Premium Essay

Heat Exchanger Research Paper

Submitted By
Words 1200
Pages 5
Various Parts of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers

Shell
Shell is the container for the shell fluid and the tube bundle is placed inside the shell. Shell is the costliest part of the heat exchanger. Cost of shell and tube heat exchanger sensitively changes with change in the diameter of shell. The clearance between the tube bundle and inner shell wall depends on the type of exchanger. As per the TEMA standard, shell size ranges from 6 in (152 mm) to 60 in (1520 mm). Standard pipes are available up to 24 in size (600 mm NB). If shell size is fabricated by rolling a plate.

Shell diameter depends on tube bundle diameter. For fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger, the gap between shell and tube bundle is minimum, ranging from 10 to 20
…show more content…
Tie-rods are made from solid metal bar. Normally four or more tie-rods are required to support the baffles. Diameter of tie rod is less than the diameter of tube. Diameter and number of tie-rods required for given shell diameter are specified by TEMA standard and IS: 4503

Spacers:-
Spacer are used to maintain the space between baffles. Spacers are the piece of pipes or in the most of the cases they cases they are the pieces of extra available tubes. Spacers are passed over the tie-rods and because of them baffles do not slide over tie-rods under the effect of the force of fluid. Hence, spacer fix the location of baffles and maintain the space between them. Length of spacer is equal to space between the baffles. Tube sheet
Tubes and one end of tie-rods are attached to tube sheet (also called tube plate). Hence, entire load of tube bundle is transferred to one or two tube sheets. In U-tube shell and tube heat exchanger only one tube sheet is used. While in fixed tube sheet shell and tube heat exchanger, two tube sheet are used. One surface of tube sheet is exposed to tube side fluid and other surface is exposed to shell side fluid. This point is very important in the selection of material for tube sheet and also in determining tube sheet
…show more content…
In expanded type joint, tube holes are drilled in a tube sheet with a slightly greater diameter than tube OD. Two or more grooves are cut in the wall of each hole. The tube is placed inside the tube hole and a tube roller is inserted into the end of the tube. Roller is slightly tapered. On application of the roller, tube expands and tube material flows into grooves and forms an extremely tight seal. Welding joint is used only for the cases where leakage of fluid can be

Similar Documents

Premium Essay

Essay On Heat Exchanger

...CHAPTER – 1 Introduction:- Heat exchangers are very helpful in chemical process, engineering application and also in daily use applications, such as, dairy industry, chemical industry, environment engineering, power production, air conditioning and also in food industry. Shell & Tube heat exchanger is commonly used in energy industries and petrochemical industry. Plate Heat Exchanger is commonly used in a wide range of chemical process and so many industrial functions. So many effort have been made to increase the heat transfer of heat exchanger, reduce the heat transfer time and also increase the energy utilization. The mixture of fluid (base liquid) and Nanoparticles (nanometer sized) are called 'nanofluid'. Latest technology gives benefit...

Words: 1646 - Pages: 7

Premium Essay

Statement of Purpose

...Motivation I cannot trace back the moment when I first heard this statement that the more energy from sunlight strikes the earth in an hour than all of the energy consumed on the planet in one year but I wondered at that time, why are we having energy problems on earth. This was the start of fascination to look keenly into the problem of making alternate energy sources more practical. This fascination about renewable energy made me think more and more with open mind about the available large amount of energy which is gift of the nature to us. If we have made our life worse by not taking care of the nature then to use nature positively is the only way for us to save our planet. But I always wondered why we could not still use these sources for all our needs. But I knew if I had to go into the root of this thing, my aspiration should be coupled with the strong technical base and other necessary dependent aspects. In my third year I took course on “Renewable Energy” that gave me knowledge about different kinds of renewable energy systems. The course structure covered major part of it - Solar Energy, Wind Energy and Bio-Energy etc. And it was more like the base for my future endeavor. Fortunately having centre of Excellence in Energy in our college (Indian Institute of Technology Rajasthan) gave me several opportunities to get exposure of Energy field. In the 5th semester, The Centre of Excellence in Energy at IIT Rajasthan conducted a Renewable Energy Consortium in 2010 in......

Words: 1673 - Pages: 7

Free Essay

Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc.

...SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS INC. On June 10, Rick Coyne, materials manager at Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc. (Spartan), in Springfield, Missouri, received a call from Max Brisco, vice president of manufacturing: “What can materials department do to facilitate Spartan’s new business strategy? I’ll need your plan in next week.” SPARTAN HEAT EXCHANGERS Spartan was a leading designer and manufacturer of specialized industrial heat transfer equipment. Its customers operated in a number of industries such as steel, aluminium smelting, hydroelectricity generation, pulp and paper, refining, and petrochemical. The company’s primary products included transformer coolers, motor and generator coolers, air-cooled heat exchangers, and transformer oil coolers. Spartan’s combination of fin-tube and time-proven heat exchanger designs had gained wide recognition bot in North America and internationally. Sales revenues were $25 million and Spartan operated in a 125,000-square-foot plant. Spartan was owned by Krimmer Industries, a large privately held corporation with more than 10,000 employees worldwide, head-quartered in Denver. Rick Coyne summarized the business strategy of Spartan during the past ten years: “We were willing to do anything for every customer with respect to their heat transfer requirements. We were willing to do trial and error on the shop floor and provide a customer with his or her own unique heat transfer products.” He added, “Our design and manufacturing people derived......

Words: 1117 - Pages: 5

Premium Essay

Optimization of Heat Exchanger Network

...journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/apthermeng Optimization of heat exchanger network Mofid Gorji-Bandpy, Hossein Yahyazadeh-Jelodar, Mohammadtaghi Khalili* Noshirvani University of Technology, P.O. Box 484, Babol, Iran a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 6 September 2010 Accepted 26 October 2010 Available online 2 November 2010 Keywords: Heat exchanger network (HEN) Optimization Genetic algorithm Pinch Analysis Method Mathematical Optimization Method Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) a b s t r a c t In this paper, a new method is presented for optimization of heat exchanger networks making use of genetic algorithm and Sequential Quadratic Programming. The optimization problem is solved in the following two levels: 1- Structure of the optimized network is distinguished through genetic algorithm, and 2- The optimized thermal load of exchangers is determined through Sequential Quadratic Programming. Genetic algorithm uses these values for the determination of the fitness. For assuring the authenticity of the newly presented method, two standard heat exchanger networks are solved numerically. For representing the efficiency and applicability of this method for the industrial issues, an actual industrial optimization problem i.e. Aromatic Unit of Bandar Imam Petrochemistry in Iran is verified. The results indicate that the proposed multistage optimization algorithm of heat exchanger networks is better in all cases than those obtained using......

Words: 4334 - Pages: 18

Free Essay

Parabolic Trough

...Operated by Midwest Research Institute • Battelle • Bechtel Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United States government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States government or any agency thereof. Available electronically at http://www.osti.gov/bridge Available for a processing fee to U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, in paper,......

Words: 7222 - Pages: 29

Premium Essay

Evidence Based Medicine Research

...Matt Fowler RES 297 11/12/13 Evidence Based Medicine Research Assignment 1) In Vitro Evaluation of Heat and Moisture Exchangers Designed for Spontaneously Breathing Tracheostomized Patients Claudia Brusasco, MD⇑ Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Francesco Corradi, MD PhD Dipartimento Cardio-Nefro-Polmonare, Sezione Terapia Intensiva Cardiochirurgica, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Parma, Italy. Maria Vargas, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Dipartimento di Anestesia e Terapia Intensiva, Università di Napoli Federico II, Napoli, Italy. Margherita Bona, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Federica Bruno, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Maria Marsili, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Francesca Simonassi, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Sezione Anestesia e Rianimazione Gregorio Santori, MD Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche e Diagnostiche Integrate, Università Degli Studi di Genova, Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino, Genova, Italy. Paolo Severgnini, MD Dipartimento Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Sezione Ambiente Salute......

Words: 4847 - Pages: 20

Free Essay

Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

...Effectively Design Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers To make the most of exchanger design software, one needs to understand STHE classification, exchanger components, tube layout, baffling, pressure drop, and mean temperature difference. Rajiv Mukherjee, Engineers India Ltd. T hermal design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers (STHEs) is done by sophisticated computer software. However, a good understanding of the underlying principles of exchanger design is needed to use this software effectively. This article explains the basics of exchanger thermal design, covering such topics as: STHE components; classification of STHEs according to construction and according to service; data needed for thermal design; tubeside design; shellside design, including tube layout, baffling, and shellside pressure drop; and mean temperature difference. The basic equations for tubeside and shellside heat transfer and pressure drop are wellknown; here we focus on the application of these correlations for the optimum design of heat exchangers. A followup article on advanced topics in shell-and-tube heat exchanger design, such as allocation of shellside and tubeside fluids, use of multiple shells, overdesign, and fouling, is scheduled to appear in the next issue. • baffles; and • nozzles. Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass partition plates, impingement plate, longitudinal baffle, sealing strips, supports, and foundation. The Standards of the Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association......

Words: 11381 - Pages: 46

Premium Essay

Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc.

