Free Essay

Health & Social

In: Other Topics

Submitted By ajh2811
Words 1147
Pages 5
The philosophy behind HighScope is based on child development theory and research, originally drawing on the work of Jean Piaget and John Dewey. Since then, the HighScope Curriculum has evolved to include the findings of ongoing cognitive-developmental and brain research.
David P. Weikart was an American psychologist and founder of the High/Scope Cognitively-Oriented Curriculum, an early childhood education program. Born in 1931, in Ohio.
In 1949, David graduated from South High School in Youngstown. In 1953, Weikart graduated from the Oberlin College in Oberlin, Ohio, with a major in psychology and a minor in zoology. While attending college, Weikart worked as a counsellor and a program director at a YMCA camp in Rochester, New York.
While teaching English and biology at Canfield High School in Ohio, Weikart began taking courses in education at Youngstown University in the spring of 1956. In the autumn ofthis year, Weikart enrolled in a University of Michigan joint PhD program in Education and Psychology. During his time at the University of Michigan, Weikart met his future wife, Phyllis Saxton. At that time, Phyllis was a master's candidate in the Department of Health and Physical Education. In 1957, David and Phyllis were married in Shelton, Connecticut.
In 1957, Weikart began working part-time as a school psychologist for the Public Schools Michigan. At about the same time, Weikart and his wife began working in leadership positions at several summer camps until they founded the High/Scope Camp in 1963.
On December 9, 2003, at the age of 72, Weikart passed away during his battle with leukemia.
Highscope today

High/Scope is an approach to early years education that has at its core the belief that children gain confidence, initiative and a lifelong love of learning when involved in well-supported activities of their own choosing. Such benefits, it is claimed, are carried into adult life, producing a generation with positive attitudes to education and society.

The curriculum content is negotiated with the children and planning is determined by the children's interests rather than rigidly set topics, exercises or worksheets. To achieve this, the day is structured around High/Scope's Plan-Do-Review routine. Early in the day, the children are told of resources available (some permanent, some stemming from the children's interests) and adults' plans (for example, 'I'm playing in the shop'). They are then allowed to choose what they would like to do and where (the learning environment incorporates the outdoors).

The daily routine gives a secure base from which children can explore and experience their world. This flexible framework, transferable to many settings, will always include the Plan-Do-Review sequence.
The child will express their intentions for 'work-time' in a way that is developmentally appropriate, and will then actively engage in a number of purposeful activities, supported by the practitioner. After work time they will come together with the practitioner and be encouraged to 'review' what they have been doing.
The form of the review will be dependent on the developmental level of the child in question, but will give an opportunity for the child to reflect on what they have done and for the adult to acknowledge the action and problem solving that has taken place.
The Plan-Do-Review sequence provides children with the opportunity to think about cause and effect, to overcome problems and to work with others. The discussion gives scope for language and listening skills to develop and, as they mature, the opportunity to reflect on their experience with increasing verbal ability and logic.
The High/Scope approach has been used in the UK since the early 1980s and is practised in settings across the early years sector. There are now more than 200 High/Scope endorsed trainers and an estimated 20,000 practitioners using the method, with 250,000 children each year experiencing the approach.

The wheel of active learning: High/Scope is often pictured as a ‘wheel’ rotating on the ‘hub’ of active learning – learning through hands-on involvement with people, materials, events, and ideas. Lists of recommended ‘key experiences’ (58 of them) have been compiled and incorporated into the High/Scope curriculum, to further children’s mental, physical, social and emotional development. These key experiences fall into ten categories: creative representation, language and literacy, initiative and social relations, movement, music, classification, seriation, number, space, and time.
High/Scope’s wheel of active learning has four ‘spokes’: Adult/Child Interaction, Learning Environment, Daily Routine, and Assessment.
Adult-child interaction: High/Scope teachers relate to children not as managers but as friends and partners. They support children’s choices of activities, play with them on their level, focus on their strengths, and encourage them to find solutions to their own problems. (‘George is having trouble putting on his apron; what can we do to help?’) When conflicts arise between children, adults help them discuss the situation rather than punishing or isolating them. Thus conflicts are viewed as opportunities that help children develop social skills and become more aware of the effects of their actions on others.
Learning environment: Children have a natural desire to understand their world, and High/Scope settings enable spontaneous discovery through preparation of the environment. Much thought goes into organisation of materials and spaces to support independent learning. Plainly laid out interest areas provide activities such as block play, art, role play, sand and water, and books and writing. Materials are stored at point of use, in clear containers labelled with easily understood symbols, and stored within reach so children can take and return materials independently. Appropriate room for transition is also essential, for example the welcome area. A carefully planned outdoor area is important to give children daily opportunities to observe and learn from the natural world.

