Premium Essay

Heart Failure

In: Science

Submitted By nor88n
Words 16787
Pages 68
Heart Failure
Western Governors University
Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advanced Nursing Practice

Heart Failure
It is estimated that about five million people in the United States are living with heart failure with an overwhelming number of 550,000 newly diagnosed cases each year, costing the nation roughly $32 billion dollars per year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Heart failure is a complex, pathophysiological condition in which the ventricles of the heart is weakened and unable to pump effectively to meet the body’s needs for nutrients or has lost adequate filling capacity. Clinical presentations of heart failure depends on which ventricles have failed to pump blood adequately; left ventricular failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF) is more common than right ventricular failure (McCance & Huether, 2014). The most common symptoms of heart failure are shortness of breath, fatigue, and peripheral edema. HF is not a disease, but rather a manifestation of a diseased heart. Large number of disorders can lead to heart failure, and with the aging population and many surviving primary cardiac events, it is no surprise that the most common reason for hospitalization in patients older than 65 years old is heart failure (McClintock, Mose, & Smith, 2014). Heart failure has become a major public health problem because it is the only cardiac condition that continues to increase in prevalence (McClintock, Mose, & Smith, 2014). Organizations such as American Heart Association (AHA), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), and Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) are helping raise awareness and are invaluable resources to the increasing heart failure population. Because heart failure affects so many Americans, it is important to discuss heart failure in its complexity and analyze the pathology...

Similar Documents

Free Essay

Heart Failure

...There are two major types of HF, systolic heart failure in which there is an alteration in ventricular contraction, and diastolic heart failure, a less common type, in which there is a decreased ability for the ventricle to fill related to a noncompliant heart muscle. Many patients diagnosed with HF experience physical symptoms including dyspnea, fatigue,...

Words: 2128 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Heart Failure

...Heart Failure Christy Harding Western Governors University C155- Pathopharmacological Foundations for Advance Nursing Practice Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans. It is the leading cause of hospitalization in people older than 65. Roughly 550,000 people are diagnosed with heart failure each year (Emory Healthcare, 2014). Heart failure is a pathologic state where the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the demand of the body’s metabolic needs or when the ventricle’s ability to fill is impaired. It is not a disease, but rather a complex clinical syndrome. The symptoms of heart failure come from pulmonary vascular congestion and inadequate perfusion of the systemic circulation. Individuals experience orthopnea, fatigue, dyspnea, cough with frothy sputum, peripheral edema, and decreased urinary output. Heart failure is caused by many conditions that damage the heart’s muscle. Any form of heart disease can lead to heart failure. A1. Pathophysiology Heart failure arises as a consequence of an abnormality in cardiac structure, conduction, rhythm, or function (Figueroa & Peters, 2006). Heart failure always begins with an index event. This event could be silent, as with the expression of a genetic mutation, or obvious, such as a myocardial infarction (Francis & Tang, 2003)....

Words: 6854 - Pages: 28

Free Essay

Heart Failure

...Definition Heart failure occurs when abnormal cardiac function causes failure of the heart to pump blood at a rate sufficient for metabolic requirements under normal filling pressure. It is characterised clinically by breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and poor survival. Fluid retention and the congestion related to this can often be relieved with diuretic therapy. However, diuretic therapy should generally not be used alone and, if required, should be combined with the pharmacological therapies outlined in this review. Heart failure can be caused by systolic or diastolic dysfunction, and is associated with neurohormonal changes. [1] Left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) is defined as a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) below 0.40. It may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Defining and diagnosing diastolic heart failure can be difficult....

Words: 2220 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Heart Failure

...Tendera5 (2005) states that heart failure is common in older adults and occurs in approximately 10% of adults aged 80 years and older. This would support the coronary heart disease statistics (2008) these statistics shows that heart failure is on the increase, something Gardner (2008) would agree with feeling that heart failure is set to increase by 50% in the next 20 years. Jowett and Thompson (2008) associates this...

Words: 2206 - Pages: 9

Free Essay

Heart Failure

...In this particular study, 150 patients from a single heart failure center, 73% percent were men and 27% were women. All study subjects were above the age of 18 and had a left ventricular ejection fraction less than 40% that had been documented longer than 6 months. Researchers used 3 tools to help gather data; Profile of Mood States-fatigue...

