessed dd/mm/yy) HINT: Theses are now commonly available online. Cite as for a printed thesis, adding details of the host database and date accessed. Example: Beckman, A. K., (1983) Humor in Children's Literature, Dissertation, University of London: Institute of Education, BL EThOS, (accessed 2/6/11) 93

For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Conference Proceedings – Whole How to cite in your bibliography Organisation/ Editor{if there is one always use the editor}, (Year) Full Title of Conference including dates in italics, Place of Publication: Publisher HINT: The author will normally be the organization who held the conference. If the conference papers have an editor/s use this instead. Example: Institute of Historical Research, (2005) History in British Education 14th­ 15th February 2005, London: University of London For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Conference Proceedings – Paper How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., (Year) ‘Title of Conference Paper in Inverted Commas’, In: Title of Conference Proceedings, Place of Publication: Publisher, Page numbers HINT: The author will normally be the person who delivered the paper at the conference. 94

Example: McKie, A., (2008) ‘Mapping the Territory: a new direction for information literacy in the digital age’, In: Making Connections – Bringing together research on e­learning and student retention, London: University of Middlesex, pp. 10­14 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Conference Proceedings (whole – online) How to cite in your bibliography Organisation/ Editor{if there is one always use the editor}, (Year) Full Title of Conference including dates in italics if available, Available at: full web address, (date accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Global Information Technology Management Association, (2009) Tenth Annual Global Information Technology Management Association World Conference, Available at: http://www.gitma.org/PROCEEDINGS.pdf (accessed: 14/06/10) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Conference Proceedings (single paper ­ online) How to cite in your bibliography

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Surname, Initial., (Year) ‘Title of Conference Paper in Inverted Commas’, In: Title of Conference Proceedings, Available at: full web address, (date accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Kshetri, N. (2009) ‘Processes and Mechanisms of Institutional Changes in The Offshoring Sector of Emerging Economies’, In: Tenth Annual Global Information Technology Management Association World Conference, Available at: http://www.gitma.org/PROCEEDINGS.pdf (accessed: 14/06/10) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Conference Proceeding published in a journal How to cite in your bibliography This source is referenced exactly the same as a standard journal article or an online journal article. Example: Elgafy A. & K. Lafdi, (2010) ‘Nanoparticles and Fiber Walls Interactions During Nanocomposites Fabrication’, Journal of Scientific Conference Proceedings, 2 (1) pp.15­23 For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Interviews – Broadcast For interviews broadcast on television. 96

How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., {of person interviewed}, Interviewed by: Surname, Initial., {of interviewer} Title of interview in single inverted commas {if any}, Title of programme in italics, (Date and time of broadcast) TV Channel HINT: The author is the person who is being interviewed. Example: Thatcher, M., Interviewed by Walden, B., ‘The Resolute Approach’, Weekend World, (16/01/1983, 12:00pm) LWT For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Interviews – Personal How to cite in your bibliography Surname, Initial., {of person being interviewed}, Interviewed by: Surname, Initial., {of interviewer} (Date interview conducted) HINT: For interviews conducted for research always seek the permission of the person you have interviewed before quoting them in your work. HINT: The author will be the person who is being interviewed. Example: Jones, J., Interviewed by: Smith, R., (10/07/08)

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For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Patents, British Standards How to reference…

Patents British Standards

Patents

How to cite in your bibliography Inventor/s, (Year of publication of patent) Title of Patent in italics, Authorising organisation, Patent no. full patent number, Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy) Example: Samsung Gwangju Electronics Co. Ltd, (2007) Vacuum Cleaner, UK Intellectual Property Office, Patent no. GB2439277, Available at: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p­find­publication­ result?PatentNo=GB2439277&JournalNumber=0&EarliestYear=1900&Earli estWeek=1&LatestYear=2050&LatestWeek=52&DocTypes=A%2CA8%2C A9%2CB%2CB8%2CC%2CC2%2CC3&ResultsPerPage=2&Start=0 (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

