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Health Campaign Part 1

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Health Campaign Part 1
Violet Sowell
HCS 535 – Concepts of Population Health
February 23, 2015
Instructor Patti Mataxen

Health Campaign Part 1
In the paper the topic to be discussed is health campaign of a public health issue aligned with a nationally identified health objective. There are many public health issues that people face daily and one major public health issue is obesity. When dealing with public health issues physical activity is important to help reduce health issues such as obesity which can lead to serious health problems. The main points that will be discussed are identification of a specific issue and nationally identified health objective which will be obesity. Other points to be discussed are identification of federal, state, and local agencies tasked with addressing and managing obesity and describing the models and systems used to determine and analyze obesity, including sources of data. Defining the community and targeted population that the identified objectives address which could include women, older adults, or African Americans and describing the epidemiologic surveillance systems used for monitoring the issue will be addressed. Finally, analyzing epidemiology tools within other areas of the health care system – risk assessment and trends in disease and health – needed to address obesity will be discussed.
Obesity is a leading cause of death which consists of many health conditions that could develop. Health conditions that are related to obesity consists of heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancers. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014), “The estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the U.S. was $147 billion in 2008 U.S. dollars; the medical costs for people who are obese were $1,429 higher than those of normal weight” (Para 3). Obesity is among various groups of people obesity affects Non-Hispanic blacks the most, than Hispanics, non-Hispanic whites, and non-Hispanic Asians the least. Middle aged adults are affected by obesity more than any other age group in adults. Obesity in children remain high. Within the United States there is one-third of the population that is obese. Obesity is a chronic disease which is either a long-tern or lifelong condition for many people. Death by obesity is preventable depending on the lifestyle a person choses to live. According to Rippe, J. M., Crossley, S., & Ringer, R. (1998), “Although there is clearly a strong genetic component of obesity, lifestyle issues such as proper nutrition, regular physical activity, and attention to eating behaviors and cues remain critical tools in effective treatment of the disease” (P. s10). There are many classification for weight using BMI. People that are underweight have a BMI less than 18.5, normal weight BMI is 18.5 – 24.9, overweight BMI is 25.0 – 29.9, obesity class 1 BMI is 30.0 – 34.9, obesity class 2 BMI is 35.0 – 39.9, obesity class 3 BMI is 40.0 and above, extreme obesity BMI is greater than 40, and super obesity BMI is greater than 50. The national identified health objectives consists of eating healthy, physical exercise, and education classes.
Addressing and Managing Obesity The federal, state, and local agencies tasked with addressing and managing obesity consists of Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), U.S. Public Health Service (USPHS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Ohio Department of Health (ODH), and Ohio Department of Job and Family Services
Models and Systems The models and systems used to determine and analyze obesity consists of systems science. According to Johnston, L. M., Matteson, C. L., & Finegood, D.T. (2014), “Systems science can complement socioecological models of health promotion by examining not just the causes of obesity by also interactions across its contributing subsystems” (P. 1270). System science deals with understanding of health problems. A model that is used is simulation modeling. According to Cockrell Skinner, A. & Foster, E. M. (2013), “One tool is simulation modeling, grouped into three broad conceptual paradigms: system dynamics modeling (SDM), agent-based modeling (ABM), and discrete event simulation (DES)” (P. 2). There are properties of obesity which consists of breadth, feedback loops, dynamic systems in real time, interactions of individual’s actors, interactions between multiple levels, complex relational structure, heterogeneous actors, spatial, and bounded rationality. Conceptual model for childhood obesity.
