Free Essay

Healthcare Law

In: Business and Management

Submitted By culmer
Words 2031
Pages 9
Annotated Bibliography
Cass Ulmer

Indian Health Service. (2014). The federal health program for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Indian Health Service. Retrieved from http://www.ihs.gov/communityhealth/ The Indian Health Service government website give a general overview about the programs and services that IHS has to offer to Native Americans and Alaska Natives. This site provides an interdisciplinary approach to promote and provide community health among these people. This site also provides general information about the Affordable Care Act and Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which extends current law and authorizes new programs and services within the Indian Health Service. This information is all well written and easily accessible for the general public, members of IHS, providers, and also those looking for a career opportunity in this specific field. This site also provides legal information such as eligibility and legislation for IHS, which covers 566 federally, recognized tribes in 35 different states. Overall this site is credible and well put together in order to aid the public in learning more about the health system for Native Americans and Alaska Native.

NBC News. (2014). Broken promises: Reservations lack basic care. Healthcare on NBC News. Retrieved from http://www.nbcnews.com/id/31210909/ns/ health-health_care/t/broken-promises-reservations-lack-basic- care/#.VIOJX4d692c This news article provides a real life example of the Indian Health Service system failing to provide proper care to a five-year-old girl on the Crow Reservation in Montana. The article goes on to discuss the legality and weaknesses that are highly present in the IHS and also refers to the “don’t get sick after June” concept that is said when federal dollars for this service run out. Provided these real life examples and detail research that are present throughout this news article, the public is able to get a more detailed feel of what healthcare on the reservation is like. Many people may think that Native Americans on reservations get free, proper healthcare, but the article reveals that the reality is that these areas are treated with some of the worst care worldwide. This news article is a true eye opener for all people who have never been to a reservation. Overall it provides valid information that allows the reader to go more in detail on specific areas in our country that are affected most by poor quality of healthcare.

Our View Health Law Controversy Could Hurt Indian Care. (2012, Apr 09). The Santa Fe New Mexican. This newspaper article from ProQuest Newsstand talks about the legal controversy that the Indian Health Care Improvement Act brings about in our country. As healthcare legislation moves along, there are necessary improvements to Indian healthcare that has lingered without permanent reauthorization since 2000 according to this article. Many fine points are being lost in the big-picture discussions over the ACA and whether the law’s individual mandate is allowed under the US constitution. This article emphasizes the legal side of providing healthcare to the Native Americans on reservations, which many people find strong debate over. This publication is well written and open for anyone in the general public to read. Many people are unaware of these legal issues involving providing care for those who are unable to afford it; therefore, this article is important for people to read in order to help others understand the measures the government is trying to take to improve it.

Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. E. (2008). Health care in America: Separate and unequal. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe. pg. 1-29. Patel and Rushefsky’s book discusses the unique mix of public and private programs in the American health care system that critics argue has produced a two-tier system. It goes into detail about the dramatic unequal care that leaves millions of Americans underinsured or with no coverage at all. This book examines the root cause of the inequalities of the healthcare system in America and discusses various policy alternatives. It systematically documents the demands on and the performance of our system for different population groups such as gender, age, and race and ethnicity. For each of these different groups, the book documents many different statistics involving demographics, health status, policies, laws, and programs that are relevant to healthcare. All of this information is relevant for the understanding and developing further research on the topic of issues of equality in the US healthcare system. This book can be helpful for research but also medical and health professionals, patients and families, parents and educators in the professional world as well as American Indians and Alaska Natives. | |
Sequist, T. D., Ayanian, J. Z., & Cullen, T. (2014). Information Technology as a Tool to Improve the Quality of American Indian Health Care. American Journal Of Public Health, 95(12), 2173-2179. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.052985 Sequist and Avanian’s journal shows a different aspect of American Indian Healthcare in the idea that the quality can be improved through information technology, which is strongly lacking on reservations. The journal discusses how the American Indian population is experiencing a growing chronic disease burden as well as an epidemic of diabetes. Many tables are present in this journal including a specific table comparing the quality of care within the Indian Health Service and the general US population. These statistics are both credible and informative, which allow the reader see the differences and put them into perspective. The future directions and potential barriers of IHS rely heavily on the information systems available in order to create a vast potential for quality improvement based on the information presented in this journal. Overall this reference displays information in an organized and professional fashion and would be a good source for anyone researching on the topic of American Indian Healthcare.