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British Standards

Most British Standards can be accessed via the following website: http://www.standardsuk.com/ How to cite in your bibliography British Standards Institute, (Year of publication) Number and title of standard in Italics, Place of Publication: Publisher. Example: British Standards Institute (2008) BS EN ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems. Requirements, London: British Standards Institute If accessed online replace ‘Place of Publication: Company’ with ‘Available at: full web address (accessed: dd/mm/yy)’ Example: British Standards Institute, (2008) BS EN ISO 9001:2008 Quality Management Systems. Requirements, Available at: http://www.standardsuk.com/products/BS­EN­ISO­9001­2008.php (accessed: 20/06/11) For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

University Course Materials Although you might be tempted to quote or paraphrase some of the information you receive in your lectures, it is important to remember that your handouts, handbooks or lectures are provided for guidance only. This information is not a substitute for your own research. 99

Remember your lecturer will essentially be paraphrasing a number of sources as well as their own ideas. To fully understand your lecturer’s argument, or the sources they are referring to, you need to look at the information for yourself, or it will be obvious in your work that you only have a limited understanding of the source. Therefore, this guide does not contain information on how to reference these sources. If your lecturer mentions a piece of research or an interesting idea by a certain author, note the details down, or ask your lecturer for more details about the source at the end of the session and research it for yourself. This way you will have a full understanding of the source and be able to incorporate it effectively into your work.

Sources with no Author or Date With any source that you choose to reference it is very important that you check it thoroughly for the information you need to include in your bibliography. If you cannot find the information you need in the source itself, then you could also try searching on the internet or the library catalogue to see if you can find the extra information you need.

Anonymous Sources Occasionally you may come across sources without a clear author. In these cases it is often a good idea to do some research first before deciding whether the source is creditable enough to use. Ask yourself why this source does not have an author. Is it because no one wants to claim this work as their own? In other cases you may be referring to an unconventional source that does not have a clear author. This can sometimes include some government literature or private company publications. In most cases however, you will find there is a corporate author that you can use as the author of the source. 100

HINT: If there is no clear author to the source then you can write: Anon. (an abbreviation of ‘Anonymous’) Example: Anon., (2011) How to be a Famous Author, Oxford: Oxford University Press For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Sources without a Date Sometimes you may also find that you wish to reference a source without a clear date. Although this will be fairly rare, it is important that you make it clear that you were unable to find a published date. You can do this by writing: No Date Example: Smith, J., (No Date) What Year is it? – A Guide for the Confused, London: Penguin For details of how to cite a quotation or paraphrase in the text of your essay, see the Quoting and Paraphrasing section.

Citation & Reference Management software Citation Managers are software applications that will help you…  import references from resources such as databases, journals, catalogues, websites etc

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   At Roehampton we have two citation managers, RefWorks and EndNote. RefWorks is an online tool that enables you to:
    

Create and organize a personal research database of references, images and PDFs , links add correctly formatted citations to Word documents automatically generate reference lists/bibliographies in a variety of styles (Harvard, MLA, APA, etc.)

Save references from sources such as ejournals, databases, library catalogues, websites Compile your own database of references Insert correctly formatted citations into your documents. Automatically generate bibliographies and lists of works cited. Access your information online from any computer, anywhere, any time. More information on RefWorks is available here: http://www.roehampton.ac.uk/RefWorks.aspx

Refworks offers you the chance to generate references and bibliographies using a number of styles. At the University of Roehampton when using Refworks we recommend undergraduates use the following styles dependant on their department:
Department
Education English Literature & Creative Writing Humanities Business Social Sciences Psychology Life Sciences Dance and Drama

Refworks Referencing Style
Harvard Roehampton University MLA 7th Edition Harvard Roehampton University Harvard Roehampton University Harvard Roehampton University APA 6th Edition/ Harvard Roehampton University Harvard Roehampton University Harvard Roehampton University

Postgraduates should check with their supervisor which referencing style they should be using. Postgraduates will generally find that Refworks will cover this style, or they can follow the guidance on Refworks to create their own referencing style if required. 102

EndNote is installed on all University Computers. When you are off campus you can use EndnoteWeb to manage your references. You will have to synch this with your Endnote account later on.

