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Heat Exchanger Research Paper

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Various Parts of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. Shell is the costliest part of the heat exchanger. Cost of shell and tube heat exchanger sensitively changes with change in the diameter of shell. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger. As per the TEMA standard, shell size ranges from 6 in (152 mm) to 60 in (1520 mm). Standard pipes are available up to 24 in size (600 mm NB). If shell size is fabricated by rolling a plate.

Shell diameter depends on tube bundle diameter. For fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger, the gap between shell and tube bundle is minimum, ranging from 10 to 20
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Tie-rods are made from solid metal bar. Normally four or more tie-rods are required to support the baffles. Diameter of tie rod is less than the diameter of tube. Diameter and number of tie-rods required for given shell diameter are specified by TEMA standard and IS: 4503

Spacer are used to maintain the space between baffles. Spacers are the piece of pipes or in the most of the cases they cases they are the pieces of extra available tubes. Spacers are passed over the tie-rods and because of them baffles do not slide over tie-rods under the effect of the force of fluid. Hence, spacer fix the location of baffles and maintain the space between them. Length of spacer is equal to space between the baffles. Tube sheet
Tubes and one end of tie-rods are attached to tube sheet (also called tube plate). Hence, entire load of tube bundle is transferred to one or two tube sheets. In U-tube shell and tube heat exchanger only one tube sheet is used. While in fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger, two tube sheet are used. One surface of tube sheet is exposed to tube side fluid and other surface is exposed to shell side fluid. This point is very important in the selection of material for tube sheet and also in determining tube sheet
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In expanded type joint, tube holes are drilled in a tube sheet with a slightly greater diameter than tube OD. Two or more grooves are cut in the wall of each hole. The tube is placed inside the tube hole and a tube roller is inserted into the end of the tube. Roller is slightly tapered. On application of the roller, tube expands and tube material flows into grooves and forms an extremely tight seal. Welding joint is used only for the cases where leakage of fluid can be

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