Warne, D., & Bane Frizzell, L. (2014). American Indian Health Policy: Historical Trends and Contemporary Issues. American Journal Of Public Health, (S3), s263-s267. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301682 This journal from published by the American Journal of Public Health outlines some of the major issues that American Indians have faced throughout history involving our healthcare system. Different Acts passed by law and policy history has led to significant challenges for providing service thought the different reservations in the US according to this journal. It also goes into detail about the recent trends and future directions of Indian Health Services, which provides a great deal of insight to those interested in this field of healthcare. Donald Warne and Linda Ban Frizzell’s journal is very credible, well written, and easy to read. It provides graphs and pictures that provide for a visual in order for the reader to better understand the material. Overall this journal is a very good source for research because it specifically outlines the past, present, and future threats that face Native American and Alaska Native’s healthcare services in terms of the law and adequate care.

Annotated Bibliography Response
Cass Ulmer
Healthcare on Rural Reservations
12.07.14
For this assignment I gathered research on the health-related legal issue of providing healthcare on rural reservations. I choose this topic because of the demographic area that I am from, which is by both the Cheyenne River and Standing Sioux Reservations in South Dakota; therefore I have witnessed first hand the issue that the Indian Health Service system faces. After finding a book, newspaper article, and academic journal from the library I was also able find credible websites to support and advance my knowledge on this controversial issue. One of the biggest issues present in healthcare for rural area reservations is from the point of view of access of care for the individuals. Rural hospitals face issues on a regular basis simply because they are in remote locations, lack new technology, specialist, and federal support. I was able to find an article from the NBC News about a five-year-old girl name Stephanie Little Light who was taken to an Indian Health Service clinic in a remote corner of Montana where they told her she was depressed. After ten more visits over several months she was diagnosed with terminal cancer, which may have been able to be cured if it had been diagnosed at an earlier stage (NBC News, 2014). If the access to proper care had been easier and better her life may have possible been saved. This is an issue also dealing with the quality of care. There are many things like this that happen on reservations that I have witnessed first hand. Many people may think that Native Americans simply receive free healthcare, but I have found this healthcare is far from the standard’s it should meet because of personal experience and what I have discovered in my research. The Indian Heath Service is said to be responsible for providing federal health services to American Indian and Alaska Natives and their mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of these people (IHS, 2014). My research has concluded that this mission is not being met because healthcare legislation is moving along while necessary improvements to Indian health care had lingered without permanent reauthorization since 2000 (Our view health law controversy could hurt Indian care, April 9,2012). The cost of healthcare is and issue present on rural reservations not as much in means of the patient, but more along the lines of federal financing and funds. A journal I read about the historical trends and contemporary issues involving American Indian health policy talked about the many different reforms, acts, and policies that have been seen in the IHS system. For example the Indian Health Care Improvement Act was enacted in 1976 and was instrumental in setting national policy to improve the health of Indian people (Warne and Frizzell, 2014). Based on my research there has yet to be a plan that has been able to fix the many problems that are present on rural reservations. There is a saying called “don’t get sick after June”, which is referred to when the federal dollars on reservations run out. This is true on the poorest reservations where residents cannot afford health insurance and government officials say they have about half of what they need to operate; therefore, patients of these areas miss out when they are in need for serious care (NBC, 2014). All of the research that I have found shows a correlation between rural reservation problems resulting in more ethical dilemmas in both healthcare and overall policy. For example due to the lack of technology only 79% of Native American patients with newly diagnosed diabetes receive appropriate monitoring (Sequist and Cullen, 2014). This is an ethical dilemma in healthcare because monitoring is cut short in order to save money for more serious chronic diseases. The practice and technology in healthcare continue to grow and thrive while IHS continues to lag behind even though many policies and new laws have been implicated in order to solve these issues. Ethical dilemmas arise when good administrators and physicians cannot be recruited to come and work on hospitals on the reservations; therefore, the first person to accept the job may be chosen even if they are not credible. Also the government should be required to implement the new technologies on reservations and not use the cheapest type of equipment in order to save money, because in the long run it only hurts the people using the system and in turn backfires (2014). Based on my research for this assignment, the government has tried very hard to provide healthcare to the many Native Americans and Alaska Natives, but they have broken many promises and the rural reservations still lack the basic care that everyone in American should have access to. Health clinics in this area do not have enough money to deal with the high rates of disease and poverty present in these areas; therefore, they are in need of a total reform based on my beliefs. I have seen the poor care that is provided to these individuals first hand and there should be crucial measures taken in order to unite our system and help those suffering on the rural reservations throughout our country.

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