FAQs This section gives you advice and guidance on a number of frequently asked questions about referencing. Find more information under these broad topic headings: Referencing Systems Sources missing parts of their information Secondary Referencing Bibliography/Cited Works List questions What does this term mean? Plagiarism Quoting/Paraphrasing Can’t find a source

Referencing systems Why do departments have different referencing systems? How do I find out what referencing system I should be using? 103

Sources missing parts of their information The source I want to reference doesn’t have a date. How do I cite this source? The source I want to reference doesn’t have an author. How do I cite this source? The source I want to reference doesn’t have pages. How do I cite this source?

Secondary referencing The source I am looking at references another piece of work that I would like to cite. How do I cite a source if I haven’t read the original? Is it right to use secondary referencing? Can I quote my lecturer/lecture notes/ lecture powerpoint slides? Do all sources have the same value?

Bibliography/Cited Works List questions How much should I reference / How many citations does a good piece of work have? How many marks will I get for my referencing? How long should my bibliography be? What’s the difference between a bibliography and a reference list/cited works list?

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Should I have a bibliography or a reference list/cited works list in my assignments? My source has multiple authors how should I list these in my bibliography?

What does this term mean? What does my turnitin % score mean? What does ibid mean? What does op cit mean? Can I use ibid/op cit when I reference? What does et al mean? What do ed/eds mean?

Plagiarism When should I reference a term that isn’t mine? Do I need to cite a source more than once in the same paragraph? If my whole paragraph is paraphrased from someone else can I just put a citation at the end of that paragraph? What’s the difference between plagiarising and paraphrasing?

Quotations/Paraphrasing

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What’s the difference between paraphrasing and quoting? What’s the best way to introduce a quotation/paraphrase? Do I get more marks for quoting or paraphrasing? Do I need to mention the title of the source? Can I make changes to a quotation? Do I have to make changes to a quotation? UK/US spelling, tense, capitals My source has multiple authors how should I list these in my essay? Should I mention the first name(s) of the author in my essay, or just the surname, or both? If I’m using a 2nd/3rd/4th/later edition of a text what date should I use in the citation? If I’m citing a chapter in an edited book who is the author? Should I refer to the author in the past or present tense? What should I do if the original source is in another language and I’m using a translation?

Can’t find a source? How do I reference booklets/leaflets/pamphlets? I can’t find the source I need to reference in this guide what should I do?

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Why do departments have different referencing systems? Some referencing styles are more appropriate for different subjects. Often these styles have been developed to better support the need of the type of study and style of writing necessary for that particular subject. How do I find out what referencing system I should be using? This information should be provided to you by your programme so make sure you have checked your module/programme handbook first. If it is still not clear which style you should be using the table below is provided for guidance but it is still advisable to check with your tutors before writing your first assignment:
Department Education English Literature & Creative Writing Humanities Business Social Sciences Psychology Life Sciences Dance and Drama Referencing Style Harvard MLA Harvard Harvard Harvard APA/BPA Harvard Harvard

The source I want to reference doesn’t have a date. How do I cite this source? Sometimes you may find that you wish to reference a source without a clear date. This may especially be the case when you are using informal publications such as pamphlets or leaflets. Although it is fairly rare to find there is no date on a source, it is important that you make it clear that you were unable to find a published date. How you need to do this will depend on the referencing style you are using. The source I want to reference doesn’t have an author. How do I cite this source?