Daily routine: Children need consistency. This need is supported not only in the organisation of the High/Scope environment, but also through a daily routine that helps children anticipate what comes next. Having a sequence of events that is the same every day helps children feel in control. The High/Scope daily routine includes the ‘plan-do-review’ process, implemented throughout the day. That is, children are given time to plan their activities, execute them, and then give feedback on what they have done. During review time teachers reflect choices and experiences back to children, building the children’s confidence in their own decision-making abilities, and giving them a sense of control in important life choices later. Outdoor time and large and small group experiences are also part of the daily routine.
Assessment: High/Scope teachers rely on teamwork, modelling cooperative interaction. Teachers regularly take anecdotal notes on children’s daily activities. This documentation is used to create plans to extend the children’s learning, as well as to involve parents in providing continuity between home and school. From the daily notes a record is generated to assess children’s long-term progress.

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Health and Social

...this assignment i am going to explain possible priorities and responses when dealing with two particular incidents or emergencies in a health or social care setting. I am going to discuss health, safety or security concerns arising from a specific incident or emergency in a health or social care setting and i am going to justify responses to a particular incident or emergency in a health or social care setting. Suzie works in a care home and she has been working there for 3 years now. She looks after a resident called Alma who has been in there for nearly a year. Alma finds it difficult to communicate with people as she can’t really speak because she doesn’t have much stability. Suzie looks after him every day she washes him and takes him to the toilet. One day Alma wants to go for a cigarette but Suzie is on her break as she has decided to take an early break. Alma can’t shout to Suzie has she can’t communicate with other people. Alma starts shaking because she really needs a cigarette so she decides to get up and go herself. Alma is on the top floor of the care home and she starts to walk downstairs but, her feet get stuck and she falls down the stairs. Suzie hears a thudding noise and rushes to the stairs to find that Alma is at the bottom. Suzie phones and ambulance, Suzie is worried about her physical, intellectual, emotional and social needs. Suzie is worried about Alma physical needs as she doesn’t know how serious the fall was and weather Alma will never be able to......

Words: 1154 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Health and Social

...P2: Outline how legislation, policies and procedures relating to working in health, safety and security influence health and social care settings. Task 1: Outline all the legislation, policies and procedures relating to working in health and social care settings and state how they influence the setting. Mention all the legislation below. Legislation and guidelines: relevant sections for home country, e.g. health and safety at work act, food safety act, food safety (general food hygiene) regulations, manual handling operations regulations, reporting of injuries, diseases and dangerous occurrences regulations (RIDDOR), data protection act, management of health and safety at work regulations, care homes regulations, control of substances hazardous to health regulations (COSHH), civil contingencies act 2004, care minimum standards (various supplements). The Health and Safety at Work Act: The Health and Safety at Work Act is a legislation that was introduced in 1974 in order to protect individuals within the workplace from hazards that could oppose risks to their health and welfare and this legislation applies not only to the UK but also to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The employers within the workplace must carry out a risk assessment in......

Words: 1948 - Pages: 8

Free Essay

Health and Social

...Providing health insurance or health security for poor people continues to be one of the most important unresolved policy issues for the world. Most rural and informal sector workers in the world do not have any form of health insurance. And in most developing countries, the rural and informal sectors constitute the bulk of the population. In India, for example, estimates suggest that 90% of India’s families earn their livelihood from the unorganized sector, contributing 40% of the nation’s GDP (Jhabvala and Subrahmanya 2000). However, they are poor, most of them are not in employer-employee relationships, they do not have any form of insurance or security (e.g. maternity benefits, retirement, health insurance), nor do they have representative organizations that might help them fight for these benefits (Ahmad et al. 1991, Gumber & Kulkarni 2000).The poor are particularly vulnerable to the lack of health security. Studies show that the poor spend a greater percentage of their budget on health related expenditures (Sheriff et al 1999). The burden of treatment is particularly devastating for major health issues, and particularly when they seek "in-patient" care (hospitalization). Further, the high incidence of sickness (morbidity in technical terms) cuts into their budget in two different ways, i.e. they need to spend large amounts of money for treatment and are unable to earn money while under treatment. In fact, healthcare costs are one of the primary reasons for rural......