Community and Targeted Population The community and target population children, adults, and different races such as whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. There are many types of people that are obese. People who have an exercise routine, healthy eating habits, and educational programs to help maintain his or her weight live a healthier life style. People who are obese and begin a program allows the people to begin a healthier life style and prolong his or her life. There are many programs that can help a person understand that healthy eating is important even for pregnant women and infants. There are WIC programs for mothers and children that help begin the early stages of life by introducing healthy eating at a young age. Children that are obese are more likely to continue to be obese in his or her adult years and are more likely to have more health issues because of being obese. Having a supportive group that eat healthy and exercises increases the chances of losing weight. The Nutrition and Physical Activity Workgroup (NUPAWG) program promotes healthy eating and has different levels of physical activity for childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Providing healthy food for children at school is important so that they have a healthy breakfast and lunch will help provide the nutrients needed to do better in school. A child should have at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day and a limited time of television or games. ODH of Healthy Ohio helps with wellness and prevention of obesity.
Surveillance Systems used for Monitoring Obesity
There are many surveillance systems used for monitoring obesity. The way that surveillance systems are used to monitor obesity is through home interviews and health examinations. Author mentioned in text: Koplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T., and Kroak, V. I, (2005), “Table 4-1 Selected Surveillance Systems: CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals – data of food intake, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey – monitors population, NHTS National Household Travel Survey – monitoring travel from local and long-distance, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, NLSY National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, PedNSS Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System, SHPPS School Health Policies and Programs Study, and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System – examines factors of obesity” (P. 138-139).
Epidemiology Tools The epidemiology tools within other areas of the health care system consists of BMI, weight diagnoses, and weight-management plan. According to Muo, I. M., Sacajiu, G., Kunins, H., & Deluca, J. (2013), “The availability of BMI chart reminder was associated with a significant increase in the proportion of charts with documented BMI (2.5 vs 5%, P < 0.04)” (P. 224). When dealing with obesity it is important to have a certain approach for treatment and prevention because of it being a chronic disease. Having the study allows physicians to understand the percentage of people that are obese and the groups these people fall under to have knowledge on which groups are more at risk for obesity over other groups.
In the paper the topic that was discussed is health campaign of obesity. Obesity is one of the leading causes of death because it can lead to many different health problems such as cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. People that are obese are more likely to been seen by health physicians more than a person at normal weight. When it comes to medical costs people that are obese have higher medical costs. African Americans are at a higher chance of becoming obese than any other race with Asians developing obesity the least. People that are middle aged are more likely to be obese than any other age group. When a child is obese he or she has a greater chance of living a life with obesity. Finding programs that can help educate people on the importance of healthy eating and physical activity helps people understanding the risks if his or her life style is an unhealthy life system. Some agencies that help promote and manage obesity consists of Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and Ohio Department of Health. Systems science is a system that is used to determine and analyze obesity. Simulation modeling is used when dealing with obesity. The targeted population consists of children, adolescents, and adults of all races. Depending on a person’s choice in his or her life determines if a person will be obese or not. Living a healthy life style improves the chance of living a longer life.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Adult obesity facts. Overweight and obesity. Retrieved on February 22, 2015. Retrieved from
Cockrell Skinner, A. & Foster, E. M. (2013). Systems Science and Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review and New Directions. Journal Of Obesity, 20131-10. Doi:10.1155/2013/129193
Koplan, J. P., Liverman, C. T., and Kroak, V. I, (2005). Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 4, A National Public Health Priority. Retrieved on February 23, 2015. Retrieved from:
Johnston, L. M., Matteson, C. L., & Finegood, D.T. (2014). Systems Science and obesity Policy: A Novel Framework for Analyzing and Rethinking Population-Level Planning. American Journal Of Public Health, 104(7), 1270-1278, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301884
Muo, I. M., Sacajiu, G., Kunins, H., & Deluca, J. (2013). Effects of the availability of weight and height data on the frequency of primary care physicians’ documented BMI, diagnoses and management of overweight and obesity. Quality in Primary Care, 21(4), 221-228.
Rippe, J. M., Crossley, S., & Ringer, R. (1998). Obesity as a chronic disease: Modern medical and lifestyle management. American Dietetic Association. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, S9-15. Retrieved from

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