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Occasionally you may come across sources without a clear author. In these cases it is often a good idea to do some research first before deciding whether the source is creditable enough to use. Ask yourself why this source does not have an author. Is it because no one wants to claim this work as their own? In other cases you may be referring to an unconventional source that does not have a clear author. This can sometimes include some government literature or private company publications. In most cases however, you will find there is a corporate author that you can use as the author of the source. If the source does not have an author it is important that you make it clear that you were unable to find an author. How you need to do this will depend on the referencing style you are using. The source I want to reference doesn’t have page numbers. How do I cite this source? If the source you have used does not have page numbers you cannot include the page numbers in your citation. It is important that you make it clear that you were unable to cite a particular page. How you need to do this will depend on the referencing style you are using. How do I reference booklets/leaflets/pamphlets? This will depend on the reference style you are using. My source has multiple authors how should I list these in my essay? This will depend on the reference style you are using. The source I am looking at cites another piece of work that I would like to cite. How do I cite a source if I haven’t read the original? When you want to cite a source that is cited within another source but you have not been able to read the original then you must make this clear in your work. This type of referencing is often referred to as secondary referencing. This is because you are not referring to the primary source directly but to a 108

secondary reference. See the ‘Secondary referencing page for more information’. Is it right to use secondary referencing? Some tutors have different opinions about secondary referencing so it is always best to speak to your tutor if you are unsure if something is appropriate. Be very careful with secondary referencing and only use this selectively when it is necessary to refer to someone’s argument that you have not read in its original form. Although in some cases this may be the most appropriate way of referencing this source, if it is possible, it is often more appropriate for you to look at the original source yourself. By looking at the original source you can then better understand that source in context, rather than another author’s personal interpretation of that source. Can I quote my lecturer/lecture notes/ lecture powerpoint slides? Although you might be tempted to quote or paraphrase some of the information you receive in your lectures, it is important to remember that your handouts, handbooks or lectures are provided for guidance only. This information is not a substitute for your own research. Remember your lecturer will be paraphrasing a number of sources as well as their own ideas. To fully understand your lecturer’s argument, or the sources they are referring to, you need to look at the information for yourself, or it will be obvious in your work that you only have a limited understanding of the source. Therefore, this guide does not contain information on how to reference these sources. If your lecturer mentions a piece of research or an interesting idea by a certain author, note the details down, or ask your lecturer for more details about the source at the end of the session and research it for yourself. This way you will have a full understanding of the source and be able to incorporate it effectively into your work. Do all sources have the same value? No, they do not always have the same value. With any source that you choose to reference you need to consider whether that source is ‘introductory’ or more a ‘scholarly’, in­depth study. Remember that using 109

more recent sources will make you more aware of current debates. You must also consider how credible the source is and always be careful that the source you are citing is a reputable source and academic in its content. The sources you use will also vary depending on the course you are studying, and certain sources that are suitable for one subject may not be suitable for another. How much should I reference / How many citations does a good piece of work have? You are aiming to provide well supported arguments in your assignments. This will vary depending on the length of your work and the depth of the discussion needed. It is incredibly rare to hand in a piece of work that does not reference other sources. As a guideline your work should contain a minimum of at least one citation per paragraph. What does my turnitin % score mean? For an explanation on turnitin and a guide to what your score means see the Library Research Skills moodle site. How many marks will I get for my referencing? This will be set out in the guidelines to your assignment and will vary from course to course. It is an expectation that a successful piece of work will be fully referenced and that this will be done consistently and correctly. Remember that even just one mark can affect the grade classification for your assignment. Referencing should be treated with the same care and attention as any other aspect of your assignments. What does ibid mean? Is a Latin term short for ‘ibidem’ which means ‘the same place’. In referencing ibid is used to show that the source you are referring to is the same as the previous citation. What does op cit mean? Is a Latin term short for ‘opus citatum est’ which means ‘the work has 110