Words: 692 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Health and Social

...Individual rights In health and social care, rights refer to the underpinning principles of care practice. * The right to be respected * The right to be treated equally and not discriminated against * The right to be treated as an individual * The right to be treated in a dignified way * The right to be allowed privacy * The right to be protected from danger and harm * The right to be allowed access to information about themselves * The right to be able to communicate using their preferred method of communication and language * The right to be cared for in a way that meets their need * The right to have their choices taken into account and be protected The right to be respected – All individuals have the basic human rights to be respected. Demonstrating respect for the individual is at the core of the health worker’s responsibility. Respect is about preventing a person’s dignity, core beliefs, choice and privacy, even if someone’s choice of treatment doesn’t match yours. A previous example concerned a person with diabetes not accepting their condition and not taking their medication or controlling their diet. These situations can be frustrating, as you may feel that it has nothing to do with you if the person is severely ill due to them not accepting their illness but you still have to respect individual choices. To demonstrate respect you should have: * Good listening and communication skills with the individual *......

Words: 1039 - Pages: 5

Free Essay

Social Determinants of Health

...as education, income, and health, I will use, The Social Determinants of Health Model, to guide my future practice. According to, The WHO, “The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics” ("Social determinants of," 2013). In other words, in order to promote, maintain, or return a person to health, it is imperative to understand the circumstances of that person’s social and physical environment currently and historically. In addition, it is important to consider barriers to health imposed by community economics, worldview, and social policies in place. With these concepts in mind, I can individualize a care plan in partnership with the patient. By understanding the prevailing attitudes, social policies, and economics specific to the location of my future practice, I can also address conditions that create health disparities. For example, I might observe that I am seeing a large percentage of patients that smoke, or are obese, or have diabetes. To address these unhealthy habits on an individual basis, I will understand that people cannot be treated without understanding their personal and community environment. My goal in practice will be promoting optimum health in the individual, while understanding that eliminating barriers to health in the community is the......

Words: 300 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health and Social Care

...Independence of older people The older people’s health and wellbeing Framework reference group was established on 21 June 2010. It is a group of older people with experience as users and carers of health and social care services. Its guide is to provide comments and recommendations on a draft service framework document commissioned by the department of health, social services and public safety on the health and wellbeing of older people. For older people, independence is about choice and control. They value helping others as well as receiving help themselves. They also value good housing in safe, friendly neighbourhoods; getting out and about and keeping busy; an adequate income, good information and good access to healthcare. National policies already offer many opportunities to refocus local services in order to promote greater independence and well-being for older people, although better organisation is needed. Mr Ronald (age 81) was referred to the hospital social work team for older people following his admission to the acute psychiatric ward for older people; under section 2 of the Mental Health Act 1983 (an approved social worker from the adult mental health team undertook the assessment). The admission followed a worsening in Mr Wilson’s mental health and an incident in which he apparently threatened his home help with a knife. Mr Wilson had been diagnosed three years previously with Alzheimer’s and at that time the community-based social work team had arranged......

Words: 6659 - Pages: 27

Free Essay

Health and Social Care

...1) What do you know about patterns of health in the UK? Is health getting better or worse? | | | | | | 2) What factors can have an impact on patterns of health in the UK? |There are many factors contributed to affect the patterns of health in the UK such as: | |Diet: A Bad diet can lead a person to get many different kind of dieses and illnesses for example a person who eats food with high content of sugar he has a risk of| |developing a disease such as diabetes. Eating too much and not how much you need can lead a person to become overweight which itself increases your risk of getting | |heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes etc and if a person eats too much animal fat, smokes and drinks alcohol and does no exercise can multiply their chances| |of getting a disease even more. ...