...Group Case Study Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc.   Current State Spartan Heat Exchangers Inc. has been a leading designer and manufacturer of specialized industrial heat transfer equipment for more than 10 years. The company’s primary products are transformer coolers, hydro generator coolers, air-cooled heat exchangers and transformer oil coolers. Their USP are Fin tube type heat exchangers and long lasting products. “… A heat exchanger is a device that is used to transfer thermal energy (enthalpy) between two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a fluid, at different temperatures and in thermal contact. …” The company is into highly customized heat equipments. Presently, due to entry of new competition from European and Korean companies they have changed their corporate policy, which emphasize on reducing the variety and standardizing the product. The new business policy also aims at reducing the current lead time from 14 weeks to 6 weeks. Problem Statement The Materials Department headed by Rick Coyne has to take many initiatives internally to incorporate the various implications of the new strategy, and submit his report to his boss Max Brisco with the changes suggested by him within a week. The major challenges that Rick faces include: • Change from responsive to anticipatory model of production. • Increase inventory turns from present 4 times to 20 times. • Eliminate material shortages and stock outs.......

Words: 2190 - Pages: 9

Premium Essay

Solar Thermal System for Southern Ontario

...words. Any uses made within it of the works of any other author, in any form (ideas, equations, figures, texts, tables, programs), are properly acknowledged at the point of use. A list of the references used is included. Signature: Date: August 18, 2014 Acknowledgments The author would like to acknowledge the use of the Queen’s University On-line Library for access to Research Journals. Abstract Global warming is one of the most potentially disastrous issues facing mankind in the early 21st century, considered to be caused by man-made greenhouse gas emissions. Approximately 30% of the man-made carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions causing global warming is created by the burning of fossil fuels to produce electricity or used as a direct energy source. The use of solar energy to pre-heat water for industrial, commercial and institutional and residential purposes can reduce electricity usage by up to 2% to 6% in southern Ontario. Adding the emissions from using natural gas directly to heat water a figure of 5% to 17% reduction in CO2 emissions can be derived by the use of solar energy to pre-heat water. This report details the equipment necessary for such a domestic solar hot water system (DSHW). The information has been used in a design matrix to create a viable system for southern Ontario from the many alternatives available. Table of Contents Declaration of Sole Authorship ii Acknowledgments iii Abstract...

Words: 11958 - Pages: 48

Premium Essay

Accounts

...hundreds of common sense techniques, shortcuts and calculations. Key features; - Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers brings together solutions, information and work-arounds that engineers in the process industry need to get their job done. - New material in the Fifth Edition includes physical properties for proprietary materials, six new chapters, including pharmaceutical, biopharmaceutical sector heuristics, process design with simulation software, and guidelines for hazardous materials and processes. - Now includes SI units throughout alongside imperial, and now accompanied by online calculation tools New to this edition; - New chapter on biopharmaceutical systems - New chapter on closed-loop heat transfer systems - Extensively rewritten chapters on fluid flow, fractionation, heat exchangers, pumps, compressors, safety, and controls. - Latest information on packed columns and structured packings - Excel workbooks, with Visual Basic for Applications function subroutines, that solve many of the problems in the book. - Fully updated references - Rules of Thumb for Chemical Engineers brings together solutions, information and work-arounds that engineers in the process industry need to get their job done. - New material in the Fifth Edition includes physical properties for...

Words: 754 - Pages: 4

Free Essay

Caprolactam Paper

...Polycaprolactam Student Name: Syed Ali Shahid, ID Number # 20595181; email: sashahid@uwaterloo.ca 1. Introduction and Applications Polycaprolactam or PA 6 is a synthetic polyamide commonly recognized by its trade name Nylon 6. Polyamides or nylons are polymers characterized by the amide group –CONH-as recurring part of their polymer chain. The original nylon was first made in a laboratory in DuPont, USA in 1935 by Wallace Carothers. It was recognized as the first semicrsytalline polymer, the first engineering thermoplastic, and the first synthetic fiber .Amongst various variants of polyamide, polycaprolactam is particularly different in that it is made from only 1 kind of monomer- caprolactam which will be discussed in this paper in further detail from various aspects. Schalak while working on polyamides in IG Fabraen laboratory synthesized polycaprolactam through ring opening polymerization of caprolactom. He heated caprrolactam in a flask to about 250oC with about 5-10% water which hydrolyzed a few percent of the caprolactam to aminocaproic acid. The NH2 group of the aminocaproic acid acted as ring opening initiator for polycaprolactam followed by a polycondensation reaction of the NH2 and COOH group of the low molecular weight product of the ring opening polymerization reaction resulting in a high molecular weight product-Polycaprolactam. The key properties of polycaprolactam that have made them suitable for a variety of industrial applications are toughness,......