been cited’. In referencing op cit is used when you wish to refer to a source you have already cited. Op cit is used as a replacement for the full reference to show that you have previously given the full details. Can I use ibid/op cit when I reference? This will depend on the referencing style you are using. In standard Harvard and MLA referencing ibid and op cit are not normally used. What does et al mean? Is a Latin term which means ‘and others’. Et al is used when you have multiple authors of a source but are not listing every author in your citation. When and where you can use this will depend on the referencing style you are using. What do ed/eds mean? Ed/eds is an abbreviation of the word editor or editors. Generally this abbreviation is used when you are referring to either edited works of fiction or when you are listing the full reference for a chapter in an edited book in your bibliography/cited works list. When should I reference a term that isn’t mine? If you have found a term in a source that you are looking at that was created by the author of that source, and then wish to use this term in your work, you must still credit the term to the original author. Do I get more marks for quoting or paraphrasing? You do not necessarily get more marks for quoting or paraphrasing but your assignment will be improved by using a quotation or paraphrase when it is most appropriate. As a general guideline quotations are more appropriate when you need to directly refer to the way an author has worded their argument. Paraphrasing is more appropriate when you wish to summarise an argument, or a theory and it would be more succinct if

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you did this in your own words rather than trying to find the perfect quotation. Can I make changes to a quotation? Yes you can. On certain occasions you may need to make changes to a quotation in order for it to make sense in your sentence. This may include needing to change the tense so that the quotation agrees with the tense of your sentence, changing a capital letter to a lower case, or adding a word or two so that the context of the quotation is clear to the reader. When you make any changes to a quotation you must indicate that you have made these changes by placing square brackets: [] around the change. Do I have to make changes to a quotation? UK/US spelling, tense, capitals On certain occasions you may need to make changes to a quotation in order for it to make sense in your sentence. This may include needing to change the tense so that the quotation agrees with the tense of your sentence, changing a capital letter to a lower case, or adding a word or two so that the context of the quotation is clear to the reader. For UK/US spelling differences this is not normally necessary unless the spelling is so different it is unclear what the word. Should I mention the first name(s) of the author, or just the surname, or both? This will depend on the preferences of the particular referencing style you are using. What’s the best way to introduce a quotation/paraphrase? It is good practice to use a short phrase to introduce your quotation or paraphrase so it is clear to the reader how this relates to your argument. Below are some examples:  As X points out…  According to X… 112

 X states/ suggests/argues/highlights/emphasises… Do I need to mention the title of the source? This will depend on the preferences of the particular referencing style you are using. Do I need to cite a source more than once in the same paragraph? Yes you will need to if you refer to different parts of an author’s argument, or quote from different pages you will need to include another citation. If my whole paragraph is paraphrased from someone else can I just put a citation at the end of that paragraph? It is not good practice for your paraphrasing of an individual argument to be as long as a whole paragraph. Try to keep your paraphrasing as concise as possible and focus on the parts of a person’s argument or theory that are relevant to your discussion. As much as possible you need to make it clear where your argument ends and someone else’s argument begins and if a whole paragraph comes from just one source it may not be entirely clear in your writing that this is not your work. If you need to write a fairly long paraphrased statement put an additional citation to remind the reader that you are still paraphrasing the author. If I’m using a 2nd/3rd/4th/later edition of a text what date should I use in the citation? In your citation you should use the date of the edition you are currently looking at. Then in your bibliography/cited works list it may be helpful to list not only the date and the edition you are referring to but also the date the book was originally published. This will depend on the preferences of the particular referencing style you are using.