Words: 1037 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Health and Social Care

...characteristics are inferior then others. Gender: at birth we are classified as either male or female. Historically it was seen men were more important and had more rights than women however now into day’s society women and men have the same balance of equal. For instance men now participate in child caring and women’s choice of working as a mechanic has become popular. However there are still assumptions made about some ones gender that can lead to discrimination. Social class: social class is to do with the status that an individual has in society. This is based on, wealth and lifestyle. The British class system is divided into three layers; working class, middle class and upper class. The higher up the class you are the more power and influence you have on others. Social class affects health and well-being as a person in a lower class because you’re less likely to have the same opportunities in life as those in a higher class, as they have a poorer employment prospects and lower income. Family structure: A family is social group made up of people who are related to each other by birth. Being part of a family shows others that those people are connected in some way. We can classify four different types of family: • Extended family ( a family which extends beyond the nuclear family to include grandparents and other relatives) • Nuclear family ( a married couple with their two children) • Lone parent family ( is a single parent with their children) • Reconstituted......

Words: 764 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Health & Social Care

...Centre Name: East End College of Business and ComputingAnd | Centre no: 10562 | Course title | Unit number and title | BTEC HIGHER NATIONAL HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE: LEVEL-5 | Unit 16: Understanding specific needs in health & social care | Student name Student ID | Assessor name | | Margaret Amankwah | Date issued | Completion date | Submitted on | | | | | | Assignment title | Understanding specific needs in health and social care | Assignment Overview: Individuals have a wide & diverse range of demands & care needs. The aim of this assignment is to make a better understanding of these demands & needs within the health & social care service system & the development of these settings to ensure the empowerment of the service users. TABLE OF CONTENTS | TOPICS | PAGE NO | Introduction | …………………….4 | Task : 1 : Understanding perceptions of health , disability , illness & behavior | Task 1A | AC : 1.1 & 1.2 | …………………….5 | Task 1B | AC : 1.3 | …………………….6 | Task : 2 : Understanding how health & social care services & systems support individuals with specific needs | Task 2A | AC : 2.1 | …………………….7 | Task 2B | AC : 2.2 & 2.3 | …………………….7 | Task : 3 : Understanding approaches & interventions strategies that support individuals with specific needs | Task 3A | AC : 3.1 & 3.2 | …………………….9 | Task 3B | AC :......

Words: 3079 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Health and Social Care

....2 Identify ways of working that can help improve partnership working. Improving partnership working can be done in many ways and there are many different methods of doing it. One way could be to give honest and unbiased information and opinions to the people you work with to help build a strong bond of trust and encourage people to act in the same manner toward you as you do to them. Identifying strengths and weaknesses of individuals is also key to improving partnerships, as it can create an opportunity for everyone to learn, and to provide the best possible care for the service user. You can improve partnership working by attending training sessions and knowing your own roles and responsibilities, and having everyone know the policies and procedures. Also having good communication between everyone involved can make working with a partner much easier and more efficient. 3.3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts. Compromising with a difficult individual is very important, as if a conflict seems one sided it will only anger or agitate the conflicted individuals further. Understanding each others roles can also help diffuse tension by having individuals concentrate on their roles rather than the other person, as well as trying to understand the individuals problems, it could be as simple as turning the channel over, but even if it isn’t, identifying why a conflict has occurred is a very good step towards resolving it, and understanding that problem...

Words: 441 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health and Social Care

...partnerships also co-ordinates in order to ensure that, each professional's effort are acted upon, and to ensure that each practitioner is aware of what the others are doing. The children Act 1989 laid the foundation for inter-agency and inter-professional collaborations. In order to clearly explain the benefits of interagency partner in health and social care I will look at some real life situation (case study) and show how the agencies collaborate to focus on the holistic wellbeing of the patient. Case Study John is a 69 years old man and he lives alone. Four months ago, he was diagnosed with neuritis disease and he is been advised by his GP to undergo surgery to remove the damaged nerve but he is nervous about the surgery. As a result of his condition, he has been having difficulty with walking and he has to quit his job. He has started drinking in the evenings and also got a liver problem and because of these problems, he is depressed. The ranges of professionals that are working with John to ensure that he gets the best of care include the following: The first point of contact for John is the General Practitioner (GP). He was the health professional who diagnosed him of neuritis (Neuritis is the inflammation of the nerves, involving a single nerve or a series of nerves). The GP also prescribed mild anti-depressants to help reduced some of the depression that he is feeling and also to help him have a positive relationship with his neighbours...