Words: 699 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Heart Failure

...REFLECTION INTRODUCTION The essence of this essay is to reflect on my 'lived' personal experience as a newly diagnosed patient with type II Diabetes. The author's assignment was to pretend to have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. As part of this exercise, the author was to maintain a record of exercise, food, and a regular blood sugar monitoring regime on daily basis. This reflection seeks to highlight the impact, experience and changes that occurred in the author's 'lived lifestyle of a patient with type II diabetes' and will include reference to current literature, research, theories and best practice. The author would explain the changes that occurred in her life and how experiencing type two diabetes has helped her to understand the challenges patients undergo in relation to their daily routine of monitoring their blood sugar levels. The author will explain how her 'lived experience' would help her understand and provide the necessary support for people with diabetes in the future. BACKGROUND INFORMATION I am a female non-smoker of African descent. I am married with two children aged 13 and 21. My thirteen-year old daughter currently lives with me in New Zealand. I am of an average height of about 163cm and weigh 80kg which signifies an unhealthy BMI of 30.1 (Health Information for New Zealanders, (n.d.) BMI Calculator section) I am currently out of job and often depressed as a result of my inactivity. I have a normal blood pressure of 136/78 and my pulse rate...

Words: 3514 - Pages: 15

Free Essay

Heart Failure

...1.I'm Job Malikchan. 2. I'm 14 years old. 3.I live in Saytan,Pugo,La Union . 4.I love playing computer games. 5.My favorite game is "League of Legends". 6.I love watching animes. 7.My favorite color is white. 8. My favorite foods are "Sweet Foods". 9.My favorite band is Silent Sanctuary. 10.I'm a shy person.......... My Summer Vacation The last thing most kids want to think about during summer vacation is school. But add some music, creativity and raucous fun, and many children actually wind up begging their parents to take them to summer school. We will be taking part in vacation Bible, an increasingly common summertime activity. Dozens of local churches hold these weeklong events for school-age kids and teens. Trees I think that I shall never see A poem lovely as a tree. A tree whose hungry mouth is prest Against the sweet earth's flowing breast; A tree that looks at God all day, And lifts her leafy arms to pray; A tree that may in summer wear A nest of robins in her hair; Upon whose bosom snow has lain; Who intimately lives with rain. Poems are made by fools like me, But only God can make a tree.  A woman was waiting at an airport one night, with several long hours before her flight. She hunted for a book in the airport shops, bought a bag of cookies and found a place to drop. She was engrossed in her book but happened to see, that the man sitting beside her, as bold as could be. . .grabbed a cookie or two from the......

Words: 508 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Complete Heart Failure

...Pioglitazone: Side effects:Severe weight gain and water retention (edema) are both known to contribute to heart probelms. . 3. How do angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as enalapril (Vasotec), work to reduce heart failure? (Select all that apply.) ACE inhibitors: a. prevent the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II. b. cause systemic vasodilation. c. promote the excretion of sodium and water in the renal tubules. d. reduce...

Words: 915 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Essay On Heart Failure

...ABSTRACT Heart failure is one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. At present, there are approximately 26 million heart failure patients worldwide (1). Heart failure is a life-threatening disease and addressing it should be treated as a global health priority. The prevalence and cost of the condition is set to rise due to Ireland’s ageing population and increases in diabetes and coronary heart disease (2). To a large extent, heart failure is a disease that is managed medically. Medications such as ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers are well established in the treatment of heart failure, reducing mortality and hospitalisations (3). Lifestyle interventions can substantially improve the population’s health, because obesity, hypertension, diabetes and smoking all dramatically increase the likelihood of heart failure. The goals of treatment in patients with heart failure are to improve their quality of life by controlling the symptoms of the disease and to prolong life by slowing the disease’s progression. Research was carried out on heart failure, its frequency, guidelines to prevent it, the burden it has on the patient, management of the...

Words: 987 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Heart Failure and Alcohol

...Heart Failure and Alcohol Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, a term that refers only to HF cases with volume Overload. Heart failure is a progressive disease in which the heart fails to pump a sufficient amount of Blood to the body due to structural heart damage. Heart failure is the endpoint of a cardiovascular Disease, including hypertension. Heart failure can be classified as being either left sided or right sided Right sided acute or chronic, or systolic or diastolic. Overtime, the compensatory mechanism is Developed to maintain the heart output, with increased cardiac workload, induce heart remodeling. Excessive alcohol consumption has been associated with different cardiovascular disorders, such as Hypertension, arrhythmias sudden cardiac death, stroke and alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcohol exerts Toxic effect on the myocardial cells by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular death, which Imp-pairs systolic and diastolic function, decrease cardiac contractility, and finally produces dilation of The heart cavities and HF. Alcohol consumption may also complicate existing heart disease, such as Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease. Facts and Figures Heart failure affects between 6% and 10% of adults over the age 65, making it one of the most Common causes of illness and death in the United States....