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If I’m citing a chapter in an edited book who is the author? The author is always the person/s who wrote that particular chapter. The author is not the editor/s unless they also wrote a chapter within the book and this is what you are citing. Should I refer to the author in the past or present tense? Programmes will have different styles that they prefer their students to use so it is advisable that you speak to your tutor to find out what they would prefer. Generally even if an author has been dead for quite some time it is good practice to refer to an author in the present tense unless their theories have subsequently been discredited or usurped by later theories that are now commonly agreed on, in this case you may refer to the author in the past tense. What should I do if the original source is in another language and I’m using a translation? The guidelines for referencing sources like this are in each individual referencing guide. How long should my bibliography be? There is no ‘perfect’ length a bibliography should be. Instead your bibliography should be as detailed and thorough as the length of the assignment requires. What’s the difference between a bibliography and a reference list/cited works list? A bibliography is a list of all of the sources you have looked at to help you compile the essay. This can include sources you have read but not actually quoted from or paraphrased in your work. This normally appears at the end of your piece of work and should follow a particular layout depending on the referencing style you are using. It is also a good idea to check if there are any specific recommendations in your module handbook as some modules may require different layouts. A reference/cited works list is a list of all of the sources you have directly quoted or paraphrased in your work only. This normally appears at the end of your piece of work and should follow a particular layout depending 114

on the referencing style you are using. It is also a good idea to check if there are any specific recommendations in your module handbook as some modules may require different layouts. Should I have a bibliography or a reference list/cited works list in my assignments? This will depend on the preferences of the particular referencing style you are using. If you are still unsure which type of list your tutor is expecting it is a good idea to double check with them before you begin writing your essay. What’s the difference between plagiarising and paraphrasing? When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your assignment but put them into your own words, this is called paraphrasing. When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of someone else, or use the words they have used and present them as your own argument, then this is plagiarism. If you continually make mistakes that then lead to you accidentally presenting the work of other people as your own then this is also plagiarising. If you plagiarise you will face disciplinary proceedings, fail your module and even, at worst, be expelled from university. You should always ensure that you reference your work properly and carefully. For more information on plagiarism please see the plagiarism section of this guide or contact your ALA for more support. What’s the difference between paraphrasing and quoting? When you include the words of someone else’s work in your essay you are quoting. When you include the arguments, ideas, or theories of anyone other than yourself in your assignment but put them into your own words, this is called paraphrasing I can’t find the source I need to reference in this guide what should I do? 115

While we have tried to make this guide as thorough as possible new types of sources are being created all the time so it’s not possible for the library’s guide to cover absolutely everything. If you can’t find the source you need to reference in this guide please double check to make sure you have not missed the entry for that source. Once you are certain that we do not mention that particularly source in our guide please contact your ALA with your query or come to one of our drop­ins in the Green Room, room 217 of the Library

More Help There are a number of ways in which you can get more help and support from the Learning Services team. For academic skills and elearning advice including Refworks training please go to the Learning Services web pages to find out more about how we can help you make the most of your time at the University of Roehampton.

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...» Admin Sign In Quick Links Skip to main content UWA Information Services LibGuides Harvard citation style Library Site Search UWA Website Harvard citation style This guide shows students and staff how to reference using the Harvard Referencing style. Last Updated: Feb 16, 2012 Introduction URL: http://libguides.is.uwa.edu.au/harvard All examples Print Page EndNote Print Guide RSS Updates Reference formats Comments(0) Questions and comments All examples Search: This Guide ●Search Harvard all examples PDF Harvard All Examples - PDF In-text citations Two or more works cited at one point in the text If two or more works by different authors or authoring bodies are cited at one point in the text, use a semi-colon to separate them: (Larsen 2000; Malinowski 1999) The authors should be listed in alphabetical order. Two or three authors or authoring bodies When citing a work by two or three authors or authoring bodies, cite the names in the order in which they appear on the title page: (Malinowski, Miller & Gupta 1995) In-text and reference list examples Books & eBooks Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example Book: Single Author Book: 2 or 3 Authors Book: More Than 3 Authors Book: No Author Book: Editor Book: 2 or More Editors Book: Translator & Author Book: Organisation as Author Book: Chapter or Article in Edited Book Book, edition other than first. E-book E-book: Chapter or Article in an Edited E-book......

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