Words: 2386 - Pages: 10

Premium Essay

Green Data Center

...mission-critical operational efficiency and stability is boosted and not sacrificed by Greening a data. A green data center is provided, which comprises: a utility power source for providing utility power, a facility electrically connected to the utility power source, a renewable energy provider electrically connected to the facility for providing renewable energy, an IT equipment electrically connected to the renewable energy provider. A heat transfer system having a circulating coolant, wherein the heat transfer system captures and transfers taste heat generated by the computer IT equipment and transfers heat from the heated coolant to at least one of the utility power source, for the IT equipment. The power consumption of the green energy data center system is half that of a conventional data center, and green energy accounts for another half for driving. The data center is green and energy saving, and also the profit margin of the data center is improved. Five Key words are 1. Global Warming 2. Green Technologies 3. Server Cooling Systems 4. Heat Transfer System 5. Energy Saving Introduction Global Warming It’s a phenomenon of observed and projected increases in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere to the high level, which causes greenhouse effect due to increased levels of carbon dioxide,...

Words: 4845 - Pages: 20

Premium Essay

Zero Energy Buildings

...major contributors for greenhouse gases. Hence, with the intention of reducing the energy usage which reduces the environmental pollution energy efficient measures have been introduced. The goal of these measures is to decrease the energy use of the building substantially and provide the building's energy needs with on-site renewable energy supply like Photovoltaics. This results in a concept called Net zero energy buildings or Zero Energy Buildings. Zero energy building (ZEB) is a building with zero energy consumption i.e., it consumes only the amount of energy generated by the renewable power on the building site. NZEBs produce zero carbon emissions annually as various renewable energy technologies are deployed on the building site. This paper addresses the energy efficient measures that can be implemented to cut down the power consumption. The energy efficient features implemented in ZEBs for energy savings is justified with a case study. I. INTRODUCTION The environmental effects that Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across countries at different levels of development received global attention on what has been done to mitigate these emissions. The continued growth of global emissions of carbon dioxide due to energy consumption and their adverse effects on global warming forces the world to save the environment from further damage. As per EPA in 2011, the combustion of fuels to electrify the homes, buildings and industry in U.S. accounted to 38%...

Words: 4748 - Pages: 19

Premium Essay

Abdutheddude

...pipeline, vessel, storage tanks, separators, dehydrators, manifolds, and all other oil/gas relative equipments based on the approved Codes. Design, any required fabrications and modifications. Updating all the related drawings, drafting and as built, (P&ID drawings, Piping drawings, and Mechanical drawings). Preparing all the required reports (daily, weekly, and annually reports). Summary of Qualifications Earned value management, supported by a solid grasp of the fundamental components of Project Controls including scope definition, cost estimating, change management, cost management, scheduling, project reporting, earned value analysis and risk management • Over ten years’ experience teaching and performing research at the university level • Over 15 years’ experience in capital projects management, overseeing a variety of oil and gas fields, from extraction to processing and shipping. • Used Natural gas treating solutions, including amine plants, Triethylene glycol dehydration units and mol sieve dehydration units. P&ID development • 15 years’ experience in progressively senior roles in the oil and gas industry. • Experience with corrosion engineering, welding and painting • Experienced in Gas Chromatography...

Words: 1290 - Pages: 6

Free Essay

Renewable Energy

...that are continually replenished by nature—the sun, the wind, water, the Earth’s heat, and plants. Renewable energy technologies turn these fuels into usable forms of energy—most often elec- tricity, but also heat, chemicals, or mechanical power. Why Use Renewable Energy? Today we primarily use fossil fuels to heat and power our homes and fuel our cars. It’s convenient to use coal, oil, and natural gas for meeting our energy needs, but we have a limited supply of these fuels on the Earth. We’re using them much more rapidly than they are being created. Even- tually, they will run out. And because of safety concerns and waste disposal prob- lems, the United States will retire much of its nuclear capacity by 2020. In the mean- time, the nation’s energy needs are expected to grow by 33 percent during the next 20 years. Renewable energy can help fill the gap. Even if we had an unlimited supply of fos- sil fuels, using renewable energy is better for the environment. We often call renew- able energy technologies “clean” or “green” because they produce few if any pollutants. Burning fossil fuels, however, sends greenhouse gases into the atmos- phere, trapping the sun’s heat and con- tributing to global warming. Climate scientists generally agree that the Earth’s average temperature has risen in the past century. If this trend continues, sea levels will rise, and scientists predict that floods, heat waves, droughts, and other extreme weather conditions could occur more......

Words: 4852 - Pages: 20