Words: 2673 - Pages: 11

Premium Essay

Social Determinant of Health

...The social determinants of health are the circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work and age, and the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics. (CDC). usually it is know that, the better the economic status of an individual, the better the individual’s health. Health status improves at each step up the income and social hierarchy. High income determines living conditions such as safe housing and ability to buy sufficient good food. The healthiest populations are those in societies which are prosperous and have an equitable distribution of wealth. Communicable disease chain involves agent host and the environment through which people get infected with diseases. The CDC explain the chain as: “More specifically, transmission occurs when the agent leaves its reservoir or host through a portal of exit, is conveyed by some mode of transmission, and enters through an appropriate portal of entry to infect a susceptible host.” This sequence constitutes the chain of infection (CDC). Nurses can work diligently to break any of this chain by health education and promotion. Nurses may also take steps like; isolate, quarantine and do prompt referral for adequate treatment. Example is isolating an individual with tuberculosis at the time the disease is communicable. The nurse can also quarantine or restrict movement of an individuals who have been exposed to the......

Words: 268 - Pages: 2

Premium Essay

Health & Social Care

...P1&P2: explain the principal sociological perspectives and explain the different approaches to health and ill health. Functionalist Perspective and the approach to Health: The functionalist perspective was published in 1951 by Talcott Parsons which studied the social structure as a whole and the ways in which it functions. This view promotes the social solidarity and value consensus; this is the belief that each person should share the same basic norms and values within society. Therefore, this would make each society run smoothly. Functionalists believe strongly that each individual has an equal opportunity of success within their life, that the nuclear family is a vital concept as it provides the most suitable environment for children to be raised within and believe if an individual has ill health that it is there responsibility to work with health professionals to re-gain good health status. This perspective has been widely criticised by individuals as it is believed that they do not value the diversity within a society. The functionalist approach to health is identified through the relationship shared between an individual who is sick and the whole of society. Talcott Parsons strongly believed that for a society to run smoothly all individuals must be free of ill health and that ‘medicine serves the wellbeing of society as a whole’. Individuals in which believe the functionalist perspective believe that having a sick role in society is classed as an act of......

Words: 3181 - Pages: 13

Free Essay

Health and Social Care

...education they need, this will then lead on to them being more likely to get a higher paid job which means that there are more taxes paid which helps to keep the government running. With this system, society will be stable and promote productivity but if it does not go to plan, parts of the system will fail and have to find new order and stability. Functionalism highlights the order that exists in society and focuses on social stability and public values. Some functionalists focus on the function of human behaviours, one of these sociologists is Robert Merton who categorised human functions into two sections; ‘manifest functions’ which included the actions that were obvious and intentional such as attending a church to worship as part of a religion and ‘latent functions’ which are actions that are neither intentional or obvious such as when going to the church to worship they are unintentionally going to also separate their personal values from their uniform, work or religious values. Functionalism doesn’t encourage people to be an active role or go about changing their social environment, even if these changes could be useful and good for them. By using the basics to the functionalist perspective, Talcott Parsons( ) came up with the idea that in order for society to function without error, each individual within society must be healthy. When someone becomes ill they have a new role to fill which includes being excused from going to work or school or going to family......

Words: 2646 - Pages: 11

Free Essay

Health and Social Care

... * Define care home / health care manager * Discuss the roles of a health care manager ( leadership, care interventions, organisation and management of care, teaching and promoting health and wellbeing, training and educating colleagues and students, utilizing research and evidence based care). You can find them in week 3 slides. Use these points to discuss the role of a manager and in relate to Seven Kings residential care home. Discuss the role of a healthcare manager in achieving effectiveness and efficient service delivery of care. Role of a healthcare manager: A role of manager within the healthcare sector maybe different according to their titles and the functions of their facilities. Hospital administrators are in charge of admissions, staff and upkeep of medical centers, making sure that patients receive the necessary services. In large facilities, clinical managers focus on a specific department, such as surgery or nursing. They set goals and procedures for their areas of responsibility after consulting with other clinical managers and the chief administrator. Health information managers ensure that sensitive medical data is safeguarded from casual and unauthorized access. A healthcare manager is an individual who deals within the organizations business aspect such as its finances and operations. A health care manager's primary responsibility is to ensure patients receive high quality care by providing physicians, health care assitsants and......

Words: 586 - Pages: 3