Words: 659 - Pages: 3

Premium Essay

Congestive Heart Failure

...Congestive Heart Failure Armi Gonzales Western Governors University Congestive Heart Failure A. Investigated Disease Process Congestive Heart Failure is a condition in which the heart is unable to pump a sufficient amount of blood for the body to function. If the heart’s ability to pump blood decreases, blood and fluids may start to pool into the lungs and accumulate in the legs, ankles, and feet causing an edema, shortness of breath, and fatigue. (Heart Failure, 2015, para. 2) The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology defines heart failure as “a complex clinical syndrome that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the ventricles to fill with or eject blood” (King, Kingery, & Casey, 2012, p. 1). Heart failure can be seen as a widespread disease, affecting around five million Americans. (Titler et al. n.d.) It is a chronic condition that is disabling and costly and common to our aging population. With the advancement in therapy and early diagnosis, survival increases from previously fatal acute cardiac events to patients feeling better and living longer. Millions of Americans living with heart failure are 65 years of age or older. (Roger et al, 2004) A1. Pathophysiology The Circulatory system focuses on the heart, a muscular organ that pumps blood through a complex network of blood vessels throughout the body....

Words: 6554 - Pages: 27

Premium Essay

Congestive Heart Failure

...Heart disease and congestive heart failure. Retrieved from WebMD website: http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/guide-heart-failure This website does a great job of identifying the signs and symptoms of CHF. I think it also does a great job of informing the reader what tests will and should be done if your doctor feels you are at risk or my have the disease. It clearly states the different types of the disease as well as treatments for CHF. I think WebMD is a great source for information because, it breaks down the specific disease and explains it in everyday terms. I think that is important for people to really understand what they are dealing with. I think this Webpage would be extremely helpful to anyone just diagnosed or who has been living with the disease of CHF. Huntington, M., Guzman, A., Roemen, A., Fieldsend, J., & Soloum, H. (2013). Hospital-to-Home: A hospital readmission reduction program for congestive heart failure.. South Dakota Medicine: The Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association, 66(9), 370-373. This article shows how important, cost wise most importantly, it is to make sure patients with CHF are not readmitted so soon after they are released from their previous hospital stay for the disease. It shows how important it is to stay informed and not to go back to your old habits after your release from a hospital stay. I think the fact that they used follow up home visits after a patients release was key in this study....

Words: 996 - Pages: 4

Premium Essay

Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure

...Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure Nicole Martin North Island College Congestive Heart Failure Left heat failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF), is an imbalance in pump function in which the heart is failing and unable to do its work pumping enough blood to meet the needs of the body’s other organs. CHF is commonly thought of as a disease but in fact is a syndrome. A syndrome as defined by Mosby’s Dictionary, as “a complex of signs and symptoms resulting from a common cause or appearing in combination, to present a clinical picture of a disease or inherited abnormality” (Mosby, 2009). Heart failure usually develops slowly, often over years, as the heart gradually loses its pumping ability and works less efficiently. CHF affects individuals in different ways and to different degrees. It is usually a chronic disease and gradually becomes worse over time. Many people are not even aware of their condition until symptoms appear years after the heart began its decline. There are many causes, risk factors, and signs & symptoms that help determine if someone is at risk of developing CHF or already living with CHF. Nearly 500,000 Canadians are currently living with the condition, with 50,000 new cases diagnosed each year. With such high numbers of people diagnosed with CHF, I believe as a future nurse it will be beneficial to have a greater understanding as to how CHF develops, how it is treated, and how it is management....

Words: 1578 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Preventing Heart Failure Readmissions

...Heart failures risk factors are increased for an individual with hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. Unhealthy behaviors can also be contributing factor as well for heart failure such as smoking, use of illegal drugs, and consumption of food high in sodium and cholesterol. II. Pathophysiology Heart failure (HF) is when the heart cannot pump out enough...

Words: 1361 - Pages: 6

Premium Essay

Case Study (Heart Failure)

...Case Study 1 Heart Failure M.G., a “frequent flier,” is admitted to the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of heart failure (HF). She was discharged from the hospital 10 days ago and comes in today stating, “I just had to come to the hospital today because I can't catch my breath and my legs are as big as tree trunks.” After further questioning, you learn she is strictly following the fluid and salt restriction ordered during her last hospital admission. She reports gaining 1 to 2 pounds every day since her discharge. 1. What error in teaching most likely occurred when M.G. was discharged 10 days ago? If M.G. is currently following her fluid and salt restriction strictly but is still exhibiting the symptoms of fluid overload in heart failure, there was most likely an error in regards to medication teaching. She would have been prescribed a diuretic to eliminate the fluid that what giving her shortness of breath, edema and weight gain but if not taken correctly or at all this would explain why M.G. is still having these manifestations. CASE STUDY PROGRESS During the admission interview, the nurse makes a list of the medications M.G. took at home. * Chart View Nursing Assessment: Medications Taken at Home Enalapril (Vasotec) 5 mg po bid Pioglitazone (Actos) 45 mg po every morning Furosemide (Lasix) 40mg/day po Potassium Chloride 20meq/day po 2. Which of these medications may have contributed to M.G.’s heart failure?...

Words: 772 - Pages: 4